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Sample records for 4th lumbar vertebral

  1. Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

  2. Age changes in the bone density and structure of the lumbar vertebral column.

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, L; Taylor, J; Furniss, B

    1983-01-01

    Old age is associated with a decline in bone density in lumbar vertebral bodies in both sexes, although the rate and amount of the decline is greatest in females. The bone translucency index method, described in this study, is a sensitive method of estimating bone density. The primary reason for this decline is the significant decrease in the number of transverse trabeculae of lumbar vertebrae in old age. It is postulated that the increase in vertebral end plate concavity and the increased horizontal dimensions of lumbar vertebral bodies in old age follows as a direct consequence of the selective loss of the transverse trabeculae. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6833115

  3. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-11-01

    The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population.

  4. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-11-01

    The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population. PMID:26593994

  5. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature.

  6. Augmentation Improves Human Cadaveric Vertebral Body Compression Mechanics For Lumbar Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Jonathon H.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Maurer, Philip M.; Erbe, Erik M.; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A.; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric biomechanical study. Objectives Quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Summary of Background Data TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. The study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Methods Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, block randomizing specimens by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semi-constrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6 ± 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6mm. Results The load-displacement response for all specimens was non-linear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases the augmented group was 2× higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2× and 1.3× greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation was moderately correlated with bone density while the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, while the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and control groups

  7. Computer Simulation and Analysis on Flow Characteristics and Distribution Patterns of Polymethylmethacrylate in Lumbar Vertebral Body and Vertebral Pedicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da; Liu, Xu-li; Zhang, Bo; Liao, Dong-fa; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhou, Jiang-jun; Kang, Xia; Zheng, Wei; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the flow and distribution of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in vertebral body through computer simulation. Cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were scanned through electron beam tomography (EBT). The data was imported into Mimics software to build computational model. Vertebral body center and junction of pedicle and vertebral body were chosen as injection points. Silicone oil with viscosity of 100,000 cSt matching with PMMA bone cement was chosen for injection. The flow and distribution of silicone oil were analyzed using Fluent software. In vertebral body, silicone oil formed a circle-like shape centered by injection point on transverse and longitudinal sections, finally forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. Silicone oil diffused along lateral and posterior walls forming a circle-like shape on transverse section centered by injection point in pedicle, eventually forming a sphere-like shape as a whole. This study demonstrated that silicone oil flowed and diffused into a circle-like shape centered by injection point and finally formed a sphere-like shape as a whole in both vertebral body and pedicle. The flow and distribution of silicon oil in computational model could simulate PMMA distribution in vertebral body. It may provide theoretical evidence to reduce PMMA leakage risk during percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:26770969

  8. Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

    2013-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wayne Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F.

    2007-06-15

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  10. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach. PMID:26835214

  11. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  12. Late vertebral body fracture after lumbar transpedicular fixation. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Ramieri, Alessandro; Costanzo, Giuseppe; Peschillo, Simone; Paolini, Sergio; Miscusi, Massimo; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-07-01

    Late-onset vertebral body (VB) fracture after lumbar transpedicular fixation has not been previously described in the literature. The authors present three cases in which VB fracture occurred several months after posterolateral fixation in patients with degenerative disease or traumatic injury. The authors suggest that postoperative osteopenia, modified load-sharing function, and intravertebral clefts were responsible for the fractures. Two women and one man were evaluated at a mean follow-up interval of 3 months. Two patients suffered recurrent lumbar pain. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed fracture of some of the instrumentation-treated VBs. These two patients underwent surgical superior or inferior extension of instrumentation. The third, an asymptomatic patient, received conservative management. The two patients who underwent reoperation made complete recoveries, and there was no evidence of further bone collapse in any case. The authors speculate that alterations in the VBs may occur following application of spinal instrumentation. In rare cases, the device can fracture and consequently lead to recurrent lumbar back pain. Recovery can be achieved by extending the instrumentation in the appropriate direction.

  13. Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion.

    PubMed

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES), Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES), and Multifidus (LMU). Normalised root mean square (RMS) sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.47 to 0.59). The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.53). The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain. PMID:27417592

  14. Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES), Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES), and Multifidus (LMU). Normalised root mean square (RMS) sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.47 to 0.59). The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.53). The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain. PMID:27417592

  15. Dysfunctional Microcirculation of the Lumbar Vertebral Marrow Prior to the Bone Loss and Intervertebral Discal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive study, stratified sampling. Objective. Using dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) to explore the age-related distribution patterns of the microcirculation perfusion in the vertebral marrow, the vertebral bone mineral density (BMD), and the intervertebral discal degeneration (IDD) further to discuss the possible causation between them. Summary of Background Data. A latest viewpoint deemed that reduced blood supply of the vertebral marrow was correlated with an increased incidence of IDD and loss of BMD. However, the causative relationship between them needs more investigation. Methods. One hundred eighty-six general people were randomly enrolled by stratified sampling and grouped by age: 15 years or less, 16 to 25 years, 26 to 35 years, 36 to 45 years, 46 to 55 years, 56 to 65 years, 66 to 75 years, and 76 years or more. Both CTP and BMD of the third and fourth lumbar vertebral marrow were measured, and the IDD incidence of the third-fourth vertebrae was assessed. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the age-related changes of CTP, BMD, and IDD were described, and the correlations between them were calculated. Results. Microcirculatory perfusion of the vertebral marrow developed to maturate by 25 years, maintained stable at 35 years, and then declined by age after 35 years. BMD grew to a peak phase in 26 to 45 years and then dropped by years. However, IDD presented a sudden increase after 45 years of age. CTP (blood flow [r = 0.806], blood volume [r = 0.685], and permeability [r = 0.619]) showed strong positive correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = −0.211], mean transit time [r = −0.598]) showed negative correlations with BMD. Meanwhile, CTP (blood flow [r = −0.815], blood volume [r = −0.753], and permeability [r = −0.690]) had strong negative correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = 0.323] and mean transit time [r = 0.628]) had positive correlations with the incidence of IDD. Conclusion. Aging-related decrease

  16. Clinical Identification of the Vertebral Level at Which the Lumbar Sympathetic Ganglia Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji Won; Koh, Jae Chul; Sun, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Jong Bum; Shin, Myung Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The location and the number of lumbar sympathetic ganglia (LSG) vary between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate level for a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB), corresponding to the level at which the LSG principally aggregate. Methods Seventy-four consecutive subjects, including 31 women and 31 men, underwent LSGB either on the left (n = 31) or the right side (n = 43). The primary site of needle entry was randomly selected at the L3 or L4 vertebra. A total of less than 1 ml of radio opaque dye with 4% lidocaine was injected, taking caution not to traverse beyond the level of one vertebral body. The procedure was considered responsive when the skin temperature increased by more than 1℃ within 5 minutes. Results The median responsive level was significantly different between the left (lower third of the L4 body) and right (lower margin of the L3 body) sides (P = 0.021). However, there was no significant difference in the values between men and women. The overall median responsive level was the upper third of the L4 body. The mean responsive level did not correlate with height or BMI. There were no complications on short-term follow-up. Conclusions Selection of the primary target in the left lower third of the L4 vertebral body and the right lower margin of the L3 vertebral body may reduce the number of needle insertions and the volume of agents used in conventional or neurolytic LSGB and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. PMID:27103965

  17. Lumbar vertebral body bone microstructural scaling in small to medium-sized strepsirhines.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Desilva, Jeremy M; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; Maclatchy, Laura M; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2013-02-01

    Bone mass, architecture, and tissue mineral density contribute to bone strength. As body mass (BM) increases any one or combination of these properties could change to maintain structural integrity. To better understand the structural origins of vertebral fragility and gain insight into the mechanisms that govern bone adaptation, we conducted an integrative analysis of bone mass and microarchitecture in the last lumbar vertebral body from nine strepsirhine species, ranging in size from 42 g (Microcebus rufus) to 2,440 g (Eulemur macaco). Bone mass and architecture were assessed via µCT for the whole body and spherical volumes of interest (VOI). Allometric equations were estimated and compared with predictions for geometric scaling, assuming axial compression as the dominant loading regime. Bone mass, microarchitectural, and vertebral body geometric variables predominantly scaled isometrically. Among structural variables, the degree of anisotropy (Tb.DA) was the only parameter independent of BM and other trabecular architectural variables. Tb.DA was related to positional behavior. Orthograde primates had higher average Tb.DA (1.60) and more craniocaudally oriented trabeculae while lorisines had the lowest Tb.DA (1.25), as well as variably oriented trabeculae. Finally, lorisines had the highest ratio of trabecular bone volume to cortical shell volume (∼3x) and while there appears to be flexibility in this ratio, the total bone volume (trabecular + cortical) scales isometrically (BM(1.23) , r(2) = 0.93) and appears tightly constrained. The common pattern of isometry in our measurements leaves open the question of how vertebral bodies in strepsirhine species compensate for increased BM. PMID:23355518

  18. Inter- and Intra-observer Agreement of the Motion Palpation Test for Lumbar Vertebral Rotational Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Bracht, Marcelo Anderson; Celestino, Jardel; Schwertner, Debora Soccal; França, Leandro Cardoso; de Noronha, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate inter- and intra-observer agreement in the assessment of lumbar vertebral rotational (VR) asymmetry by a motion palpation test. Methods: For this prospective and descriptive test–retest study, 51 asymptomatic participants (40 women, 11 men; mean age 23.3 [SD 5.6] years) were recruited from the community. Each participant was assessed in two sessions by the same three observers, who assessed VR by means of a palpatory test for movement asymmetry. This test is performed by applying posteroanterior pressure in an alternating manner to the left and right transverse processes of a vertebra to determine motion asymmetry in the transverse plane and thus the vertebral position. Observers classified the vertebral position as neutral, rotation to the right, and rotation to the left; they were blinded to which participant was being assessed and to any previous results. Results: Intra- and inter-observer agreement was verified by the kappa coefficient (κ) and the weighted kappa coefficient (κw). Values of κ and κw varied from 0.07 (95% CI, −0.10 to 0.245) to 0.37 (95% CI, 0.11–0.63) for intra-observer agreement and from 0.12 (95% CI, −0.06 to 0.29) to 0.30 (95% CI, 0.08–0.52) for inter-observer agreement. Conclusion: The motion palpation test used to assess VR asymmetry has low agreement levels; therefore, its clinical significance for measuring vertebral position is questionable. PMID:25931669

  19. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

  20. Delayed Neurologic Deficit due to Foraminal Stenosis following Osteoporotic Late Collapse of a Lumbar Spine Vertebral Body.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yu; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Shibata, Yoshifumi; Sonobe, Masato; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    We report an 85-year-old woman with an L3 vertebral body fracture who presented with back pain, bilateral leg pain, and weakness after four months of conservative treatment. Because of unstable pseudoarthrosis, the L3 vertebral body collapsed in the standing position and the L3 nerve root was compressed. The indicated surgery decompressed the L3-L4 foramen and fused the unstable segment. The back pain and neurologic symptoms improved significantly following surgery. We propose that delayed neurologic deficit following an osteoporotic fracture of the lumbar body may be caused not only by retropulsion of vertebral body fragments with significant canal compromise, but also by foraminal stenosis with the late collapse of the vertebral fracture. This new pathomechanism for delayed neurologic deficit has not been previously described. If a collapse takes place in the caudal part of the vertebral body below the base of the pedicle, spine surgeons should be aware of the possibility of foraminal stenosis.

  1. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  2. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  3. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  4. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  5. Precision measurement of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.; Biggemann, M.; Tillotson, M.; Burton, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.: To compile a database of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumbar spine, valid for male and female subjects in the age range 16-57 years. The protocols used to measure these parameters compensate for distortion in central projection, off-centre position, axial rotation and lateral tilt of the spine as well as for variation in radiographic magnification and stature. STUDY DESIGN.: The study comprised designing and testing of measurement protocols, together with subsequent data collection from archive radiographs. BACKGROUND.: Attempts to quantify primary mechanical damage to lumbar vertebrae and discs have been limited due to imprecision when measuring disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement. Age-related, normative values for these parameters were not previously available. Consequently, important issues like the effectiveness of past and present guidelines for safe manual handling with respect to prevention of overload injuries could not be resolved and judgement on pathological alterations in the morphology of the individual lumbar spine could only be performed in a qualitative, subjective manner. METHODS.: Based on the analysis of vertebral contours in the lateral radiographic image of the lumbar spine, new protocols for measuring disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement were developed. The measured data are virtually independent of distortion, axial rotation and lateral tilt. Furthermore, description of height and displacement using dimensionless parameters guarantees independence of radiographic magnification and stature. Subjective influence in the measurement procedure was minimized by automatic computation of contour-landmarks and derived parameters. Measurement errors were assessed from sets of radiographs of spine specimens and serial flexion-extension radiographs; interobserver and intraobserver errors were assessed from repeated

  6. Effects of Daily Administration of Prostaglandin E2 and Its Withdrawal on the Lumbar Vertebral Bodies in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment (on) and PGE2 treatment followed by withdrawal (on-off) on cancellous bone in lumbar vertebral bodies were studied in 7 month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The first groups of rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for 60,120, and 180 days, and the second group of rats were given PGE2 for 60 days followed by withdrawal for 60 and 120 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified sections of fourth lumbar vertebral bodies. Systemic PGE2 treatment elevated cancerous bone mass of lumbar vertebral bodies 26-60%, above control levels within 60 days and continued treatment maintained it for another 120 days, but the excess bone was lost after the treatment was witndrawn. PGE2 treatment for 60 days increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, and bone formation parameters, and shortened remodeling periods in a dose-response manner. These changes were sustained at the levels achieved by 60-day treatment in the rats treated for 120 and 180 days. The eroded perimeter increased at day 60 and further at day 120 and then plateaued. In the on-off treated rats, the cancenous bone area, bone formation, and resorption parameters returned to near age-related controls by 60 days after withdrawal and were maintained there after 120 days of withdrawal. Therefore, we conclude that the continuous treatment is needed in order to maintain the PGE2-induced bone gain. When these findings were compared to those previously reported for the proximal tibial metaphyses, we found that the proximal tibial spongiosa was much more responsive to PGE2 treatment than the fourth lumbar vertebral body.

  7. Ulmus davidiana extract improves lumbar vertebral parameters in ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xinming; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Wanguo; Wang, Yuanyi; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the skeletal effect of total ethanolic extract from the stem-bark of Ulmus davidiana (UDE) in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Effective dose of UDE was determined in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by measuring bone regeneration at fracture site. UDE (250 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic SD rats for 12 weeks. OVX rats treated with vehicle or 17β-estradiol, and sham-operated rats treated with vehicle served as various controls. Bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture, biomechanical strength, turnover markers, and uterotrophic effect were studied. Bioactive markers in UDE were analyzed by HPLC. Human osteoblasts was used to study the effect of compounds on differentiation by alkaline phosphase assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test significance of effects. OVX+UDE group showed BMD, microarchitectural parameters and compressive strength at lumbar vertebra (L5) comparable to sham. At proximal femur, OVX+UDE group exhibited significantly higher BMD, better microarchitecture and compressive strength compared with OVX+vehicle. OVX-induced decrease in Ca/P ratio was completely restored at both skeletal sites by UDE treatment. Serum procollagen N-terminal propeptide and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks were respectively higher and lower in OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle group. Osteogenic genes were upregulated in L5 and anti-resorptive genes were suppressed in proximal femur of OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle. UDE had no uterine estrogenicity. Analysis of markers yielded two osteogenic isoforms of catechin. In conclusion, UDE completely restored vertebral trabecular bones and strength in osteopenic rats by an osteogenic mechanism and prevented bone loss at proximal femur. PMID:27158327

  8. A predictive mechanical model for evaluating vertebral fracture probability in lumbar spine under different osteoporotic drug therapies.

    PubMed

    López, E; Ibarz, E; Herrera, A; Puértolas, S; Gabarre, S; Más, Y; Mateo, J; Gil-Albarova, J; Gracia, L

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures represent a major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture from bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. A previously developed model, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics, was applied for the evaluation of the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. BMD evolution in untreated patients and in patients with seven different treatments was analyzed from clinical studies in order to compare the variation in the risk of fracture. The predictive model was applied in a finite element simulation of the whole lumbar spine, obtaining detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at vertebral body. For every vertebra, strontium ranelate exhibits the highest decrease, whereas minimum decrease is achieved with oral ibandronate. All the treatments manifest similar trends for every vertebra. Conversely, for the natural BMD evolution, as bone stiffness decreases, the mechanical damage and fracture probability show a significant increase (as it occurs in the natural history of BMD). Vertebral walls and external areas of vertebral end plates are the zones at greatest risk, in coincidence with the typical locations of osteoporotic fractures, characterized by a vertebral crushing due to the collapse of vertebral walls. This methodology could be applied for an individual patient, in order to obtain the trends corresponding to different treatments, in identifying at-risk individuals in early stages of osteoporosis and might be helpful for treatment decisions. PMID:27265047

  9. Automated determination of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR lumbar spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of the location of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is valuable for the analysis of the spine. Existing methods for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are usually applicable only to a specific image modality and require prior knowledge of the location of vertebrae, usually obtained by manual identification or statistical modeling. We propose a completely automated framework for the detection of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR images. The image intensity and gradient magnitude profiles are first extracted in each image along the already obtained spinal centerline and therefore contain a repeating pattern representing the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. Based on the period of the repeating pattern and by using a function that approximates the shape of the vertebral body, a model of the vertebral body is generated. The centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are detected by measuring the similarity between the generated model and the extracted profiles. The method was evaluated on 29 CT and 13 MR images of lumbar spine with varying number of vertebrae. The overall mean distance between the obtained and the ground truth centers was 2.8 +/- 1.9 mm, and no considerable differences were detected between the results for CT, T1-weighted MR or T2-weighted MR images, or among different vertebrae. The proposed method may therefore be valuable for initializing the techniques for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae.

  10. [Case of painful muscle spasm induced by thoracic vertebral fracture: successful treatment with lumbar sympathetic ganglia block].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Kawai, Motoharu; Koga, Michiaki; Ogasawara, Jun-ichi; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    We report a 70-year-old man, who developed painful involuntary muscle contraction of the left leg after the lumbar discectomy, which exacerbated after a vertebral fracture of Th12. This involuntary movement was accompanied with the abnormal position of left leg simulating triple flexion response, and was induced by active or passive movement of his left knee and foot joints. Several drugs including benzodiazepines and dantrolene were ineffective, although treatment with baclofen or carbamazepine was effective. These findings suggest that hyperexcitability of the anterior horn cells following the disturbance of spinal inhibitory interneurons was involved. Electophysiological studies suggested the disturbance of left lumber nerve roots. The spinal root blocks from L3 to S1 were performed, after which the painful involuntary muscle spasm was resolved. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia block was also effective; suggesting that abnormal afferent neuronal input to spinal cord was caused by the nerve root trauma which triggered the formation of secondary abnormal network in the spine. Lumbar sympathetic ganglia block should be recommended to a therapeutic option for the refractory painful muscle spasm of the leg.

  11. Foraminoplastic Superior Vertebral Notch Approach with Reamers in Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy : Technical Note and Clinical Outcome in Limited Indications of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kang-Jun; Ha, Sang-Soo; Kang, Joon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    To describe the details of the foraminoplastic superior vertebral notch approach (FSVNA) with reamers in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes in limited indications of PELD. Retrospective data were collected from 64 patients who underwent PELD with FSVNA from August 2012 to April 2014. Inclusion criteria were high grade migrated disc, high canal compromised disc, and disc protrusion combined with foraminal stenosis. The clinical outcomes were assessed using by the visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and modified MacNab criteria. Complications related to the surgery were reviewed. The procedure used a unique approach, using the superior vertebral notch as the target and performing foraminoplasty with only reamers under C-arm control. The mean age of the 55 female and 32 male patients was 52.73 years. The mean F/U period was 12.2±4.2 months. Preoperative VAS (8.24±1.25) and ODI (67.8±15.4) score improved significantly at the last follow-up (VAS, 1.93±1.78; ODI, 17.14±15.7). Based on the modified MacNab criteria, excellent or good results were obtained in 95.3% of the patients. Postoperative transient dysthesia (n=2) and reoperation (n=1) due to recurred disc were reported. PELD with FSVNA could be a good method for treating lumbar disc herniation. This procedure may offer safe and efficacious results, especially in the relatively limited indications for PELD. PMID:26962427

  12. Influence of age and sex on lumbar vertebral morphometry determined using sagittal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, Ozdemir; Barut, Cagatay; Is, Merih; Eryoruk, Nesrin; Safak, Alp Alper

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated age-related changes in the morphometric features of lumbar vertebrae in both sexes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Midsagittal MRI scans of 366 individuals (156 males, 210 females; 25-82 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The anterior height (H(a)), central height (H(c)), posterior height (H(p)), and anteroposterior diameter (D) of the body of each lumbar vertebra were measured. These measurements were used to calculate three indices, namely, the anterior wedge index (H(a)/H(p)), the biconcavity index (H(c)/H(p)), and the compression index (H(p)/D). The values of each of the three indices for the upper lumbar vertebrae of females were higher than those of the same vertebrae in males. The values of the compression index for all lumbar vertebrae decreased with age in females, whereas in males the compression index of the L1-L4 vertebrae decreased with age. No significant changes were observed in the value of the anterior wedge index in either sex. The biconcavity indices of the L1 and L5 vertebrae decreased with age in males. These results may be useful for evaluating age-related morphological changes that occur in the lumbar vertebrae.

  13. Automated detection of spinal centrelines, vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR images of lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2010-01-01

    We propose a completely automated algorithm for the detection of the spinal centreline and the centres of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in images acquired by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The developed methods are based on the analysis of the geometry of spinal structures and the characteristics of CT and MR images and were evaluated on 29 CT and 13 MR images of lumbar spine. The overall mean distance between the obtained and the ground truth spinal centrelines and centres of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs were 1.8 ± 1.1 mm and 2.8 ± 1.9 mm, respectively, and no considerable differences were detected among the results for CT, T1-weighted MR and T2-weighted MR images. The knowledge of the location of the spinal centreline and the centres of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is valuable for the analysis of the spine. The proposed method may therefore be used to initialize the techniques for labelling and segmentation of vertebrae.

  14. High precision semiautomated computed tomography measurement of lumbar disk and vertebral heights

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Ward, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of treatments of many spine disorders requires precise measurement of the heights of vertebral bodies and disk spaces. The authors present a semiautomated computer algorithm measuring those heights from spine computed tomography (CT) scans and evaluate its precision. Methods: Eight patients underwent two spine CT scans in the same day. In each scan, five thoracolumbar vertebral heights and four disk heights were estimated using the algorithm. To assess precision, the authors computed the differences between the height measurements in the two scans, coefficients of variation (CV), and 95% limits of agreement. Intraoperator and interoperator precisions were evaluated. For local vertebral and disk height measurement (anterior, middle, posterior) the algorithm was compared to a manual mid-sagittal plane method. Results: The mean (standard deviation) interscan difference was as low as 0.043 (0.031) mm for disk heights and 0.044 (0.043) mm for vertebral heights. The corresponding 95% limits of agreement were [−0.085, 0.11] and [−0.10, 0.12] mm, respectively. Intraoperator and interoperator precision was high, with a maximal CV of 0.30%. For local vertebral and disk heights, the algorithm improved upon the precision of the manual mid-sagittal plane measurement by as much as a factor of 6 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: The authors evaluated the precision of a novel computer algorithm for measuring vertebral body heights and disk heights using short term repeat CT scans of patients. The 95% limits of agreement indicate that the algorithm can detect small height changes of the order of 0.1 mm. PMID:23298096

  15. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of the Entire Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae for Vertebral Compression Fractures Related to Chronic Glucocorticosteriod Use: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qing-Hua; Xiao, Quan-Ping; He, Cheng-Jian; Gu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Tao; Li, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most frequent of all secondary types of osteoporosis, and can increase the risk of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). There are promising additions to current medical treatment for appropriately selected osteoporotic patients. Few studies have reported on the efficiency of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or kyphoplasty for whole thoracic and lumbar glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with intractable pain caused by successional VCFs treated by PVP. PMID:25469092

  16. Lumbar vertebral morphology of flying, gliding, and suspensory mammals: implications for the locomotor behavior of the subfossil lemurs Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia.

    PubMed

    Granatosky, Michael C; Miller, Charlotte E; Boyer, Doug M; Schmitt, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar vertebral morphology has been used as an indicator of locomotor behavior in living and fossil mammals. Rigidity within the lumbar region is thought to be important for increasing overall axial rigidity during various forms of locomotion, including bridging between supports, inverted quadrupedalism, gliding, and flying. However, distinguishing between those behaviors using bony features has been challenging. This study used osteological characters of the lumbar vertebrae to attempt to develop fine-grade functional distinctions among different mammalian species in order to make more complete inferences about how the axial skeleton affects locomotor behavior in extant mammals. These same lumbar characters were measured in two extinct species for which locomotor behaviors are well known, the sloth lemurs (Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia radofilai), in order to further evaluate their locomotor behaviors. Results from a principal components analysis of seven measurements, determined to be functionally significant from previous studies, demonstrate that inverted quadrupeds in the sample are characterized by dorsoventrally short and cranio-caudally expanded spinous processes, dorsally oriented transverse processes, and mediolaterally short and dorsoventrally high vertebral bodies compared with mammals that are relatively pronograde, vertical clingers, or gliders. Antipronograde mammals, dermopterans, and chiropterans also exhibit these traits, but not to the same extent as the inverted quadrupeds. In accordance with previous studies, our data show that the sloth lemur B. radofilai groups closely with antipronograde mammals like lorises, while Palaeopropithecus groups with extant sloths. These findings suggest that Palaeopropithecus was engaged in inverted quadrupedalism at a high frequency, while B. radofilai may have engaged in a more diverse array of locomotor and positional behaviors. The osteological features used here reflect differences in lumbar mobility

  17. Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures.

  18. High prevalence of spine–femur bone mineral density discordance and comparison of vertebral fracture risk assessment using femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hannah; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Cha, Bong Soo; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of spine–femur discordance, and to compare the effectiveness of femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) for estimation of the risk of vertebral fractures. Women who were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry between January 2001 and December 2005 were enrolled in this study. Vertebral fracture risk was calculated using initial FN and LS BMD. The follow-up vertebral X-rays from all subjects were reviewed, and the calculated estimated risk using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)) was compared with the actual prevalence of vertebral fractures during the follow-up period. Among a total of 443 women with a mean age of 58.5 years, 130 women (29.3 %) demonstrated femur–spine discordance (i.e., a difference between FN and LS BMD of [1 SD). Most subjects having discordance showed lower LS BMD (73.1 %) compared to FN BMD. During the mean 7-year follow-up period, 12 (2.7 %) vertebral fractures occurred. In cases with high estimated fracture risk ([20 % for estimated fracture risk), using LSBMD significantly reflected the actual vertebral fracture in total subjects [odds ratio (OR) 19.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.21–88.46], in subjects with spine–femur discordance (OR 16.00, 95 % CI 1.91–134.16), and in subjects with spine–femur discordance having lower LSBMD (OR 20.67, 95 % CI 1.63–262.71). In comparison, the estimated risk using FN BMD did not reflect the actual occurrence of vertebral fractures. In conclusion, a significant number of Korean subjects exhibited spine–femur discordance, and LS BMD might be more appropriate for estimation of vertebral fracture risk.

  19. Effects of acupotomylysis on basic fibroblast growth factor and CD34 levels in rabbits with third lumbar vertebral transverse foramen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, X-H; Liu, N-G; Guo, C-Q; Sun, H-M; Wu, H-X; Xu, H; Zhang, Y

    2015-08-19

    This study observed the local tissue homogenates in rabbits with third lumbar vertebral transverse foramen syndrome and explored the mechanism of acupotomylysis in local tissue revascularization. Thirty Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into the following 5 groups of 6 rabbits each: normal, model, acupotomy, electroacupuncture (EA), and acupotomy-EA groups. All except the normal group were comprised of animal models of third lumbar vertebral transverse foramen syndrome prepared by embedding sponge in the left third lumbar transverse process. The rabbits in the acupotomy and EA groups underwent bilateral acupotomylysis intervention; those in the acupotomy-EA group underwent acupotomylysis and EA interventions. On the 28th day after modeling, the double-antibody ELISA was used to detect b-FGF and CD34 levels in the serum and homogenates of a muscle tissue sample from the left side of the third lumbar transverse process. The b-FGF levels in local muscle homogenates were significantly higher in the modeled rabbits than in the normal rabbits (P < 0.01), and the CD34 levels in the modeled group were significantly lower than in the normal group (P < 0.01). The b-FGF and CD34 levels in the EA, acutopomy, and acutopomy-EA groups were significantly lower than those in the modeled group (P < 0.01); the CD34 levels were significantly higher in the acupotomy-EA group than in the model group (P < 0.05); and the differences among the EA, acupotomy, and acupotomy-EA groups were not significant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, acupotomylysis regulates the levels of b-FGF and CD34 levels in serum and muscle tissue as well as local tissue revascularization.

  20. Morphological features of adult rats of IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo strains with lumbar and caudal vertebral anomalies.

    PubMed

    Takano, Masao; Ogawa, Emi; Saitou, Tsubasa; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Asano, Yuzo; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    IS-Tlk/Kyo, a mutant derived from IS/Kyo strain, exhibits a kinked and/or short tail, in addition to the congenital lumbar vertebral anomaly. Homozygotes of Tlk dominant gene are known to die during embryonic development. We previously reported the morphological features of the skeleton in IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo fetuses and of the heart in IS/Kyo fetuses [19]. This study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the skeleton in both adult rats and of the heart in adult IS/Kyo rats. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was observed in 3 out of 10 IS/Kyo rats. Neither splitting of lumbar vertebra and supernumerary rib (in both strains) nor fused or absent caudal cartilage (in IS-Tlk/Kyo strain) was detected in adult rats. Fusion of lumbar vertebrae was observed in almost all specimens together with lumbarization of sacral vertebrae in a few specimens in both adult rats as well as fusion of sacral and caudal vertebrae only in adult IS-Tlk/Kyo rats. In addition, a severe reduction in the ossified sacral and caudal vertebrae was noted in adult IS-Tlk/Kyo rats (mean number: 20.6) and IS/Kyo rats (31.8), and the difference was similar to that in the length of sacral and caudal vertebrae. These results suggest that the Tlk gene may be involved in both the congenital and acquired abnormal formation of the lower vertebral centra as well as the persistent occurrence of VSD by the background gene in IS/Kyo strain.

  1. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  2. Age- and direction-related adaptations of lumbar vertebral trabecular bone with respect to apparent stiffness and tissue level stress distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, He; Fan, Yubo; Zhang, Ming; Qin, Ling

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to study the age-related adaptation of lumbar vertebral trabecular bone at the apparent level, as well as the tissue level in three orthogonal directions. Ninety trabecular specimens were obtained from six normal L4 vertebral bodies of six male cadavers in two age groups, three aged 62 years and three aged 69 years, and were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system, then converted to micro-finite element models to do micro-finite element analyses. The relationship between apparent stiffness and bone volume fraction, and the tissue level von Mises stress distribution for each trabecular specimen when compressed separately in the longitudinal direction, medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions (transverse directions) were derived and compared between two age groups. The results showed that at the apparent level, trabecular bones from 69-year group had stiffer bone structure relative to their volume fractions in all three directions, and in both age groups, changes in bone volume fraction could explain more variations in apparent stiffness in the longitudinal direction than the transverse directions; at the tissue level, aging had little effect on the tissue von Mises stress distributions for the compressions in all the three directions. The novelty of the present study was that it provided quantitative assessments on the age and direction-related adaptation of Chinese male lumbar vertebral trabecular bone from two different levels: stiffness at the apparent level and stress distribution at the tissue level. It may help to understand the failure mechanisms and fracture risks of vertebral body associated with aging and direction for the prevention of fracture risks in elder individuals.

  3. Effects of thrust amplitude and duration of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation on lumbar muscle spindle responses to vertebral position and movement

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Reed, William R.; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mechanical characteristics of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulations (HVLA-SM) can be variable. Sustained changes in peripheral neuronal signaling due to altered load transmission to a sensory receptor’s local mechanical environment are often considered a mechanism contributing to the therapeutic effects of spinal manipulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an HVLA-SM’s thrust amplitude or duration altered neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. METHODS Anesthetized cats (n=112) received L6 HVLA-SMs delivered to the spinous process. Cats were divided into 6 cohorts depending upon the peak thrust force (25%, 55%, 85% body weight) or thrust displacement (1, 2, 3mm) they received. Cats in each cohort received 8 thrust durations (0–250ms). Afferent discharge from 112 spindles was recorded in response to ramp and hold vertebral movement before and after the manipulation. Changes in mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) during the baseline period preceding the ramps (ΔMIFresting), during ramp movements (ΔMIFmovement), and with the vertebra held in the new position (ΔMIFposition) were compared. RESULTS Thrust duration had a small but statistically significant effect on ΔMIFresting at all six thrust amplitudes compared to control (0ms thrust duration). The lowest amplitude thrust displacement (1mm) increased ΔMIFresting at all thrust durations. For all the other thrust displacements and forces, the direction of change in ΔMIFresting was not consistent and the pattern of change was not systematically related to thrust duration. Regardless of thrust force, displacement, or duration, ΔMIFmovement and ΔMIFposition were not significantly different from control. Conclusion Relatively low amplitude thrust displacements applied during an HVLA-SM produced sustained increases in the resting discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles regardless of the duration over which the thrust was

  4. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  5. Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were μCT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory

  6. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  7. Internal morphology of human facet joints: comparing cervical and lumbar spine with regard to age, gender and the vertebral core

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Zanker, Daniel; Wolfram, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Back pain constitutes a major problem in modern societies. Facet joints are increasingly recognised as a source of such pain. Knowledge about the internal morphology and its changes with age may make it possible to include the facets more in therapeutic strategies, for instance joint replacements or immobilisation. In total, 168 facets from C6/7 and L4/5 segments were scanned in a micro-computed tomography. Image analysis was used to investigate the internal morphology with regard to donor age and gender. Additional data from trabecular bone of the vertebral core allowed a semi-quantitative comparison of the morphology of the vertebral core and the facets. Porosity and pore spacing of the cortical sub-chondral bone does not appear to change with age for either males or females. In contrast, bone volume fraction decreases in females from approximately 0.4 to 0.2 , whereas it is constant in males. Trabecular thickness decreases during the ageing process in females and stays constant in males , whereas trabecular separation increases during the ageing process in both genders. The results of this study may help to improve the understanding of pathophysiological changes in the facet joints. Such results could be of value for understanding back pain and its treatment. PMID:22257304

  8. 166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH AVE. FROM BUILDING 44 SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 46, 48, 55, AND 50 (PART OF ENLISTED BARRACKS COMPLEX), AND BUILDINGS 17, 16, 484, 483, 374, AND 375 (IN THE WAREHOUSE COMPLEX). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  9. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the 4th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. Much has changed since the first "Kids & Family Reading Report" was issued in 2006, but literacy remains the critical skill needed for school success. Today's children are growing up in a world full of…

  10. Idiopathic segmental sclerosis of vertebral bodies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, E.F.; Dorfman, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    Five cases of idiopathic vetebral sclerosis are presented. The features of this condition are segmental vertebral sclerosis of a single lumbar vertebra in a young adult without disc space narrowing or alteration of vertebral contour. The differential diagnosis is discussed. Lumbar vertebra biopsies of three patients showed reactive nonspecific osteosclerosis.

  11. Dynamic fe Model of Sitting Man Adjustable to Body Height, Body Mass and Posture Used for Calculating Internal Forces in the Lumbar Vertebral Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.

    1998-08-01

    Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.

  12. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  13. "Effectiveness of continuous vertebral resonant oscillation using the POLD method in the treatment of lumbar disc hernia". A randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, Juan Vicente; Arias-Buría, José Luis; Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Lopez Gordo, Sandra; Oyarzún, Alejandra P Aros

    2015-06-01

    This study analyses the efficacy of manual oscillatory therapy, following the POLD technique, for acute Lumbar Disc Hernia (LDH) and compares it to usual treatment. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind pilot clinical trial. The sample of 30 patients was divided into two homogeneous groups to receive usual treatment (A) or treatment with the POLD technique (B). We analysed range of motion and subjective variables such as the severity (visual analogue pain scale (VAS)) and extension of the pain. With the application of POLD therapy, patients presented significant changes on range of motion (forward flexion with p < 0.05) at completion of the trial in comparison with the control group. They showed a significant reduction in the severity of pain with a mean VAS scale for lumbar, glutaeus and thigh pain, which improved from 5.09 to 0.79, 5.07 to 0.97 and 4.43 to 0.49 respectively (p < 0.05), and also when compared to usual treatment (p < 0.05) for all body regions. Moreover, we observed a reduction in pain extension (centralization phenomena) (p < 0.001) in comparison with usual treatment. In our study the POLD Method was shown to be an effective manual therapy approach for reducing the severity and irradiation of the pain in LDH patients with sciatica, and more efficient than usual treatment. PMID:25511449

  14. "Effectiveness of continuous vertebral resonant oscillation using the POLD method in the treatment of lumbar disc hernia". A randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, Juan Vicente; Arias-Buría, José Luis; Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Lopez Gordo, Sandra; Oyarzún, Alejandra P Aros

    2015-06-01

    This study analyses the efficacy of manual oscillatory therapy, following the POLD technique, for acute Lumbar Disc Hernia (LDH) and compares it to usual treatment. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind pilot clinical trial. The sample of 30 patients was divided into two homogeneous groups to receive usual treatment (A) or treatment with the POLD technique (B). We analysed range of motion and subjective variables such as the severity (visual analogue pain scale (VAS)) and extension of the pain. With the application of POLD therapy, patients presented significant changes on range of motion (forward flexion with p < 0.05) at completion of the trial in comparison with the control group. They showed a significant reduction in the severity of pain with a mean VAS scale for lumbar, glutaeus and thigh pain, which improved from 5.09 to 0.79, 5.07 to 0.97 and 4.43 to 0.49 respectively (p < 0.05), and also when compared to usual treatment (p < 0.05) for all body regions. Moreover, we observed a reduction in pain extension (centralization phenomena) (p < 0.001) in comparison with usual treatment. In our study the POLD Method was shown to be an effective manual therapy approach for reducing the severity and irradiation of the pain in LDH patients with sciatica, and more efficient than usual treatment.

  15. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair in a child with lumbocostovertebral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah L; Thomas, Iona; Hamill, James

    2010-02-01

    Lumbocostovertebral syndrome is the association of a congenital lumbar hernia with rib and vertebral anomalies. We report the first case of a laparoscopic repair of a lumbar hernia in a child with lumbocostovertebral syndrome. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair appears to be safe and feasible in children.

  16. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  17. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  18. [Lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Teiblum, Sandra Sofie; Hjørne, Flemming Pii; Bisgaard, Thue

    2010-03-22

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition. Lumbar hernia should be considered a rare differential diagnosis to unexplained back pain. Symptoms are scarce and diffuse and can vary with the size and content of the hernia. As there is a 25% risk of incarceration, operation is indicated even in asymptomatic hernias. We report a case of lumbar hernia in a woman with a slow growing mass in the lumbar region. She presented with pain and a computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent open surgery and fully recovered with recurrence within the first half year.

  19. The 4th order GISS model of the global atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Bayliss, A.; Storch, J.

    1977-01-01

    The new GISS 4th order model of the global atmosphere is described. It is based on 4th order quadratically conservative differences with the periodic application of a 16th order filter on the sea level pressure and potential temperature equations, a combination which is approximately enstrophy conserving. Several short range forecasts indicate a significant improvement over 2nd order forecasts with the same resolution (approximately 400 km). However the 4th order forecasts are somewhat inferior to 2nd order forecasts with double resolution. This is probably due to the presence of short waves in the range between 1000 km and 2000 km, which are computed more accurately by the 2nd order high resolution model. An operation count of the schemes indicates that with similar code optimization, the 4th order model will require approximately the same amount of computer time as the 2nd order model with the same resolution. It is estimated that the 4th order model with a grid size of 200 km provides enough accuracy to make horizontal truncation errors negligible over a period of a week for all synoptic scales (waves longer than 1000 km).

  20. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton.

  1. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. PMID:23580532

  2. [Lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Marcin; Bolt, Leszek; Biesiada, Zbigniew; Zub-Pokrowiecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar region constitutes one of the least common localizations for hernia formation. There are only slightly more than 300 cases found in English literature till the end of the 20th century, while there are only 8 cases presented in Polish literature. Exceptionally rare incidence together with diagnostic dilemma related to it made us to present cases of 2 patients operated on in the 2nd Chair of Surgery of Jagiellonian University Medical College due to lumbar hernia.

  3. [Dorso-lumbar pain caused by a schmorl hernia].

    PubMed

    Esteban Navarro, Pedro Luis; García Casas, Oscar; Girvent Montllor, Francesc

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic and lumbar spine conditions cause primarily mechanical back pain, although the clinician has to ensure that the symptoms are not from another etiology. We present the case of a patient with thoracic and lumbar non mechanical pain, resistant to treatment, diagnosed with a herniation of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral end-plate. We also performed a literature review. PMID:21794532

  4. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  5. Lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis is a key postural component that has interested both clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite its wide use in assessing postural abnormalities, there remain many unanswered questions regarding lumbar lordosis measurements. Therefore, in this article we reviewed different factors associated with the lordosis angle based on existing literature and determined normal values of lordosis. We reviewed more than 120 articles that measure and describe the different factors associated with the lumbar lordosis angle. Because of a variety of factors influencing the evaluation of lumbar lordosis such as how to position the patient and the number of vertebrae included in the calculation, we recommend establishing a uniform method of evaluating the lordosis angle. Based on our review, it seems that the optimal position for radiologic measurement of lordosis is standing with arms supported while shoulders are flexed at a 30° angle. There is evidence that many factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and sport, may affect the lordosis angle, making it difficult to determine uniform normal values. Normal lordosis should be determined based on the specific characteristics of each individual; we therefore presented normal lordosis values for different groups/populations. There is also evidence that the lumbar lordosis angle is positively and significantly associated with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, no association has been found with other spinal degenerative features. Inconclusive evidence exists for association between lordosis and low back pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The optimal lordotic range remains unknown and may be related to a variety of individual factors such as weight, activity, muscular strength, and flexibility of the spine and lower extremities. PMID:24095099

  6. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. PMID:22052243

  7. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans.

  8. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  9. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. PMID:25922152

  10. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior-inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  11. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  12. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back.

  13. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  14. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products.

  15. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt.

  16. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  17. Vertebrae numbers of the early hominid lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, Martin; Martelli, Sandra A; Boeni, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    General doctrine holds that early hominids possessed a long lumbar spine with six segments. This is mainly based on Robinson's (1972) interpretation of a single partial Australopithecus africanus skeleton, Sts 14, from Sterkfontein, South Africa. As its sixth last presacral vertebra exhibits both thoracic and lumbar characteristics, current definitions of lumbar vertebrae and lumbar ribs are discussed in the present study. A re-analysis of its entire preserved vertebral column and comparison with Stw 431, another partial A. africanus skeleton from Sterkfontein, and the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000 from Nariokotome, Kenya, did not provide strong evidence for the presence of six lumbar vertebrae in either of these early hominids. Thus, in Sts 14 the sixth last presacral vertebra has on one side a movable rib. In Stw 431, the corresponding vertebra shows indications for a rib facet. In KNM-WT, 15000 the same element is very fragmentary, but the neighbouring vertebrae do not support the view that it is L1. Although in all three fossils the transitional vertebra at which the articular facets change orientation seems to be at Th11, this is equal to a large percentage of modern humans. Indeed, a modal number of five lumbar vertebrae, as in modern humans, is more compatible with evolutionary principles. For example, six lumbar vertebrae would require repetitive shortening and lengthening not only of the lumbar, but also of the entire precaudal spine. Furthermore, six lumbar vertebrae are claimed to be biomechanically advantageous for early hominid bipedalism, yet an explanation is lacking as to why the lumbar region should have shortened in later humans. All this raises doubts about previous conclusions for the presence of six lumbar vertebrae in early hominids. The most parsimonious explanation is that they did not differ from modern humans in the segmentation of the vertebral column.

  18. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis.

  19. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis. PMID:26949473

  20. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace". PMID:26272517

  1. Results of 4th repeated levelling survey in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kall, Tarmo; Torim, Ants; Jürma, Helju; Liibusk, Aive; Jürgenson, Harli

    2010-05-01

    Estonian precise levelling network consists of about 2000 km levelling lines and 1300 benchmarks. Three precise repeated levellings were carried out: in 1933-1943, 1948-1969 and 1970-1996. Three height systems have been realized: Tallinn Height System (unofficial system), Baltic Height System of 1951 and Baltic Height System of 1977 (BK77). Campaign of 4th repeated levelling was started at 2004 with goal to reconstruct the destroyed and damaged benchmarks, to realize the new height system and concept of integrated geodetic network. Reconstructed levelling network will consist of approximately 3000 km levelling lines and 2300 benchmarks. Digital level DiNi and NEDO invar code rod is used for levelling. Levellings carried out so far is characterized by high precision: levelling error calculated using levelling loops closing error is 0.23 mm/km. In the end of 2010 is planned to complete the levelling field work. After that the processing of the levelling data and the realization of the new height system will be implemented. Goal of the present study was to adjust the height differences of the latest repeated levelling and compare obtained benchmarks heights with previous ones. Method of the least squares and software SBG GEO 2005 was used for adjustment. Minimally constrained adjustment with one fixed benchmarks was used. Location of the benchmark was chosen in the area of minimal postglacial land uplift. Obtained benchmark heights are preliminary because no rod calibration, refraction etc. corrections were added yet to field height differences. Therefore obtained heights are not realization of the new height system. Still obtained heights can be used for example for improving of Estonian geoid model. In comparison between new and old benchmark heights, SE-NW directional pattern of postglacial land uplift appeared as expected.

  2. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".

  3. Morphological castes in a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    O'Riain, M J; Jarvis, J U; Alexander, R; Buffenstein, R; Peeters, C

    2000-11-21

    Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

  4. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  5. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  6. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. PMID:17685269

  7. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation.

  8. Destructive discovertebral degenerative disease of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Charran, A K; Tony, G; Lalam, R; Tyrrell, P N M; Tins, B; Singh, J; Eisenstein, S M; Balain, B; Trivedi, J M; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2012-09-01

    The uncommon variant of degenerative hip joint disease, termed rapidly progressive osteoarthritis, and highlighted by severe joint space loss and osteochondral disintegration, is well established. We present a similar unusual subset in the lumbar spine termed destructive discovertebral degenerative disease (DDDD) with radiological features of vertebral malalignment, severe disc resorption, and "bone sand" formation secondary to vertebral fragmentation. Co-existing metabolic bone disease is likely to promote the development of DDDD of the lumbar spine, which presents with back pain and sciatica due to nerve root compression by the "bone sand" in the epidural space. MRI and CT play a complimentary role in making the diagnosis.

  9. Nontraumatic Rupture of Lumbar Artery Causing an Intravertebral Body Pseudoaneurysm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, Yoshinori Kudoh, Kouichi; Nakasone, Yutaka; Fujisaki, Tadashi; Uemura, Shouichirou; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2006-10-15

    We report a case of nontraumatic rupture of the lumbar artery that led to a pseudoaneurysm in the vertebral body and massive retroperitoneal to retropleural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular embolization. To our knowledge, idiopathic rupture of the lumbar artery has been reported in a limited number of cases and pseudoaneurysm formation in the vertebral body has not been presented in the literature. The etiology of hemorrhage has been discussed based on CT, MRI, and three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  10. Diagnostic possibilities of thermal imaging in neurologic manifestations of lumbar osteochondrosis in different stages of treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, S. N.; Fedosenko, T. S.

    1993-11-01

    On the basis of thermal imaging examinations of 2000 patients suffering lumbar osteochondrosis of the vertebral region, and using their methods, the authors describe the specifics of the thermal images of the lumbar region and the lower extremities in various clinical manifestations of the reflex and radicular syndromes.

  11. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen. PMID:15889565

  12. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  13. 75 FR 26157 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's..., VA in support of the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict...

  14. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  15. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  16. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  17. Dynamic stabilization for degenerative spondylolisthesis and lumbar spinal instability.

    PubMed

    Ohtonari, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Nobuharu; Suwa, Katsuyasu; Ota, Taisei; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted surgical procedure for patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and lumbar spinal instability in the active age group. However, in elderly patients, it is often questionable whether it is truly necessary to construct rigid fixation for a short period of time. In recent years, we have been occasionally performing posterior dynamic stabilization in elderly patients with such lumbar disorders. Posterior dynamic stabilization was performed in 12 patients (6 women, 70.9 ± 5.6 years old at the time of operation) with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis in whom % slip was less than 20% or instability associated with lumbar disc herniation between March 2011 and March 2013. Movement occurs through the connector linked to the pedicle screw. In practice, 9 pairs of D connector system where the rod moves in the perpendicular direction alone and 8 pairs of Dynamic connector system where the connector linked to the pedicle screw rotates in the sagittal direction were installed. The observation period was 77-479 days, and the mean recovery rate of lumbar Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was 65.6 ± 20.8%. There was progression of slippage due to slight loosening in a case with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, but this did not lead to exacerbation of the symptoms. Although follow-up was short, there were no symptomatic adjacent vertebral and disc disorders during this period. Posterior dynamic stabilization may diminish the development of adjacent vertebral or disc disorders due to lumbar interbody fusion, especially in elderly patients, and it may be a useful procedure that facilitates decompression and ensures a certain degree of spinal stabilization.

  18. Does lumbar facet arthrosis precede disc degeneration? A postmortem study.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Lee, Michael J; Cassinelli, Ezequiel; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2007-11-01

    It is believed lumbar degeneration begins in the disc, where desiccation and collapse lead to instability and compensatory facet arthrosis. We explored the contrary contention that facet degeneration precedes disc degeneration by examining 647 skeletal lumbar spines. Using facet osteophytosis as a measure of facet degeneration and vertebral rim osteophytosis as a measure of disc degeneration, we assumed bone degeneration in both locations equally reflected the progression of those in the soft tissues. We graded arthrosis Grade 0 to 4 on a continuum from no arthritis to ankylosis. The data were analyzed for different age groups to examine patterns of degeneration with age. Specimens younger than 30 years of age had a higher prevalence of facet osteophytosis compared with vertebral rim osteophotosis at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Specimens aged 30 to 39 years showed more facet osteophytosis than vertebral rim osteophytosis at L4-L5. Specimens older than 40 years, however, showed more vertebral rim osteophytosis compared with facet osteophytosis at all levels except L4-L5 and L5-S1. This skeletal study suggests facet osteophytosis appears early in the degenerative process, preceding vertebral rim osteophytosis of degenerating intervertebral discs. However, once facets begin deteriorating with age, vertebral rim osteophytosis overtakes continued facet osteophytosis. These data challenge the belief that facet osteophytosis follows vertebral rim osteophytosis; rather, it appears vertebral rim osteophytosis progresses more rapidly in later years, but facet osteophotosis occurs early, predominating in younger individuals.

  19. Charcot Arthropathy of the Lumbosacral Spine Mimicking a Vertebral Tumor after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Son, Soo-Bum; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    Charcot spinal arthropathy is a rare, progressive type of vertebral joint degeneration that occurs in the setting of any preexisting condition characterized by decreased afferent innervation to the extent that normal protective joint sensation in the vertebral column is impaired. The authors report on a case of Charcot arthropathy of the lower lumbar spine mimicking a spinal tumor following cervical cord injury. PMID:24527202

  20. 4th floor sacking deck looking east from 1945 elevator to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th floor sacking deck looking east from 1945 elevator to 1913 elevator indicating spout used to load bulk grain into rail cars - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback to left and delivery stair bulkhead to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  3. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration increased biomechanical bone strength of rats' vertebral body

    PubMed Central

    Najar, Azam; Fridoni, Mohammadjavad; Rezaei, Fatemesadat; Bayat, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of different glucocorticoid administration protocols on biomechanical properties of the first lumbar vertebral body in rats. We divided 40 male rats into the following groups: control, dexamethasone (7 mg/week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg three times per week, and low-level laser treated rats. Lumbar vertebrae in rats were exposed to the pulsed laser. We conducted a biomechanical test to examine the mechanical properties of vertebral body in rats' lumbar bone. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration protocols did not impair the biomechanical properties of rats' vertebral bodies compared to control and laser-treated rats. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration caused an anabolic effect on the vertebral bodies. PMID:26755921

  4. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive...

  5. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (75 FR 22330). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration... associated with the City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector...

  6. 75 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks... the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display, July ] 4, 2010. This temporary safety zone is... with the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display. The fireworks display is planned to...

  7. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  8. Retroperitoneal approach for lumbar lateral meningocele--case report.

    PubMed

    Miyata, M; Yamasaki, S; Yoshida, T; Matsubara, M; Okamura, M; Hirayama, A; Tamaki, N

    1995-12-01

    A 29-year-old female with neurofibromatosis presented with a right lumbar lateral meningocele. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a huge right retroperitoneal cyst expanding anterolaterally and displacing the right kidney. CT following myelography disclosed the cyst expanding through a wide defect of the right pedicles of the T-12 and L-1 vertebrae. The cyst was resected through a retroperitoneal approach with right flank oblique incision. Postoperatively, cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred, which improved after lumboperitoneal shunt. Careful screening for lateral meningocele, including the lumbar region, should be undertaken in a patient with neurofibromatosis who presents with vertebral anomalies.

  9. Thoracic and lumbar extradural structure examined by extraduroscope.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Shimizu, R; Saitoh, K; Fukuda, H

    1998-08-01

    We examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 113 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia. Patients were classified into two groups to receive either thoracic or lumbar extradural anaesthesia as needed for perioperative analgesia. The extraduroscopy showed that the thoracic extradural space becomes widely patent after injecting a given amount of air and that the amount of fatty and fibrous connective tissue is less in the thoracic extradural space compared with the lumbar extradural space. We suggest that differences between the structure of these two vertebral regions may affect the spread of local anaesthetics in the extradural space. PMID:9813508

  10. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 4(th) International Standard for Streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the 4(th) World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for Streptomycin. Fourteen laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 3(rd) IS for Streptomycin was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 4(th) IS for Streptomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 with an assigned potency of 76 000 International Units (IU) per vial. The 4(th) IS for Streptomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  11. Morphological and postural sexual dimorphism of the lumbar spine facilitates greater lordosis in females.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Been, Ella; Kramer, Patricia A

    2016-07-01

    Previous work suggests females are evolutionarily adapted to have greater lumbar lordosis than males to aid in pregnancy load-bearing, but no consensus exists. To explore further sex-differences in the lumbar spine, and to understand contradictions in the literature, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study of sex-differences in lumbar spine morphology and sacral orientation. In addition, our sample includes data for separate standing and supine samples of males and females to examine potential sex-differences in postural loading on lumbosacral morphology. We measured sagittal lumbosacral morphology on 200 radiographs. Measurements include: lumbar angle (L1-S1), lumbar vertebral body and disc wedging angles, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Lumbar angle, representative of lordotic curvature between L1 and S1, was 7.3° greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in lumbar angle when supine. This difference in standing lumbar angle can be explained by greater lordotic wedging of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) in females. Additionally, sacral slope was greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in pelvic incidence. Our results support that females have greater lumbar lordosis than males when standing, but not when supine - suggesting a potentially greater range of motion in the female spine. Furthermore, sex-differences in the lumbar spine appear to be supported by postural differences in sacral-orientation and morphological differences in the vertebral body wedging. A better understanding of sex-differences in lumbosacral morphology may explain sex-differences in spinal conditions, as well as promote necessary sex-specific treatments. PMID:26916466

  12. A device mimicking the biomechanical characteristics of crocodile skull for lumbar fracture reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmin; Guo, Lihua; Li, Yuancheng; Lei, Zhenkun; Liu, Yuanchang; Shi, Weiping; Li, Tao; Li, Weikang; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Open surgery is currently the main treatment method for the lumbar burst fracture with neurological deficit but may irreversibly disrupt the lumbar anatomy. The minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques have recently gained increasing attention. However, their use is still limited to lumbar burst fractures mainly due to their difficulties in burst fracture reduction and decompression. Here we present a novel bio-inspired MIS device which can be used with an endoscope to reset the bone fragments retropulsed into the spinal canal within the wounded vertebral body. Its head jaw mimics the biomechanical characteristics of a crocodile rostrum to improve the performance in gripping and moving bone pieces in the confined space of a vertebral body. This study may be capable of converting the posterior open surgeries to the MIS procedures, and expands the use of the MIS techniques in the treatment of lumbar burst fractures. PMID:27529133

  13. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following...

  14. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following...

  15. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following...

  16. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following...

  17. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following...

  18. 75 FR 34639 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA in the Federal Register (75 FR 26157). We received no comments on... standards bodies. This rule does not use technical standards. Therefore, we did not consider the use...

  19. 4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Improving the Attitudes of 4th Graders toward Older People through a Multidimensional Intergenerational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Patricia P.; Merola, Pamela R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intergenerational program on children's attitudes toward older people. Four 4th grade classes, one each during the years 2002 through 2005, participated in the study. The elders and school children engaged in meaningful activities over a 5 month period, including the performance of a play…

  2. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  3. 15. Old Bergen tunnel, west end, showing proposed 4th track ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Old Bergen tunnel, west end, showing proposed 4th track of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and amount of west end of tunnel to be taken out to allow for same, taken August 13, 1906 - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  6. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. This safety zone is intended to...

  7. Improving Social Interaction among 4th Grade Students through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer

    This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…

  8. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  10. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  11. Optimal patient positioning for ligamentotaxis during balloon kyphoplasty of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Cawley, D T; Sexton, P; Murphy, T; McCabe, J P

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty aims to restore vertebral height, correct angular deformity and stabilize the spine in the setting of vertebral compression fractures. The patient is positioned prone with supports under the iliac crests and upper thorax to allow gravity to extend the spine. In the treatment of lumbar fractures, we evaluated patient positioning with the contribution of hip extension to increase anterior ligamentotaxis, thus facilitating restoration of vertebral height. Our positioning technique created a mean anterior height increase from 72% to 78% of the average height of the cranial and caudal vertebrae (p=0.037). Balloon inflation did not significantly further increase anterior or posterior vertebral height, or Cobb angle.

  12. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

  13. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  14. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. Methods: 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4th, 8th and 16th weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. Results: No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. Conclusions: The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar. PMID:26885221

  15. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  16. [Congenital lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Peláez Mata, D J; Alvarez Muñoz, V; Fernández Jiménez, I; García Crespo, J M; Teixidor de Otto, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hernias in the lumbar region are abdominal wall defects that appear in two possible locations: the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft and the inferior lumbar triangle of Petit. There are 40 cases reported in the pediatric literature, and only 16 are considered congenital, associated with the lumbocostovertebral syndrome and/or meningomyelocele. A new case is presented. A premature newborn with a mass in the left flank that increases when the patient cries and reduces easily. The complementary studies confirm the diagnosis of lumbar hernia and reveal the presence of lumbocostovertebral syndrome associated. At the time of operation a well defined fascial defect at the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft is primarily closed. The diagnosis of lumbar hernia is not difficult to establish but it is necessary the screening of the lumbocostovertebral syndrome. We recommend the surgical treatment before 12 months of age; the objective is to close the defect primarily or to use prosthetic material if necessary. PMID:12602034

  17. Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan

    2010-12-15

    The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

  18. Vertebral fractures in males with prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Porcelli, Teresa; Mormando, Marilda; De Menis, Ernesto; Bianchi, Antonio; Mejia, Carola; Mancini, Tatiana; De Marinis, Laura; Giustina, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Data on osteoporotic fractures in hyperprolactinemia are limited. An increased prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures was recently observed in women with prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma, whereas it is unknown whether this observation may reflect a more general increased risk of fractures in this disease and whether the prevalence of fractures in males is affected by gonadal status. Thirty-two males (median age 47 years, range: 22-79) with PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma (10 with microadenoma and 22 with macroadenoma) and 64 control males, with normal PRL values and with comparable age to patients with hyperprolactinemia, were evaluated for vertebral fractures by a morphometric approach and for bone mineral density (BMD) by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Vertebral fractures were shown in 12 patients with PRL-secreting adenoma (37.5%) and in 5 controls (7.8%, P < 0.001). Fractured patients had lower BMD T-score (P = 0.007) and longer duration of disease (P < 0.001) as compared to patients who did not fracture. Fractures occurred more frequently (P = 0.03) in patients with untreated hyperprolactinemia versus patients treated with cabergoline whose frequency of vertebral fractures was still higher than control subjects. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was not significantly different between eugonadal and hypogonadal patients (33.3% vs. 38.5%; P = 0.8). Moreover, no significant (P = 0.4) difference in serum testosterone values was found between fractured and not fractured males. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with high prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in men with PRL-secreting adenoma. These findings would also suggest that PRL excess may produce negative skeletal effects independently of hypogonadism.

  19. Vertebral venous channels: CT appearance and differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Guerra, J. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the anatomy, radiologic images, and pathology of venous channels in the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies was performed using cadavers and patients. These structures may be mistaken for fractures, lytic lesions, or other abnormalities on high-resolution axial computed tomographic (CT) scans of the spine. A distinct osseous wall, absence of extension over multiple contiguous levels, lack of displacement, and predominant localization in the mid-axial plane of the vertebral body are characteristic features of venous channels. An understanding of the normal intraosseous venous anatomy should prevent misinterpretation of clinical CT studies in most instances.

  20. Flexible device for vertebral body replacement.

    PubMed

    Main, J A; Wells, M E; Spengler, D M; Strauss, A M; Keller, T S

    1989-03-01

    A novel vertebral prosthesis is presented. The prosthesis was developed for surgical procedures requiring the resection of a complete vertebral body and the adjacent intervertebral discs, the design objective being to develop a flexible implant that would be robust enough to withstand the in vivo stress environment of the human spine. In theory, a flexible implant should preserve a more normal range of motion and apply less stress to surrounding tissue than a rigid implant. A prototype implant was constructed so as to combine a rigid stainless steel structure with flexible silicon rubber elements in order to form an implant with static and dynamic mechanical characteristics similar to those of the anterior spinal column. Implant flexibility characteristics were determined from ex vivo stress-strain behaviour during bending and compressive creep testing. Results from the bending tests indicated good agreement for the lateral and sagittal bending characteristics in comparison with in vitro bending tests of human lumbar motion segments. Comparison of the implant compressive creep response with similar in vitro tests on human lumbar intervertebral discs also demonstrated similarities in the time-dependent mechanical parameters. PMID:2704210

  1. Critical study of observation of the sternal end of the right 4th rib.

    PubMed

    Fanton, Laurent; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Paultre, Ulysse; Schrag, Bettina; Malicier, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Studies of the method of estimating age at death by the 4th rib exclusively concerned the phase method without fundamentally challenging the method as such. The present study analyzed observation of the variables on which the Işcan method is based. Ten observers made two assessments of the stage of pit depth, pit shape, rim and wall configurations of 59 right 4th ribs harvested from males (mean age: 49 years; range: 47-94 years). Observation showed poor reproducibility and repeatability for all three variables (Wilcoxon test, kappa-coefficient). Analysis of problem ribs revealed difficulty in measuring and imprecision in describing pit depth and failure to take account of continual aging for the other two variables. Despite these results, Işcan's variables provide objective information on age at death. It is recommended that the method be improved by better description of the variables and use of multivariate statistical analysis.

  2. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-03-17

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  3. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  5. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  6. A prospective controlled trial of teaching basic surgical skills with 4th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Lossing, A; Groetzsch, G

    1992-01-01

    Scrubbing, gowning, gloving and aseptic technique are currently the only formal teaching 4th year medical students receive at the beginning of an 8-week surgery rotation. Teaching is often delegated to junior house staff and early bad habits are difficult to unlearn in post-graduate training. A study population of 4th year medical students from three hospitals were examined. At the beginning of an 8-week surgery rotation technical skills were tested with a simulation appendectomy model at the beginning and end of the surgery rotation. On day one, after a pre-test, a teaching intervention was alternated between two hospitals. A control group received only a post-test. The outcome measure was a cumulative score of the students' performance in technical stations in the simulation model. A comparison was made of the mean post-test scores in the teaching, non-teaching and control groups. An analysis of variance of all post-test scores rejected the null hypothesis at the 0.05 level. Duncan's multiple range test demonstrated a significant difference between the teaching and non-teaching group. Feedback from 25 students indicated the teaching model was practical and relevant. A formal teaching intervention of basic technical skills with 4th year medical students improved their performance on a simulated appendectomy model.

  7. Vertebral fracture assessment in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Miguel; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Torres, Carolina Hammes; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; de Farias, Maria Lúcia Fleiuss

    2013-01-01

    Most vertebral fractures (VFs) are asymptomatic and incidentally found on X-rays. The effects of acromegaly on bone mineral density (BMD) are still controversial, and the prevalence of VFs in this specific population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess VFs in acromegaly through vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy-five acromegalic patients from the same center (53 female; age: 48.9±14.5yr) were enrolled in this study. None of them referred previous fragility fracture. They were divided according to the presence or absence of moderate or severe VFs on VFA, a densitometric spine imaging. Age, gender, estimated duration of disease, insulin-like growth factor I levels, disease control and gonadal status, as well as BMD and body composition (analyzed by DXA) were compared between these 2 groups. A prevalence of 10.6% of clinically unapparent VFs was observed. Eight patients had 13 moderate or severe VFs, and only one of them had osteoporosis at densitometry. There was a trend to longer duration of acromegaly before diagnosis, higher prevalence of hypogonadism, and higher BMD Z-score at lumbar spine and femoral neck in fractured patients, without reaching statistical significance. There is a significant prevalence of moderate and severe VFs in acromegalic patients, independently of BMD. More longitudinal and controlled studies are needed to recommend the use of VFA in all acromegalic patients submitted to DXA scan. VFA is simple, practical, uses low radiation, and may provide important information in the management of acromegaly.

  8. Incarcerated inferior lumbar (Petit's) hernia.

    PubMed

    Astarcioğlu, H; Sökmen, S; Atila, K; Karademir, S

    2003-09-01

    Petit's hernia is an uncommon abdominal wall defect in the inferior lumbar triangle. Colonic incarceration through the inferior lumbar triangle, which causes mechanical obstructive symptoms, necessitates particular diagnostic and management strategy. We present a rare case of inferior lumbar hernia, leading to mechanical bowel obstruction, successfully treated with prosthetic mesh reinforcement repair.

  9. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  10. Lumbar spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Nanassis, Kimon; Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion; Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Mintelis, Apostolos; Tsitsopoulos, Philippos

    2008-04-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumours most commonly found in the thoracic spine. A case of an extradural lumbar angiolipoma in a 47-year-old female is described. She had a recent history of lower back pain accompanied by sciatica. Lumbar MRI revealed a dorsal epidural mass at the L2-L3 level. The patient underwent a bilateral laminectomy, in which the tumour was totally excised. The pathological examination indicated haemangiolipoma. Post-operatively, the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved remarkably quickly. MRI at 6 and 18 months after surgery revealed no evidence of tumour recurrence.

  11. Software-assisted morphometry and volumetry of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Narloch, Jerzy; Glinkowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure volumes of the lumbar vertebral bodies with use dedicated Computed Tomography (CT) workstation software to predict expected volume of PMMA for vertebroplasty and supplement calculations using computed tomography scanogram. Quantitative CT scans of 87 women's (mean age 69.4 years; SD 10.9) and 15 men's (mean age 64.3 years; SD 11.8) lumbar spines were analyzed; this made a total of 379 vertebrae. The population of patients was divided into three groups depending on measured BMD value, in accordance with American College of Radiology Practice Parameter for the Performance of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Bone Densitometry. With the use of the general linear model and least squares means groups were compared regarding vertebral volume, anterior, middle, and posterior vertebral heights. Morphometric parameters tended to be greater in males than in females, in a population of diversified bone mineral density. BMD result should be considered as the modifying factor for preoperative planning of the bone cement volume to be deposited inside the vertebra. Vertebral body volumetry might prove to be a useful tool in pre-operative planning as well as an alternative for treatment monitoring after minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:27154439

  12. Lumbar hernia: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Ranjan, Rajeeva; Saha, Subhendu Bikas; Singh, Balbodh

    2014-04-15

    Lumbar hernia is one of the rare cases that most surgeons are not exposed to. Hence the diagnosis can be easily missed. This leads to delay in the treatment causing increased morbidity. We report a case of lumbar hernia in a middle-aged woman. It was misdiagnosed as lipoma by another surgeon. It was a case of primary acquired lumbar hernia in the superior lumbar triangle. Clinical and MRI findings were correlated to reach the diagnosis. We also highlight the types, the process of diagnosis and the surgical repair of lumbar hernias. We wish to alert our fellow surgeons to keep the differential diagnosis of the lumbar hernia in mind before diagnosing any lumbar swelling as lipoma.

  13. Recurrent primary lumbar vertebra chondrosarcoma: Marginal resection and Iodine-125 seed therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunpeng; Zeng, Jiancheng; Song, Yueming; Wang, Xiandi

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are uncommon in the spinal column. En bloc excisions with wide margins are of critical importance but not always feasible in spine. We report the outcome in a case of recurrent lumbar vertebral chondrosarcoma treated with marginal resection and iodine-125 seeds placed in the resected tumor bed. PMID:24741146

  14. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  15. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  16. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  17. [Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health. InformAzione (InformAction) is the title of the last OISG report (Italian observatory on Global Health), dedicated to information and education, the essential bases for a conscious action aimed at decreasing inequalities. Increasing the investments in information, education and interventions oriented to global health may broaden the number of aware and informed citizens, able to start a dialogue, to make pressures to increase the interventions in favor of those in need.

  18. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  19. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  20. Lumbar corsets can decrease lumbar motion in golf swing.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key pointsRotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back painWearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity.Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  1. Lumbar Corsets Can Decrease Lumbar Motion in Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key points Rotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back pain Wearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity. Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  2. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  3. [Results of operative treatment thoraco-lumbar fractures by posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Daniaux reconstruction or combination of both methods].

    PubMed

    Wegłowski, Robert; Godlewski, Piotr; Blacha, Jan; Kołodziej, Robert; Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare clinical and radiological results of treatment thoraco-lumbar spine fractures by short segment transpedicular stabilization accompanied by three techniques of reconstruction: posterior lumbar interbody fusion, vertebral body Daniaux reconstruction and combination of both methods. AO system was used to classify the fractures. Frankel's grade system was used for assessment of neurological deficit on admission and subsequently in the postoperative and follow-up period. The height of the fractured vertebral body and angle of segmental kyphotic deformation was measured on lateral X-ray pre- and post-operatively and at last follow-up. To the retrospective analysis we included 167 patients operated in the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department, Medical University of Lublin in years 1998-2007. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed in 69 patients (41%), isolated vertebral body Daniaux reconstruction in 82 patients (49%) and combination of both methods was performed in 16 patients (10%). The follow-up period has ranged from 3 to 13 years (mean 6.9 years). The most common type of the fracture was a B type (104 patients -62%), followed by type A (43 patients--26%), and type C (20--patients 12%). The neurological deficit was present in 80 patients. The postoperative neurological improvement was noticed in 37 patients (46%), whereas in 46 patients (54%) neurological status has not changed after the treatment. From 87 patients without neurological symptoms, we observed postoperatively contemporary neurological complications in 11 (12.6%) cases. The biggest correction of fractured vertebral height (mean 0.15) and correction of segmental kyphotic deformity (mean 6.3 degrees) we have noticed in the group of isolated vertebralbody Daniaux reconstruction with use of bone grafts. However in every group of patients we observed significant loss of correction during follow-up period. At the latest follow-up assessment there were no

  4. Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy.

  5. Vertebral discitis after laparoscopic resection rectopexy: a rare differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Knoll, Sarah-Noemi; Breitenstein, Stefan; Karrer, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral discitis usually arises from haematogenous spread of pathogens to the discs and bones. Vertebral discitis can rarely occur as a complication after laparoscopic operations with fixating sutures on the promontory. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic resection rectopexy because of rectal prolapse. Weeks after the operation, the patient developed lower back pain with radiation to both legs not responding to symptomatic therapy. Two months later, a magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. A fixation on the promontory may be sufficiently traumatic to the spine to pave the way for subsequent infection. A high index of suspicion should be raised in patients with persistent, severe back pain. Anamnesis, imageing and an adequate specimen from the affected area for microbiological analysis are crucial for timely diagnosis and appropriate management involving targeted and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25084791

  6. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  7. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  8. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  9. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  10. Iatrogenic left common iliac artery and vein perforation during lumbar discectomy: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Frati, Paola; Carbone, Iacopo; Pugnetti, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic vascular injury during lumbar disk surgery, although rare, is a serious complication, and when it does occur, can be sudden and life-threatening. The risk of injury to the pelvic vessels intra-operatively can be explained by the close proximity of the retroperitoneal vessels to the vertebral column therefore causing injury to the anterior longitudinal ligament, which can give access to the retroperitoneal space. If signs of circulatory instability are noted during lumbar disk surgery, early diagnosis of vascular injury and urgent transperitoneal surgery or emergency stenting can save the patient's life. Here, is presented the case of a 52-year-old man who underwent an elective lumbar discectomy for a rightward disk herniation in the L4-L5 intervertebral space and died 12h after the operation for a hemorrhagic shock due to a severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage following iatrogenic left common iliac artery and vein perforation during lumbar discectomy. PMID:25467198

  11. Automatic CT Measurement In Lumbar Vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisseling, Johannes T.; van Erning, Leon J. T. O.; Schouten, Theo E.; Lemmen, J. Albert M.

    1989-04-01

    Reliable software for automatic determination of the border between the cancellous bone and the cortical bone of lumbar vertebrae has been developed. An automatic procedure is needed because calculations in a larger series of patient data take too much time due to the inevitable human interaction required by available software packages. Processing in batch mode is essential. An important advantage of automatic outlining is its reproducibility, because only a single technique with objective criteria is used. In a so-called Region Of Interest (ROI) texture analysis can be performed to quantify the condition of the vertebral body in order to diagnose osteoporosis. This technique may be an alternative to a classification based solely on the average X-ray absorption value.

  12. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52) and union (n = 43) players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23), T9 (n = 18) and T10 (n = 21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  13. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  14. Atypical vertebral Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Beaudouin, Constance; Dohan, Anthony; Nasrallah, Toufic; Parlier, Caroline; Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Korng; Kaci, Rachid; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    A 40-year-old Mauritanian man consulted for back pain. A computed tomography of the spine showed patchy sclerosis of the fifth and seventh thoracic vertebral bodies with normal neural arch of T5 and sclerosis and hypertrophy of the neural arch of T7, as well as diffuse sclerosis of the T11 vertebral body with a normal neural arch. At MRI, low signal-intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal-intensity on T2-weighted images involved the whole T5 and T7 vertebrae and the vertebral body of T11. Working diagnoses included metastatic disease and lymphoma, and a biopsy of T7 and then T11 was carried out. Both showed pathological findings very suggestive of Paget's disease. Since CT is usually the more specific radiological examination in vertebral Paget's disease, we thought it could be useful to report this atypical CT presentation (patchy sclerosis of the vertebral body without diffuse bone texture changes and isolated involvement of the vertebral body) of vertebral Paget's disease. PMID:24445956

  15. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  16. [Giant cell tumor of the 4th metacarpal bone of the left hand. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamel, E J; Pinto, J A; Potenza, L; Michelena, A; Perez Signini, F; Fuenmayor, A

    1983-01-01

    He is a 46 year old patient that consults on a tumor that deforms the back of his left hand. The X-ray examination shows a bone osteolytic tumor with complete dis appearance of the 4th metacarpal. Surgical removal of the tumor was practiced with immediate reconstruction of the 4th metacarpal by an oseo-iliac graft. Anatomopathological examination. It is an ovoid tumor 6.5 long and irregular surface.

  17. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  18. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. PMID:27263067

  19. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection.

  20. Lumbar facet syndromes.

    PubMed

    Beresford, Zach M; Kendall, Richard W; Willick, Stuart E

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain is a common presenting complaint to sports medicine providers. The lumbar spine is a complex anatomic structure with multiple potential pain generators. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the intervertebral disc is the most common pain generator in all patients with low back pain. The facet joints may account for 15%-40% of low back pain. It can be challenging at times to establish a firm diagnosis of facet pain. Facet pain can have different presentations, and pain emanating from other lumbopelvic structures can present similarly as facet joint pain. This article reviews the anatomy and biomechanics of the lumbar facet joints, presenting symptoms and physical examination findings seen with facet pain. We also will discuss diagnostic and treatment paradigms that are helpful to the clinician treating low back pain in athletes.

  1. Iopamidol in lumbar myelography.

    PubMed

    Kleefield, J; Chirico-Post, J; Levine, H L; Srinivasan, M K; Harris, J M; Rommel, A J; Robbins, A H

    1983-08-01

    Iopamidol is a new, nonionic, water-soluble contrast material currently undergoing clinical trials for intravascular and intrathecal use in Europe and the United States. In this study, 12 patients underwent lumbar myelography with this agent. For each subject, up to 12 mL of iopamidol (at 200 mg I/mL) was employed. The myelograms obtained were highly satisfactory. No serious adverse reactions were observed. The most common side effect--headache--occurred in seven patients. However, six of the seven headaches were mild and transient, and did not require treatment. Nausea occurred in two patients, back pain in two patients, hypotension and hypertension each in one patient. All of these reactions were mild and self-limited. Iopamidol appears to be a safe and conveniently used agent for lumbar myelography.

  2. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  3. Retrolisthesis as a Compensatory Mechanism in Degenerative Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ikchan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posterior vertebral translation as a type of spondylolisthesis, retrolisthesis is observed commonly in patients with degenerative spinal problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient literature on retrolisthesis compared to anterolisthesis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical features of retrolisthesis, and its developmental mechanism associated with a compensatory role in sagittal imbalance of the lumbar spine. Methods From 2003 to 2012, 230 Korean patients who underwent spinal surgery in our department under the impression of degenerative lumbar spinal disease were enrolled. All participants were divided into four groups : 35 patients with retrolisthesis (group R), 32 patients with simultaneous retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis (group R+A), 76 patients with anterolisthesis (group A), and 87 patients with non-translation (group N). The clinical features and the sagittal parameters related to retrolisthesis were retrospectively analyzed based on the patients' medical records. Results There were different clinical features and developmental mechanisms between retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis. The location of retrolisthesis was affected by the presence of simultaneous anterolisthesis, even though it predominantly manifest in L3. The relative lower pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and lumbar lordosis compared to anterolisthesis were related to the generation of retrolisthesis, with the opposite observations of patients with anterolisthesis. Conclusion Retrolisthesis acts as a compensatory mechanism for moving the gravity axis posteriorly for sagittal imbalance in the lumbar spine under low pelvic incidence and insufficient intra-spinal compensation. PMID:25810857

  4. Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a disorder that causes the slip of one vertebral body over the one below due to degenerative changes in the spine. Lumbar DS is a major cause of spinal canal stenosis and is often related to low back and leg pain. We reviewed the symptoms, prognosis and conservative treatments for symptoms associated with DS. PubMed and MEDLINE databases (1950–2007) were searched for the key words “spondylolisthesis”, “pseudospondylolisthesis”, “degenerative spondylolisthesis”, “spinal stenosis”, “lumbar spine”, “antherolisthesis”, “posterolisthesis”, “low back pain”, and “lumbar instability”. All relevant articles in English were reviewed. Pertinent secondary references were also retrieved. The prognosis of patients with DS is favorable, however, those who suffer from neurological symptoms such as intermittent claudication or vesicorectal disorder, will most probably experience neurological deterioration if they are not operated upon. Nonoperative treatment should be the initial course of action in most cases of DS, with or without neurologic symptoms. Treatment options include use of analgesics and NSAIDs to control pain; epidural steroid injections, and physical methods such as bracing and flexion strengthening exercises. An up-to-date knowledge on diagnosis and prevention of lumbar DS can assist in determination of future research goals. Additional studies are required to establish treatment protocols for the conservative treatment of DS. PMID:18026865

  5. Lumbar spine chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma. PMID:27186250

  6. Electrodiagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Barr, Karen

    2013-02-01

    The evaluation of patients with suspected lumbar radiculopathy is one of the most common reasons patients are referred for electrodiagnostic testing. The utility of this study depends on the expertise of the physician who plans, performs, and completes the study. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of electrodiagnosis to make this diagnosis, as well as the clinical reasoning of appropriate study planning. The current use of electrodiagnostic testing to determine prognosis and treatment outcomes is also discussed.

  7. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  8. Beyond the genomics blueprint: the 4th Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Biennial Meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium was held at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 11-15 June 2012. The Human Variome Project, a nongovernmental organization and an official partner of UNESCO, enables the routine collection, curation, interpretation, and sharing of information on all human genetic variation. This meeting was attended by more than 180 delegates from 39 countries and continued the theme of addressing issues of implementation in this unique project. The meeting was structured around the four main themes of the Human Variome Project strategic plan, "Project Roadmap 2012-2016": setting normative function, behaving ethically, sharing knowledge, and building capacity. During the meeting, the members held extensive discussions to formulate an action plan in the key areas of the Human Variome Project. The actions agreed on were promulgated at the Project's two Advisory Council and Scientific Advisory Committee postconference meetings.

  9. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  10. 4th generation of the 1st level surface detector trigger in the Pierre Auger Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    The proposal of a new 4th generation of the Front-End with the advanced 1st level triggers for the Infill Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory and for the Auger North is described. Newest FPGA chips offer much higher capacity of logic registers and memories, as well as DSP blocks. The calibration channel, previously supported by an external dual-port RAM, has been fully implemented into FPGA chip, through a large internal memory. In turn DSP blocks allowed on implementation of much more sophisticated spectral trigger algorithms. A single chip simplified board design, newer architecture of FPGA reduced resouces utilization and power consumption. Higher sampling in the new Front- End in comparison with previous 40 MHz designs as well as free resources for new detection algotithms can be a good platform for CR radio detection technique at Auger enhancing a duty cycle for the detection of UHECR’s.

  11. The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Lisbon: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Lisbon, 18–21 June 2003, had a record turnout of more than 8600 delegates and the abstract submissions increased to 2600. A heat wave and a somewhat substandard venue hampered some of the activities, notably the poster sessions. The scientific program was comprehensive and of a high class, and it was organized in 10–12 parallel sessions. The European League Against Rheumatism standing committees are expanding their activities and stimulating European cooperation (e.g. by creating databases and guidelines, and by starting research programs). The standing committees presented several areas where European cooperative work is in progress. Advances in drug therapy were a prominent theme and were well presented. Commercialism remains a problem for this meeting as for other similar large meetings, where satellite symposia surround the scientific program of the congress and often duplicate this. PMID:14979931

  12. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  13. [Analysis of the 4th generation outer space bred Angelica dahurica by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-ying; Wu, Peng-le; Liu, Mei-yi; Wang, Zhi-zhou; Guo, Xi-hua; Guan, Ying

    2012-03-01

    The major components of the 4th generation outer space bred angelica and the ground group were determined and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectrum, considering the large mutation of the plants with space mutagenesis. The results show that the content of the coumarin (1741 cm(-1)), which is the main active components of the space angelica dahurica increased, and the content of the protein (1 459, 1 419 cm(-1)) and the fat (930 cm(-1)) increased slightly, whereas the content of the starch and the dietary fiber reduced drastically. There are obvious differences between the peak values of the second derivative spectra of the plants, revealing that the outer space angelica dahurica contained amine component at 1 279 cm(-1). Space mutation breeding is favor of breeding angelica with better idiosyncrasy.

  14. [Vertebral vacuum phenomena].

    PubMed

    Hamzé, B; Leaute, F; Wybier, M; Laredo, J D

    1995-01-01

    The spinal vacuum phenomenon is a collection of gas within the disk space, the vertebral body, the apophyseal joint or the spinal canal. The intradiscal vacuum phenomenon is frequently observed in degenerative disk disease and crystal-induced diskopathy. This has obvious significance to the radiologist, who, on observing a narrowed disk space or collapsed vertebral body, might otherwise consider infectious or neoplastic spondylitis, a likely possibility. The presence of vacuum phenomenon militates against the diagnosis of infection or tumor.

  15. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events.

  16. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; Capps, Shannon; Chaudhuri, Ayan; Chen, Junye; Chen, Linling; Colasacco-Thumm, Nicole; Escobar, Maria Gabriela; Ferguson, Craig R.; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Meng, Jesse; Molod, Andrea; Poli, Paul; Roundy, Joshua; Willett, Kate; Wollen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  17. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  18. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food.

  19. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events. PMID:26390952

  20. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  1. PRIMARY LIPOSARCOMA OF THE LUMBAR SPINE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Cardoso, André Luiz Passos; Tristão, Newton Antônio; Pimenta, Wilson Eloy; Daher, Sérgio; de Souza Carneiro, Siderley; Barbosa, Nathalia Parrode Machado; de Lima Malta, Nayanne; Ribeiro, Noara Barros

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of primary bone liposarcoma of the lumbar spine, for which only one case has been reported. A female patient, 60 years of age, with lumbar pain and left sciatalgy for six months. In the imaging exams, a destructive tumor was found in the L4 vertebral body, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumoral lesion with T1 hiposignal and T2 hypersignal. Histological diagnosis was difficult, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical treatment was performed with wide ressection, spinal cord decompression, and anterior and posterior fusion of L3 to L5 complemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After three years, a computed tomography (CT) scan evidenced an expansive injury in the lung. Despite its rarity, liposarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica and primary tumors of the spine. PMID:27027092

  2. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  3. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4(+) Th cells that enhance CD8(+) CTL-mediated tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8(+) CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4(+) Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4(+) Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4(+) Th1-like cells with CD8(+) CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4(+) Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8(+) CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4(+) Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  4. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology (ISIST'2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiubin, Tan

    2006-10-01

    On behalf of the International Program Committee of ISIST'2006 and the symposium coordinators, I would like to thank all the participants for their presence at the 4th International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology (ISIST'2006), a platform for scientists, researchers and experts from different parts of the world to present their achievements and to exchange their views on ways and means to further develop modern instrumentation science and technology. In the present information age, instrumentation science and technology is playing a more and more important role, not only in the acquisition and conversion of information at the very beginning of the information transformation chain, but also in the transfer, manipulation and utilization of information. It provides an analysis and test means for bioengineering, medical engineering, life science, environmental engineering and micro/nanometer technology, and integrates these disciplines to form new subdivisions of their own. The major subject of the symposium is crossover and fusion between instrumentation science and technology and other sciences and technologies. ISIST'2006 received more than 800 full papers from 12 countries and regions, from which 300 papers were finally selected by the international program committee for inclusion in the proceedings of ISIST'2006, published in 2 volumes. The major topics include instrumentation basic theory and methodology, sensors and conversion technology, signal and image processing, instruments and systems, laser and optical fiber instrumentation, advanced optical instrumentation, optoelectronics instrumentation, MEMS, nanotechnology and instrumentation, biomedical and environmental instrumentation, automatic test and control. The International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology (ISIST) is sponsored by ICMI, NSFC, CSM, and CIS, and organized by ICMI, HIT and IC-CSM, and held every two years. The 1st symposium was held in LuoYang, China in

  5. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  6. Intercostal variant of lumbar hernia in lumbocostovertebral syndrome: our experience with 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Mamta; Manchanda, Vivek; Mohta, Anup; Jain, Vishesh; Das, Swarup

    2011-10-01

    Lumbocostovertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of congenital lumbar hernia. Its features include lumbar hernia associated with genitourinary, vertebral, and rib anomalies. Less than 25 cases have been reported to date. We describe the clinical manifestations and associated anomalies in 6 cases of LCVS managed by us. The patients with suspected LCVS syndrome should be evaluated by detailed clinical history, examination, conventional radiography, magnetic resonance imaging spine, ultrasound abdomen, and echocardiography. The defect can be repaired using local tissues in infancy. There is a need for long-term follow-up for possible late recurrence and scoliosis.

  7. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  8. Mimickers of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Bennett Douglas; Blessinger, Brian Joseph; Darden, Bruce Vaiden; Brigham, Craig D; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Laxer, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons frequently treat patients who report pain that radiates from the back into the lower extremity. Although the most common etiology is either a herniated disk or spinal stenosis, a myriad of pathologies can mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, resulting in differences in the clinical presentation and the workup. Therefore, the clinician must be able to distinguish the signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy from pathologies that may have a similar presentation. Being cognizant of these other possible conditions enables the physician to consider a breadth of alternative diagnoses when a patient presents with radiating lower extremity pain. PMID:25538126

  9. Mimickers of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Bennett Douglas; Blessinger, Brian Joseph; Darden, Bruce Vaiden; Brigham, Craig D; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Laxer, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons frequently treat patients who report pain that radiates from the back into the lower extremity. Although the most common etiology is either a herniated disk or spinal stenosis, a myriad of pathologies can mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, resulting in differences in the clinical presentation and the workup. Therefore, the clinician must be able to distinguish the signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy from pathologies that may have a similar presentation. Being cognizant of these other possible conditions enables the physician to consider a breadth of alternative diagnoses when a patient presents with radiating lower extremity pain.

  10. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  11. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures redux.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Gordon, P; Ward, L

    2008-02-01

    Osteoporosis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. This fact is largely due to fractures of the proximal femur and spine. As recently recognized, vertebral fractures are as much a threat to health and longevity as fractures of the proximal femur. In recent decades, the development of tools to evaluate fracture risk as well as medications to treat osteoporosis has altered the management of people who are at fracture risk. At the same time identification and management procedures concerning spinal fracturing are not very clear. Besides there is not even clear consensus about what exactly constitutes a vertebral fracture, particularly those of minor degree. While height loss is a simple and valuable tool to detect vertebral fractures, it is neither sensitive nor specific enough to replace radiographs. Some 65% of fractures cause no symptoms. Often vertebral fractures are misdiagnosed, especially if they have occurred silently and if the opportunity for diagnosis arises fortuitously. It is to the patient's benefit that radiologists report and physicians identify vertebral fractures evident on a chest or other radiograph, no matter how incidental to the immediate clinical indication for the examination. Technological evolution now allows dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry machines to be used to take spine images while doing a densitometry. The images are adequate, even if not of high radiographic quality, and, more important, the patient undergoes a smaller radiation dose than with conventional spinal radiographs. Such technology may promote fracture recognition. The recognition of vertebral fractures, as well as the prevention and treatment of further fractures, will likely do much to reduce both the burden of osteoporosis-related morbidity and mortality, as well as fracture-related costs to healthcare systems.

  12. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  13. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  14. The 4th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Howard E; Balogh, Lajos P; Bawa, Raj; Bradbury, Michelle; Chang, Esther H; Chiu, Wah; Farokhzad, Omid; Foldvari, Marianna; Lanza, Gregory; Wang, Kuan

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Conference of the American Society for Nanomedicine is being held March 28-30, 2014 at the Universities at Shady Grove, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting's theme is on defining the role of nanomedicines for nervous system diagnostics and disease but balanced by broad and timely topics for nanotechnology. Nanoneuromedicine, as defined by the development of small drug formulations for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, infectious, vascular, addictive, behavioral and metabolic disorders of the nervous system, will provide a focus for each of the scientific sessions. This research is interdisciplinary and it's in its infancy. The hurdles that preclude translation from bench to bedside would include its delivery across the blood brain barrier, limiting nervous system toxicities, and improving drug targeting to diseased brain subregions. These all pose challenges. Multidisciplinary works in neuroscience (neurobiology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neuroinflammation), bioimaging, and polymer chemistry to facilitate outcomes for formulation manufacture will be vigorously discussed. How drugs reach sites of action need include neural cell specific subcellular compartments. The ASNM meeting will showcase nanoneuromedicine research from leading investigators of divergent scientific backgrounds who define this new field. It will also serve as an incubator for developing investigators and broad new field discoveries. Welcome to the conference and enjoy!

  15. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  16. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  17. Multiwavelength Analysis of a Moving Type-IV Radio Burst on 4th March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluchamy, V.; Chen, Y.; Feng, S.; Du, G.; Song, H.; Kong, X.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a multiwavelength analysis of a moving Type-IV radio burst on 4th march 2012. The Type-IV radio burst is observed between 10:39 - 11:00 UT in the frequency range of 300 - 20 MHz. From the radio heliographic observation, the radio source of the type-IV burst is traced and their sky plane speed is estimated as ~ 370 km/s. A plasmoid structure is ejected during the impulsive phase of the flare, at the same time of the type-IV burst and the structure is clearly observed at SDO/AIA 131 Å channel. From this, we find that the radio source moves with the plasmoid. The high brightness temperature profile in the range of 108 - 109 K and the moderate polarization between -50 - 30 % supports the plasma emission mechanism. Further the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis will be carried out and their results will be presented to provide more evidence of the emission mechanism.

  18. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. PMID:26126928

  19. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  20. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  1. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." PMID:26096748

  2. Effectiveness of fenbendazole against later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Baird, J D

    1983-12-01

    Twelve pony foals (reared worm-free) were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. Approximately 8 weeks later, 4 of the foals were given fenbendazole (10% suspension) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight daily for 5 days and 4 foals were given the suspension at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg daily for 3 days; the remaining foals were given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Fenbendazole was 99.6 and 97.9% effective in the 2 treatment groups, respectively, in eliminating later 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae located near the origin of major intestinal arteries. On microscopic examination of the ileocolic artery from fenbendazole-treated foals, a few larval remnants were found beneath the tunica intima in small organized mural thrombi overgrown with endothelium. It would appear that larvae are rapidly destroyed after administration of fenbendazole. A pony foal reared on pasture and with arteriographic evidence of arteritis of the cranial mesenteric and ileocolic arteries was treated with fenbendazole (10% suspension) by stomach tube at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg of body weight daily for 3 days. By arteriographic examination made 4 weeks later, there was evidence of regression of the lesion, and at necropsy done a week later, there was no arteritis or larvae in the lumen of those arteries.

  3. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds."

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk.

  5. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  6. The relationship between the carrying angle and the distal extent of the 2nd and 4th fingertips.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, M; Tattemur, Y; Karacan, K; Erdal, M

    2012-08-01

    The angle towards the lateral side between the arm and forearm when the forearm is in full extension and supination is defined as the carrying angle. It is well known that the 2nd finger is longer in women whereas the 4th finger is longer in men, due to in-utero hormonal effects. In the present study, the relationship between the carrying angle and the distal extent of the 2nd and 4th fingertips is studied. The findings reveal that the carrying angle was greater both in left and right sides in women than in men. In addition, while the distal extent of the 2nd fingertips was longer in women, the 4th fingertip was longer in men. There was a moderately positive correlation between the carrying angle and the distal fingertip lengths. Therefore, it could be suggested that the morphometric factors play role on the distal extent of the fingertips other than the hormonal effects.

  7. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  8. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  9. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  10. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, E. R. H. S. S.; Gunathilka, H. D. P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. C. M.; Kalawana, O. T. M. R. K. S. B.

    2013-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family “Weerasinghe.” A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion. PMID:24049411

  11. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  12. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions."

  14. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  15. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  16. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  17. PREFACE: CYGNUS 2013: 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Tatsuhiro; Miuchi, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    It is a great pleasure to publish the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter held in Toyama, Japan on 10-12 June 2013 (CYGNUS 2013). These proceedings contain written versions of the presentations made at CYGNUS 2013 as scientific outputs of the directional detection of dark matter. The GYGNUS workshop started in 2007 at Boulby Underground Laboratory (UK), followed by CYGNUS 2009 (MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) and CYGNUS 2011 (AUSSOIS, France). CYGNUS 2013 was held by the combination of a two and a half days of scientific program and a half day visit to the underground laboratory (Kamioka Observatory) as a 'tradition' of CYGNUS workshops. The name 'CYGNUS' came from the fact that the 'dark matter wind' is expected to come from the direction of the constellation Cygnus due to the motion of the Solar system in the galaxy. A general aim of these CYGNUS workshops is to bring together the theoretical and experimental studies on the directional dark matter detection. Directional detection of dark matter is a promising approach to a 'clear detection' and also to 'further investigations' of galactic dark matter, or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Directional detection requires the simultaneous detection of the energy and track of low energy recoils. Among many technological challenges for the requirement above, three of them, namely size, background, and directionality (angular resolution and head-tail detection), are most important to demonstrate and improve the quality as a dark matter detector. In the workshop, up-to-date activities by the international reserchers are discussed. The workshop was a great success thanks to the oral contributions and fruitful discussions held throughout the workshop period. We hope that readers will remember and share the great enthusiasm shown during the CYGNUS 2013 workshop. The Editors Tatsuhiro Naka and Kentaro Miuchi

  18. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  19. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  20. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  1. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  2. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  3. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  4. Assessment of Physical Activity Levels of 3rd and 4th Grade Children Using Pedometers during Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John; Nichols, David; Biggerstaff, Kyle; DiMarco, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of physical activity in which children engage during physical education classes and factors that mediate their participation. Third and 4th grade students wore pedometers during each 30-min physical education class for one school year. Steps per class were collected daily during structured and…

  5. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th-10th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…

  6. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St....

  7. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, Michigan. This zone...

  8. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou; Niceville, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July...

  9. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  10. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  11. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  12. 77 FR 39398 - Safety Zone and Special Local Regulation; 2012 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks and Spectator Viewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... enhance safety and improve the visual effect of the fireworks for the 2012 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP...'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 69613). In that rulemaking, the Coast Guard established a...

  13. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  14. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  15. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature. PMID:20689689

  16. Patient positioning and spinal locking for lumbar spine rotation manipulation.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, P; Tehan, P

    2001-08-01

    High velocity low amplitude (HVLA) thrust techniques are widely used by many manual therapists to treat low back pain. There is increasing evidence that spinal manipulation produces positive patient outcomes for acute low back pain. HVLA thrust techniques are associated with an audible release in the form of a pop or cracking sound that is widely accepted to represent cavitation of a spinal zygapophyseal joint. This audible release distinguishes these techniques from other manual therapy interventions. When using long lever HVLA thrust techniques spinal locking is necessary to localize forces and achieve cavitation at a specific vertebral segment. A critical factor in applying lumbar spine manipulation with minimal force is patient positioning and spinal locking. A knowledge of coupled movements of the lumbar spine aids an understanding of the patient positioning required to achieve spinal locking consistent with maximal patient comfort and cooperation. Excessive rotation can result in pain, patient resistance and failed technique. This masterclass presents a model of patient positioning for the lumbar spine that minimizes excessive use of rotation to achieve spinal locking prior to the application of the thrust.

  17. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of cat lumbar paravertebral neurones.

    PubMed

    Percy, W H; Walsh, J; Krier, J

    1988-10-01

    The morphological and electrophysiological properties of neurones in the 3rd, 4th and 5th cat lumbar paravertebral ganglia were studied in vitro utilising intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and intracellular electrophysiological recording techniques. Projections of neurones (T13-L5) were determined by in vivo HRP techniques. Two distinct soma morphologies were noted in all ganglia. Those whose long and short axes were approximately equal in length were designated as being 'spherical' and had a mean cross sectional area of 730 micron2. The remainder, whose long axis was at least 1.5 times the length of their short axis were called 'fusiform' and had a mean soma area of 540 micron2. The two cell types occurred in an approximate 2:1 ratio, respectively. The mean numbers of primary, secondary and tertiary dendrites for the population studied were 6.5, 6.3 and 3.4, respectively. Spherical cells had significantly more of each than fusiform cells as well as having a greater number of branch points and overall length of dendritic arbor. Neither cell type could be distinguished from the other based on the estimated number of fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials, the duration of the afterspike hyperpolarization or the duration of action potential discharge in response to 8-10-s depolarizing current pulses. The estimated number of synaptic potentials associated with both types of neurones (mean 10.6 +/- 1.6) correlated inversely only with the soma diameters (see Materials and Methods). It is concluded that while cat lumbar paravertebral neuronal soma may be classified into two morphologically distinct types, this is not reflected in their electrophysiological profiles. In addition, these data suggest that cat lumbar paravertebral neurones have a dendritic appearance and a degree of convergence of synaptic input previously shown to occur in this system. PMID:3209804

  18. Computed tomography of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures that have been treated with Harrington instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golimbu, C.; Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Engler, G.; Delman, A.

    1984-06-01

    Twenty patients with fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine underwent computed tomography (CT) following Harrington distraction instrumentation and a spinal fusion. CT was done to search for a cause of persistent cord or nerve root compression in those patients who failed to improve and completely recover their partial neurologic deficit (14 cases). The most common abnormality was the presence of residual bone fragments originating in the burst fracture of a vertebral body displaced posteriorly, into the spinal canal. In patients with complications in the late recovery period, CT found exuberant callus indenting the canal or lack of fusion of the bone grafts placed in the anterolateral aspect of the vertebral bodies. This experience indicates that CT is the modality of choice for spinal canal evaluation in those patients who fail to have an optimal clinical course following fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine treated with Harrington rods.

  19. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  20. [Vertebral hydatidosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Santelices, J P; Cuzmar, D; Aldunate, J T; Plaza-Guzmán, N; Lizama-Calvo, P

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis caused by echinococcus granulosus may affect any organ in the body, with the lungs and the liver as the most commonly affected organs. Vertebral compromise resulting from echinococcus granulosus has a low prevalence and accounts for less than 1% of bone compromise. We report the case of a 50 year-old female who presented at the Trauma Service with progressive low back pain with 5 months of duration that irradiated to the right lower limb, and led to neurologic compromise of the limb. Imaging studies showed spondylodiscitis at T12-L1, confirmed by a biopsy. Treatment of this condition is both orthopedic and surgical. The recurrence rate is high, between 30 and 40%. The objective of describing this case is to propose the differential diagnosis of a vertebral mass of unknown origin and provide details as to how to manage this condition. PMID:27012085

  1. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  2. Vertebral hemangioma coincident with metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grażyna; Stasiów, Bartłomiej; Krzan, Aleksandra; Wierzycka, Beata; Kopycka, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on colon cancer metastasis to the L-3 vertebra, which had been previously found to be involved by an asymptomatic hemangioma. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted after onset of lumbar axial pain and weakness of the right quadriceps muscle. Her medical history included colon cancer that had been diagnosed 3 years earlier and was treated via a right hemicolectomy followed by chemotherapy. Presurgical imaging revealed an asymptomatic hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body. Computed tomography and MRI of the spine were performed after admission and revealed a hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body as well as a soft-tissue mass protruding from the L-3 vertebral body to the spinal canal. Treatment consisted of vertebroplasty of the hemangioma, left L-3 hemilaminectomy, and removal of the pathological mass from the spinal canal and the L-3 vertebral body. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of colon cancer metastasis and a hemangioma in the same vertebra.

  3. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  4. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  5. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  6. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  7. MRI study of the position of the conus medullaris in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ba, Zhaoyu; Zhao, Weidong; Wu, Desheng; Huang, Yufeng; Kan, Heng

    2012-06-01

    Substantial data exist from cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging studies regarding the position of the conus medullaris in normally developed adults. However, no large studies have documented the position of the conus medullaris in patients with diagnosed lumbar spinal stenosis. To goal of the current study was to determine the position of the conus medullaris within a living adult population with existing pathology of lumbar spinal stenosis. In a retrospective study, 234 patients (110 women and 124 men; mean age, 48.8 years) with diagnosed lumbar spinal stenosis had their T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging studies compared to assess and confirm the position of the conus medullaris. A straight line perpendicular to the long axis of the spinal cord in the median sagittal sequence was subtended to the adjacent vertebra or disk space, and the position was defined in relation to the vertebra or disk space. The conus medullaris position was labeled in relation to the upper, middle, and lower segments of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent disk space and assigned numerical values from 1 to 12. The position of the conus medullaris in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis followed a normal distribution. The mean conus medullaris position was mainly within the lower third of the L1 vertebral body (ranged from the middle third of T12 to the upper third of L3). No significant differences existed between men and women with lumbar spinal stenosis. The conus medullaris position was found to be unaffected by the pathology of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  8. Computed tomographic epidurography: an aid to understanding deformation of the lumbar dural sac by epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, T; Kano, T; Sano, T; Irie, M

    1999-09-01

    Local anaesthetics injected into the epidural space may deform the dural sac to a variable degree, thereby contributing to variability in the extent of the block. We investigated deformation of the lumbar dural sac after injection into the lumbar epidural space. The subjects were 26 patients with low-back pain who underwent lumbar epidurography and computed tomographic (CT) epidurography, of whom seven also underwent myelography and computed tomographic myelography. The epidural space was entered via the sacral hiatus in 24 patients and through the L5/S1 interspace in two patients. Ten millilitres of local anaesthetic was then injected into the epidural space followed by 20 mL of contrast medium. Computed tomographic epidurography was undertaken approximately 30-min after the epidural injection at the mid-vertebral and mid-discal levels from the first lumbar through to the first sacral vertebrae. The dural sac usually showed an oval or hexagonal shape on the transverse views at the first and second lumbar vertebral levels, and the shape of an inverted triangle below the level of the third lumbar vertebra. A median line of translucency was also observed on the posteroanterior epidurographic view in 25 of the 26 patients. This line was though to be a manifestation of the dural deformation to the inverted triangle. Dural sac deformation usually shows a specific pattern, although there are individual variations. Dural deformability is an important consideration in any analysis of the spread of epidural block or of the changes of epidural pressure after epidural injection of local anaesthetics. PMID:10549463

  9. A new pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin-long

    2015-02-01

    Lumbar disc protrusion is common. Its clinical manifestations and treatments are closely related to the pathological changes; however, the pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion is controversial. This article introduces a new pathological classification comprising four types of lumbar disc protrusion according to intraoperative findings. The damage-herniation type is probably caused by injury and is characterized by soft herniation, the capsule can easily be cut and the broken disc tissue blocks overflow or is easily removed. The broken disc substances should be completely removed; satisfactory results can be achieved by minimally invasive endoscopic surgery. The degeneration-protrusion type is characterized by hard and tough protrusions and the pathological process by degeneration and proliferative reaction. The nerve should be decompressed and relaxed with minimally invasive removal of the posterior wall; the bulged or protruded disc often need not be excised. The posterior vertebral osteochondrosis with disc protrusion type is characterized by deformity of the posterior vertebral body, osteochondral nodules and intervertebral disc protrusion. The herniated and fragmented disc tissue should be removed with partially protruding osteochondral nodules. Intervertebral disc cyst is of uncertain pathogenesis and is characterized by a cyst that communicates with the disc. Resection of the cyst under microscopic or endoscopic control can achieve good results; and whether the affected disc needs to be simultaneously resected is controversial. The new pathological classification proposed here is will aid better understanding of pathological changes and pathogenesis of lumbar disc protrusion and provides a reference for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25708029

  10. Thoracolumbar fascia does not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Pickar, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    The thoracolumbar fascia attaches to the lumbar spinous processes and encloses the paraspinal muscles to form a muscle compartment. Because muscle spindles can respond to transverse forces applied at a muscle’s surface, we were interested in the mechanical effects this fascia may have on proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles during vertebral movement. The discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles at rest and in response to muscle history were investigated in the presence and absence of the thoracolumbar fascia in anesthetized cats. Muscle-history was induced by positioning the L6 vertebra in conditioning directions that lengthened and shortened the paraspinal muscles. The vertebra was then returned to an intermediate position for testing the spindles. Neither resting discharge (P= 0.49) nor the effects of muscle history (P>0.30) was significantly different with the fascia intact vs. removed. Our data showed that the thoracolumbar fascia did not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles spindles during small passive vertebral movements in cats. In addition, comparison of the transverse threshold pressures needed to stimulate our sample of muscle spindles in the cat with the thoracolumbar fascia compartmental pressures measured in humans during previous studies suggests that the thoracolumbar fascia likely does not affect proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in humans. PMID:19627391

  11. Vertebral body recollapse without trauma after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, Andrea; De Giorgi, Giuseppe; Solarino, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, immobilization and external bracing has been recommended for patients with type A traumatic and non-osteoporotic fractures that do not present neurological deficits or significant instability. Nevertheless, several authors have recently suggested the possibility to treat thoraco-lumbar and lumbar vertebral compression post-traumatic fractures using standalone balloon kyphoplasty with osteoconductive filler materials, such as calcium phosphate (CPC). Maestretti and Huang have demonstrated the advantages of this technique showing an almost immediate return to daily activities without the inconvenience of wearing a brace, pain reduction, minimal operative risks and maintenance of stability, therefore proposing this as a first-choice technique in young patient needing rapid spine stability. The authors present a case of vertebral body recollapse after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in a 47-year-old man with an A1.2 post-traumatic L1 compression fracture.

  12. Vertebral sarcoidosis: demonstration of bone involvement by computerized axial tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dinerstein, S.L.; Kovarsky, J.

    1984-08-01

    A report is given of a rare case of vertebral sarcoidosis with negative conventional spinal x-ray films, yet with typical cystic lesions of the spine found incidentally during abdominal computerized axial tomography (CAT). The patient was a 28-year-old black man, who was admitted for evaluation of a 1 1/2-year history of diffuse myalgias, intermittent fever to 102 F orally, bilateral hilar adenopathy, and leukopenia. A technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed diffuse areas of increased uptake over the sternum, entire vertebral column, and pelvis. Conventional x-ray films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and an AP view of the pelvis were all normal. Chest x-ray film revealed only bilateral hilar adenopathy. During the course of an extensive negative evaluation for infection, an abdominal CAT scan was done, showing multiple, small, sclerotic-rimmed cysts at multiple levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Bone marrow biopsy revealed only changes consistent with anemia of chronic disease. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. A tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, and treatment with prednisone, isoniazid and rifampin was begun. Within two weeks of initiation of prednisone therapy, the patient was symptom-free. A repeat technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed only a small residual area of mildly increased uptake over the upper thoracic vertebrae.

  13. The vertebral column of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Madelaine, Stéphane; Maureille, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    The Regourdou 1 partial skeleton was found in 1957 in level IV of the eponymous site located in Montignac-sur-Vézère (Dordogne, France) and until now it has been only partially published. The ongoing revision of the faunal remains from the site has yielded additional fossils that pertain to this skeleton. Here we study the vertebral column of this individual, providing for the first time detailed descriptions for all of the fossils and reassessing the anatomical position of all of the fragments. The vertebral column of Regourdou 1 is one of the most complete in the Neandertal fossil record with at least 20 pre-sacral vertebrae (seven cervicals, nine thoracic and four lumbars), a partial sacrum and a fragmentary first coccygeal vertebra. When compared with modern humans, the vertebrae of Regourdou 1 display significant metric differences, and fit well within the range of Neandertal variability. A preliminary analysis of the most complete thoracic vertebrae of this individual indicates that Neandertals displayed significant differences from modern humans in the thoracic spine, which adds to the differences already observed in the cervical and lumbar regions. Finally, we have also observed mild signs of osteoarthrosis, albeit to a lower degree of that present in other Neandertals such as La Chapelle-aux-Saints, La Ferrassie 1 or Shanidar 3. This is consistent with the younger adult age for Regourdou 1. PMID:23566460

  14. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  15. Percutaneous endoscopic decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy has become a representative minimally invasive spine surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Due to the remarkable evolution in the techniques available, the paradigm of spinal endoscopy is shifting from treatments of soft disc herniation to those of lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis can be classified into three categories according to pathological zone as follows: central stenosis, lateral recess stenosis and foraminal stenosis. Moreover, percutaneous endoscopic decompression (PED) techniques may vary according to the type of lumbar stenosis, including interlaminar PED, transforaminal PED and endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy. However, these techniques are continuously evolving. In the near future, PED for lumbar stenosis may be an efficient alternative to conventional open lumbar decompression surgery.

  16. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  17. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  18. Lumbar spine visualisation based on kinematic analysis from videofluoroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Nixon, M S; Allen, R

    2003-04-01

    Low back pain is a significant problem and its cost is enormous to society. However, diagnosis of the underlying causes remains problematic despite extensive study. Reasons for this arise from the deep-rooted situation of the spine and also from its structural complexity. Clinicians have to mentally convert 2-D image information into a 3-D form to gain a better understanding of structural integrity. Therefore, visualisation and animation may be helpful for understanding, diagnosis and for guiding therapy. Some low back pain originates from mechanical disorders, and study of the spine kinematics may provide an insight into the source of the problem. Digital videofluoroscopy was used in this study to provide 2-D image sequences of the spine in motion, but the images often suffer due to noise, exacerbated by the very low radiation dosage. Thus determining vertebrae position within the image sequence presents a considerable challenge. This paper describes a combination of spine kinematic measurements with a solid model of the human lumbar spine for visualisation of spine motion. Since determination of the spine kinematics provides the foundation and vertebral extraction is at the core, this is discussed in detail. Edge detection is a key feature of segmentation and it is shown that phase congruency performs better than most established methods with the rather low-grade image sequences from fluoroscopy. The Hough transform is then applied to determine the positions of vertebrae in each frame of a motion sequence. In the Hough transform, Fourier descriptors are used to represent the vertebral shapes. The results show that the Hough transform is a very promising technique for vertebral extraction from videofluoroscopic images. A dynamic visualisation package has been developed in order to view the moving lumbar spine from any angle and viewpoint. Wire frame models of the vertebrae were built by using CT images from the Visible Human Project and these models are scaled to

  19. Osteolytic lumbar discal cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Marushima, Aiki; Uemura, Kazuya; Sato, Naoaki; Maruno, Toru; Matsumura, Akira

    2008-08-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with left lumboischialgia refractory to medical treatment. Neurological examination revealed L5 and S1 radiculopathy which rapidly worsened over a short period. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated disk bulging with a discal cyst at the L4-5 intervertebral space and disk herniation at the L5-S1 intervertebral space. Computed tomography showed osteolytic change of the L5 vertebral body adjacent to the cyst. Resection of the cyst and removal of the herniated disk were performed following fenestration of the L4-5 and L5-S1 interlaminar spaces. Bloody serous fluid followed by clear serous fluid was recognized during the aspiration and partial resection of the cyst at the L4-5 level. Histological examination demonstrated a cyst wall consisting of fibrous connective tissue without a single-layer lining of cells, and fibrin deposits. The patient's symptoms disappeared immediately after the operation. This osteolytic lumbar discal cyst possibly occurred subsequent to hemorrhage from the epidural venous plexus following intervertebral disk injury, hematoma encapsulation by connective fibrous tissue, and cyst wall formation in reaction to the disk injury and hemorrhage. The cyst may have enlarged due to the inflow of the serous fluid from the water-containing degenerated disk. PMID:18719328

  20. A review of psychosocial stress and chronic disease for 4th world indigenous peoples and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Yin

    2006-01-01

    Public health literature indicates that psychosocial stress is an important contributor to chronic disease development. However, there is scant research on the health effects of stress for minority groups, who suffer from a high burden of chronic disease. This paper provides a review of studies that examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and chronic disease for 4th world indigenous groups and African Americans. A total of 50 associational and 15 intervention studies fit the inclusion criteria for this review. A range of chronic diseases, as well as harmful health behaviors, were associated with psychosocial stress for indigenous peoples and African Americans, with much stronger findings for mental rather than physical health outcomes. Several stress moderating factors were also identified and a small body of intervention research suggests that transcendental meditation and group-oriented stress management may be effective in reducing psychosocial stress and its effects for African Americans and 4th world indigenous groups respectively.

  1. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el ejercicio es la intervención con mayor grado de evidencia de eficacia para el tratamiento del dolor crónico de la espalda baja, con beneficio superior en términos de dolor y funcionalidad, en comparación con cualquiera otra intervención. Existe una amplia variedad de ejercicios diseñados; sin embargo, actualmente los llamados ejercicios de estabilización lumbar adquiririeron una popularidad creciente entre los clínicos que están en contacto con enfermedades de la columna. Sin embargo, existe controversia en cuanto a la prescripción adecuada de los mismos y los múltiples protocolos publicados. Objetivo: analizar la bibliografía científica acerca del uso y prescripción de estos ejercicios para favorecer la mejor toma de decisiones enlos clínicos y diseñar, con base a la evidencia, el programa más adecuado para cada paciente. Conclusión: se encontró que este programa es una herramienta esencial en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda baja, en la etapa terapéutica y en la preventiva.

  2. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  3. Reliability of a new 4th generation FloTrac algorithm to track cardiac output changes in patients receiving phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fuhai; Li, Jian; Fleming, Neal; Rose, David; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Phenylephrine is often used to treat intra-operative hypotension. Previous studies have shown that the FloTrac cardiac monitor may overestimate cardiac output (CO) changes following phenylephrine administration. A new algorithm (4th generation) has been developed to improve performance in this setting. We performed a prospective observational study to assess the effects of phenylephrine administration on CO values measured by the 3rd and 4th generation FloTrac algorithms. 54 patients were enrolled in this study. We used the Nexfin, a pulse contour method shown to be insensitive to vasopressor administration, as the reference method. Radial arterial pressures were recorded continuously in patients undergoing surgery. Phenylephrine administration times were documented. Arterial pressure recordings were subsequently analyzed offline using three different pulse contour analysis algorithms: FloTrac 3rd generation (G3), FloTrac 4th generation (G4), and Nexfin (nf). One minute of hemodynamic measurements was analyzed immediately before phenylephrine administration and then repeated when the mean arterial pressure peaked. A total of 157 (4.6 ± 3.2 per patient, range 1-15) paired sets of hemodynamic recordings were analyzed. Phenylephrine induced a significant increase in stroke volume (SV) and CO with the FloTrac G3, but not with FloTrac G4 or Nexfin algorithms. Agreement between FloTrac G3 and Nexfin was: 0.23 ± 1.19 l/min and concordance was 51.1%. In contrast, agreement between FloTrac G4 and Nexfin was: 0.19 ± 0.86 l/min and concordance was 87.2%. In conclusion, the pulse contour method of measuring CO, as implemented in FloTrac 4th generation algorithm, has significantly improved its ability to track the changes in CO induced by phenylephrine.

  4. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  5. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  6. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia. PMID:17650728

  7. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia.

  8. Morphometrical analysis of the human suprarenal gland between the 4th and 7th months of gestation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dariusz; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Zurada, Anna; Gielecki, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    The present study's purpose has been to examine the development of the human suprarenal glands (SGs) during the prenatal period. Special attention was paid to sexual dimorphism and the differences between the parameters of the right and left SGs. Specimens were obtained from 187 human fetuses spontaneously aborted between the 4th and 7th months of gestation. The SGs were dissected from the fetuses after an immersion and preservation period of 3-24 months in 9% formalin solution. The mass and linear dimensions of each isolated SG were obtained, and these data revealed a progressive two-fold increase between the 4th and 7th months of gestation. There was a gradual reduction in the ratio of the SG mass to the overall mass of the fetus with a marked decrease evident between the 4th and 5th months. Statistical analysis of both SGs showed significant differences between sexes in the mass and in the thickness of the left SG during the 5th and 6th months of gestation. Differences in the mass and linear dimensions of the left and right SGs were recorded from the 5th month of gestation to the 7th month. The mass and volume of the left SGs were higher than those on the right side. This allometric analysis provides data from a large sample of human fetuses and will later aid in microscopic and ultrasonographic studies.

  9. Relationships between joint motion and facet joint capsule strain during cat and human lumbar spinal motions

    PubMed Central

    Ianuzzi, Allyson; Pickar, Joel G; Khalsa, Partap S

    2011-01-01

    Objective The lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC) is innervated with mechanically sensitive neurons and is thought to contribute to proprioception and pain. Biomechanical investigations of the FJC have commonly used human cadaveric spines, while combined biomechanical and neurophysiological studies have typically used non-human animal models. The purpose of this study was develop mathematical relationships describing vertebral kinematics and facet joint capsule strain in cat and human lumbar spine specimens during physiological spinal motions in order to facilitate future efforts at understanding the mechanosensory role of the FJC. Methods Cat lumbar spine specimens were tested during extension, flexion and lateral bending. Joint kinematics and FJC principal strain were measured optically. FJC strain-intervertebral angle (IVA) regression relationships were established for the three most caudal lumbar joints using cat (current study) and human (prior study) data. FJC strain-IVA relationships were utilized to estimate cat and human spine kinematics that corresponded to published sensory neuron response thresholds for low threshold mechanoreceptors (5% and 10%). Results Significant linear relationships between IVA and strain were observed for both human and cat during motions that produced tension in the FJCs (p<0.01). During motions that produced tension in the FJCs, the models predicted that FJC strain magnitudes corresponding to published sensory neuron response thresholds would be produced by IVA magnitudes within the physiological range of lumbar motion. Conclusions Data from the current study support the proprioceptive role of lumbar spine FJC and low threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, and can be utilized in interpreting combined neurophysiological and biomechanical studies of cat lumbar spines. PMID:21875516

  10. Capturing three-dimensional in vivo lumbar intervertebral joint kinematics using dynamic stereo-X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Aiyangar, Ameet K; Zheng, Liying; Tashman, Scott; Anderst, William J; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Availability of accurate three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of lumbar vertebrae is necessary to understand normal and pathological biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Due to the technical challenges of imaging the lumbar spine motion in vivo, it has been difficult to obtain comprehensive, 3D lumbar kinematics during dynamic functional tasks. The present study demonstrates a recently developed technique to acquire true 3D lumbar vertebral kinematics, in vivo, during a functional load-lifting task. The technique uses a high-speed dynamic stereo-radiography (DSX) system coupled with a volumetric model-based bone tracking procedure. Eight asymptomatic male participants performed weight-lifting tasks, while dynamic X-ray images of their lumbar spines were acquired at 30 fps. A custom-designed radiation attenuator reduced the radiation white-out effect and enhanced the image quality. High resolution CT scans of participants' lumbar spines were obtained to create 3D bone models, which were used to track the X-ray images via a volumetric bone tracking procedure. Continuous 3D intervertebral kinematics from the second lumbar vertebra (L2) to the sacrum (S1) were derived. Results revealed motions occurring simultaneously in all the segments. Differences in contributions to overall lumbar motion from individual segments, particularly L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5, were not statistically significant. However, a reduced contribution from the L5-S1 segment was observed. Segmental extension was nominally linear in the middle range (20%-80%) of motion during the lifting task, but exhibited nonlinear behavior at the beginning and end of the motion. L5-S1 extension exhibited the greatest nonlinearity and variability across participants. Substantial AP translations occurred in all segments (5.0 ± 0.3 mm) and exhibited more scatter and deviation from a nominally linear path compared to segmental extension. Maximum out-of-plane rotations (<1.91 deg) and translations (<0.94 mm) were

  11. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in adult patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, G; Dordoni, C; Doga, M; Galderisi, F; Venturini, M; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Maroldi, R; Giustina, A; Colombi, M

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), but these were limited by a small number of patients and lack of information on fragility fractures. In this crosssectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures (by quantitative morphometry) and bone mineral density (BMD, at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 52 consecutive patientswith EDS (10 males, 42 females; median age 41 years, range: 21–71; 12with EDS classic type, 37 with EDS hypermobility type, 1 with classic vascular-like EDS, and 2 without specific classification) and 197 control subjects (163 females and 34 males; median age 49 years, range: 26–83) attending an outpatient bone clinic. EDS patients were also evaluated for back pain by numeric pain rating scale (NRS- 11).Vertebral fractures were significantly more prevalent in EDS as compared to the control subjects (38.5% vs. 5.1%; p b 0.001) without significant differences in BMD at either skeletal sites. In EDS patients, the prevalence of vertebral fractures was not significantly (p = 0.72) different between classic and hypermobility types. BMD was not significantly different between fractured and non-fractured EDS patients either at lumbar spine (p = 0.14), total hip (p=0.08), or femoral neck (p=0.21). Severe back pain(≥7 NRS)was more frequent in EDS patients with vertebral fractures as compared to thosewithout fractures (60% vs. 28%; p=0.04). Inconclusion, this is the first study showing high prevalence of vertebral fractures in a relatively large population of EDS patients. Vertebral fractures were associated with more severe back pain suggesting a potential involvement of skeletal fragility in determining poor quality of life. The lack of correlation between vertebral fractures and BMD is consistent with the hypothesis that bone quality may be impaired in EDS.

  12. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in adult patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, G; Dordoni, C; Doga, M; Galderisi, F; Venturini, M; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Maroldi, R; Giustina, A; Colombi, M

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), but these were limited by a small number of patients and lack of information on fragility fractures. In this crosssectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures (by quantitative morphometry) and bone mineral density (BMD, at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 52 consecutive patientswith EDS (10 males, 42 females; median age 41 years, range: 21–71; 12with EDS classic type, 37 with EDS hypermobility type, 1 with classic vascular-like EDS, and 2 without specific classification) and 197 control subjects (163 females and 34 males; median age 49 years, range: 26–83) attending an outpatient bone clinic. EDS patients were also evaluated for back pain by numeric pain rating scale (NRS- 11).Vertebral fractures were significantly more prevalent in EDS as compared to the control subjects (38.5% vs. 5.1%; p b 0.001) without significant differences in BMD at either skeletal sites. In EDS patients, the prevalence of vertebral fractures was not significantly (p = 0.72) different between classic and hypermobility types. BMD was not significantly different between fractured and non-fractured EDS patients either at lumbar spine (p = 0.14), total hip (p=0.08), or femoral neck (p=0.21). Severe back pain(≥7 NRS)was more frequent in EDS patients with vertebral fractures as compared to thosewithout fractures (60% vs. 28%; p=0.04). Inconclusion, this is the first study showing high prevalence of vertebral fractures in a relatively large population of EDS patients. Vertebral fractures were associated with more severe back pain suggesting a potential involvement of skeletal fragility in determining poor quality of life. The lack of correlation between vertebral fractures and BMD is consistent with the hypothesis that bone quality may be impaired in EDS. PMID:26708925

  13. Vertebral function during tadpole locomotion.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Most anuran larvae show large lateral oscillations at both the tip of the tail and the snout while swimming in a straight line. Although the lateral deflections at the snout have long been considered an inefficient aspect of tadpole locomotion, a recent hydrodynamic model suggests that they may in fact help generate thrust. It is not clear though exactly where this bending takes place. The vertebral column is extremely short and seemingly inflexible in anurans, and any axial flexion that might occur there is hidden within the globose body of the tadpole. Here we test the hypothesis that lateral deflections of the snout correlate with bending of the vertebral column within the torso of tadpoles. To quantify vertebral curvature, three sonomicrometry crystals were surgically implanted along the dorsal midline in locations corresponding to the anterior, middle, and posterior region of the presacral vertebral column. Swimming trials were conducted in a flume where synchronized video recordings were collected in dorsal view. Our results confirm that cyclic lateral bending occurs along the vertebral column during swimming and indicate that vertebral curvature is temporally in phase with lateral oscillation of the snout. Lateral oscillation of the snout increased significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Similarly, tail beat amplitude also increases significantly with increasing vertebral curvature. Our results suggest that cyclic lateral flexion of the vertebral column, activated by the axial muscle within the torso of tadpoles contributes to snout oscillations and the generation of thrust during undulatory swimming in anuran larvae.

  14. Lumbar reservoir for intrathecal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P

    1985-06-15

    The Ommaya ventricular reservoir has been the standby of intrathecal chemotherapy for more than a decade, in spite of some specific drawbacks. A general anaesthetic is often required. The scalp must be shaven. Ventricular puncture may not always be easy and keeping the ventricular catheter patent is sometimes difficult. Hence the author has adapted a commercially available lumbar peritoneal shunt system to function as a lumbar intrathecal reservoir. The procedure is simple and can be performed expeditiously under local anaesthesia. To date, eight cases have received intrathecal chemotherapy by this means. PMID:3838918

  15. A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card.

    PubMed

    Finneson, B E

    1978-06-01

    A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card or questionnaire has been developed to assess potential candidates for excision of a herniated lumbar disc who have not previously undergone lumbar spine surgery. It is not designed to encompass patients who are being considered for other types of lumbar spine surgery, such as decompressive laminectomy or fusion. In an effort to make the "score card" usable by almost all physicians who are involved in lumbar disc surgery, only studies which have broad acceptance and are generally employed are included. Studies which have less widespread use such as electromyogram, discogram, venogram, special psychologic studies (MMPI, pain drawings) have been purposely excluded.

  16. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 3. The thoracicolumbar region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1990-01-01

    The present study of the thoracicolumbar region continues an investigation of the vertebral column at 8 postovulartory weeks (the end of the embryonic period proper) by means of graphic reconstructions. The cartilaginous vertebrae have short neural processes associated with the normal spina bifida occulta present at this time. The separate cartilaginous centres that several authors believe to exist in the cervical and lumbar costal elements, but which have not been observed by the present authors, have been thought to be the forerunners of extrathoracic ribs. A distinction needs to be made, however, between such centres and ribs. Similarly, in the fetal period, ossific loci in the costal elements of CV 7 are very frequent, whereas cervical ribs in the adult are relatively rare. The neurocentral joints, and hence the boundaries between neural arches and centra, are unclear before ossification has begun and has progressed during the fetal period. The sternal bands are almost completely united and the scapula is high in position. Neural relationships aid in the determination of homologous parts within the vertebral column, but clarification of corresponding parts has not previously been possible within the embryonic period. Areas ventral to the dorsal rami are ribs in the thoracic region and costal elements in other regions. Areas underlying the dorsal rami are transverse processes in the thoracic region and minute 'true' transverse elements in the cervical and lumbar regions. Thus, the descriptive lumbar transverse processes correspond to the true transverse processes and the ribs in the thoracic region. The dorsal rami of the thoracic nerves pass between the transverse processes and the tubercles of the ribs and then divide. The ventral rami of lumbar Nerves 1 and 2 resemble the thoracic in their course, whereas those of Nerves 3-5 are similar to the sacral. The thoracic dorsal roots are sloping and, associated with the greater height of the lumbar centra, the

  17. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14–46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  18. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14-46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  19. Range of Motion of the Intact Lumbar Segment: A Multivariate Study of 42 Lumbar Spines

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel J.; Yeager, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A thorough understanding of the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy human spine is critical in furthering the treatment of spinal pathology. The goal of this study was to investigate the motion of the intact lumbar spine segment as measured by range of motion (ROM), and to investigate the dependencies thereof on gender and intervertebral level. Materials and Methods Kinematic data was obtained for 42 human lumbar segments (L1-S1) in response to a pure-moment loading protocol in flexion extension (FE), lateral bending (LB) and axial torsion (AT). Data was obtained for 204 individual functional spinal units (91 female, 113 male). Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to detect differences between genders and intervertebral levels in each mode of loading. Correlations between ROM and donor demographics, including height, weight, and age, were conducted. Results ROM was significantly greater for females than for males in FE, LB and AT (p<0.001). ROM tended to increase down the vertebral column in FE. L3-4 FE ROM was significantly greater than L1-2 (p=0.024), and L4-5 and L5-S1 FE ROM were significantly greater than for every other level (p<0.003). LB ROM tended to be greater toward the center of the segment with L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 ROM being significantly greater than both L1-2 (p<0.001) and L5-S1 (p=0.006, p<0.001, p=0.043, respectively). A similar trend was found for AT, however only L1-2 was significantly less than all other levels (p=0.042, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.034 for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 respectively). Conclusion The significant differences in lumbar ROM between male and female spine segments and between the intervertebral levels must be taken into account in study design in order to prevent biases in outcomes. The significant differences in ROM between levels may also have critical implications in the design of spinal implants, particularly those designed to maintain or restore healthy motion. PMID:25785241

  20. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  1. Assessment of spontaneous correction of lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Mizusaki, Danilo; Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiographic response of the lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of Lenke type 1. Methods Forty-two patients with Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent operations via the posterior route with pedicle screws were prospectively evaluated. Clinical measurements (size of the hump and translation of the trunk in the coronal plane, by means of a plumb line) and radiographic measurements (Cobb angle, distal level of arthrodesis, translation of the lumbar apical vertebral and Risser) were made. The evaluations were performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and two years after surgery. Results The mean Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve was found to have been corrected by 68.9% and the lumbar curve by 57.1%. Eighty percent of the patients presented improved coronal trunk balance two years after surgery. In four patients, worsening of the plumb line measurements was observed, but there was no need for surgical intervention. Less satisfactory results were observed in patients with lumbar modifier B. Conclusions In Lenke 1 patients, fusion of the thoracic curve alone provided spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve and led to trunk balance. Less satisfactory results were observed in curves with lumbar modifier B, and this may be related to overcorrection of the main thoracic curve. PMID:26962505

  2. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures.

  3. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. PMID:26412139

  4. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  5. Chondroblastoma of the lumbar vertebra.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Shu, S J; Chan, M K; Chan, C H

    2001-12-01

    Chondroblastoma of the vertebra is a very rare condition. To our knowledge fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the world literature. We report a 54-year-old man with chondroblastoma of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The clinical and radiological aspects of the tumor are discussed, emphasizing the presence of an extraosseous mass suggestive of locally aggressive behavior. PMID:11810169

  6. Lumbar discography: an update.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    and then come back to reinject more contrast into the disk in question. As radiologists, we tend to focus on the technical aspects of a procedure and the anatomic/morphologic information it provides. However, it cannot be emphasized enough that when performing lumbar discography, the assessment of the patient's pain response during the injection is the most important component of the procedure, and requires not only technical skills, but an understanding of how best to avoid some of the pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate results. PMID:14976837

  7. Endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Evins, Alexander I; Banu, Matei A; Njoku, Innocent; Elowitz, Eric H; Härtl, Roger; Bernado, Antonio; Hofstetter, Christoph P

    2015-04-01

    Foraminal stenosis frequently causes radiculopathy in lumbar degenerative spondylosis. Endoscopic transforaminal techniques allow for foraminal access with minimal tissue disruption. However, the effectiveness of foraminal decompression by endoscopic techniques has yet to be studied. We evaluate radiographic outcome of endoscopic transforaminal foraminotomies performed at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 on cadaveric specimens. Before and after the procedures, three dimensional CT scans were obtained to measure foraminal height and area. Following the foraminotomies, complete laminectomies and facetectomies were performed to assess for dural tears or nerve root damage. L3-L4 preoperative foraminal height increased by 8.9%, from 2.12±0.13cm to 2.27±0.14cm (p<0.01), and foraminal area increased by 24.8% from 2.21±0.18cm(2) to 2.72±0.19cm(2) (p<0.01). At L4-L5, preoperative foraminal height was 1.87±0.17cm and area was 1.78±0.18cm(2). Endoscopic foraminotomies resulted in a 15.3% increase of foraminal height (2.11±0.15cm, p<0.05) and 44.8% increase in area of (2.51±0.21cm(2), p<0.01). At L5-S1, spondylitic changes caused diminished foraminal height (1.26±0.14cm) and foraminal area (1.17±0.18cm(2)). Postoperatively, foraminal height increased by 41.6% (1.74±0.09cm, p<0.05) and area increased by 98.7% (2.08±0.17cm(2), p<0.01). Subsequent inspection via a standard midline approach revealed one dural tear of an S1 nerve root. Endoscopic foraminotomies allow for effective foraminal decompression, though clinical studies are necessary to further evaluate complications and efficacy.

  8. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  9. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  10. Management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. PMID:26727925

  11. Is sheep lumbar spine a suitable alternative model for human spinal researches? Morphometrical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Sheep are commonly used as a model for human spinal orthopaedic research due to their similarity in morphological and biomechanical features. This study aimed to document the volumes of vertebral bodies and compare the generated results as well as morphometry of the sheep lumbar spine to human published data. For this purpose, computed tomography scans were carried out on five adult Merino sheep under general anaesthesia. Transverse 5 mm thick images were acquired from L1 to L6 using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Volume measurements were performed with dedicated software. Four spinal indices and Pavlov's ratio were calculated. Thereafter, the generated data were compared to published literature on humans. The mean vertebral body volume showed an increase towards the caudal vertebrae, but there were no significant differences between the vertebral levels (P>0.05). Compared to humans, sheep vertebral body volumes were 48.6% smaller. The comparison of absolute values between both species revealed that sheep had smaller, longer and narrower vertebral bodies, thinner intervertebral discs, narrower spinal canal, longer transverse processes, shorter dorsal spinous processes and narrower, higher pedicles with more lateral angulations. The comparison of the spinal indices showed a good similarity to human in terms of the vertebral endplates and spinal canal. The results of this study may be helpful for using the sheep as a model for human orthopaedic spinal research if anatomical differences are taken into account. PMID:24396382

  12. Early MR changes in vertebral bone marrow for patients following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Onu, M; Savu, M; Lungu-Solomonescu, C; Harabagiu, I; Pop, T

    2001-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the vertebral marrow changes in patients following radiotherapy (RT) by measuring the T2 relaxation times before and during RT. We were mostly interested in evaluating early MR marrow changes during RT. Fifteen patients treated by RT for cervical cancer were submitted to MR examination before and during RT (5-23 days of RT). T2 values were calculated for irradiated and non-irradiated tissues (lumbar and sacral vertebral bone marrow, symphysis pubis marrow, and regional muscle). Fourteen patients presented increased T2 values for irradiated vertebral bone marrow (VBM), and 3 patients showed increased T2 values even for non-irradiated VBM. We found T2 variations for VBM as early as in the fifth day of RT for an absorbed dose as small as 9 Gy. Calculated T2 values in irradiated and also in non-irradiated tissues prove very early tissue alterations.

  13. Skin movement errors in measurement of sagittal lumbar and hip angles in young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2008-02-01

    Errors in measurement of sagittal lumbar and hip angles due to skin movement on the pelvis and/or lateral thigh were measured in young (n = 21, age = 18.6 +/- 2.1 years) and older (n = 23, age = 70.9 +/- 6.4 years) age groups. Skin reference markers were attached over specific landmarks of healthy young and elderly subjects, who were videotaped in three static positions of hip flexion using the 2D PEAK Motus video analysis system. Sagittal lumbar and hip angles were calculated from skin reference markers and manually palpated landmarks. The elderly subjects demonstrated greater errors in lumbar angle due to skin movement on the pelvis only in the maximal hip flexion position. The traditional model (ASIS-PSIS-GT-LFE) underestimated sagittal hip angle and the revised model (ASIS-PSIS-2/3Th-1/4Th) provided more accurate measurement of sagittal hip angle throughout the full available range of hip flexion. Skin movement on the pelvis had a small counterbalancing effect on the larger errors from lateral thigh markers (GT-LFE), thereby decreasing hip angle error.

  14. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae. Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  15. Comparative morphometric study of the australopithecine vertebral series Stw-H8/H41.

    PubMed

    Sanders, W J

    1998-03-01

    Lower spinal structure correlates well with positional behavior among mammals. Nonetheless, the functional morphology of the axial post-crania of australopithecines has received less attention than their appendicular skeletons. This paper presents a detailed description and comparative morphometric analysis of the australopithecine thoracolumbar vertebral series Stw-H8/H41, and examines spinal mechanics in early hominids. Stw-H8/H41 is an important specimen, as the australopithecine vertebral sample is small, and vertebral series are more useful than isolated elements for the interpretation of spinal function. Results of the study support the interpretation that australopithecine species are highly sexually dimorphic. The study also reveals a considerable amount of morphometric variation other than size among australopithecine vertebrae, though the sample is too small and incomplete to ascertain whether this indicates significant interspecific differences in spinal function. Most importantly, structural and metric observations confirm that the morphology of the lower spine in australopithecines has no modern analogue in its entirety. Aspects of zygapophyseal structure, numerical composition of the lumbar region, and centrum wedging suggest that the australopithecine vertebral column was adapted to human-like intrinsic lumbar lordosis and stable balance of the trunk over the pelvis in sustained bipedal locomotion. However, relative centrum size in australopithecines indicates that either they had a different mechanism for channeling vertical forces through the vertebral column than humans, or differed behaviorally from humans in ways that produced smaller increments of compression across their centra. These findings have important implications for hypotheses of australopithecine positional behavior, and demonstrate that larger samples and more complete vertebral series are needed to improve our understanding of australopithecine spinal function. PMID:9547457

  16. Comparative morphometric study of the australopithecine vertebral series Stw-H8/H41.

    PubMed

    Sanders, W J

    1998-03-01

    Lower spinal structure correlates well with positional behavior among mammals. Nonetheless, the functional morphology of the axial post-crania of australopithecines has received less attention than their appendicular skeletons. This paper presents a detailed description and comparative morphometric analysis of the australopithecine thoracolumbar vertebral series Stw-H8/H41, and examines spinal mechanics in early hominids. Stw-H8/H41 is an important specimen, as the australopithecine vertebral sample is small, and vertebral series are more useful than isolated elements for the interpretation of spinal function. Results of the study support the interpretation that australopithecine species are highly sexually dimorphic. The study also reveals a considerable amount of morphometric variation other than size among australopithecine vertebrae, though the sample is too small and incomplete to ascertain whether this indicates significant interspecific differences in spinal function. Most importantly, structural and metric observations confirm that the morphology of the lower spine in australopithecines has no modern analogue in its entirety. Aspects of zygapophyseal structure, numerical composition of the lumbar region, and centrum wedging suggest that the australopithecine vertebral column was adapted to human-like intrinsic lumbar lordosis and stable balance of the trunk over the pelvis in sustained bipedal locomotion. However, relative centrum size in australopithecines indicates that either they had a different mechanism for channeling vertical forces through the vertebral column than humans, or differed behaviorally from humans in ways that produced smaller increments of compression across their centra. These findings have important implications for hypotheses of australopithecine positional behavior, and demonstrate that larger samples and more complete vertebral series are needed to improve our understanding of australopithecine spinal function.

  17. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Process of reviewing the scientific evidence and revising the recommendations.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Silvia; Armaroli, Paola; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Wiseman, Martin; Schüz, Joachim; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    The European Code Against Cancer is a set of recommendations to give advice on cancer prevention. Its 4th edition is an update of the 3rd edition, from 2003. Working Groups of independent experts from different fields of cancer prevention were appointed to review the recommendations, supported by a Literature Group to provide scientific and technical support in the assessment of the scientific evidence, through systematic reviews of the literature. Common procedures were developed to guide the experts in identifying, retrieving, assessing, interpreting and summarizing the scientific evidence in order to revise the recommendations. The Code strictly followed the concept of providing advice to European Union citizens based on the current best available science. The advice, if followed, would be expected to reduce cancer risk, referring both to avoiding or reducing exposure to carcinogenic agents or changing behaviour related to cancer risk and to participating in medical interventions able to avert specific cancers or their consequences. The information sources and procedures for the review of the scientific evidence are described here in detail. The 12 recommendations of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer were ultimately approved by a Scientific Committee of leading European cancer and public health experts.

  18. Lumbar epidural varices: An unusual cause of lumbar claudication

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Meenakshisundaram; Yegumuthu, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices can also present with radiculopathy similar to acute intervertebral disc prolapse (IVDP). However as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients are usually normal without significant compressive lesions of the nerve roots, the diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed leading to persistent symptoms. We present a rare case of acute severe unilateral claudication with a normal MRI unresponsive to conservative management who was treated surgically. The nerve root on the symptomatic side was found to be compressed by large anterior epidural varices secondary to an abnormal cranial attachment of ligamentum flavum. Decompression of the root and coagulation of the varices resulted in complete pain relief. To conclude, lumbar epidural varices should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute onset radiculopathy and claudication in the absence of significant MRI findings. PMID:27512228

  19. Evaluation of lumbar vertebra injury risk to the seated human body when exposed to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, H.; Thomas, M.; Doré, S.; Serrus, O.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this research is to numerically determine the levels of vibration not to exceed accordingly to the corresponding dynamic stresses in the lumbar rachis when exposed to whole-body vibrations in order to identify the risk of adverse health effect to which professional heavy equipment drivers are particularly prone. A parametric finite element model of the lumbar rachis is generated in order to compute the modal parameters, the dynamic stresses and forces under harmonic excitations in a seated posture. The stress analysis reveals that the areas exposed to the highest fracture risk are the cancellous bone of the vertebral body as well as the vertebral endplate when vertical vibrations are transmitted from a seat to the lumbar spine of a driver. An injury risk factor has been developed in order to estimate the risk of adverse health effect arising from mechanical vibrations. It is shown that the injury risk factor increases with the age and consequently that the excitation amplitude must be limited to lower levels when age increases.

  20. Effect of treadmill exercise on lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats: anthropometrical and mechanical analyses.

    PubMed

    Simões, P A; Zamarioli, A; Blóes, P; Mazzocato, F C; Pereira, L H A; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of exercise on lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (A, n = 10); non-exercised ovariectomized group (B, n = 7) and exercised ovariectomized group (C, n = 7). The rats from group C were subjected to treadmill exercise (15 m/minute in the initial six weeks and 19 m/minute in the next six weeks, 1 hour/day, 4 days/week) for 12 weeks. At death, the fourth lumbar vertebrae were removed and an anthropometrical analysis by a paquimeter and a mechanical compression test by a universal test machine were performed. After 12 weeks, the ovariectomy decreased the superior-inferior vertebral height and the maximal braking load in group B compared to group A, while the exercise increased the vertebral mass in group C compared to both groups A and B (rho< 0.01) and the stiffness compared to group B. We concluded the physical activity has an important role to prevent the osteopenia in lumbar vertebrae. PMID:19031996

  1. Assessment of Lumbar Lordosis and Lumbar Core Strength in Information Technology Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Roma Satish; Dabadghav, Rachana; Rairikar, Savita; Shayam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Observational study. Purpose To correlate lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in information technology (IT) professionals. Overview of Literature IT professionals have to work for long hours in a sitting position, which can affect lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength. Methods Flexicurve was used to assess the lumbar lordosis, and pressure biofeedback was used to assess the lumbar core strength in the IT professionals. All subjects, both male and female, with and without complaint of low back pain and working for two or more years were included, and subjects with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity were excluded from the study. Analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. Results For the IT workers, no correlation was seen between lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength (r=–0.04); however, a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain (r=–0.12), while there was no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core in IT people who had no complains of pain (r=0.007). Conclusions The study shows that there is no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in IT professionals, but a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain. PMID:27340529

  2. [Spontaneous resolution of a lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, M; Serramito-García, R; Aran-Echabe, E; García-Allut, A

    2007-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of lower leg radiculopathy and the most effective methods of treatment remain in question. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments may provide a successful outcome in appropriately selected patients. The spontaneous resolution of herniated lumbar discs is a well-established phenomenon. The authors present a case of spontaneous regression of a herniated lumbar nucleus pulpous in a patient with radiculopathy. PMID:17497061

  3. Lumbar instability: an evolving and challenging concept

    PubMed Central

    Beazell, James R; Mullins, Melise; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2010-01-01

    Identification and management of chronic lumbar spine instability is a clinical challenge for manual physical therapists. Chronic lumbar instability is presented as a term that can encompass two types of lumbar instability: mechanical (radiographic) and functional (clinical) instability (FLI). The components of mechanical and FLI are presented relative to the development of a physical therapy diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical framework of chronic lumbar spine instability from a physical therapy perspective and to summarize current research relative to clinical diagnosis in physical therapy. PMID:21655418

  4. Thoracic meningocele in lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome in a child: possible enlargement with repeated motion by anchoring to the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Wataya, Takafumi; Horikawa, Kyohei; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tashiro, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by hemivertebrae, congenital absence of ribs, meningocele, and hypoplasia of the truncal and abdominal wall presenting as a congenital lumbar hernia. An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl was referred to the authors' hospital with soft swelling on her left middle back; scoliosis had been present since birth. Imaging revealed a thoracic meningocele, ectopia of the spleen suggesting lumbar hernia, multiple anomalies of the thoracic vertebral columns, and defects of the ribs; thus, LCVS was diagnosed. Surgical observation revealed that the meningocele was firmly anchored to part of the diaphragm, which created stretching tension in the meningocele continuously with exhalation. Once detached, the meningocele shrank spontaneously and never developed again after cauterization. In this case, continuous or pulsatile pressure in the presence of a vertebral defect was thus considered to be an important factor for formation of the thoracic meningocele.

  5. Thoracic meningocele in lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome in a child: possible enlargement with repeated motion by anchoring to the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Wataya, Takafumi; Horikawa, Kyohei; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tashiro, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by hemivertebrae, congenital absence of ribs, meningocele, and hypoplasia of the truncal and abdominal wall presenting as a congenital lumbar hernia. An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl was referred to the authors' hospital with soft swelling on her left middle back; scoliosis had been present since birth. Imaging revealed a thoracic meningocele, ectopia of the spleen suggesting lumbar hernia, multiple anomalies of the thoracic vertebral columns, and defects of the ribs; thus, LCVS was diagnosed. Surgical observation revealed that the meningocele was firmly anchored to part of the diaphragm, which created stretching tension in the meningocele continuously with exhalation. Once detached, the meningocele shrank spontaneously and never developed again after cauterization. In this case, continuous or pulsatile pressure in the presence of a vertebral defect was thus considered to be an important factor for formation of the thoracic meningocele. PMID:27058456

  6. Indication for Partial Vertebral Osteotomy and Realignment in Posterior Spinal Fixation for Osteoporotic Thoracolumbar Vertebral Collapse with Neurological Deficits

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; KAWAOKA, Taigo; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; ADACHI, Hiromasa; SHIMIZU, Kampei

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented spinal fixation is ordinarily required in patients who present with myelopathy or cauda equina syndrome secondary to vertebral collapse following osteoporotic thoracolumbar fracture. Posterior spinal fixation is a major surgical option, and partial vertebral osteotomy (PVO) through a posterior approach is occasionally reasonable for achievement of complete neural decompression and improvement of excessive local kyphosis. However, the indications and need for PVO remain unclear. The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine the efficacy and safety of posterior spinal fixation with or without PVO for osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral collapse and identify patients who require neural decompression and alignment correction by PVO. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 20 patients (13 females, 7 males; mean age, 67.1 years) who underwent instrumented posterior fixation for osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral fracture. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the Japanese Orthopedic Association score and visual analog scale scores in the lumbar and leg areas. PVO was added with posterior spinal fixation in eight patients because neural decompression was incomplete after laminectomy as indicated by intraoperative echo imaging. Neurological and functional recovery significantly improved during follow-up. Clinical outcomes in patients who underwent PVO were similar to those in patients who did not undergo PVO. However, correction of the local kyphotic angle and improvement of spinal canal compromise after surgery was significant in patients who underwent PVO. The patients who required PVO had a less local kyphotic angle in the supine position and higher occupation rate of the fractured fragment in the spinal canal in the preoperative examination. PMID:27021642

  7. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  8. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, Ali; Boulahroud, Omar; Elasri, Abad; Elmostarchid, Brahim; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2010-07-01

    Intraradicular lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease that is generally diagnosed only during surgery. The mechanism for herniated disc penetration into the intradural space is not known with certainty, but adhesion between the radicular dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament was suggested as the most important condition. The authors report the first case of an intraradicular lumbar disc herniation without subdural penetration; the disc hernia was lodged between the two radicular dura layers. The patient, a 34-year-old soldier, was admitted with a 12-month history of low back pain and episodic left sciatica. Neurologic examination showed a positive straight leg raising test on the left side without sensory, motor or sphincter disturbances. Spinal CT scan and MRI exploration revealed a left posterolateral osteophyte formation at the L5-S1 level with an irregular large disc herniation, which migrated superiorly. An intradural extension was suspected. A left L5 hemilaminectomy and S1 foraminotomy were performed. The exploration revealed a large fragment of disc material located between the inner and outer layers of the left S1 radicular dura. The mass was extirpated without cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The postoperative course was uneventful. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation should be suspected when a swollen, hard and immobile nerve root is present intraoperatively.

  9. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression.

  10. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression. PMID:23640588

  11. Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ≈450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

  12. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  13. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

  14. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  15. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  16. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  17. Top 10 Dietary Supplements of Korean Adults from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence, types, and trends of dietary supplement (DS) use. We analyzed the Dietary Supplement Questionnaire data of Korean aged 19 years old or older from the Nutrition Survey of the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. Each reported DS was coded based on ingredients according to the 2010 Korean Food and Drug Administration Notification. The prevalence (standard error) of current DS use was 20.6% (0.7) for men, 32.2% (0.7) for women. Those with DS use for longer than two weeks during previous one year were 27.2% (0.7), and 40.2% (0.8), for men and women respectively. Vitamin mineral supplement (221.6/103 persons) was the most frequently consumed DS in Korean adults. The trend for DS use in Korean adults is changing as well as increasing. PMID:22745863

  18. On the creation of a segmentation library for digitized cervical and lumbar spine radiographs.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, Arunkumar; Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Shahriar, Muneem; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of computer-assisted indexing in one specific case, i.e., for the 17,000 digitized images of the spine acquired during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The crucial step in this process is to accurately segment the cervical and lumbar spine in the radiographic images. To that end, we have implemented a unique segmentation system that consists of a suite of spine-customized automatic and semi-automatic statistical shape segmentation algorithms. Using the aforementioned system, we have developed experiments to optimally generate a library of spine segmentations, which currently include 2000 cervical and 2000 lumbar spines. This work is expected to contribute toward the creation of a biomedical Content-Based Image Retrieval system that will allow retrieval of vertebral shapes by using query by image example or query by shape example.

  19. Immunohistochemical demonstration of lumbar intervertebral disc innervation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Willenegger, S; Friess, A E; Lang, J; Stoffel, M H

    2005-04-01

    Low back pain is a common ailment in dogs, particularly in specific breeds such as the German shepherd dog. A number of structures such as facet joint capsules, ligaments, dorsal root ganglia, periosteum, vertebral endplates and meninges have been associated with this condition. Yet, in spite of all diagnostic efforts, the origin of pain remains obscure in a substantial proportion of all cases. A further structure often being involved in vertebral column disorders is the intervertebral disc. The presence of nerves, however, is a precondition for pain sensation and, consequently, structures lacking innervation can be left out of consideration as a cause for low back pain. Nerve fibres have been demonstrated at the periphery of the intervertebral disc in man, rabbit and rat. With regard to the dog, however, the extent of intervertebral disc innervation is still being disputed. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to substantiate and expand current knowledge of intervertebral disc innervation. Protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 was used for immunohistochemical examination of serial transversal and sagittal paraffin sections of lumbar discs from adult dogs. This general marker revealed nerve fibres to be confined to the periphery of the intervertebral discs. These results indicate that even limited pathological processes affecting the outer layers of the intervertebral disc are prone to cause low back pain.

  20. Repeated adjacent-segment degeneration after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Shinya; Oda, Takenori; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Maeno, Takafumi; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important sequelae affecting long-term results is adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Although several reports have described the incidence rate, there have been no reports of repeated ASD. The purpose of this report was to describe 1 case of repeated ASD after PLIF. A 62-year-old woman with L-4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent PLIF at L4-5. At the second operation, L3-4 PLIF was performed for L-3 degenerative spondylolisthesis 6 years after the primary operation. At the third operation, L2-3 PLIF was performed for L-2 degenerative spondylolisthesis 1.5 years after the primary operation. Vertebral collapse of L-1 was detected 1 year after the third operation, and the collapse had progressed. At the fourth operation, 3 years after the third operation, vertebral column resection of L-1 and replacement of titanium mesh cages with pedicle screw fixation between T-4 and L-5 was performed. Although the patient's symptoms resolved after each operation, the time between surgeries shortened. The sacral slope decreased gradually although each PLIF achieved local lordosis at the fused segment.

  1. Short segment pedicle screw instrumentation and augmentation vertebroplasty in lumbar burst fractures: an experience

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Saleem; Dhar, Shabir A.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and feasibility of vertebroplasty and posterior short-segment pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of traumatic lumbar burst fractures. Short-segment pedicle screw instrumentation is a well described technique to reduce and stabilize thoracic and lumbar spine fractures. It is relatively a easy procedure but can only indirectly reduce a fractured vertebral body, and the means of augmenting the anterior column are limited. Hardware failure and a loss of reduction are recognized complications caused by insufficient anterior column support. Patients with traumatic lumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficits were included. After a short segment posterior reduction and fixation, bilateral transpedicular reduction of the endplate was performed using a balloon, and polymethyl methacrylate cement was injected. Pre-operative and post-operative central and anterior heights were assessed with radiographs and MRI. Sixteen patients underwent this procedure, and a substantial reduction of the endplates could be achieved with the technique. All patients recovered uneventfully, and the neurologic examination revealed no deficits. The post-operative radiographs and magnetic resonance images demonstrated a good fracture reduction and filling of the bone defect without unwarranted bone displacement. The central and anterior height of the vertebral body could be restored to 72 and 82% of the estimated intact height, respectively. Complications were cement leakage in three cases without clinical implications and one superficial wound infection. Posterior short-segment pedicle fixation in conjunction with balloon vertebroplasty seems to be a feasible option in the management of lumbar burst fractures, thereby addressing all the three columns through a single approach. Although cement leakage occurred but had no clinical consequences or neurological deficit. PMID:18193300

  2. Short segment pedicle screw instrumentation and augmentation vertebroplasty in lumbar burst fractures: an experience.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Suhail; Akbar, Saleem; Dhar, Shabir A

    2008-03-01

    To assess the efficacy and feasibility of vertebroplasty and posterior short-segment pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of traumatic lumbar burst fractures. Short-segment pedicle screw instrumentation is a well described technique to reduce and stabilize thoracic and lumbar spine fractures. It is relatively a easy procedure but can only indirectly reduce a fractured vertebral body, and the means of augmenting the anterior column are limited. Hardware failure and a loss of reduction are recognized complications caused by insufficient anterior column support. Patients with traumatic lumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficits were included. After a short segment posterior reduction and fixation, bilateral transpedicular reduction of the endplate was performed using a balloon, and polymethyl methacrylate cement was injected. Pre-operative and post-operative central and anterior heights were assessed with radiographs and MRI. Sixteen patients underwent this procedure, and a substantial reduction of the endplates could be achieved with the technique. All patients recovered uneventfully, and the neurologic examination revealed no deficits. The post-operative radiographs and magnetic resonance images demonstrated a good fracture reduction and filling of the bone defect without unwarranted bone displacement. The central and anterior height of the vertebral body could be restored to 72 and 82% of the estimated intact height, respectively. Complications were cement leakage in three cases without clinical implications and one superficial wound infection. Posterior short-segment pedicle fixation in conjunction with balloon vertebroplasty seems to be a feasible option in the management of lumbar burst fractures, thereby addressing all the three columns through a single approach. Although cement leakage occurred but had no clinical consequences or neurological deficit. PMID:18193300

  3. Vertebral anatomy in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: a developmental and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A; Booth, Amy C; Webbink, Katherine E

    2007-06-01

    The vertebral column of the Florida manatee presents an unusual suite of morphological traits. Key among these are a small precaudal count, elongate thoracic vertebrae, extremely short neural spines, lack of a sacral series, high lumbar variability, and the presence of six instead of seven cervical vertebrae. This study documents vertebral morphology, size, and lumbar variation in 71 skeletons of Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) and uses the skeletons of Trichechus senegalensis (west African manatee) and Dugong dugon (dugong) in comparative analysis. Vertebral traits are used to define morphological, and by inference developmental, column modules and to propose their hierarchical relationships. A sequence of evolutionary innovations in column morphology is proposed. Results suggest that the origin of the fluke and low rates of cervical growth originated before separation of trichechids (manatees) and dugongids (dugongs). Meristic reduction in count is a later, trichechid innovation and is expressed across the entire precaudal column. Elongation of thoracic vertebrae may be an innovative strategy to generate an elongate column in an animal with a small precaudal count. Elimination of the lumbus through both meristic and homeotic reduction is currently in progress.

  4. Vertebral anatomy in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: a developmental and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A; Booth, Amy C; Webbink, Katherine E

    2007-06-01

    The vertebral column of the Florida manatee presents an unusual suite of morphological traits. Key among these are a small precaudal count, elongate thoracic vertebrae, extremely short neural spines, lack of a sacral series, high lumbar variability, and the presence of six instead of seven cervical vertebrae. This study documents vertebral morphology, size, and lumbar variation in 71 skeletons of Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) and uses the skeletons of Trichechus senegalensis (west African manatee) and Dugong dugon (dugong) in comparative analysis. Vertebral traits are used to define morphological, and by inference developmental, column modules and to propose their hierarchical relationships. A sequence of evolutionary innovations in column morphology is proposed. Results suggest that the origin of the fluke and low rates of cervical growth originated before separation of trichechids (manatees) and dugongids (dugongs). Meristic reduction in count is a later, trichechid innovation and is expressed across the entire precaudal column. Elongation of thoracic vertebrae may be an innovative strategy to generate an elongate column in an animal with a small precaudal count. Elimination of the lumbus through both meristic and homeotic reduction is currently in progress. PMID:17516429

  5. Clinical consequences of vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D

    1997-08-18

    People with vertebral fractures have greater pain, disability, and healthcare utilization, on average, than those without fractures. Most studies of acute pain and disability have been limited to patients with clinically diagnosed fractures (a subset of all symptomatic patients), representing about one third of all patients with fractures identified radiographically. Acute symptoms vary widely. Some patients experience intolerable pain that can be completely debilitating for several weeks or months, whereas about half of all patients with radiographically identified fractures report having had no symptoms. The reasons for this variability are unknown. Chronic pain and disability among patients with vertebral fractures are significantly greater on average than among people without fractures, even after adjusting for comorbid conditions that are common among the elderly. Similar to acute symptoms, chronic symptoms vary widely and often persist for at least several years. The risk of pain and disability increases progressively with the number and severity of vertebral deformities: the risk is multiplied several times with each additional fracture. On average, physical function is impaired among people with vertebral fractures, whether or not they currently report back pain. Declines in physical function and changes in appearance contribute to social isolation and loss of self-esteem, impairing quality of life. The cumulative impact of vertebral fractures on quality of life may rival that of hip fractures because hip fractures are less frequent and occur later in life. As many as 40% of symptomatic vertebral fractures are initially misdiagnosed, signaling a need for greater awareness among physicians and patients. Prevention of initial vertebral fractures should be actively encouraged; even if the initial fracture is asymptomatic, it indicates a greatly increased risk of subsequent fractures, pain, and physical impairment. PMID:9302895

  6. [Neonatal occlusion due to a lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Hunald, F A; Ravololoniaina, T; Rajaonarivony, M F V; Rakotovao, M; Andriamanarivo, M L; Rakoto-Ratsimba, H

    2011-10-01

    A Petit lumbar hernia is an uncommon hernia. Congenital forms are seen in children. Incarceration may occur as an unreducible lumbar mass, associated with bilious vomiting and abdominal distention. Abdominal X-ray shows sided-wall bowel gas. In this case, reduction and primary closure must be performed as emergency repair.

  7. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Zhuang; Wu, Cheng'ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Materials and Methods Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. Results The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. Conclusion The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan. PMID:27587947

  8. Functional morphology and three-dimensional kinematics of the thoraco-lumbar region of the spine of the two-toed sloth.

    PubMed

    Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S

    2010-12-15

    Given the importance of thoraco-lumbar spine movements in the locomotion of mammals, it is surprising that in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) data on the intervertebral movement of the mammalian thoraco-lumbar vertebral column during symmetrical gaits is limited to horses and dogs. To test whether kinematic patterns similar to those published for these cursorial species are also present during a contrasting mode of quadrupedalism, we quantified thoraco-lumbar intervertebral movements, the resulting pelvic displacements and relative femoral movements during the trot-like steady-state suspensory quadrupedal locomotion of the two-toed sloth (Xenarthra, Choloepus didactylus). Scientific rotoscoping, a new, non-invasive approach that combines synchronous biplanar high speed X-ray videos and the reconstruction of skeletal elements from computed tomography bone scans, was used to quantify 3-D kinematics. An analysis of vertebral anatomy and epaxial muscle topography suggests that the thoraco-lumbar spine of sloths is well suited to producing lateral bending and long-axis rotation, but limits powerful sagittal extension. Sloths exhibit complex 3-D movements in the thoraco-lumbar spine that are comparable to those observed in other arboreal quadrupedal mammals. Monophasic lateral bending and long-axis rotation, biphasic sagittal bending and maximal amplitude of sagittal bending at the lumbo-sacral joint were also found in other quadruped mammals and may represent general aspects of mammalian symmetric gaits. Maximal amplitude of lateral bending and long-axis rotation vary in regard to the vertebral level. It is suggested that a cranio-caudal pattern of angular deflections of the spine results from the out-of-phase movement of diagonal forelimbs and hindlimbs in other walking gaits, because it is not evident in the trot-like locomotion analyzed here. The analysis also illustrates the difficulties that arise when lumbar movement is deduced from intervertebral joint morphology

  9. Functional morphology and three-dimensional kinematics of the thoraco-lumbar region of the spine of the two-toed sloth.

    PubMed

    Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S

    2010-12-15

    Given the importance of thoraco-lumbar spine movements in the locomotion of mammals, it is surprising that in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) data on the intervertebral movement of the mammalian thoraco-lumbar vertebral column during symmetrical gaits is limited to horses and dogs. To test whether kinematic patterns similar to those published for these cursorial species are also present during a contrasting mode of quadrupedalism, we quantified thoraco-lumbar intervertebral movements, the resulting pelvic displacements and relative femoral movements during the trot-like steady-state suspensory quadrupedal locomotion of the two-toed sloth (Xenarthra, Choloepus didactylus). Scientific rotoscoping, a new, non-invasive approach that combines synchronous biplanar high speed X-ray videos and the reconstruction of skeletal elements from computed tomography bone scans, was used to quantify 3-D kinematics. An analysis of vertebral anatomy and epaxial muscle topography suggests that the thoraco-lumbar spine of sloths is well suited to producing lateral bending and long-axis rotation, but limits powerful sagittal extension. Sloths exhibit complex 3-D movements in the thoraco-lumbar spine that are comparable to those observed in other arboreal quadrupedal mammals. Monophasic lateral bending and long-axis rotation, biphasic sagittal bending and maximal amplitude of sagittal bending at the lumbo-sacral joint were also found in other quadruped mammals and may represent general aspects of mammalian symmetric gaits. Maximal amplitude of lateral bending and long-axis rotation vary in regard to the vertebral level. It is suggested that a cranio-caudal pattern of angular deflections of the spine results from the out-of-phase movement of diagonal forelimbs and hindlimbs in other walking gaits, because it is not evident in the trot-like locomotion analyzed here. The analysis also illustrates the difficulties that arise when lumbar movement is deduced from intervertebral joint morphology

  10. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Bursalı, Adem; Akyoldas, Goktug; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4-5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  11. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  12. [Features of the clinical course of intravertebral disk herniation in degenerative lumbar stenosis].

    PubMed

    Kariev, M Kh; Norov, A U; Ishmukhamedov, S N; Iugaĭ, I A

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a clinical and neurological analysis of 110 patients with discal hernias who were divided into 2 groups: 1) 50 patients with normal sizes of the vertebral column; 2) 51 patients with its stenosis. Compression syndromes were major in all cases. In patients in whom discal hernia was concurrent with lumbar stenosis, the clinical course was characterized by dull or aching pains in the low back and legs, by symptoms of dysbasia neurasthenica intermittens, severe motor and sensory disorders with autonomic impositions. PMID:11764566

  13. Medical treatment of vertebral osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, K

    2003-10-01

    Although osteoporosis is a systemic disease, vertebral fractures due to spinal bone loss are a frequent, sometimes early and often neglected complication of the disease, generally associated with considerable disability and pain. As osteoporotic vertebral fractures are an important predictor of future fracture risk, including at the hip, medical management is targeted at reducing fracture risk. A literature search for randomized, double-blind, prospective, controlled clinical studies addressing medical treatment possibilities of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Caucasian women was performed on the leading medical databases. For each publication, the number of patients with at least one new vertebral fracture and the number of randomized patients by treatment arm was retrieved. The relative risk (RR) and the number needed to treat (NNT, i.e. the number of patients to be treated to avoid one radiological vertebral fracture over the duration of the study), together with the respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for each study. Treatment of steroid-induced osteoporosis and treatment of osteoporosis in men were reviewed separately, based on the low number of publications available. Forty-five publications matched with the search criteria, allowing for analysis of 15 different substances tested regarding their anti-fracture efficacy at the vertebral level. Bisphosphonates, mainly alendronate and risedronate, were reported to have consistently reduced the risk of a vertebral fracture over up to 50 months of treatment in four (alendronate) and two (risedronate) publications. Raloxifene reduced vertebral fracture risk in one study over 36 months, which was confirmed by 48 months' follow-up data. Parathormone (PTH) showed a drastic reduction in vertebral fracture risk in early studies, while calcitonin may also be a treatment option to reduce fracture risk. For other substances published data are conflicting (calcitriol, fluoride) or insufficient

  14. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available.

  15. T1 finite element model of Kümmell’s disease shows changes in the vertebral stress distribution

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yunshan; Ren, Dong; Jiang, Meng; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a finite element model of delayed post-traumatic vertebral osteonecrosis, analyze its effect on the vertebral stress distribution, and provide experimental evidence for osteonecrosis as a risk factor for loss of the vertebral corrective angle. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed on CT data of the lumbar vertebrae from a 29-year-old male without spinal lesions to develop a normal L1-L3 vertebral model and a model with post-traumatic vertebral osteonecrosis at level L2. Vertebral flexion, extension, and lateral bending were simulated using computer software to determine the stress distribution in the cortical and cancellous bone in the two models and the changes in the vertebral stress distribution with the size and location of the cavity. Simulation of a vertebral cavity tended to increase the Von Mises equivalent stress in the vertebral cancellous bone and reduce the equivalent stress in the cortical bone, while the vertebral equivalent stress displayed a reverse distribution. The equivalent stress was increased in both the cancellous and cortical bones with increasing cavity volume, and the equivalent stress in the cortical bone was always smaller than that in the normal vertebrae. Placing the cavity close to the endplate of the vertebrae tended to cause stress concentrations in the cancellous bone around the endplate. The cancellous bone with post-traumatic osteonecrosis tended to experience greater Von Mises equivalent stress than the normal vertebrae. Differences in the cavity volume and location may result in a more severe abnormal stress distribution. PMID:26884916

  16. Overcoming CD4 Th1 Cell Fate Restrictions to Sustain Antiviral CD8 T Cells and Control Persistent Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Snell, Laura M; Osokine, Ivan; Yamada, Douglas H; De la Fuente, Justin Rafael; Elsaesser, Heidi J; Brooks, David G

    2016-09-20

    Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection.

  17. Overcoming CD4 Th1 Cell Fate Restrictions to Sustain Antiviral CD8 T Cells and Control Persistent Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Snell, Laura M; Osokine, Ivan; Yamada, Douglas H; De la Fuente, Justin Rafael; Elsaesser, Heidi J; Brooks, David G

    2016-09-20

    Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection. PMID:27653690

  18. Microarchitecture Influences Microdamage Accumulation in Human Vertebral Trabecular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Arlot, Monique E; Burt-Pichat, Brigitte; Roux, Jean-Paul; Vashishth, Deepak; Bouxsein, Mary L; Delmas, Pierre D

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that accumulation of microdamage with age contributes to skeletal fragility. However, data on the age-related increase in microdamage and the association between microdamage and trabecular microarchitecture in human vertebral cancellous bone are limited. We quantified microdamage in cancellous bone from human lumbar (L2) vertebral bodies obtained from 23 donors 54–93 yr of age (8 men and 15 women). Damage was measured using histologic techniques of sequential labeling with chelating agents and was related to 3D microarchitecture, as assessed by high-resolution μCT. There were no significant differences between sexes, although women tended to have a higher microcrack density (Cr.Dn) than men. Cr.Dn increased exponentially with age (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and was correlated with bone volume fraction (BV/TV; r = −0.55; p < 0.01), trabecular number (Tb.N; r = −0.56 p = 0.008), structure model index (SMI; r = 0.59; p = 0.005), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp; r = 0.59; p < 0.009). All architecture parameters were strongly correlated with each other and with BV/TV. Stepwise regression showed that SMI was the best predictor of microdamage, explaining 35% of the variance in Cr.Dn and 20% of the variance in diffuse damage accumulation. In addition, microcrack length was significantly greater in the highest versus lowest tertiles of SMI. In conclusion, in human vertebral cancellous bone, microdamage increases with age and is associated with low BV/TV and a rod-like trabecular architecture. PMID:18518771

  19. Paraspinal muscle control in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Alison M.; Hodges, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The high risk of sustaining subsequent vertebral fractures after an initial fracture cannot be explained solely by low bone mass. Extra-osseous factors, such as neuromuscular characteristics may help to explain this clinical dilemma. Elderly women with (n = 11) and without (n = 14) osteoporotic vertebral fractures performed rapid shoulder flexion to perturb the trunk while standing on a flat and short base. Neuromuscular postural responses of the paraspinal muscles at T6 and T12, and deep lumbar multifidus at L4 were recorded using intramuscular electromyography (EMG). Both groups demonstrated bursts of EMG that were initiated either before or shortly after the onset of shoulder flexion (P < 0.05). Paraspinal and multifidus onset occurred earlier in the non-fracture group (50–0 ms before deltoid onset) compared to the fracture group (25 ms before and 25 ms after deltoid onset) in the flat base condition. In the short base condition, EMG amplitude increased significantly above baseline earlier in the non-fracture group (75–25 ms before deltoid onset) compared to the fracture group (25–0 ms before deltoid onset) at T6 and T12; yet multifidus EMG increased above baseline earlier in the fracture group (50–25 ms before deltoid) compared to the non-fracture group (25–0 ms before deltoid). Time to reach maximum amplitude was shorter in the fracture group. Hypothetically, the longer time to initiate a postural response and shorter time to reach maximum amplitude in the fracture group may indicate a neuromuscular contribution towards subsequent fracture aetiology. This response could also be an adaptive characteristic of the central nervous system to minimise vertebral loading time. PMID:17203276

  20. Vertebral classification using localized pathology-related shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewail, R.; Elsafi, A.; Durdle, N.

    2008-03-01

    Radiographs of the spine are frequently examined for assessment of vertebral abnormalities. Features like osteophytes (bony growth of vertebra's corners), and disc space narrowing are often used as visual evidence of osteoarthris or degenerative joint disease. These symptoms result in remarkable changes in the shapes of the vertebral body. Statistical analysis of anatomical structure has recently gained increased popularity within the medical imaging community, since they have the potential to enhance the automated diagnosis process. In this paper, we present a novel method for computer-assisted vertebral classification using a localized, pathology-related shape model. The new classification scheme is able to assess the condition of multiple vertebrae simultaneously, hence is possible to directly classify the whole spine anatomy according to the condition of interest (anterior osteophites). At the core of this method is a new localized shape model that uses concepts of sparsity, dimension reduction, and statistical independence to extract sets of localized modes of deformations specific to each of the vertebrae under investigation. By projection of the shapes onto any specific set of deformation modes (or basis), we obtain low-dimensional features that are most directly related to the pathology of the vertebra of interest. These features are then used as input to a support vector machine classifier to classify the vertebra under investigation as normal or upnormal. Experiments are conducted using contours from digital x-ray images of five vertebrae of lumbar spine. The accuracy of the classification scheme is assessed using the ROC curves. An average specifity of 96.8 % is achieved with a sensitivity of 80 %.

  1. A study of personality factors and interaction in 4th-year dental students and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Watts, T L; Millard, L

    1997-02-01

    No previous investigation has considered dental student and teaching staff opinions on their relationship with each other. In a day when students are increasingly asked for feedback on the quality of teaching by staff, such investigations are of particular interest. This exploratory study was designed to compare the personality characteristics of a clinical year of dental students with those of the teaching staff they most frequently encountered, and to investigate these factors for possible associations with the quality of perceived teaching-learning interaction between the 2 groups. A complete 4th year of dental students (n = 87), and those teachers whom they met regularly (n = 80), were asked to participate. Subjects completed a form of the Myers-Briggs personality questionnaire simplified for use in education, and were asked to assess their relationship with persons in the other group. All the students and 75% of the staff, after follow-up, returned usable data. There was close similarity between staff and student personality profiles, and perception of working relationships by both groups was largely independent of personality factors and temperament. There were differences in staff perception of their relationship with extrovert and introvert students. Students showed minor differences in their perception of staff relationships with respect to two other personality factors. These findings indicate a substantial similarity between staff and students, and suggest a mature and stable relationship between people in the 2 groups. PMID:9567907

  2. Development of Partially-Coherent Wavefront Propagation Simulation Methods for 3rd and 4th Generation Synchrotron Radiation Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar O.; Berman, L; Chu, Y.S.; Fluerasu, A.; Hulbert, S.; Idir, M.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Shapiro, D.; Baltser, J.

    2012-04-04

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using 'Synchrotron Radiation Workshop' (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  3. 1:1 Ground-track resonance in a uniformly rotating 4th degree and order gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinglang; Noomen, Ron; Hou, Xiyun; Visser, Pieter; Yuan, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Using a gravitational field truncated at the 4th degree and order, the 1:1 ground-track resonance is studied. To address the main properties of this resonance, a 1-degree of freedom (1-DOF) system is firstly studied. Equilibrium points (EPs), stability and resonance width are obtained. Different from previous studies, the inclusion of non-spherical terms higher than degree and order 2 introduces new phenomena. For a further study about this resonance, a 2-DOF model which includes a main resonance term (the 1-DOF system) and a perturbing resonance term is studied. With the aid of Poincaré sections, the generation of chaos in the phase space is studied in detail by addressing the overlap process of these two resonances with arbitrary combinations of eccentricity (e) and inclination (i). Retrograde orbits, near circular orbits and near polar orbits are found to have better stability against the perturbation of the second resonance. The situations of complete chaos are estimated in the e-i plane. By applying the maximum Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (LCE), chaos is characterized quantitatively and similar conclusions can be achieved. This study is applied to three asteroids 1996 HW1, Vesta and Betulia, but the conclusions are not restricted to them.

  4. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.

  5. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  6. Physical activity participation by parental language use in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Lewis, Kayan; Kelder, Steven H; Fernandez, Maria E; Barroso, Cristina S; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2010-10-01

    Research on physical activity (PA) by level of acculturation in Hispanic children is limited and findings have been mixed. We examined PA participation by primary language used with parents in a representative sample of 4th, 8th, and 11th grade Texas public school students. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted using cross-sectional data from the 2004-2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (n = 22,049). Self-reported PA was compared among three language-ethnic groups: Spanish-Hispanic (SH) (referent); English-Hispanic (EH); and English-Other (EO). EH and/or EO girls were generally between 1.25 and 2.58 [OR] times more likely to participate in PA across grade levels, with the largest differences found for school sports in 8th grade girls. EH and EO 8th grade boys were 1.71 (CI: 1.40, 2.10) and 2.06 (CI: 1.68, 2.51) times, respectively, more likely to participate in school sports. Findings indicate important disparities in Spanish-speaking Hispanic children's PA participation. PMID:19365728

  7. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  8. Determination of the intervertebral disc space from CT images of the lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korez, Robert; Å tern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc are among the most common causes of low back pain, where for individuals with significant symptoms surgery may be needed. One of the interventions is the total disc replacement surgery, where the degenerated disc is replaced by an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study we propose a method for the determination of the intervertebral disc space from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The first step of the proposed method is the construction of a model of vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine. For this purpose, a chain of five elliptical cylinders is initialized in the 3D image and then deformed to resemble vertebral bodies by introducing 25 shape parameters. The parameters are obtained by aligning the chain to the vertebral bodies in the CT image according to image intensity and appearance information. The determination of the intervertebral disc space is finally achieved by finding the planes that fit the endplates of the obtained parametric 3D models, and placing points in the space between the planes of adjacent vertebrae that enable surface reconstruction of the intervertebral disc space. The morphometric analysis of images from 20 subjects yielded 11:3 +/- 2:6, 12:1 +/- 2:4, 12:8 +/- 2:0 and 12:9 +/- 2:7 cm3 in terms of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 intervertebral disc space volume, respectively.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Makirov, Serik K.; Jahaf, Mohammed T.; Nikulina, Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the study This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum. Methods One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively. Results Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the “central angle” and “sacral deviation” parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly. Conclusion Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an

  10. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  11. [Pseudomeningocele following lumbar intervertebral disk surgery].

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulus-Schleep, J; Krähling, K H; König, H J

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomeningoceles have been observed several times after closed traumatic injuries of the cervical plexus resulting in avulsion of the nerve roots. Following lumbar puncture or lumbar disc operation meningoceles are seldom occurring events. The first report of perineural cysts causing sciatic pain was made by Bancroft (1) in 1941. Since that time about 50 cases have been reviewed by the literature (10, 11). In this paper we report another case of an iatrogenic pseudomeningocele developed following surgical treatment for herniated lumbar disc attempting to outline their clinical and radiological findings.

  12. Lumbar hernia: a short historical survey.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Antonino; De Toma, Giorgio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare form of abdominal hernia, which has been recognized later along the early development of the modern surgery. it has been, on many occasions, the object of heavy debate regarding its anatomical background and as well its etiology. The authors reports the historical aspects of this rare pathology, focusing on the earliest descriptions of hernia arising in lumbar regions, on the first reports of surgical repair, and on the anatomical description of the lumbar weakness areas, that are currently named Petit's triangle and Grynfeltt and Lesshaft's triangle.

  13. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Alpoim, Bruno; Rodrigues, Elisa; Félix, António; Silva, Luís; Leal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation. PMID:26229836

  14. Low back pain after a dental procedure: a case of Streptococcus viridans vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Tachamo, Niranjan; Rajagopalan, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus viridans following a dental procedure is a rarely reported phenomenon. We discuss the case of a 67-year-old immunocompetent woman who presented with low back pain of 3 weeks duration associated with subjective fever and chills. On admission, the MRI of the lumbar spine showed L5-S1 vertebral osteomyelitis with associated paravertebral and epidural abscesses. Subsequently, detailed history was retaken and the patient reported having had a maxillary tooth extraction followed by a dental implant 2 months prior to the onset of her symptoms. Blood and abscess fluid cultures grew S. viridans Transthoracic echocardiogram showed no evidence of endocarditis. The patient was started on intravenous ceftriaxone but her treatment course was complicated by agranulocytosis requiring a switch to vancomycin. She required a total of 9 weeks of intravenous antibiotics for complete clinical cure. PMID:27268493

  15. Balloon kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures secondary to polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Deen, H Gordon; Fox, Thomas P

    2005-09-01

    This 25-year-old woman with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (McCune-Albright syndrome) suffered low-back pain after a minor traumatic injury. Neurological examination demonstrated normal status. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic lesions in multiple thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies, consistent with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Severe vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) were seen at T-8 and L-2. Balloon kyphoplasty was performed to treat the T-8 and L-2 VCFs and also prophylactically at T-9 and T-10 to forestall impending fractures at those levels. The patient tolerated the procedures very well and reported complete resolution of back pain. Balloon kyphoplasty may be an option in patients with painful VCFs caused by fibrous dysplasia.

  16. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  17. The implantation of a Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloy ameliorates vertebral body compression fractures: a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Yue-Huang; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Chang-Hui; Lu, Jiong; Cao, Peng; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) shape memory alloy in the treatment of vertebral body compression fractures. Methods: The experimental thoracic-lumbar fracture units were made with adult human fresh-frozen vertebral specimens. A total of 30 fresh-frozen vertebral units were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: control group, percutaneous kyphoplasty group (PKP group), and percutaneous Ni-Ti shape memory alloys implant group (Ni-Ti implant group). Vertebral height and ultimate compression load of the vertebral body before and after procedures were measured to determine the restoration of vertebral heights and compressive strength, respectively. Results: The Ni-Ti implant group achieved a vertebrae endplate reduction effect comparable to the PKP group. The vertebral height of the PKP group was restored from 2.01±0.21 cm to 2.27±0.18 cm after procedure, whereas that of the Ni-Ti implant group was restored from 2.00±0.18 cm to 2.31±0.17 cm. The ultimate loads of the vertebrae body of the PKP and the Ni-Ti implant groups were 2880.75±126.17 N and 2888.00±144.69 N, respectively, both of which were statistically significantly higher than that of the control group (2017.17±163.71 N). There was no significant difference in ultimate compression load of vertebrae body between the Ni-Ti implant and PKP groups. Conclusions: The implantation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys of vertebral body induced effective endplate reduction, restored vertebral height, and provided immediate biomechanical spinal stability. PMID:26629241

  18. An experimental and morphometric test of the relationship between vertebral morphology and joint stiffness in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Molnar, Julia L; Pierce, Stephanie E; Hutchinson, John R

    2014-03-01

    Despite their semi-aquatic mode of life, modern crocodylians use a wide range of terrestrial locomotor behaviours, including asymmetrical gaits otherwise only found in mammals. The key to these diverse abilities may lie in the axial skeleton. Correlations between vertebral morphology and both intervertebral joint stiffness and locomotor behaviour have been found in other animals, but the vertebral mechanics of crocodylians have not yet been experimentally and quantitatively tested. We measured the passive mechanics and morphology of the thoracolumbar vertebral column in Crocodylus niloticus in order to validate a method to infer intervertebral joint stiffness based on morphology. Passive stiffness of eight thoracic and lumbar joints was tested in dorsal extension, ventral flexion and mediolateral flexion using cadaveric specimens. Fifteen measurements that we deemed to be potential correlates of stiffness were taken from each vertebra and statistically tested for correlation with joint stiffness. We found that the vertebral column of C. niloticus is stiffer in dorsoventral flexion than in lateral flexion and, in contrast to that of many mammals, shows an increase in joint stiffness in the lumbar region. Our findings suggest that the role of the axial column in crocodylian locomotion may be functionally different from that in mammals, even during analogous gaits. A moderate proportion of variation in joint stiffness (R(2)=0.279-0.520) was predicted by centrum width and height, neural spine angle and lamina width. These results support the possible utility of some vertebral morphometrics in predicting mechanical properties of the vertebral column in crocodiles, which also should be useful for forming functional hypotheses of axial motion during locomotion in extinct archosaurs.

  19. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  20. Benefits of a 4th Ice Class in the Simulated Radar Reflectivities of Convective Systems Using a Bulk Microphysics Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous cloud microphysical schemes designed for cloud and mesoscale models are currently in use, ranging from simple bulk to multi-moment, multi-class to explicit bin schemes. This study details the benefits of adding a 4th ice class (hail) to an already improved 3-class ice bulk microphysics scheme developed for the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model based on Rutledge and Hobbs (1983,1984). Besides the addition and modification of several hail processes from Lin et al. (1983), further modifications were made to the 3-ice processes, including allowing greater ice super saturation and mitigating spurious evaporationsublimation in the saturation adjustment scheme, allowing graupelhail to become snow via vapor growth and hail to become graupel via riming, and the inclusion of a rain evaporation correction and vapor diffusivity factor. The improved 3-ice snowgraupel size-mapping schemes were adjusted to be more stable at higher mixing rations and to increase the aggregation effect for snow. A snow density mapping was also added. The new scheme was applied to an intense continental squall line and a weaker, loosely-organized continental case using three different hail intercepts. Peak simulated reflectivities agree well with radar for both the intense and weaker case and were better than earlier 3-ice versions when using a moderate and large intercept for hail, respectively. Simulated reflectivity distributions versus height were also improved versus radar in both cases compared to earlier 3-ice versions. The bin-based rain evaporation correction affected the squall line case more but did not change the overall agreement in reflectivity distributions.

  1. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking. PMID:22233305

  2. Breakfast patterns among low-income, ethnically-diverse 4th-6th grade children in an urban area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children’s breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children’s breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. Results On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). Conclusions When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. Clinical trial registration NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:24928474

  3. Preface: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering (Lund, Sweden, 25 29 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adrian R.

    2008-03-01

    Approximately 700 delegates came to the small university city of Lund in southern Sweden at the end of June 2007 to attend the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering. The majority of these participants are primarily interested in specific areas of condensed matter science and use neutron techniques as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamic behaviour of materials. These range from liquids, superconductors, magnetic materials and archaeological artefacts. The diversity of scientific problems is reflected by the attendance of many laboratories with specializations in numerous different disciplines. The maturity of the technique is shown by the fact that neutron scattering is now applied widely in so many areas. Most results from neutron scattering experiements are published as articles that primarily relate to a specific scientific discipline in the context of problem oriented research. The neutron scattering conference provided an opportunity to exchange ideas between different fields. It is hoped that this collection of papers, from participants that submitted articles on applications of neutron scattering, will continue to promote the exchange of ideas for new studies, as was seen at the conference. The papers that describe instrumentation and advances in methods of neutron scattering will appear separately in Measurement Science and Technology Worldwide activity in developing new facilities for neutron scattering and the motivation for substantial projects, such as the new target station at the ISIS facility in the UK or the proposed European Spallation Source, comes from unique information obtained from working with neutrons. The results reported in the following papers show that there is substantial exciting work still to be performed as the community of users expands into new fields. The participants, as well as the organizers, are extremely grateful to the numerous sponsors that helped to make the conference a resounding success. We are

  4. [Occupation and lumbar disk prolapse].

    PubMed

    Jensen, M V; Tüchsen, F

    1995-03-13

    All Danish occupational groups were screened for an increased risk of hospitalization due to a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) (ICD-8: 725.11). A cohort of all gainfully employed Danes aged 20 to 59 years in 1981 was followed-up for 10 years for first hospitalization with PLID. A Standardized Hospitalization Ratio was calculated using all economically active persons as the reference group. Male groups with an elevated risk were found in building and construction, the iron and metal industry, in the food and nutrition sector and in occupational driving. Almost all groups of professional drivers had an elevated risk. Female groups with an elevated risk were mainly found in the same industries, but home helps, service workers in the private sector and sewing machine operators also had an elevated risk. We conclude that there are significant and systematic differences between occupational groups as concerns the risk of hospital admission due to PLID. PMID:7725550

  5. MR imaging of lumbar arachnoiditis.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Masaryk, T J; Modic, M T; Delamater, R; Bohlman, H; Wilbur, G; Kaufman, B

    1987-11-01

    To assess the usefulness of MR in defining the changes of lumbar arachnoiditis, we reviewed retrospectively the MR, plain-film myelographic, and CT myelographic findings in 100 patients referred for evaluation of failed-back-surgery syndrome. In 11 of 12 cases of arachnoiditis demonstrated by plain-film and CT myelography, an abnormal configuration of nerve roots was seen by MR. The correlated MR and CT and plain-film myelographic changes were divided into three anatomic groups: group 1 showed conglomerations of adherent roots residing centrally within the thecal sac, group 2 demonstrated roots adherent peripherally to the meninges giving rise to an "empty-sac" appearance, and group 3 demonstrated a soft-tissue mass replacing the subarachnoid space. There was one false-negative MR study. For the diagnosis of moderate to severe arachnoiditis, we found MR to correlate excellently with CT myelographic and plain-film myelographic findings.

  6. Choice of Lumbar Spine Bone Density Reference Database for Fracture Prediction in Men and Women: A Population-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, William D.; Langsetmo, Lisa; Zhou, Wei; Goltzman, David; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Prior, Jerilynn; Josse, Robert; Olszynski, Wojciech P.; Davison, K. Shawn; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Hanley, David A.; Kaiser, Stephanie M.; Lentle, Brian; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is controversial, although most studies demonstrate similar fracture rates for men and women with the same level of hip bone mineral density (BMD). Whether this applies to the lumbar spine is currently uncertain and has important implications with respect to choice of reference population for T-score calculation and osteoporosis diagnosis. This question was specifically addressed in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study cohort of 4745 women and 1887 men ages 50+ yr at the time of baseline lumbar spine dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. In up to 10 yr of observation, incident clinical major osteoporotic fractures occurred in 110 men (5.8%) vs 543 women (11.4%) (p < 0.001). Mean lumbar spine BMD in men was greater than in women, both among those with and those without incident major osteoporotic fracture (p < 0.001). Men were at slightly lower risk for incident major osteoporotic fracture than women for an equivalent lumbar spine BMD (age- and BMD-adjusted rate ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.93, p = 0.008) with similar findings after adjustment for the World Health Organization fracture risk assessment clinical risk factors or competing mortality. No significant sex difference in the BMD relationship was seen for vertebral fractures (clinical or radiographic) or for all fractures. In summary, this large population-based longitudinal cohort study found similar or lower fracture risk for men vs women after adjustment for absolute lumbar spine BMD and additional covariates. The least complicated model for describing fracture risk is therefore to use the same reference lumbar spine data for generating T-scores in men and women. PMID:24613388

  7. A new case of a LUMBAR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Golabi, Mahin; An, Andrew C; Lopez, Christina; Lee, Lauren; Kwong, Michael; Hall, Bryan D

    2014-01-01

    LUMBAR syndrome (lower body congenital infantile hemangiomas and other skin defects; urogenital anomalies and ulceration; myelopathy; bony deformities; anorectal malformations and arterial anomalies; and rectal anomalies) is a rare association between infantile hemangiomas of the lower half of the body and regional congenital anomalies. Since 1986, 53 cases have been reported and no etiology has been identified. We report on the 54th case in a male infant and review the literature concerning the manifestations of the LUMBAR syndrome.

  8. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

  9. Digitalized Design of Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Computer-Based Simulation and Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingjie; Zeng, Cheng; Guo, Song; Pan, Jie; Han, Yingchao; Li, Zeqing; Li, Lijun; Tan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the feasibility of a novel lumbar approach named extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF), a newly emerging minimally invasive technique for treating degenerative lumbar disorders, using a digitalized simulation and a cadaveric study. Methods The ELIF surgical procedure was simulated using the Mimics surgical simulator and included dissection of the superior articular process, dilation of the vertebral foramen, and placement of pedicle screws and a cage. ELIF anatomical measures were documented using a digitalized technique and subsequently validated on fresh cadavers. Results The use of the Mimics allowed for the vivid simulation of ELIF surgical procedures, while the cadaveric study proved the feasibility of this novel approach. ELIF had a relatively lateral access approach that was located 8–9 cm lateral to the median line with an access depth of approximately 9 cm through the intermuscular space. Dissection of the superior articular processes could fully expose the target intervertebral discs and facilitate a more inclined placement of the pedicle screws and cage with robust enhancement. Conclusions According to the computer-based simulation and cadaveric study, it is feasible to perform ELIF. Further research including biomechanical study is needed to prove ELIF has a superior ability to preserve the posterior tension bands of the spinal column, with similar effects on spinal decompression, fixation, and fusion, and if it can enhance post-fusion spinal stability and expedites postoperative recovery. PMID:25157907

  10. Failure of a Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Implant Used for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4–L5 and L5–S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5–S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability. PMID:24436878

  11. Failure of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer implant used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4-L5 and L5-S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5-S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Fernández, J. A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Ruiz-Muñoz, E.; González-Rebattú, A.; Rodríguez-Cañizo, R. G.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Hernández-Moreno, H.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.

  13. Autism: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children (4th, June 22-24, 1972, Flint Michigan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society for Autistic Children, Syracuse, NY.

    Presented are proceedings of the 4th annual (1972) meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children including 11 papers given at the meeting. Listed are officers and board members of the society, the convention committee members, and recipients of citations and awards. The president's report notes past goals, accomplishments, and future…

  14. Unmet Needs of Low Academic Level Adult (0-4th Grade Level) Students: A Follow-Up Study. A Special Demonstration/Teacher Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portage Township Schools, IN.

    An Indiana 310 Project was conducted to determine the needs of very low level adult basic education students (0-4th grade). Specifically, the study sought to answer the following four questions: (1) What brings low academic level students into ABE programs? (2) What aspects of the ABE programs do low academic level students dislike? (3) Why do low…

  15. Coefficients of Correlation of IQ's on the WAIS-R with Standard Age Scores on the Stanford-Binet, 4th Edition for Previously Identified Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John C.

    This paper presents a study regarding the correlation of the Stanford-Binet: 4th Edition Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ scores for the purpose of improving the identification process for educable mentally handicapped (EMH) school age adolescents and young adults. The sample included…

  16. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  17. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  18. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  19. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  20. Examining Differentiation and Utilization of iPads across Content Areas in an Independent, PreK-4th Grade Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Carlson-Bancroft, Angela; Vanden Boogart, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined the implementation of a 1:1 iPad initiative in a suburban, co-educational, independent, preK-4th grade elementary school in the United States. This article focuses on how teachers used iPads to differentiate instruction and across multiple content areas. Findings show the processes by which teachers employed…

  1. Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference (Lithuania, October 21-22, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 4th international conference "Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development" continues an eight-year old tradition. The conference is organized by Kaunas University of Technology Panevezys Institute and aims to bring scientists and researchers together for a general scientific discussion on new trends in sociolinguistic,…

  2. Incorporating Six Degree-of-Freedom Intervertebral Joint Stiffness in a Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Model—Method and Performance in Flexed Postures

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangjie; Bruno, Alexander G.; Cheng, Bo; Wang, Wenjun; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Anderson, Dennis E.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral translations and rotations are likely dependent on intervertebral stiffness properties. The objective of this study was to incorporate realistic intervertebral stiffnesses in a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine using a novel force-dependent kinematics approach, and examine the effects on vertebral compressive loading and intervertebral motions. Predicted vertebral loading and intervertebral motions were compared to previously reported in vivo measurements. Intervertebral joint reaction forces and motions were strongly affected by flexion stiffness, as well as force–motion coupling of the intervertebral stiffness. Better understanding of intervertebral stiffness and force–motion coupling could improve musculoskeletal modeling, implant design, and surgical planning. PMID:26299207

  3. [Aneurysmal bone cyst of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Report of 4 personal cases and description of an improved radical operation technic].

    PubMed

    Griss, P

    1983-01-01

    This report presents results in 4 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst of the thoracic- and lumbar spine with inclusion of the vertebral body. A new own modified radical method of resection (transthoracic or retroperitoneal) for the total resection of the lesion is described. The defect created after vertebral body resection is filled with a homologous femoral head transplant (prepared from material removed during total hip replacement). For correction of the deformity (kyphosis) and stabilisation of the area of VDS-Implant System of Zielke is used. The results thus obtained are excellent, complications or recurrences of the lesion have not been observed.

  4. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  5. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species.

  6. An update on the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease without disc herniation, also known as discogenic pain, is an elusive diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Lumbar provocation discography and fusion surgery have been frequently utilized for several decades as the gold standards for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic lumbar discogenic pain, though controversial, based on conjecture, rather than evidence. In addition to lumbar fusion, various other operative and nonoperative modalities of treatments are available in managing chronic lumbar discogenic pain. This review provides an updated assessment of the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain with a critical look at the many modalities of treatments that are currently available. PMID:26255722

  7. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord.

  8. Extraneural Glioblastoma Multiforme Vertebral Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Liang, Lydia; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Hdeib, Alia; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas; Bettegowda, Chetan; Laterra, John; Burger, Peter; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor; however, extraneural metastasis is uncommon. Of those that metastasize extraneurally, metastases to the vertebral bodies represent a significant proportion. We present a review of 28 cases from the published literature of GBM metastasis to the vertebra. The mean age at presentation was 38.4 years with an average overall survival of 26 months. Patients were either asymptomatic with metastasis discovered at autopsy or presented with varying degrees of pain, weakness of the extremities, or other neurologic deficits. Of the cases that included the time to spinal metastasis, the average time was 26.4 months with a reported survival of 10 months after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis. A significant number of patients had no treatments for their spinal metastasis, although the intracranial lesions were treated extensively with surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. With increasing incremental gains in the survival of patients with GBM, clinicians will encounter patients with extracranial metastasis. As such, this review presents timely information concerning the presentation and outcomes of patients with vertebral metastasis. PMID:26704201

  9. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  10. Extraneural Glioblastoma Multiforme Vertebral Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Liang, Lydia; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Hdeib, Alia; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Bettegowda, Chetan; Laterra, John; Burger, Peter; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor; however, extraneural metastasis is uncommon. Of those that metastasize extraneurally, metastases to the vertebral bodies represent a significant proportion. We present a review of 28 cases from the published literature of GBM metastasis to the vertebra. The mean age at presentation was 38.4 years with an average overall survival of 26 months. Patients were either asymptomatic with metastasis discovered at autopsy or presented with varying degrees of pain, weakness of the extremities, or other neurologic deficits. Of the cases that included the time to spinal metastasis, the average time was 26.4 months with a reported survival of 10 months after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis. A significant number of patients had no treatments for their spinal metastasis, although the intracranial lesions were treated extensively with surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. With increasing incremental gains in the survival of patients with GBM, clinicians will encounter patients with extracranial metastasis. As such, this review presents timely information concerning the presentation and outcomes of patients with vertebral metastasis. PMID:26704201

  11. [Method of resection and spondylocorporoplasty of lumbar and sacral vertebrates in experiments].

    PubMed

    Kushkhabiev, V I

    1998-01-01

    For a considerable reduction of injuries caused by resection and spondylodesis of the lumbosacral region of the spine, the authors have developed a procedure of conservation of vascular extravertebra and neural nets by employing 10 cadavers. With this the transabdominal approach is used to form an aperture in SI and partially LV corpus vertebralis, by removing all pathological substances of the healthy spongious substance of the bone. The formed cavity is filled by two autografts, bone bits, antibiotics and hemostatic sponge. The two autografts are formed as a cross and their ends are clung to the edge of the entrance aperture of the bone. Stitches are placed to the periosteum and the strata of the abdominal wall.

  12. Inter- and Intra-observer Agreement of the Motion Palpation Test for Lumbar Vertebral Rotational Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Marcelo Anderson; Nunes, Guilherme S; Celestino, Jardel; Schwertner, Debora Soccal; França, Leandro Cardoso; de Noronha, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Objet: Analyser la convergence interobservateurs et intra-observateur dans l'évaluation de l'asymétrie de la rotation des vertèbres (RV) lombaires par palpation du mouvement. Méthodes: Pour cette étude test-retest prospective et descriptive, on a recruté dans la communauté 51 participants asymptomatiques (40 femmes, 11 hommes; âge moyen de 23,3 [ET de 5,6] ans). Les trois mêmes observateurs ont évalué chaque participant au cours de deux séances et déterminé la RV par palpation afin de déterminer l'asymétrie du mouvement. On pratique ce test en appliquant une pression antérieure en alternance sur les apophyses transverses gauche et droite d'une vertèbre afin de déterminer l'asymétrie du mouvement dans le plan transversal et, par conséquent, la position de la vertèbre. Les observateurs ont classé la position de la vertèbre comme neutre, en rotation vers la droite et en rotation vers la gauche. Ils ne savaient pas quel participant était évalué et ne connaissaient pas les résultats antérieurs. Résultats: On a vérifié la convergence interobservateurs et intra-observateur au moyen du coefficient kappa (κ) et du coefficient kappa pondéré (κ p ). Les valeurs de κ et κ p ont varié de 0,07 (IC à 95% de 0,10 à 0,245) à 0,37 (IC à 95% de 0,11 à 0,63) dans le cas de la convergence intra-observateur et de 0,12 (IC à 95% de −0,06 à 0,29) à 0,30 (IC à 95% de 0,08 à 0,52) dans celui de la convergence interobservateurs. Conclusion: La palpation du mouvement utilisée pour évaluer l'asymétrie de la RV produit de faibles niveaux de convergence, et son importance clinique pour la mesure de la position des vertèbres est donc douteuse.

  13. Outcome and Efficacy of Height Gain and Sagittal Alignment after Kyphoplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-One; Jo, Dae-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Objective Although a significant correction of local kyphosis has been reported previously, only a few studies have investigated whether this correction leads to an improved overall sagittal alignment. The study objective was to determine whether an improvement in the local kyphotic angle improves the overall sagittal alignment. We examined and compared the effects of thoracic and lumbar level kyphoplasty procedures on local versus overall sagittal alignment of the spine. Methods Thirty-eight patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who showed poor response to conventional, palliative medical therapy underwent single-level kyphoplasty. The pertinent clinical data of these patients, from June 2006 to November 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. We measured preoperative and postoperative vertebral body heights, which were classified as anterior, middle, or posterior fractured vertebral body heights. Furthermore, the local and overall sagittal angles after polymethylmethacrylate deposition were measured. Results More height was gained at the thoracic level, and the middle vertebral height regained the most. A significant local kyphosis correction was observed at the fractured level, and the correction at larger spanning segments decreased with the distance from the fractured level. Conclusion The inflatable balloon kyphoplasty procedure was the most effective in regaining the height of the thoracic fractured vertebra in the middle vertebral body. The kyphosis correction by kyphoplasty was mainly achieved in the fractured vertebral body. Sagittal angular correction decreased with an increase in the distance from the fractured vertebra. No significant improvement was observed in the overall sagittal alignment after kyphoplasty. Further studies in a larger population are required to clarify this issue. PMID:19096555

  14. Ultrasound measurement of the vertebral level of Tuffier's line in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background It would be imprecise to generalize the vertebral level determined by palpation to patients of all ages. The purpose of this study was to compare the vertebral level passed by Tuffier's line in elderly women with that passed in adult women using ultrasound in the left lateral decubitus flexed position. Methods We enrolled 50 female patients over the age of 65 (elderly group) and 50 female patients between ages 20 and 50 (control group) who had been scheduled to undergo spinal anesthesia. Using ultrasound, we marked the L2–5 lumbar spinous processes and intervertebral spaces. The most cephalad part was labeled 1 and the most caudal part was labeled 11. We then identified which line of these vertebral levels Tuffier's line crossed. Results The median value of the numbers signifying the vertebral level of Tuffier's line was 3 (the L2–3 intervertebral space) in the elderly group, while it was 8 (the lower part of the L4 vertebra) in the control group. The vertebral level of Tuffier's line had statistically significant correlations with age, body mass index, and weight in the elderly group (P < 0.001). Conclusions The vertebral level of Tuffier's line determined with ultrasound measurement in the left lateral decubitus flexed position was more cephalad in the elderly women than in those of the control group. Therefore, we should consider that the needle could be inserted at a higher level than expected, and use care in determining the level of needle insertion during spinal anesthesia in elderly women. PMID:27703628

  15. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in women with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Mancini, Tatiana; Mormando, Marilda; De Menis, Ernesto; Bianchi, Antonio; Doga, Mauro; Porcelli, Teresa; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; De Marinis, Laura; Giustina, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Hyperprolactinemia may cause bone loss but data on fractures are scanty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fractures in women with prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma. In this cross-sectional study, 78 women (median age 45.5 years, range: 20-81) with PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma (66 with microadenoma and 12 with macroadenoma) and 156 control subjects, with normal PRL values and with comparable age to patients with hyperprolactinemia, were evaluated for vertebral fractures by a morphometric approach and for bone mineral density (BMD) by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Vertebral fractures were shown in 25 patients with PRL-secreting adenoma (32.6%) and in 20 controls (12.8%, P < 0.001). Fractured patients were significantly older (P < 0.001) and had lower BMD T-score (P < 0.001), longer duration of disease (P < 0.001), higher serum PRL (P = 0.004) and lower serum IGF-I (P < 0.001) values as compared to patients who did not fracture. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in post-menopausal women with PRL-secreting adenoma as compared to pre-menopausal patients. Fractures occurred more frequently (P = 0.01) in patients with untreated hyperprolactinemia versus patients treated with cabergoline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that duration of disease maintained a significant correlation with vertebral fractures (odds ratio 1.16, C.I. 95% 1.02-1.33) even after correction for age, menopausal status, treatment with cabergoline, BMD, serum IGF-I and serum PRL values. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with high prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in women with PRL-secreting adenoma.

  16. Morphology of the lumbar transversospinal muscles examined in a mouse bearing a muscle fiber-specific nuclear marker.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Deries, Marianne; Duxson, Marilyn

    2010-12-01

    Although the morphology of human lumbar transversospinal (TSP) muscles has been studied, little is known about the structure of these muscles in the mouse (Mus musculus). Such information is relevant given mice are often used as a "normal" phenotype for studies modeling human development. This study describes the gross morphology, muscle fiber arrangement, and innervation pattern of the mouse lumbar TSP muscles. A unique feature of the study is the use of a transgenic mouse line bearing a muscle-specific nuclear marker that allows clear delineation of muscle fiber and connective tissue boundaries. The lumbar TSP muscles of five mice were examined bilaterally; at each spinal level muscles attached to the caudal edge of the spinous process and passed caudally as a single complex unit. Fibers progressively terminated over the four vertebral segments caudad, with multiple points of muscle fiber attachment on each vertebra. Motor endplates, defined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, were consistently located half way along each muscle fiber, regardless of length, with all muscle fibers arranged in-parallel rather than in-series. These results provide information relevant to interpretation of developmental and functional studies involving this muscle group in the mouse and show mouse lumbar TSP muscles are different in form to descriptions of equivalent muscles in humans and horses.

  17. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  18. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  19. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference

    PubMed Central

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19–21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php The Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe. The core participanting institutes included: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)—IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam ‘You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!’ Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that’s how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality. The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19–21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan. The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students

  20. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  1. Altered spinal motion in low back pain associated with lumbar strain and spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joseph S; Carr, Christopher B; Wong, Cyrus; Sharma, Adrija; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Komistek, Richard D

    2013-04-01

    Study Design We present a patient-specific computer model created to translate two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopic motion data into three-dimensional (3D) in vivo biomechanical motion data. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the in vivo biomechanical differences in patients with and without acute low back pain. Current dynamic imaging of the lumbar spine consists of flexion-extension static radiographs, which lack sensitivity to out-of-plane motion and provide incomplete information on the overall spinal motion. Using a novel technique, in-plane and coupled out-of-plane rotational motions are quantified in the lumbar spine. Methods A total of 30 participants-10 healthy asymptomatic subjects, 10 patients with low back pain without spondylosis radiologically, and 10 patients with low back pain with radiological spondylosis-underwent dynamic fluoroscopy with a 3D-to-2D image registration technique to create a 3D, patient-specific bone model to analyze in vivo kinematics using the maximal absolute rotational magnitude and the path of rotation. Results Average overall in-plane rotations (L1-L5) in patients with low back pain were less than those asymptomatic, with the dominant loss of motion during extension. Those with low back pain also had significantly greater out-of-plane rotations, with 5.5 degrees (without spondylosis) and 7.1 degrees (with spondylosis) more out-of-plane rotational motion per level compared with asymptomatic subjects. Conclusions Subjects with low back pain exhibited greater out-of-plane intersegmental motion in their lumbar spine than healthy asymptomatic subjects. Conventional flexion-extension radiographs are inadequate for evaluating motion patterns of lumbar strain, and assessment of 3D in vivo spinal motion may elucidate the association of abnormal vertebral motions and clinically significant low back pain. PMID:24436694

  2. Can initial clinical assessment exclude thoracolumbar vertebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Dinendra Singh; Mitra, Biswadev; Reeves, Fairleigh; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Liew, Susan; Varma, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that all blunt trauma patients, presenting with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 15, without intoxication or neurological deficit, and no pain or tenderness on log-roll can have any thoracolumbar fracture excluded without imaging. Materials and Methods All patients diagnosed with a thoracolumbar fracture presenting to the emergency department of a major trauma centre and having an initial GCS score of 15 were included in the study. Variables collected included type of fracture, mechanism of injury, the presence of pain or tenderness on log-roll, ethanol levels and prehospital opioid analgesia. Results There were 536 patients with thoracolumbar fractures, of which 508 (94.8%) patients had either pain, tenderness or had received prehospital opioid analgesia. A small subgroup of 28 (5.2%) patients who received no prehospital opioid analgesia, did not complain of pain and had no tenderness to the thoracolumbar spine elicited on log-roll. This subgroup was significantly older (p=0.033) and a high proportion of patients (64.3%) had a concurrent fracture of the cervical spine. Within this subgroup, a clinically significant unstable thoracic fracture was present in three patients, with all three patients exhibiting symptoms and signs of neurological injury or having a concurrent cervical vertebral fracture. Conclusions In this population of blunt trauma patients with a GCS score of 15, not under the influence of alcohol or prehospital morphine administration, the absence of pain or tenderness on log-roll can exclude a clinically significant lumbar vertebral fracture, but does not exclude a thoracic fracture. PMID:22915226

  3. Lumbar Spinal Immature Ganglioneuroma with Conus Medullaris Invasion: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Baran; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Ozlem; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioneuroma (GN) is a benign rare tumor that originates from neural crest cells. It shares a common histogenic family with ganglioneuroblastoma and neuroblastoma and represents the most benign and differentiated form of the group. The most common locations of the GNs are the mediastinum and retroperitoneum. We report an extremely rare case of lumbar spinal GN with conus medullaris invasion and extradural paraspinal extension. A 10-year-old girl presented with a history of worsening lower-back pain and an intermittent tingling sensation in the left leg. Neurological examination revealed reduced sensation in the left L2-L5 dermatomes. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intra- and extradural mass extending from the D11 to L5 vertebral body level. There was conus medullaris invasion by the tumor. After L1-L5 laminotomies, the patient underwent tumor resection. Histopathological diagnosis was immature GN. GNs occurring within the spinal column are rare and may grow to a large size. Despite the size and the common involvement of both intra- and extraspinal compartments, the prognosis is usually excellent after complete excision using microsurgical techniques.

  4. Evolution of vertebrate colour vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Rowe, Mickey P

    2004-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in learning how colour vision has evolved. This trend has been fuelled by an enhanced understanding of the nature and extent of colour vision among contemporary species, by a deeper understanding of the paleontological record and by the application of new tools from molecular biology. This review provides an assessment of the progress in understanding the evolution of vertebrate colour vision. In so doing, we offer accounts of the evolution of three classes of mechanism important for colour vision--photopigment opsins, oil droplets and retinal organisation--and then examine details of how colour vision has evolved among mammals and, more specifically, among primates.

  5. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0

  6. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy - early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Junichi; Takeda, Masaaki; Itoh, Yasunobu; Matsuoka, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We report our early clinical experience with percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in the lumbar spine. We introduced PELD to our clinical practice in June 2009. A total of 311 patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were treated in our hospital up to August 2011. Thirty-seven patients with lumbar HNP were treated by PELD. PELD was carried out under local anesthesia, and the endoscope was continuously irrigated with saline. Twenty-eight patients were treated through the transforaminal approach, 5 were treated through the interlaminar approach, and 4 were treated through the extraforaminal approach. Surgery was discontinued due to uncontrollable intraoperative pain or anatomical inaccessibility in one case of the interlaminar approach and 2 cases of the extraforaminal approach. In the other 34 patients, the elapsed time of surgery was 34 to 103 minutes (mean 62.4 minutes). Extracorporeal blood loss was insignificant. Immediate symptom relief was achieved in all patients, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sufficient removal of the HNP. The length of the postoperative hospital stay was 1 or 2 days in all patients. The surgical method of PELD is completely different from percutaneous nucleotomy, and the aim is to directly remove the HNP with minimum damage to the musculoskeletal structure. Although this study is based on our early clinical outcomes, PELD seemed to be a promising minimally invasive surgery for HNP in the lumbar spine. PMID:23006872

  8. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  9. Simultaneous anterior vertebral column resection-distraction and posterior rod contouring for restoration of sagittal balance: report of a technique

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Shaishav; Rai, Am S.

    2016-01-01

    With an increasingly aging population, adult spinal deformity is becoming more common. This can be associated with increased morbidity. Results from multicentre studies of deformity surgery correction confirm complication rates as high as 40 percent. Most often a bad result is associated with inadequate restoration of the sagittal balance. Posterior vertebral body resection has been described as a method to correct significant deformity, but this is a complicated procedure. It is possible to do this in the thoracic spine where nerve roots can be sacrificed, but it is difficult in the lumbar spine due to the significant role of the lumbar nerve roots. We describe a safer technique for correction of deformity using a three stage process. This appears to be a good technique for revision surgery. PMID:27757434

  10. Activations of Deep Lumbar Stabilizing Muscles by Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of Lumbar Paraspinal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung Ok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Cho, Yun Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in lumbar multifidus (LM) and deep lumbar stabilizing abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis [TrA] and obliquus internus [OI]) during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lumbar paraspinal L4-L5 regions using real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Methods Lumbar paraspinal regions of 20 healthy physically active male volunteers were stimulated at 20, 50, and 80 Hz. Ultrasound images of the LM, TrA, OI, and obliquus externus (OE) were captured during stimulation at each frequency. Results The thicknesses of superficial LM and deep LM as measured by RUSI were greater during NMES than at rest for all three frequencies (p<0.05). The thicknesses in TrA, OI, and OE were also significantly greater during NMES of lumbar paraspinal regions than at rest (p<0.05). Conclusion The studied transcutaneous NMES of the lumbar paraspinal region significantly activated deep spinal stabilizing muscle (LM) and the abdominal lumbar stabilizing muscles TrA and OI as evidenced by RUSI. The findings of this study suggested that transcutaneous NMES might be useful for improving spinal stability and strength in patients having difficulty initiating contraction of these muscles. PMID:25229029

  11. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  12. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  13. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  14. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  15. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  16. Endocrine disruption in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Urbatzka, Ralph; Opitz, Robert; Würtz, Sven; Behrends, Thomas; Hermelink, Björn; Hofmann, Frauke; Jagnytsch, Oana; Kroupova, Hana; Lorenz, Claudia; Neumann, Nadja; Pietsch, Constanze; Trubiroha, Achim; Van Ballegooy, Christoph; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka

    2009-04-01

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. The main sink of such substances, called endocrine disrupters (ED), are surface waters. Thus, aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are most endangered. ED can adversely affect reproductive biology and the thyroid system. ED act by (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action, resulting in abnormal sexual differentiation and impaired reproduction. These effects are mainly driven by direct interferences of ED with sex steroid receptors rather than indirectly by impacting synthesis and bioavailability of sex steroids, which in turn might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to the human-produced waste of ED, natural sources, such as parasites and decomposition of leaves, also might act as ED, markedly affecting sexual differentiation and reproduction in fish and amphibians. Although the thyroid system has essential functions in both fish and amphibians, amphibian metamorphosis has been introduced as the most sensitive model to detect thyroidal ED; no suitable fish model exists. Whereas ED may act primarily on only one specific endocrine target, all endocrine systems will eventually be deregulated as they are intimately connected to each other. The recent ecotoxicological issue of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) present in the aquatic environment indicates a high potential for further endocrine modes of action on aquatic vertebrates by ED derived from PhACs, such as glucocorticoids, progestins, and beta-agonists.

  17. Traumatic lumbar hernia: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Torer, Nurkan; Yildirim, Sedat; Tarim, Akin; Colakoglu, Tamer; Moray, Gokhan

    2008-12-01

    Traumatic lumbar hernias are very rare. Here, we present a case of secondary lumbar hernia. A 44-year-old man sustained a crushing injury. On admission, ecchymotic, fluctuating swelling was present on his left flank with normal vital signs. Subcutaneous intestinal segments were revealed at his left flank on abdominal CT. Emergency laparotomy revealed a 10-cm defect on the left postero-lateral abdominal wall. The splenic flexure was herniated through the defect. Herniated segments was reduced, the defect was repaired with a polypropylene mesh graft. There was also a serosal tear and an ischemic area 3mm wide on the splenic flexure and was repaired primarily. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Most traumatic lumbar hernias are caused by blunt trauma. Trauma that causes abdominal wall disruption also may cause intraabdominal organ injury. Abdominal CT is useful in the diagnosis and allows for diagnosis of coexisting organ injury. Emergency laparotomy should be performed to repair possible coexisting injuries.

  18. Lumbar hernia repaired using a new technique.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Sparatore, Francesca; Corsale, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is uncommon and occurs in Grynfeltt's triangle on the left side, more frequently in men than in women. Acquired lumbar hernias are the result of iliac crest bone harvest or blunt trauma and seat belt injuries in road accidents. Many surgical options have been reported for repairing this hernia through primary closure of the defect or through use of aponeurotic or prosthetic materials. The Dowd technique is the technique most often used. The authors describe a patient with posttraumatic inferior triangle lumbar hernia who underwent laparoscopy and, 10 days later, laparotomy. Both procedures failed. Finally, a novel lumbotomic surgical approach was used, involving the Dowd technique and prosthetic mesh. The patient was free of recurrence 3 months after the procedure.

  19. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  20. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  1. Vertebral Compression Fracture Related to Pancreatic Cancer With Osteoblastic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chih, Yu-Pin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chien-Lin; Jou, Herng-Jeng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Liang-Chi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Compression fracture of the vertebral body is common in the older patients. The possible etiology like osteoporosis or cancer metastasis should be included as a possibility in the differential diagnosis for severe back pain, to prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment. More severe fractures can cause significant pain, leading to inability to perform activities of daily living, and life-threatening in the older patient. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man suffering from severe lower back pain and intermittent abdominal fullness. He came to our clinic, where muscle power was normal, but could not stand up or change posture because of severe back pain. Plain film and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine both revealed osteoblastic lesion at L2 spine. Abdomen computed tomography showed a mass at the pancreatic body. The pancreatic cancer with osteoblastic metastasis was diagnosed. After receiving multimodality therapy such as percutaneous vertebroplasty and pain controlling, we provided effective palliation of symptoms, aggressive rehabilitation program, and better quality of life. Our case highlights the benefits of multidisciplinary cancer treatment for such patient, preventing the complications such as immobilization accompanied with adverse effects like musculoskeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. All clinicians should be informed of the clinical findings to provide patients with suitable therapies and surveys. PMID:26844499

  2. Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

  3. Ghrelin Receptors in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3 years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:23882259

  4. Variability in Flexion Extension Radiographs of the Lumbar Spine: A Comparison of Uncontrolled and Controlled Bending

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Boyle; Castellvi, Anthony E.; Davis, Reginald J.; Lee, David C.; Lorio, Morgan P.; Prostko, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background While low back pain is one of the most prevalent, if not the most prevalent reasons for visits to physicians, a majority of patients with low back pain cannot be given a definitive diagnosis. While there have been substantial advances in imaging technologies over the past 30 years, relatively little has changed in the methodologies for evaluating functionality of the lumbar spine. The current standard of care for function assessment of the lumbar spine focuses on uncontrolled patient directed motion which results in increased inter-patient variability. Recent advancements in functional lumbar spine testing utilize controlled bending and computerized imaging evaluation. Purpose To compare the measurement variability of lumbar spine motion when diagnosed using measurements of intervertebral motion taken from standard bending flexion/extension radiographs (FE) between uncontrolled and controlled motion. Study Design One-hundred nine patients (57 asymptomatic, 52 symptomatic) were consented in the prospective investigation. The research was designed to compare studies involving FE to controlled motion bending radiographs using the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA), (Ortho Kinematics, Inc) within the same patient. Each patient agreed to undergo fluoroscopic still imaging to capture FE data and to undergo cine fluoroscopic imaging to capture VMA data. Outcome Measures Measurement variability was determined by the mean and standard deviation of intervertebral rotation when evaluated by 5 independent observers evaluating each of the 109 patients FE and VMA. The resulting standard deviation of the intervertebral rotation determinations was used as the measure of variability. Methods The VMA measurements for assessing intervertebral motion were characterized by the use of: (1) a handling device that assists patients through a standard arc of lumbar bending in both an upright and recumbent posture (70 degree flexion/extension arcs; 60 degree left/right bending arcs

  5. Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

  6. Return to Play After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ralph W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of lumbar spine conditions can produce excellent outcomes in athletes. Microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation has favorable outcomes; most athletes return to play at preoperative performance levels. Direct pars repair is successful in younger athletes, with high rates of return to play for a variety of fixation techniques. Fusion in athletes with scoliosis is a negative predictor. There are few evidence-based return to play criteria. Athletes should demonstrate full resolution of symptoms and flexibility, endurance, and strength before returning to play. Deciding when to return an athlete to sport depends on particular injury sustained, sport, and individual factors. PMID:27543402

  7. Neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuit.

    PubMed

    AuYong, Nicholas; Lu, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord contains the necessary circuitry to independently drive locomotor behaviors. This function is retained following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is amenable to rehabilitation. Although the effectiveness of task-specific training and pharmacologic modulation has been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies, results from human studies are less striking. Recently, lumbar epidural stimulation (EDS) along with locomotor training was shown to restore weight-bearing function and lower-extremity voluntary control in a chronic, motor-complete human SCI subject. Related animal studies incorporating EDS as part of the therapeutic regiment are also encouraging. EDS is emerging as a promising neuromodulatory tool for SCI. PMID:24262896

  8. Microdiscectomy for a Paracentral Lumbar Herniated Disk.

    PubMed

    Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kurd, Mark F; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Savage, Jason W

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar disk herniations occur frequently and are often associated with leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Fortunately, the natural outcomes of radiculopathy due to a disk herniation are generally favorable, and the vast majority of patients improve with nonoperative care. Surgical intervention is reserved for patients who have significant pain that is refractory to at least 6 weeks of conservative care, patients who have a severe or progressive motor deficit, or patients who have any symptoms of bowel or bladder dysfunction. This paper reviews the preoperative and postoperative considerations, as well as the surgical technique, for a microdiscectomy for a lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:26710186

  9. Lumbar spinal extradural angiolipomas. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Seref; Arslan, Erhan; Sahin, Soner; Aksoy, Kaya; Aker, Sibel

    2006-03-01

    Spinal extradural angiolipomas are benign tumors mostly localized in the thoracic region. A 50-year-old woman and a 36-year-old man presented with rare lumbar spinal angiolipoma manifesting as low back pain but without neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lumbar extradural tumors at the L4-5 and L1-2 levels, respectively. Each patient underwent complete surgical resection of the epidural tumors. Histological examination revealed characteristics of angiolipomas in both tumors. The symptoms of both patients improved postoperatively and no recurrence of the tumors was found 1 year after surgery.

  10. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  11. Progression of a lumbar disc extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Michael S; Alitz, Curtis

    2014-11-01

    The patient was a 34-year-old woman who was referred to a physical therapist for a chief complaint of progressively worsening right buttock pain with paresthesias of the right posterior thigh and calf. Prior magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed a large left paracentral disc extrusion at L5-S1. Following physical therapist intervention, the patient reported a new onset of left posterior thigh pain, with paresthesias of the dorsolateral aspect of the left foot. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed an increase in the size of the disc extrusion at L5-S1. PMID:25361862

  12. DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Sérgio; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Rodrigues, Nilson Rodinei; Werlang, Pablo Mariotti; Kisaki, Yorito; Rios, Aldemar Roberto Mieres; Bello, Cesar Dall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update on degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine, which is a common pathological condition among patients over the age of 65 years. The anamnesis and physical examination need to be precise, since radiography often only provides indirect signs. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary if the symptoms persist. The treatment for lumbar stenosis is a matter of controversy. However, there seems to be some benefit from surgical treatment rather than conservative treatment, such that surgery brings improvements in symptoms and functions for a period of up to two years. PMID:27042635

  13. The importance of loading the periphery of the vertebral endplate

    PubMed Central

    Sutterlin, Chester; Dabirrahmani, Danè; Appleyard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Commercial fusion cages typically provide support in the central region of the endplate, failing to utilize the increased compressive strength around the periphery. This study demonstrates the increase in compressive strength that can be achieved if the bony periphery of the endplate is loaded. Methods Sixteen cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (L1–L5) were randomly divided into two even groups. A different commercial mass produced implant (MPI) was allocated to each group: (I) a Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) anterior lumber inter-body fusion (ALIF) MPI; and (II) a titanium ALIF MPI. Uniaxial compression at a displacement rate of 0.5 mm/sec was applied to all vertebrae during two phases: (I) with the allocated MPI situated in the central region of the endplate; (II) with an aluminum plate, designed to load the bony periphery of the endplate. The failure load and mode of failure was recorded. Results From phase 1 to phase 2, the failure load increased from 1.1±0.4 to 2.9±1.4 kN for group 1; and from 1.3±1.0 to 3.0±1.9 kN for group 2. The increase in strength from phase 1 to phase 2 was statistically significant for each group (group 1: P<0.01, group 2: P<0.05, paired t-test). There was no significant difference between the groups in either phase (P>0.05, t-test). The mode of failure in phase 1 was the implant being forced through the endplate for both groups. In phase 2, the mode of failure was either a fracture of the epiphyseal rim or buckling of the side wall of the vertebral body. Conclusions Loading the periphery of the vertebral endplate achieved significant increase in compressive load capacity compared to loading the central region of the endplate. Clinically, this implies that patient-specific implants which load the periphery of the vertebral endplate could decrease the incidence of subsidence and improve surgical outcomes. PMID:27757430

  14. Treadmill training induced lumbar motoneuron dendritic plasticity and behavior recovery in adult rats after a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Nai-Kui; Zhang, Yi Ping; Deng, Lingxiao; Lu, Qing-Bo; Shields, Christopher B; Walker, Melissa J; Li, Jianan; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating, causing sensorimotor impairments and paralysis. Persisting functional limitations on physical activity negatively affect overall health in individuals with SCI. Physical training may improve motor function by affecting cellular and molecular responses of motor pathways in the central nervous system (CNS) after SCI. Although motoneurons form the final common path for motor output from the CNS, little is known concerning the effect of exercise training on spared motoneurons below the level of injury. Here we examined the effect of treadmill training on morphological, trophic, and synaptic changes in the lumbar motoneuron pool and on behavior recovery after a moderate contusive SCI inflicted at the 9th thoracic vertebral level (T9) using an Infinite Horizon (IH, 200 kDyne) impactor. We found that treadmill training significantly improved locomotor function, assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, and reduced foot drops, assessed by grid walking performance, as compared with non-training. Additionally, treadmill training significantly increased the total neurite length per lumbar motoneuron innervating the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the hindlimbs as compared to non-training. Moreover, treadmill training significantly increased the expression of a neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar motoneurons as compared to non-training. Finally, treadmill training significantly increased synaptic density, identified by synaptophysin immunoreactivity, in the lumbar motoneuron pool as compared to non-training. However, the density of serotonergic terminals in the same regions did not show a significant difference between treadmill training and non-training. Thus, our study provides a biological basis for exercise training as an effective medical practice to improve recovery after SCI. Such an effect may be mediated by synaptic plasticity, and neurotrophic modification in the

  15. Treadmill training induced lumbar motoneuron dendritic plasticity and behavior recovery in adult rats after a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Nai-Kui; Zhang, Yi Ping; Deng, Lingxiao; Lu, Qing-Bo; Shields, Christopher B; Walker, Melissa J; Li, Jianan; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating, causing sensorimotor impairments and paralysis. Persisting functional limitations on physical activity negatively affect overall health in individuals with SCI. Physical training may improve motor function by affecting cellular and molecular responses of motor pathways in the central nervous system (CNS) after SCI. Although motoneurons form the final common path for motor output from the CNS, little is known concerning the effect of exercise training on spared motoneurons below the level of injury. Here we examined the effect of treadmill training on morphological, trophic, and synaptic changes in the lumbar motoneuron pool and on behavior recovery after a moderate contusive SCI inflicted at the 9th thoracic vertebral level (T9) using an Infinite Horizon (IH, 200 kDyne) impactor. We found that treadmill training significantly improved locomotor function, assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, and reduced foot drops, assessed by grid walking performance, as compared with non-training. Additionally, treadmill training significantly increased the total neurite length per lumbar motoneuron innervating the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the hindlimbs as compared to non-training. Moreover, treadmill training significantly increased the expression of a neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar motoneurons as compared to non-training. Finally, treadmill training significantly increased synaptic density, identified by synaptophysin immunoreactivity, in the lumbar motoneuron pool as compared to non-training. However, the density of serotonergic terminals in the same regions did not show a significant difference between treadmill training and non-training. Thus, our study provides a biological basis for exercise training as an effective medical practice to improve recovery after SCI. Such an effect may be mediated by synaptic plasticity, and neurotrophic modification in the

  16. [Relationship between lumbosacral multifidus muscle and lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-ye; Wang, Kuan; Yuan, Wei-an; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2016-06-01

    As a common disease in clinical, the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) focused on local intervertebral disc, such as surgery and other interventional therapy treatment, but postoperative complications and recurrence rate has been a difficult problem in the field of profession. With the development of spine biomechanics and anatomy, researches on lumbar herniation also increased. Researchers discovered that the incidence and prognosis of LDH were inseparable with local muscle and soft tissue. As the deep paraspinal muscles, multifidus muscle plays an important role to make lumbar stability. Its abnormal function could reduce the stable of lumbar spine, and the chronic lumbar disease could also lead to multifidus muscle atrophy. PMID:27534095

  17. [Relationship between lumbosacral multifidus muscle and lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-ye; Wang, Kuan; Yuan, Wei-an; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2016-06-01

    As a common disease in clinical, the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) focused on local intervertebral disc, such as surgery and other interventional therapy treatment, but postoperative complications and recurrence rate has been a difficult problem in the field of profession. With the development of spine biomechanics and anatomy, researches on lumbar herniation also increased. Researchers discovered that the incidence and prognosis of LDH were inseparable with local muscle and soft tissue. As the deep paraspinal muscles, multifidus muscle plays an important role to make lumbar stability. Its abnormal function could reduce the stable of lumbar spine, and the chronic lumbar disease could also lead to multifidus muscle atrophy.

  18. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  19. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  20. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  1. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  2. Age-related alterations in the vertebral spinous processes and intervening soft tissues: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J; Resnick, D; Tyson, R; Haghighi, P

    1985-11-01

    A radiologic-pathologic correlative investigation of the normal age-related alterations in the spinous processes and intervening soft tissues was performed using cadaveric spines and both ancient and modern macerated vertebral specimens. Extreme lordosis in the cervical or lumbar spine results in spinous process apposition, formation of interspinous bursae, eburnation with osteophytosis, and creation of synovial articulations. A concomitant degenerative enthesopathy involves the supraspinous or interspinous ligamentous attachments in any spinal segment. The differential diagnosis of this phenomenon, the clinical significance of which in a given patient is controversial, includes rheumatoid and other inflammatory arthritides as well as crystal deposition disease.

  3. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  4. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning.

  5. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. PMID:25968309

  6. Deep learning for automatic localization, identification, and segmentation of vertebral bodies in volumetric MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzani, Amin; Rasoulian, Abtin; Seitel, Alexander; Fels, Sidney; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for vertebra localization, labeling, and segmentation in multi-slice Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Prior work in this area on MR images mostly requires user interaction while our method is fully automatic. Cubic intensity-based features are extracted from image voxels. A deep learning approach is used for simultaneous localization and identification of vertebrae. The localized points are refined by local thresholding in the region of the detected vertebral column. Thereafter, a statistical multi-vertebrae model is initialized on the localized vertebrae. An iterative Expectation Maximization technique is used to register the vertebral body of the model to the image edges and obtain a segmentation of the lumbar vertebral bodies. The method is evaluated by applying to nine volumetric MR images of the spine. The results demonstrate 100% vertebra identification and a mean surface error of below 2.8 mm for 3D segmentation. Computation time is less than three minutes per high-resolution volumetric image.

  7. Classification of vertebral compression fractures in magnetic resonance images using spectral and fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Marques, P M; Spagnoli, H F; Frighetto-Pereira, L; Menezes-Reis, R; Metzner, G A; Rangayyan, R M; Nogueira-Barbosa, M H

    2015-08-01

    Fractures with partial collapse of vertebral bodies are generically referred to as "vertebral compression fractures" or VCFs. VCFs can have different etiologies comprising trauma, bone failure related to osteoporosis, or metastatic cancer affecting bone. VCFs related to osteoporosis (benign fractures) and to cancer (malignant fractures) are commonly found in the elderly population. In the clinical setting, the differentiation between benign and malignant fractures is complex and difficult. This paper presents a study aimed at developing a system for computer-aided diagnosis to help in the differentiation between malignant and benign VCFs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used T1-weighted MRI of the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane. Images from 47 consecutive patients (31 women, 16 men, mean age 63 years) were studied, including 19 malignant fractures and 54 benign fractures. Spectral and fractal features were extracted from manually segmented images of 73 vertebral bodies with VCFs. The classification of malignant vs. benign VCFs was performed using the k-nearest neighbor classifier with the Euclidean distance. Results obtained show that combinations of features derived from Fourier and wavelet transforms, together with the fractal dimension, were able to obtain correct classification rate up to 94.7% with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve up to 0.95. PMID:26736364

  8. Strategies of vertebrate neurulation and a re-evaluation of teleost neural tube formation.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Sive, Hazel

    2004-10-01

    The vertebrate neural tube develops by two distinct mechanisms. Anteriorly, in the brain and future trunk (cervicothoracic) region, 'primary neurulation' occurs, where an epithelial sheet rolls or bends into a tube. Posteriorly, in the future lumbar and tail region, the neural tube forms by 'secondary neurulation', where a mesenchymal cell population condenses to form a solid rod that undergoes transformation to an epithelial tube. Teleost neurulation has been described as different from that of other vertebrates. This is principally because the teleost trunk neural tube initially forms a solid rod (the neural keel) that later develops a lumen. This process has also been termed secondary neurulation. However, this description is not accurate since the teleost neural tube derives from an epithelial sheet that folds. This best fits the description of primary neurulation. It has also been suggested that teleost neurulation is primitive, however, both primary and secondary neurulation are found in groups with a more ancient origin than the teleosts. The similarity between neurulation in teleosts and other vertebrates indicates that this group includes viable models (such as the zebrafish) for understanding human neural tube development.

  9. Vertebral osteophyte of pre-modern Korean skeletons from Joseon tombs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Spinal osteophytic changes are known to be affected by differences in age, sex, population, and mechanical stress. We examined Joseon skeletons (n=87) to obtain vertebral osteophytosis data on a pre-modern Korean population. The mean osteophytic value (MOV) of vertebrae increased in the cervical-thoracic-lumbar order. More severe osteophytosis was found in the vertebrae (C5, T9, T10, and L4) farthest from the line of gravity, while the general pattern of vertebral osteophytosis appeared similar to those of previous reports on other skeletal series. More severe osteophytes were much more common in the males, possibly due to their engaging in more strenuous physical labor than that of females. We also observed MOV patterns seemingly unique to the Joseon people, and findings not typically reported in previous studies. Although a full explanation of the factors contributing to vertebral-osteophytic development in Joseon Koreans will require further studies, the present results are meaningful to anatomists and anthropologists interested in osteophytic patterns occurring in an East Asian population. PMID:23301195

  10. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine. 572.187 Section 572.187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash...

  11. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine. 572.187 Section 572.187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact...

  12. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C E; Romano, S; Guedes, P; Nascimento, A; Nogueira, J; Smith, J

    1997-08-01

    A bulky tumor of the first lumbar vertebra is described. The case is the 21st to be reported. The tumor resembled an aneurysmal bone cyst radiologically. It was resected without incident. The previously reported cases are reviewed and the literature discussed. PMID:9297754

  13. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Michaela, Gstoettner; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  14. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22) at the time the pendulum makes contact with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity... to paragraph (b)—ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

  15. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22) at the time the pendulum makes contact with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity... to paragraph (b)—ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

  16. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22) at the time the pendulum makes contact with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity... to paragraph (b)—ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

  17. [Lumbar arachnoid cysts: 2 unusual cases].

    PubMed

    Mailleux, P; Dooms, G; Coulier, B; Malbecq, S

    1992-04-01

    Two cases of arachnoid cyst in the lumbar region are described. One is intradural, acquired, and associated to severe arachnoiditis while the other is extradural in location and probably congenital. The interest of myelography, CT myelography, and MRI for the diagnosis is discussed.

  18. Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hitchon, Patrick; Reddy, Chandan G.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient's newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy. PMID:25024708

  19. Partial facetectomy for lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Schwab, Frank; Hashem, Jenifer; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability.

  20. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  1. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Zhu, Si-Wei; Li, Qing-Wei

    2016-09-18

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  2. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    PubMed Central

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  3. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. PMID:26316746

  4. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Zhu, Si-Wei; Li, Qing-Wei

    2016-09-18

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research.

  5. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of

  6. [History of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine at Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague].

    PubMed

    Bartůněk, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the doctors and nurses of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague celebrated the 70th anniversary of its founding. The article summarizes the clinics contribution to the field of internal medicine, and particularly to angiology, hepatogastroenterology and lipidology. It comments the clinics current activities and the possibilities of its further development. Attention is also paid to the tradition of high ethical and professional standards of medical care in accordance with the norms established by the clinic's founder, prof. MUDr. Bohumil Prusík.

  7. [Tumors of the 4th ventricle and the craniospinal transitional zone. Review of patients of the Neurosurgical Clinic of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Niebeling, H G; Fried, H; Goldhahn, W E; Skrzypczak, J; Brachmann, J; Eichler, I

    1983-01-01

    From a total of 1,028 infratentorial tumours operated on at the Neurosurgical Hospital of the Section Medicine of the Karl-Marx University Leipzig in the last 30 years, 167 tumours in the region of the 4th ventrical have been selected. Their statistical processing was carried out with respect to specific localisation, average age, kind of tumour, sex, clinical findings, duration of case history, application of instrumental diagnostic procedures and radicality of operation, success and failure. Some fundamental conclussions are drawn. A subdivision in detail will be contained in the following articles based on this material.

  8. Nonlinearly generated harmonic signals in ultra-small waveguides with magnetic films: Tunable enhancements of 2nd and 4th harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J.; Zagorodnii, V.; Celinski, Z.; Camley, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    The nonlinear generation of high harmonic signals (up to 5th harmonic) is explored in an ultra-small waveguide which contains a thin ferromagnetic film. The strength of the different harmonics is highly tunable. In particular, the power in the 2nd and 4th harmonic signals may be enhanced by over two orders of magnitude by varying the direction of a static magnetic field with respect to the long axis of the waveguide. In contrast, the 3rd and 5th harmonics are relatively insensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. The experimental results are explained by analytical and numerical calculations.

  9. Calibration of the mechanical properties in a finite element model of a lumbar vertebra under dynamic compression up to failure.

    PubMed

    Garo, Anaïs; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Wagnac, Eric; Aubin, Carl Eric

    2011-12-01

    Finite element models (FEM) dedicated to vertebral fracture simulations rarely take into account the rate dependency of the bone material properties due to limited available data. This study aims to calibrate the mechanical properties of a vertebral body FEM using an inverse method based on experiments performed at slow and fast dynamic loading conditions. A detailed FEM of a human lumbar vertebral body (23,394 elements) was developed and tested under compression at 2,500 and 10 mm s⁻¹. A central composite design was used to adjust the mechanical properties (Young modulus, yield stress, and yield strain) while optimizing four criteria (ultimate strain and stress of cortical and trabecular bone) until the failure load and energy at failure reached experimental results from the literature. At 2,500 mm s⁻¹, results from the calibrated simulation were in good agreement with the average experimental data (1.5% difference for the failure load and 0.1% for the energy). At 10 mm s⁻¹, they were in good agreement with the average experimental failure load (0.6% difference), and within one standard deviation of the reported range of energy to failure. The proposed method provides a relevant mean to identify the mechanical properties of the vertebral body in dynamic loadings.

  10. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  11. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  12. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  13. Vertical Vibration Transmission Through the Lumbar Spine of the Seated SUBJECT—FIRST Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khatib, A.; Guillon, F.; Dômont, A.

    1998-08-01

    Seven fresh, not embalmed, cadavers (58·1±6·6 years, 73±10·3 kg, 170·7±6·5 cm) were submitted, in the week following their death (7·1±3·1 days), to a whole-body vertical broad-band white random vibration in the bandwidth 0·8 to 25 Hz of about 1·5 m/s2r.m.s. Two postures were tested using the same rigid seat, each one with and without a lumbar support: seated erect and seated as in a car. Vibration was monitored on the floor, the seating in the vertical direction (buttocks-to-head), the five lumbar vertebrae and the sternum: vertical (buttocks to head) and longitudinal (back to chest). Biaxial accelerometers were mounted rigidly on the anterior face of the vertebral body, after the removal of the abdominal viscera. Analogue recordings of each channel were passed through an antialising filter (Fc=40 Hz) then sampled at 80 Hz (4096 samples/channel). The inclination of each accelerometer (α) was measured on the lateral X-ray taken for every trial, then the data were set in order to be in the same reference (Z=z/cos α,X=xcos α). Spectral analysis was performed with a frequency resolution of 0·3 Hz, on the basis of Welch's method. Thirty one overlapping sections (256 samples per section using a Hanning window with an overlap rate of 128 samples) of the estimated periodograms were averaged. Transfer and coherence functions were than estimated between the vertical seating acceleration and the measured accelerations at the upper levels. The first results showed that the vertical vibration transmission was constant throughout the lumbar spine. Inter-subject variability was the major source of disparity. Resonance phenomena were observed between 4 and 9 Hz and depended on posture.

  14. Adolescent prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc: Management strategies and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Pragyan; Thirupathi, Rajan Thanga; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIVDH) is rare in children and adolescents when compared to adults. In literature, children generally constitute around 0.5–3% of surgically treated LIVDH. Though much rarer, they are less likely to respond to conservative treatment than adults. In this study, we analyze our experience in the management of adolescent LIVDH (ALIVDH) (age group 12–18 years) including the demographic, clinico-radiological features; surgical management strategies and outcome. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis constituted all patients between 12 and 18 years, who underwent surgery for LIVDH at our institute over a period of 15 years from January 1999 to June 2014. The records of these patients were retrieved, and demographic features, clinical picture, radiological features, operative findings, and postoperative events were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained either through direct clinical evaluation or mailed self-report questionnaire and telephone conversations. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using standardized and condition specific outcome scales in addition to routine clinical follow-up evaluation. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using the short form-36 (SF-36). Results: There were a total of 32 patients (26 males, eight females) with an average age of 15.64 years. Trauma was a significant etiological factor 57.14% (n = 16/28). Vertebral anomalies were present in 35.7% (n = 10/28) cases. Majority had a neurological deficit at presentation (n = 20/28). The most commonly involved level was the L4–L5 level (n = 18/128) in this series. Multiple level disc degeneration was present in eight patients (28.6%). Immediate postoperative relief was achieved in all but one patient. At long-term follow-up twenty patients were pain-free (71.4%). At follow-up, the physical functioning scale of SF-36 was significantly lower in patients with gross motor deficit prior to surgery. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine in Children: Spinal Incidental Findings in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramadorai, Uma E.; Hire, Justin M.; DeVine, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in children: spinal incidental findings in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ramadorai, Uma E; Hire, Justin M; DeVine, John G

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  17. Efficacy of Platelet Rich Plasma via Lumbar Epidural Route in Chronic Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc Patients-A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lumbar radiculopathy is a major health problem often treated by surgery or guided lumbar epidural steroids for pain relief. We have used Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) a novel therapeutic tool of autologous nature that has emerged strongly in recent years to treat patients of prolapsed intervertebral disc. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of PRP via interlaminar epidural route in treatment of pain in patients with prolapsed inter vertebral disc. Materials and Methods Ten patients were injected with five ml of autologous platelet rich plasma under fluoroscopic guidance via interlaminar lumbar epidural injection into area of affected nerve root. They were followed using VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), SLRT (Straight Leg Raising Test) and MODQ (Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire) for clinical improvement. Results Patients who had received epidural injections of autologous PRP showed improvements in their scores of evaluation tools. Improvement was sustained during the 3 month study period and was not associated with any complications. Conclusion Autologous PRP can be considered as a good alternative to epidural steroids and surgery in management of patients with chronic prolapsed intervertebral disc. PMID:27790553

  18. Effects of lumbar stabilization exercise on functional disability and lumbar lordosis angle in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Igsoo; Jeon, Chunbae; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on the functional disability and lumbar lordosis angles in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic low back pain divided into a lumbar stabilization exercise group (n = 15) and a conservative treatment group (n = 15). [Methods] The lumbar stabilization exercise and conservative treatment groups performed an exercise program and conservative physical treatment, respectively. Both programs were performed 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The degree of functional disability was assessed by the Oswestry disability index, and lumbar lordosis angles were measured by plain radiography. [Results] The Oswestry disability index decreased significantly in the both groups; however, it was significantly lower in the lumbar stabilization exercise group. The lumbar lordosis angle increased significantly in the lumbar stabilization exercise group after treatment and was also significantly greater than that in the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercise is more effective than conservative treatment for improving functional disability and lumbar lordosis angles.

  19. Lubricin Deficiency in the Murine Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Results in Elevated Torsional Apparent Modulus

    PubMed Central

    Teeple, Erin; Aslani, Koosha; Shalvoy, Matthew R.; Medrano, Jade E.; Zhang, Ling; Machan, Jason T.; Fleming, Braden C.; Jay, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical consequences of proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) deficiency on intervertebral disc mechanics using a Prg4 knockout mouse model. Prg4, also called lubricin, was first identified as the boundary lubricant in synovial fluid but has subsequently been localized within a number of musculoskeletal tissues in areas subjected to shear and tensile stresses, including the intervertebral disc. The function of lubricin in the intervertebral disc has not been determined. Lumbar level 1–2 vertebral body-disc-vertebral body motion segments were isolated from Prg4 null mice and wild type (WT) litter mate controls. Disc dimensions were measured and motion segments were tested in axial loading and torsion. Torque measurements and disc dimensions were used to calculate the torsional apparent modulus for discs from Prg4 null and WT discs. Discs from Prg4 null mice had a significantly smaller mean transverse disc area (p=0.0057), with a significantly larger proportion of this area occupied by the nucleus pulposus (p<0.0001), compared to WT specimens. Apparent torsional moduli were found to be elevated in Prg4 null lumbar discs compared to WT controls at 10–10° (p=.0048) and 10–30° (p=0.0127) rotation. This study suggests a functional role for Prg4 in the murine intervertebral disc. The absence of Prg4 was associated with an increased apparent torsional modulus and the structural consequences of Prg4 deficiency in the intervertebral disc, with expansion of the area of the nucleus pulposus relative to the transverse disc area in Prg4 null specimens. PMID:25907550

  20. Lubricin deficiency in the murine lumbar intervertebral disc results in elevated torsional apparent modulus.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Erin; Aslani, Koosha; Shalvoy, Matthew R; Medrano, Jade E; Zhang, Ling; Machan, Jason T; Fleming, Braden C; Jay, Gregory D

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical consequences of proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) deficiency on intervertebral disc mechanics using a Prg4 knockout mouse model. Prg4, also called lubricin, was first identified as the boundary lubricant in synovial fluid but has subsequently been localized within a number of musculoskeletal tissues in areas subjected to shear and tensile stresses, including the intervertebral disc. The function of lubricin in the intervertebral disc has not been determined. Lumbar level 1-2 vertebral body-disc-vertebral body motion segments were isolated from Prg4 null mice and wild type (WT) litter mate controls. Disc dimensions were measured and motion segments were tested in axial loading and torsion. Torque measurements and disc dimensions were used to calculate the torsional apparent modulus for discs from Prg4 null and WT discs. Discs from Prg4 null mice had a significantly smaller mean transverse disc area (p=0.0057), with a significantly larger proportion of this area occupied by the nucleus pulposus (p<0.0001), compared to WT specimens. Apparent torsional moduli were found to be elevated in Prg4 null lumbar discs compared to WT controls at 10-10° (p=0.0048) and 10-30° (p=0.0127) rotation. This study suggests a functional role for Prg4 in the murine intervertebral disc. The absence of Prg4 was associated with an increased apparent torsional modulus and the structural consequences of Prg4 deficiency in the intervertebral disc, with expansion of the area of the nucleus pulposus relative to the transverse disc area in Prg4 null specimens.