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Sample records for 4th lumbar vertebral

  1. Functional aspects of strepsirrhine lumbar vertebral bodies and spinous processes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Liza J; Simons, Cornelia V M

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between form and function in the lumbar vertebral column has been well documented among platyrrhines and especially catarrhines, while functional studies of postcranial morphology among strepsirrhines have concentrated predominantly on the limbs. This morphometric study investigates biomechanically relevant attributes of the lumbar vertebral morphology of 20 species of extant strepsirrhines. With this extensive sample, our goal is to address the influence of positional behavior on lumbar vertebral form while also assessing the effects of body size and phylogenetic history. The results reveal distinctions in lumbar vertebral morphology among strepsirrhines in functional association with their habitual postures and primary locomotor behaviors. In general, strepsirrhines that emphasize pronograde posture and quadrupedal locomotion combined with leaping (from a pronograde position) have the relatively longest lumbar regions and lumbar vertebral bodies, features promoting sagittal spinal flexibility. Indrids and galagonids that rely primarily on vertical clinging and leaping with orthograde posture share a relatively short (i.e., stable and resistant to bending) lumbar region, although the length of individual lumbar vertebral bodies varies phylogenetically and possibly allometrically. The other two vertical clingers and leapers, Hapalemur and Lepilemur, more closely resemble the pronograde, quadrupedal taxa. The specialized, suspensory lorids have relatively short lumbar regions as well, but the lengths of their lumbar regions are influenced by body size, and Arctocebus has dramatically longer vertebral bodies than do the other lorids. Lumbar morphology among galagonids appears to reflect a strong phylogenetic signal superimposed on a functional one. In general, relative length of the spinous processes follows a positively allometric trend, although lorids (especially the larger-bodied forms) have relatively short spinous processes for their body size

  2. The Neandertal vertebral column 2: The lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Arlegi, Mikel; Barash, Alon; Stock, Jay T; Been, Ella

    2017-05-01

    Here we provide the most extensive metric and morphological analysis performed to date on the Neandertal lumbar spine. Neandertal lumbar vertebrae show differences from modern humans in both the vertebral body and in the neural arch, although not all Neandertal lumbar vertebrae differ from modern humans in the same way. Differences in the vertebral foramen are restricted to the lowermost lumbar vertebrae (L4 and L5), differences in the orientation of the upper articular facets appear in the uppermost lumbar vertebrae (probably in L1 and L2-L3), and differences in the horizontal angle of the transverse process appear in L2-L4. Neandertals, when compared to modern humans, show a smaller degree of lumbar lordosis. Based on a still limited fossil sample, early hominins (australopiths and Homo erectus) had a lumbar lordosis that was similar to but below the mean of modern humans. Here, we hypothesize that from this ancestral degree of lumbar lordosis, the Neandertal lineage decreased their lumbar lordosis and Homo sapiens slightly increased theirs. From a postural point of view, the lower degree of lordosis is related to a more vertical position of the sacrum, which is also positioned more ventrally with respect to the dorsal end of the pelvis. This results in a spino-pelvic alignment that, though different from modern humans, maintained an economic postural equilibrium. Some features, such as a lower degree of lumbar lordosis, were already present in the middle Pleistocene populations ancestral to Neandertals. However, these middle Pleistocene populations do not show the full suite of Neandertal lumbar morphologies, which probably means that the characteristic features of the Neandertal lumbar spine did not arise all at once. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lumbo-Costo-Vertebral Syndrome with Congenital Lumbar Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lucky; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done. PMID:24834386

  4. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Kinkhabwala, M.; Wengrover, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references.

  5. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) in physiologic and failure biomechanics based on compression rate, spinal level, and gender. Results demonstrated a significant increase in ultimate force (i.e., fracture) from lower to higher compression rates. Ultimate stress also increased with compression rate. Displacement and strain to failure were consistent at both compression rates. Differences in ultimate mechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender.

  6. Caudal lumbar vertebral fractures in California Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Collar, E M; Zavodovskaya, R; Spriet, M; Hitchens, P L; Wisner, T; Uzal, F A; Stover, S M

    2015-09-01

    To gain insight into the pathophysiology of equine lumbar vertebral fractures in racehorses. To characterise equine lumbar vertebral fractures in California racehorses. Retrospective case series and prospective case-control study. Racehorse post mortem reports and jockey injury reports were retrospectively reviewed. Vertebral specimens from 6 racehorses affected with lumbar vertebral fractures and 4 control racehorses subjected to euthanasia for nonspinal fracture were assessed using visual, radiographic, computed tomography and histological examinations. Lumbar vertebral fractures occurred in 38 Quarter Horse and 29 Thoroughbred racehorses over a 22 year period, primarily involving the 5th and/or 6th lumbar vertebrae (L5-L6; 87% of Quarter Horses and 48% of Thoroughbreds). Lumbar vertebral fractures were the third most common musculoskeletal cause of death in Quarter Horses and frequently involved a jockey injury. Lumbar vertebral specimens contained anatomical variations in the number of vertebrae, dorsal spinous processes and intertransverse articulations. Lumbar vertebral fractures examined in 6 racehorse specimens (5 Quarter Horses and one Thoroughbred) coursed obliquely in a cranioventral to caudodorsal direction across the adjacent L5-L6 vertebral endplates and intervertebral disc, although one case involved only one endplate. All cases had evidence of abnormalities on the ventral aspect of the vertebral bodies consistent with pre-existing, maladaptive pathology. Lumbar vertebral fractures occur in racehorses with pre-existing pathology at the L5-L6 vertebral junction that is likely predisposes horses to catastrophic fracture. Knowledge of these findings should encourage assessment of the lumbar vertebrae, therefore increasing detection of mild vertebral injuries and preventing catastrophic racehorse and associated jockey injuries. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

  8. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuguang; Sun, Junying; Tang, Genlin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47-72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column spinal stability. Attention was given to ensure the correct pre-operative fenestration, complete decompression and the prevention of adhesions. After an average follow-up of 26.4 months, the one year post-operative X-ray radiographs suggested that the successful fusion rate was 88.1%, and this was 100% in the two-year post-operative radiographs. Moreover, the functional recovery rate was 97.9%. Bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion is an ideal surgical method for the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The surgical method retains the spinal posterior column and middle column and results in full decompression and reliable fusion by a limited yet effective surgical approach.

  9. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHUGUANG; SUN, JUNYING; TANG, GENLIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47–72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column spinal stability. Attention was given to ensure the correct pre-operative fenestration, complete decompression and the prevention of adhesions. After an average follow-up of 26.4 months, the one year post-operative X-ray radiographs suggested that the successful fusion rate was 88.1%, and this was 100% in the two-year post-operative radiographs. Moreover, the functional recovery rate was 97.9%. Bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion is an ideal surgical method for the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The surgical method retains the spinal posterior column and middle column and results in full decompression and reliable fusion by a limited yet effective surgical approach. PMID:23407794

  10. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-11-01

    The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population.

  11. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature.

  12. Augmentation improves human cadaveric vertebral body compression mechanics for lumbar total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jonathon H; Auerbach, Joshua D; Maurer, Philip M; Erbe, Erik M; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-04-20

    Cadaveric biomechanical study. To quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. This study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, and specimens were block-randomized by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semiconstrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted, providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6% +/- 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on the augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6 mm. The load-displacement response for all specimens was nonlinear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases, the augmented group was 2 times higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2 times and 1.3 times greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation were moderately correlated with bone density whereas the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, whereas the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and the control groups. Augmentation improved the

  13. Augmentation Improves Human Cadaveric Vertebral Body Compression Mechanics For Lumbar Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Jonathon H.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Maurer, Philip M.; Erbe, Erik M.; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A.; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric biomechanical study. Objectives Quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Summary of Background Data TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. The study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Methods Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, block randomizing specimens by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semi-constrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6 ± 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6mm. Results The load-displacement response for all specimens was non-linear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases the augmented group was 2× higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2× and 1.3× greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation was moderately correlated with bone density while the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, while the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and control groups

  14. Association Between Measures of Vertebral Endplate Morphology and Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Duran, Semra; Cavusoglu, Mehtap; Hatipoglu, Hatice Gul; Sozmen Cılız, Deniz; Sakman, Bulent

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vertebral endplate morphology and the degree of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In total, 150 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were 20-60 years of age were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were evaluated for the presence of intervertebral disc degeneration or herniation, and the degree of degeneration was assessed at all lumbar levels. Vertebral endplate morphology was evaluated based on the endplate sagittal diameter, endplate sagittal concave angle (ECA), and endplate sagittal concave depth (ECD) on sagittal MRI. The association between intervertebral disc degeneration or herniation and endplate morphological measurements was analysed. In MRI, superior endplates (ie, inferior endplates of the superior vertebra) were concave and inferior endplates (ie, superior endplates of the inferior vertebra) were flat at all disc levels. A decrease in ECD and an increase in ECA were detected at all lumbar levels as disc degeneration increased (P < .05). At the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels, a decrease in ECD and an increase in ECA were detected in the group with herniated lumbar discs (P < .05). There was no association between lumbar disc degeneration or herniation and endplate sagittal diameter at lumbar intervertebral levels (P > .05). At all levels, ECD of women was significantly lesser than that of men and ECA of women was significantly greater than that of men (P < .05). There is an association between vertebral endplate morphology and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Vertebral endplates at the degenerated disc level become flat; the severity of this flattening is correlated with the degree of disc degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between vertebral cross-sectional area and lumbar lordosis angle in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aggabao, Patricia C.; Poorghasamians, Ervin; Chavez, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis (LL) is more prominent in women than in men, but the mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy are poorly defined. A recent study indicates that newborn girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) when compared to boys—a difference that persists throughout life and is independent of body size. We determined the relations between vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) and LL angle and whether sex differences in lumbar lordosis are related to sex differences in vertebral CSA. Using multi-planar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we measured vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) and vertebral height of the spine of 40 healthy boys and 40 girls, ages 9–13 years. Measures of the CSA of the lumbar vertebrae significantly differed between sexes (9.38 ± 1.46 vs. 7.93 ± 0.69 in boys and girls, respectively; P < 0.0001), while the degree of LL was significantly greater in girls than in boys (23.7 ± 6.1 vs. 27.6 ± 8.0 in boys and girls, respectively; P = 0.02). When all subjects were analyzed together, values for LL angle were negatively correlated to vertebral CSA (r = -0.47; P < 0.0001); this was also true when boys and girls were analyzed separately. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that vertebral CSA was independently associated with LL, even after accounting for sex, age, height or vertebral height, and weight. Similar negative relations were present when thoracic vertebrae were analyzed (Model P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.37, thoracic vertebral CSA slope P < 0.0001), suggesting that deficient vertebral cross-sectional dimensions are not merely the consequence of the anterior lumbar curvature. We conclude that vertebral CSA is negatively associated with LL, and that the greater degree of LL in females could, at least in part, be due to smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions. Studies are needed to examine the potential relations between vertebral CSA and spinal conditions known to be associated with increased LL, such as

  16. Association between vertebral cross-sectional area and lumbar lordosis angle in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wren, Tishya A L; Aggabao, Patricia C; Poorghasamians, Ervin; Chavez, Thomas A; Ponrartana, Skorn; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis (LL) is more prominent in women than in men, but the mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy are poorly defined. A recent study indicates that newborn girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) when compared to boys-a difference that persists throughout life and is independent of body size. We determined the relations between vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) and LL angle and whether sex differences in lumbar lordosis are related to sex differences in vertebral CSA. Using multi-planar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we measured vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) and vertebral height of the spine of 40 healthy boys and 40 girls, ages 9-13 years. Measures of the CSA of the lumbar vertebrae significantly differed between sexes (9.38 ± 1.46 vs. 7.93 ± 0.69 in boys and girls, respectively; P < 0.0001), while the degree of LL was significantly greater in girls than in boys (23.7 ± 6.1 vs. 27.6 ± 8.0 in boys and girls, respectively; P = 0.02). When all subjects were analyzed together, values for LL angle were negatively correlated to vertebral CSA (r = -0.47; P < 0.0001); this was also true when boys and girls were analyzed separately. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that vertebral CSA was independently associated with LL, even after accounting for sex, age, height or vertebral height, and weight. Similar negative relations were present when thoracic vertebrae were analyzed (Model P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.37, thoracic vertebral CSA slope P < 0.0001), suggesting that deficient vertebral cross-sectional dimensions are not merely the consequence of the anterior lumbar curvature. We conclude that vertebral CSA is negatively associated with LL, and that the greater degree of LL in females could, at least in part, be due to smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions. Studies are needed to examine the potential relations between vertebral CSA and spinal conditions known to be associated with increased LL, such as spondylolysis

  17. Effect of Direct Vertebral Rotation on the Uninstrumented Lumbar Curve in Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Suk, Se-Il

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To determine the effect and direction of direct vertebral rotation (DVR) in the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) on the uninstrumented lumbar curve depending on the lumbar modifier used for the correction of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Overview of Literature DVR in the LIV should be implemented in a different direction to obtain better spontaneous lumbar correction depending on the preoperative lumbar spine modifier. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 160 patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by pedicle screw instrumentation and rod derotation. Patients who had a distal fusion level between T11 and L1 were divided into two groups: the DVR group versus the No-DVR group. Each group was divided into subgroups depending on the lumbar modifier used: the DVR-A, B, and C groups versus the No-DVR-A, B, and C groups. The DVR-A group was subdivided into two subgroups depending on the direction of screw rotation in the LIV: the DVR-A-O group (opposite direction) and the DVR-A-S group (same direction). Results There were no significant differences in the preoperative curve characteristics between the two groups. The preoperative lumbar curve was corrected in 70% of the patients in the DVR group and in 56% in the No-DVR group. Spontaneous coronal correction of the lumbar curve was better in the DVR-A-S group than that in the No-DVR-A group. However, the DVR-A-O group had the higher incidence of adding-on deformity. The DVR-B and C groups showed better spontaneous correction of lumbar coronal magnitude, apical vertebral translation, and rotation and the LIV tilting. Conclusions In lumbar modifiers B and C, screws in the LIV have to be rotated opposite to the direction of the screw rotation of the main thoracic curve; however, in modifier A, the screws have to be rotated in the same direction. PMID:28243381

  18. Noncontiguous lumbar vertebral hemangiomas treated by posterior decompression, intraoperative kyphoplasty, and segmental fixation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Wu, Desheng; Shen, Bin; Zhao, Weidong; Huang, Yufeng; Zhu, Jianguang; Qi, Dongduo

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign lesions and are often asymptomatic. Most vertebral hemangiomas that cause cord compression and neurological symptoms are located in the thoracic spine and involve a single vertebra. The authors report the rare case of lumbar hemangiomas in a 60-year-old woman presenting with severe back pain and rapidly progressive neurological signs attributable to 2 noncontiguous lesions. After embolization of the feeding arteries, no improvement was noted. Thus, the authors performed open surgery using a combination of posterior decompression, intraoperative kyphoplasty, and segmental fixation. The patient experienced relief from back and leg pain immediately after surgery. At 3 months postoperatively, her symptoms and neurological deficits had improved completely. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of 2 noncontiguous extensive lumbar hemangiomas presenting with neurological symptoms managed by such combined treatment. The combined management seems to be an effective method for treating symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas.

  19. Fractal analysis of lumbar vertebral cancellous bone architecture.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, G P; Macchi, V; Saccavini, C; Tosi, E; Dus, C; Fassina, A; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2001-11-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by bone mineral density (BMD) decreasing and spongy bone rearrangement with consequent loss of elasticity and increased bone fragility. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) quantifies bone mineral content but does not describe spongy architecture. Analysis of trabecular pattern may provide additional information to evaluate osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the fractal analysis of the microradiography of lumbar vertebrae provides a reliable assessment of bone texture, which correlates with the BMD. The lumbar segment of the spine was removed from 22 cadavers with no history of back pain and examined with standard x-ray, traditional tomography, and quantitative computed tomography to measure BMD. The fractal dimension, which quantifies the image fractal complexity, was calculated on microradiographs of axial sections of the fourth lumbar vertebra to determine its characteristic spongy network. The relationship between the values of the BMD and those of the fractal dimension was evaluated by linear regression and a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.96) was found. These findings suggest that the application of fractal analysis to radiological analyses can provide valuable information on the trabecular pattern of vertebrae. Thus, fractal dimensions of trabecular bone structure should be considered as a supplement to BMD evaluation in the assessment of osteoporosis.

  20. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wayne Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F.

    2007-06-15

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  1. Asymptomatic lumbar vertebral erosion from inferior vena cava filter perforation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wayne; Hieb, Robert A; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  2. Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

    2013-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Antenatal factors in the development of the lumbar vertebral canal: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Janet E; Campbell, Doris M; Golden, Michael H N; Smith, Francis W; Porter, Richard W

    2003-07-01

    The lumbar vertebral canal was measured in two cohorts of 10-year-old children (n = 161) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared with obstetric records. To investigate whether there are identifiable obstetric factors that determine the size of the lumbar vertebral canal. The most rapid period growth for the lumbar vertebral canal is between 12 and 32 weeks in utero, with the midsagittal diameter of L1-L4 already 70% of adult dimension at birth. Therefore, adverse antenatal factors during this critical growth period may be expected to affect the size of the canal. The canal size was measured from axial MRI sections taken through each lumbar vertebra (L1-L5) at the pedicular level of 84 children. Relations with obstetric data, prospectively collected in a neonatal database, were sought. The relation of low birthweight and canal size was further investigated in a second cohort of children (n = 77). The canal size, particularly the midsagittal diameter and the cross-sectional area, was found to be significantly reduced by low birthweight (with growth retardation in utero being a more important factor than length of gestation), low placenta weight, and lower socioeconomic class. Smoking during pregnancy significantly reduced the perimeter at L3 (P = 0.032) and L5 (P = 0.031), and also the cross-sectional area at L3 (P = 0.030) and L5 (P = 0.016). This study showed that, for this group of children, the size of the lumbar vertebral canal was reduced by low birthweight, with maternal smoking as an added adverse factor. Therefore, good antenatal care and maternal education may help to reduce the risk of spinal stenosis in adult life.

  4. The sagittal diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal in normal adult Nigerians.

    PubMed Central

    Amonoo-Kuofi, H S

    1985-01-01

    An osteometric study of the anteroposterior diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal and intervertebral foramina of normal adult Nigerians is reported. The results show that the midsagittal diameter of the canal is subject to racial variations, and is determined primarily by the thickness and orientation of the lamina and to a lesser extent by the height of the pedicle. The significance of the findings is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:4066472

  5. Transmission of weight through the lower thoracic and lumbar regions of the vertebral column in man.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, G P; Routal, R V

    1987-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the role of the neural arches in transmission of weight in the lower thoracic and the lumbar regions of the vertebral column. Based on simple mechanical principles of weight transmission, various parameters were chosen for measurements at each vertebral level. In 44 adult male dry vertebral columns measurements were made from T5 to L5 levels. The area of the inferior surface of the body at each vertebral level was compared with the area of the inferior articular facet, the cross sectional area of the laminae (lamina index), the pedicle index and the arch index. The inclination of the pedicles in relation to the body was also measured at each level. On the basis of the above measurements it was deduced that the compression force in the lower thoracic and lumbar regions is transmitted through two parallel columns, one anterior (formed by bodies and intervertebral discs) and one posterior (formed by successive articulations of laminae with each other at their articular facets). This study suggests that a considerable part of the weight of the upper limbs and the thoracic cage is transmitted through the ribs to the posterior column (laminae) through the costo-transverse articulations and ligaments. Because of the inclined position of the fifth lumbar vertebra, a significant part of the compressive force from the body is transmitted to the laminae in spite of the anterior inclination of the pedicles at this level. Because of the anterior concavity of the spine in the thoracic region, weight is transferred from the posterior to the anterior column through the inclined pedicles and in the lumbar region, where the concavity is posterior, a part of the compressive force of the anterior column is transmitted to the posterior. Thus, the compressive force in the curvilinear thoracolumbar column tends to deviate towards the line of gravity. The implications of these findings in relation to clinico-pathological disorders of the spine are

  6. [A synovial cyst accompanied by asymptomatic lumbar vertebral fracture requiring differentiation from spinal metastasis].

    PubMed

    Miura, Isamu; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Saito, Taiichi; Shiono, Saori; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-06-01

    We experienced a case with a synovial cyst accompanied by asymptomatic lumbar vertebral fracture that required differentiation from spinal metastasis. An 82-year-old man suffered from right leg and anal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed L5 spondylolysis. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed an intra spinal cyst and acute lumbar vertebral fracture of L5 vertebral body. The surrounding area of the cyst presented contrast enhancement, and the extradural mass compressed the dural sac. Bone scintigraphy with 99m technetium-MDP demonstrated intense uptake on the right first, fourth, fifth, and seventh ribs and L2, L3, and L5 vertebra. The F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) image demonstrated an increased radiotracer uptake in the L5 vertebra(standardized uptake value(SUV) max=3.5). Spinal metastasis was suspected. Because of the cauda equina compression syndrome, it was surgically removed. Intraoperatively, a well-demarcated extradural cyst was found and compressed the dural sac markedly. The cyst capsule was thin and contained clear, thin fluid with no signs of bleeding. The histological diagnosis was a synovial cyst. His neurological symptoms improved after the surgery. The synovial cyst may enlarge after asymptomatic vertebral fractures.

  7. Surgical treatment of low lumbar osteoporotic vertebral collapse: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Uchida, Kenzo; Honjoh, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Takumi; Kitade, Makoto; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Low lumbar osteoporotic vertebral collapse (OVC) has not been well documented compared with OVC of the thoracolumbar spine. The differences between low lumbar and thoracolumbar lesions should be studied to provide better treatment. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical and imaging features as well as outcomes of low lumbar OVC and to discuss the appropriate surgical treatment. Thirty patients (10 men; 20 women; mean age 79.3 ± 4.7 years [range 70-88 years]) with low lumbar OVC affecting levels below L-3 underwent surgical treatment. The clinical symptoms, morphological features of affected vertebra, sagittal spinopelvic alignment, neurological status before and after surgery, and surgical procedures were reviewed at a mean follow-up period of 2.4 years. The main clinical symptom was radicular leg pain. Most patients had old compression fractures at the thoracolumbar level. The affected vertebra was flat-type and concave or H-shaped type, not wedge type as often found in thoracolumbar OVC. There were mismatches between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis on plain radiographs. On CT and MR images, foraminal stenosis was seen in 18 patients (60%) and canal stenosis in 24 patients (80%). Decompression with short fusion using a posterior approach was performed. Augmentations of vertebroplasty, posterolateral fusion, and posterior lumbar interbody fusion were performed based on the presence/absence of local kyphosis of lumbar spine, cleft formation, and/or intervertebral instability. Although the neurological and visual analog scale scores improved postoperatively, 8 patients (26.7%) developed postoperative complications mainly related to instrumentation failure. In patients with postoperative complications, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly low, but the spinopelvic alignment showed no correlation when compared with those without complications. The main types of low lumbar OVC were flat-type and concave type, which resulted in neurological

  8. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach.

  9. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z.; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach. PMID:26835214

  10. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  11. Anterior instrumentation for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Anterior radical debridement and bone grafting is popular in the treatment of pyogenic infection of the spine, but there remains great concern of placing instrumentation in the presence of infection because of the potentiality of infection recurrence after surgery. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of anterior instrumentation in patients who underwent simultaneous anterior debridement and autogenous bone grafting for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. The series consisted of 22 consecutive patients who were treated with anterior debridement, interbody fusion with autogenous bone grafting and anterior instrumentation for pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine. The patients were prospectively followed up for a minimum of 3 years (average 46.1 months; range 36–74 months). Data were obtained for assessing clinically the neurological function and pain and radiologically the spinal alignment and fusion progress as well as recurrence of the infection. All the patients experienced complete or significant relief of back pain with rapid improvement of neurological function. Kyphosis was improved with an average correction rate of 93.1% (range 84–100%). Solid fusion and healing of the infection was achieved in all the patients without any evidence of recurrent or residual infection. The study shows that combined with perioperative antibiotic regimen, anterior instrumentation is effective and safe in the treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine directly following radical debridement and autogenous bone grafting. PMID:18575900

  12. [Percutaneous biopsy evaluation in the diagnosis of thoracic and lumbar vertebral destruction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rosales-Olivares, Luis Miguel; Valle-Cerna, Iván; Alpizar-Aguirre, Armando; Miramontes-Martínez, Victor; Arenas-Sordo, María de la Luz; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The vertebral destruction syndrome is defined as those pathologies affecting the integrity of the vertebral structure, modifying its normal architecture and resulting in neurological deficit. Correct diagnosis is essential to define appropriate treatment. Biopsy, in addition to histopathological study, is a vital element for definitive diagnosis. We carried out a descriptive, deliberate interventional study in 20 patients with a diagnosis of vertebral destruction in whom a percutaneous transpendicular biopsy was done between January 2005 and July 2006. Variables analyzed were age, sex, affected segment, neurological condition, neurological deficit type, results of the biopsy and specific diagnosis. There was a predominance of males (55%). The lumbar spine was the most affected region in 80% of patients. Of the biopsies performed, 10% were reported as normal tissue, 20% with degenerative changes, 15% with inflammatory changes, 15% with primary tumoral lesion, 5% with chronic osteomyelitis, 10% with tuberculosis, 15% with tumoral metastasis and 10% necrotic devitalized bone tissue. Of these patients, 55% were treated nonsurgically, and the remaining 45% were treated surgically. No complications were reported. Percutaneous transpedicular biopsy has only 55% specificity in diagnosis and for that reason is a less useful diagnostic method in our setting for destructive lesion diagnosis from the vertebral body.

  13. Dysfunctional Microcirculation of the Lumbar Vertebral Marrow Prior to the Bone Loss and Intervertebral Discal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive study, stratified sampling. Objective. Using dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) to explore the age-related distribution patterns of the microcirculation perfusion in the vertebral marrow, the vertebral bone mineral density (BMD), and the intervertebral discal degeneration (IDD) further to discuss the possible causation between them. Summary of Background Data. A latest viewpoint deemed that reduced blood supply of the vertebral marrow was correlated with an increased incidence of IDD and loss of BMD. However, the causative relationship between them needs more investigation. Methods. One hundred eighty-six general people were randomly enrolled by stratified sampling and grouped by age: 15 years or less, 16 to 25 years, 26 to 35 years, 36 to 45 years, 46 to 55 years, 56 to 65 years, 66 to 75 years, and 76 years or more. Both CTP and BMD of the third and fourth lumbar vertebral marrow were measured, and the IDD incidence of the third-fourth vertebrae was assessed. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the age-related changes of CTP, BMD, and IDD were described, and the correlations between them were calculated. Results. Microcirculatory perfusion of the vertebral marrow developed to maturate by 25 years, maintained stable at 35 years, and then declined by age after 35 years. BMD grew to a peak phase in 26 to 45 years and then dropped by years. However, IDD presented a sudden increase after 45 years of age. CTP (blood flow [r = 0.806], blood volume [r = 0.685], and permeability [r = 0.619]) showed strong positive correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = −0.211], mean transit time [r = −0.598]) showed negative correlations with BMD. Meanwhile, CTP (blood flow [r = −0.815], blood volume [r = −0.753], and permeability [r = −0.690]) had strong negative correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = 0.323] and mean transit time [r = 0.628]) had positive correlations with the incidence of IDD. Conclusion. Aging-related decrease

  14. Posterior-only approach for lumbar vertebral column resection and expandable cage reconstruction for spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Jandial, Rahul; Kelly, Brandon; Chen, Mike Yue

    2013-07-01

    The increasing incidence of spinal metastasis, a result of improved systemic therapies for cancer, has spurred a search for an alternative method for the surgical treatment of lumbar metastases. The authors report a single-stage posterior-only approach for resecting any pathological lumbar vertebral segment and reconstructing with a medium to large expandable cage while preserving all neurological structures. The authors conducted a retrospective consecutive case review of 11 patients (5 women, 6 men) with spinal metastases treated at 1 institution with single-stage posterior-only vertebral column resection and reconstruction with an expandable cage and pedicle screw fixation. For all patients, the indications for operative intervention were spinal cord compression, cauda equina compression, and/or spinal instability. Neurological status was classified according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale, and functional outcomes were analyzed by using a visual analog scale for pain. For all patients, a circumferential vertebral column resection was achieved, and full decompression was performed with a posterior-only approach. Each cage was augmented by posterior pedicle screw fixation extending 2 levels above and below the resected level. No patient required a separate anterior procedure. Average estimated blood loss and duration of each surgery were 1618 ml (range 900-4000 ml) and 6.6 hours (range 4.5-9 hours), respectively. The mean follow-up time was 14 months (range 10-24 months). The median survival time after surgery was 17.7 months. Delayed hardware failure occurred for 1 patient. Preoperatively, 2 patients had intractable pain with intact lower-extremity strength and 8 patients had severe intractable pain, lower-extremity paresis, and were unable to walk; 4 of whom regained the ability to walk after surgery. Two patients who were paraplegic before decompression recovered substantial function but remained wheelchair bound, and 2 patients

  15. Clinical Identification of the Vertebral Level at Which the Lumbar Sympathetic Ganglia Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji Won; Koh, Jae Chul; Sun, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Jong Bum; Shin, Myung Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The location and the number of lumbar sympathetic ganglia (LSG) vary between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate level for a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB), corresponding to the level at which the LSG principally aggregate. Methods Seventy-four consecutive subjects, including 31 women and 31 men, underwent LSGB either on the left (n = 31) or the right side (n = 43). The primary site of needle entry was randomly selected at the L3 or L4 vertebra. A total of less than 1 ml of radio opaque dye with 4% lidocaine was injected, taking caution not to traverse beyond the level of one vertebral body. The procedure was considered responsive when the skin temperature increased by more than 1℃ within 5 minutes. Results The median responsive level was significantly different between the left (lower third of the L4 body) and right (lower margin of the L3 body) sides (P = 0.021). However, there was no significant difference in the values between men and women. The overall median responsive level was the upper third of the L4 body. The mean responsive level did not correlate with height or BMI. There were no complications on short-term follow-up. Conclusions Selection of the primary target in the left lower third of the L4 vertebral body and the right lower margin of the L3 vertebral body may reduce the number of needle insertions and the volume of agents used in conventional or neurolytic LSGB and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. PMID:27103965

  16. Detection of vertebral plateaus in lateral lumbar spinal X-ray images with Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Ribeiro, Eduardo; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M

    2010-01-01

    A few recent studies have proposed computed-aided methods for the detection and analysis of vertebral bodies in radiographic images. This paper presents a method based on Gabor filters. Forty-one lateral lumbar spinal X-ray images from different patients were included in the study. For each image, a radiologist manually delineated the vertebral plateaus of L1, L2, L3, and L4 using a software tool for image display and mark-up. Each original image was filtered with a bank of 180 Gabor filters. The angle of the Gabor filter with the highest response at each pixel was used to derive a measure of the strength of orientation or alignment. In order to limit the spatial extent of the image data and the derived features in further analysis, a semi-automated procedure was applied to the original image. A neural network utilizing the logistic sigmoid function was trained with pixel intensity from the original image, the result of manual delineation of the plateaus, the Gabor magnitude response, and the alignment image. The average overlap between the results of detection by image processing and manual delineation of the plateaus of L1-L4 in the 41 images tested was 0.917. The results are expected to be useful in the analysis of vertebral deformities and fractures.

  17. Study of lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the stage of maturation of the lumbar vertebral body: the relationship between skeletal maturity and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Uraoka, Hideyuki; Higashino, Kosaku; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Kazuta; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Murase, Masaaki; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-09-16

    The lesion of the lumbar endplate is sometimes identified in the vertebrae of children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare between skeletal maturity and chronological age. The second purpose of this study is to clarify the lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the maturation of the lumbar vertebral body. Six hundred and thirty-two (485 men and 147 women) consecutive patients were included. The mean age at the first medical examination was 13.8 years. Their skeletal maturity was evaluated based on the appearances of the secondary ossification center of L3. The area of the endplate lesions was classified into five types. The apophyseal stage was observed from 10 years old to 18 years old, and the apophyseal stage was shown the peak at 14 years old. The appearance of the apophyseal ring was observed earlier in female patients than in male patients. For the concave type, the lesion at upper level vertebra was more prevalent. The anterior and middle type of the lesion at upper level vertebra was more prevalent. For the posterior type, the lesion of the inferior rim of L4 and the lesion of the rim of L5 were more prevalent. This study emerged after comparing skeletal maturity based on the maturation of the lumbar vertebral body with the chronological age of a large number of patients and examining the lesions of the lumbar endplate based on the stage of maturation of the lumbar vertebral body.

  18. Dichotomizing sensory nerve fibers innervating both the lumbar vertebral body and the area surrounding the iliac crest: a possible mechanism of referred lateral back pain from lumbar vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Inoue, Gen; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Toyone, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Junichi; Kishida, Shunji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Koshi, Takana; Ohtori, Seiji

    2013-12-01

    Animal study. To determine the existence of dichotomizing sensory nerve fibers innervating both the lumbar vertebral body and the area surrounding the iliac crest (ASIC). Elderly patients with osteoporosis sometimes experience lumbar vertebral fracture and may feel diffuse nonlocalized pain in the back, the lateral portion of the trunk, and the ASIC. The pattern of sensory innervation of vertebral bodies remains unclear. DRG neurons with dichotomizing axons have been reported and are thought to be related to referred pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of dichotomizing axons to the lumbar vertebral bodies and the ASIC in rats. Two kinds of neurotracers (1,1´-dioctadecyl-3,3,3´,3´-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate [DiI] and Fluoro-Gold [FG]) were used. DiI crystals were placed in the left ASIC, and FG was applied into the L2 vertebral body in 10 rats. Four weeks later, left DRGs from L1 to L6 were resected, sectioned, and observed under a fluorescence microscope. DiI-labeled DRG neurons innervating the ASIC and FG-labeled DRG neurons innervating the vertebral L2 body were distributed from L1 to L6. The ratio of total double-labeled per total DiI-labeled DRG neurons was 10.2%, and that of total double-labeled per total FG-labeled DRG neurons was 14.7%. These double-labeled DRG neurons innervating the L2 vertebral body had other axons that extended to the ASIC. This finding provides a possible neuroanatomical explanation for referred pain in the ASIC from vertebral bodies.

  19. Lumbar trabecular bone mineral density distribution in patients with and without vertebral fractures: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Giambini, Hugo; Roghani, Reza Salman; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Melton, L. Joseph; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The proportion of load transmitted through the lumbar neural arch increases with aging, spinal degeneration, and lordosis, effectively shielding the lumbar vertebral bodies from load. This stress shielding may contribute to bone loss in the vertebral body, leading to increased fracture risk. To test his hypothesis, we performed a study to determine if vertebral body fractures were associated with a higher neural arch/vertebral body volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) ratio. Methods Trabecular vBMD was calculated by quantitative CT in the L3 vertebral body and neural arch (pars interarticularis) of 36 women with vertebral compression fractures and 39 controls. Neural arch/vertebral body vBMD ratio was calculated, and its relationship to fracture status was determined using linear regression models adjusted for age and body mass index. Results Vertebral body trabecular vBMD was lower in fracture cases as compared to controls (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 36.0 vs. 87.5 ± 36.8 mg/cm3, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas trabecular vBMD of the neural arch was similar (96.1 ± 57.6 in cases vs. 118.2 ± 57.4 mg/cm3 in controls; P = 0.182). The neural arch/vertebral body vBMD ratio was significantly greater in the fracture group than in controls (2.31 ± 1.07 vs. 1.44 ± 0.57, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that stress shielding is a contributor to vertebral body bone loss and may increase fracture risk. Although further studies are needed, there may be a role for interventions that can shift vertebral loading in the spine to help prevent fracture. PMID:24477380

  20. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended.

  1. Vertebral body shape variation in the thoracic and lumbar spine: characterization of its asymmetry and wedging.

    PubMed

    Masharawi, Youssef; Salame, Khalil; Mirovsky, Yigal; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize the vertebral body (VB) shape, focusing on vertebral wedging, along the thoracic and lumbar spine, and to look for shape variations with relation to gender, age, and ethnicity. All thoracic and lumbar (T1-L5) dissected vertebrae of 240 individuals were measured and analyzed by age, gender, and ethnicity. A 3D digitizer was used to measure all VB lengths, heights, and widths, and their ratios were calculated. This study showed that the VB size was independent of age or ethnicity. VB left lateral wedging was found in most vertebrae of most individuals, yet systematically was absent in six vertebrae (T4, T8-T9, T11, L3-L4) with a greater tendency in females than males ( approximately 92% vs. 86%). The VB was anteriorly wedged from T1 through L2 (peak at T7), nonwedged at L3, and posteriorly wedged at L4-L5 (peak at L5). VB width decreased from T1 to T4 and then increased toward L4-L5, so that the spinal configuration in the coronal plane resembled two pyramids of opposite directions, sharing an apex at T4. The inferior VB width was significantly greater than the superior width of both the same vertebra and the adjacent lower vertebra, indicating a trapezoidal shape of the VB and an inverted trapezoidal shape of the intervertebral space. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the human vertebra, in its normal condition, maintains its external dimensions with age, independent of gender or ethnic origin. Clinical and surgical implications of the unique thoracolumbar architecture are discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures: Recognition and Treatment in Patients with Concurrent Lumbar Vertebral Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E; Berti, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In reviewing a larger group of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), we found that the overall incidence of sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) is higher than commonly reported values. This is especially seen in patients with previous or concurrent lumbar VCFs and also in a subgroup that had lumbar stenosis or hip arthroplasty. The altered biomechanics due to associated lumbar stenosis or hip arthroplasty lead to increased mechanical stress on already weakened and deficient sacral alae, which are more vulnerable to osteoporotic weakening than other parts of the sacrum. Materials & methods We studied an overall population of patients with VCF seen clinically and separated the patients into the following groups: patients not previously treated, patients treated with vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty at one or more levels, and patients diagnosed with sacral fractures and treated with vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. We wanted to see if a pattern existed among the patients who had sacral symptoms, were diagnosed with sacral insufficiency fractures, and subsequently underwent sacroplasty. Results In a review of 79 consecutive patients, over a 24-month period, with VCF who underwent surgical treatment, there were 10 patients who also had sacral insufficiency fractures. Four of the patients had sacral insufficiency fractures without VCF. None of the patients with sacral insufficiency fractures were on treatment for osteoporosis at the time of diagnosis. The following symptoms indicated SIF: lower sacral pain (n = 10), buttock pain (n = 7), lateral hip pain (n = 5), and groin pain radiating to the thigh (n = 4). The average time to diagnose SIF was two months after the onset of pain. Conclusions Sacral insufficiency fractures are a frequent cause of both acute and chronic pain; however, they are often missed by the majority of physicians. The frequency of undetected sacral fractures is high. This is due to a number of potential pitfalls

  3. The validity of vertebral translation and rotation in differentiating patients with lumbar segmental instability.

    PubMed

    Taghipour-Darzi, Mohammad; Takamjani, Esmail Ebrahimi; Salavati, Mahyar; Mobini, Bahram; Zekavat, Hajar

    2012-12-01

    Lumbar segmental instability (LSI) is a sub-group of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), without any accepted diagnostic tool as a golden standard. Some authors emphasize on clinical findings, and others focus on vertebral translation and rotation, but construct validity of these measures had not been approved. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate convergent and known group validity of vertebral translation and rotation in differentiating LSI from NSLBP and control subjects. Study variables included full-range and mid-range vertebral translation and rotation in sagittal plane. Five x-rays were taken in neutral, full flexion and extension and mid-flexion and mid-extension positions of lumbar spine. The variables were calculated using Computer Aided Radiographic Analysis of Spine (CARA) software after scanning. Sixty-six volunteered males participated in three groups. Twenty-two subjects were in the control group, and 44 NSLBP were divided into LSI and not LSI groups according to the criteria adopted by Hicks et al. The ANOVA and Tukey test were used in statistic analysis. ANOVA results demonstrated differences in three groups; for full-range translation and rotation, were not significant. However, the results of ANOVA demonstrated significant difference in L4-5 mid-range translation and rotation (p < 0/05). Tukey test showed significant difference for L4-5 mid-range translation between control (2.14 mm) and LSI (1.33 mm) groups (p < 0/05). Tukey test demonstrated difference between the control (14.18°) and LSI (11.65°) groups (p < 0/05); the control and not LSI (10.80) groups (p < 0/05) were significant for L4-5 mid-range rotation. On the basis of the study results, the full-range translation and rotation cannot differentiate LSI from not LSI and control groups. Moreover, the mid-range translation only differentiates control from LSI, whereas mid-range rotation differentiates control from both LSI and not LSI. Copyright © 2012

  4. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  5. Depression, social factors, and pain perception before and after surgery for lumbar and cervical degenerative vertebral disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Jabłońska, Renata; Ślusarz, Robert; Królikowska, Agnieszka; Haor, Beata; Antczak, Anna; Szewczyk, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial factors on pain levels and depression, before and after surgical treatment, in patients with degenerative lumbar and cervical vertebral disc disease. Patients and methods The study included 188 patients (98 women, 90 men) who were confirmed to have cervical or lumbar degenerative disc disease on magnetic resonance imaging, and who underwent a single microdiscectomy procedure, with no postoperative surgical complications. All patients completed two questionnaires before and after surgery – the Beck Depression Inventory scale (I–IV) and the Visual Analog Scale for pain (0–10). On hospital admission, all patients completed a social and demographic questionnaire. The first pain and depression questionnaire evaluations were performed on the day of hospital admission (n=188); the second on the day of hospital discharge, 7 days after surgery (n=188); and the third was 6 months after surgery (n=140). Results Patient ages ranged from 22 to 72 years, and 140 patients had lumbar disc disease (mean age, 42.7±10.99 years) and 44 had cervical disc disease (mean age, 48.9±7.85 years). Before surgery, symptoms of depression were present in 47.3% of the patients (11.7% cervical; 35.6% lumbar), at first postoperative evaluation in 25.1% of patients (7% cervical; 18.1% lumbar), and 6 months following surgery in 31.1% of patients (7.5% cervical; 23.6% lumbar). Patients with cervical disc disease who were unemployed had the highest incidence of depression before and after surgery (p=0.037). Patients with lumbar disc disease who had a primary level of education or work involving standing had the highest incidence of depression before and after surgery (p=0.368). Conclusion This study highlighted the association between social and demographic factors, pain perception, and depression that may persist despite surgical treatment for degenerative vertebral disc disease. PMID:28115868

  6. Effects of combined teriparatide and zoledronic acid on posterior lumbar vertebral fusion in an aged ovariectomized rat model of osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Yishake, Mumingjiang; Yasen, Miersalijiang; Jiang, Libo; Liu, Wangmi; Xing, Rong; Chen, Qian; Lin, Hong; Dong, Jian

    2017-08-10

    There has been no study regarding the effect of a combination of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZA) on vertebral fusion. In this study, we investigate the effect of single and combined TPTD and ZA treatment on lumbar vertebral fusion in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty two-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and underwent bilateral L4-5 posterolateral intertransverse fusion after ten months. The OVX rats received vehicle (control) treatment, or ZA (100µg/kg, once), or TPTD (60µg/kg/2 d for 42 d), or ZA + TPTD until they were euthanized at six weeks following lumbar vertebral fusion. The lumbar spine was harvested. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone fusion, bone volume (BV), and bone formation rate (BFR)were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. Compared with vehicle (control) treatment, ZA and TPTD monotherapy increased bone volume (BV) at fusion site, and ZA + TPTD combined therapy had an additive effect. Treatment with TPTD and ZA + TPTD increased the bone fusion rate when compared with the control group. ZA monotherapy did not alter the rate of bone fusion. The TPTD and ZA + TPTD treatment groups had increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralizing surfaces/bone surface ((MS/BS) and BFR/BS compared with the OVX group. Our experiment confirm that the monotherapy with TPTD and combination therapy with ZA + TPTD in an OVX rat model of osteopenia following lumbar vertebral fusion surgery increased bone fusion mass and bone fusion rate, and ZA + TPTD combined therapy had an additive effect on bone fusion mass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Daily Administration of Prostaglandin E2 and Its Withdrawal on the Lumbar Vertebral Bodies in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment (on) and PGE2 treatment followed by withdrawal (on-off) on cancellous bone in lumbar vertebral bodies were studied in 7 month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The first groups of rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for 60,120, and 180 days, and the second group of rats were given PGE2 for 60 days followed by withdrawal for 60 and 120 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified sections of fourth lumbar vertebral bodies. Systemic PGE2 treatment elevated cancerous bone mass of lumbar vertebral bodies 26-60%, above control levels within 60 days and continued treatment maintained it for another 120 days, but the excess bone was lost after the treatment was witndrawn. PGE2 treatment for 60 days increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, and bone formation parameters, and shortened remodeling periods in a dose-response manner. These changes were sustained at the levels achieved by 60-day treatment in the rats treated for 120 and 180 days. The eroded perimeter increased at day 60 and further at day 120 and then plateaued. In the on-off treated rats, the cancenous bone area, bone formation, and resorption parameters returned to near age-related controls by 60 days after withdrawal and were maintained there after 120 days of withdrawal. Therefore, we conclude that the continuous treatment is needed in order to maintain the PGE2-induced bone gain. When these findings were compared to those previously reported for the proximal tibial metaphyses, we found that the proximal tibial spongiosa was much more responsive to PGE2 treatment than the fourth lumbar vertebral body.

  8. Significance of angular mismatch between vertebral endplate and prosthetic endplate in lumbar total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Oh, Sung Kyun; You, Je Wook

    2011-05-01

    A retrospective study. To determine whether angular mismatch between the vertebral endplate and prosthetic endplate during lumbar total disc replacement (L-TDR) affects the radiological and clinical outcomes. A prosthesis anchored to the vertebral body by using a large central keel carries an inherent risk of angular mismatch between the vertebral endplate and prosthetic endplate at a segment with a greater degree of lordosis, such as L5-S1. Theoretically, this angular mismatch can cause several problems, such as segmental hyperlordosis, anterior positioning of the upper prosthesis, posterior prosthetic edge subsidence, decreased range of motion (ROM), and a poor clinical outcome. This study evaluated 64 prosthetic levels of 56 patients who were implanted with L-TDR between June 2002 and February 2006. There were 38 and 26 prosthetic levels at the L4-5 and L5-S1, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 25.6 (12 to 49) months. The angle of mismatch between the lower endplate of the upper vertebral body and the upper prosthetic plate, segmental flexion/extension ROM, segmental lordosis angle at extension, distance from the posterior wall of the vertebral body to the posterior prosthetic edge were measured by obtaining radiographs. Clinically, the Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index were also evaluated. The angular mismatches between the upper vertebra and prosthesis at L4-5 and L5-S1 were 1.6 degree and 5.6 degree, respectively (P <0.001), at the final follow-up; these angles were not significantly different from those measured on radiographs obtained postoperatively (2.3 degree and 4.9 degree in L4-5 and L5-S1, respectively, P=0.324 in L4-5 and P=0.620 in L5-S1). The mean segmental ROM of the operated levels was 10.6 degree (4 to 22) and 6.1 degree (2 to 13) in the L4-5 and L5-S1, respectively (P <0.001). The mean segmental ROM, mean segmental lordosis angle, and mean distance from the posterior margin of the vertebral body to the posterior edge

  9. TIME COURSE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCLE HISTORY IN LUMBAR PARASPINAL MUSCLE SPINDLES ARISING FROM CHANGES IN VERTEBRAL POSITION

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Joel G.; Ge, Weiqing

    2008-01-01

    Background Context In neutral spinal postures with low loading moments the lumbar spine is not inherently stable. Small compromises in paraspinal muscle activity may affect lumbar spinal biomechanics. Proprioceptive feedback from muscle spindles is considered important for control of muscle activity. Because skeletal muscle and muscle spindles are thixotropic, their length history changes their physical properties. The present study explores a mechanism that can affect the responsiveness of paraspinal muscle spindles in the lumbar spine. Purpose This study had two aims: to extend our previous findings demonstrating the history dependent effects of vertebral position on the responsiveness of lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles; and to determine the time course for these effects. Based upon previous studies, if a crossbridge mechanism underlies these thixotropic effects, then the relationship between the magnitude of spindle discharge and the duration of the vertebral position will be one of exponential decay or growth. Study Design/Setting A neurophysiological study using the lumbar spine of a feline model. Methods The discharge from individual muscle spindles afferents innervating lumbar paraspinal muscles in response to the duration and direction of vertebral position were obtained from teased filaments in the L6 dorsal roots of 30 Nembutal-anesthetized cats. The L6 vertebra was controlled using a displacement-controlled feedback motor and was held in each of 3 different conditioning positions for durations of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 seconds. Two of the conditioning positions stretched or shortened the lumbar muscles relative to an intermediate conditioning position. Conditioning positions for all cats ranged from 0.9 – 2.0 mm dorsal and ventralward relative to the intermediate position. These magnitudes were determined based upon the displacement that loaded the L6 vertebra to 50–60% of the cat’s body weight. Conditioning was thought to simulate a motion

  10. Vertebral body Hounsfield units as a predictor of incidental durotomy in primary lumbar spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Du, Jerry Y; Aichmair, Alexander; Ueda, Haruki; Girardi, Federico P; Cammisa, Frank P; Lebl, Darren R

    2014-04-20

    Retrospective cohort study. To assess the association between vertebral body Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on quantitative computed tomography and the risk for incidental durotomy (ID). ID during spine surgery has been associated with adverse postoperative sequelae that may require prolonged hospital stay and reoperation. Previously identified independent risk factors include age, revision surgery, and lumbar surgery. ID was prospectively documented in spine surgery patients at a single institution during a 2-year period (incidence: 4%, 191/4,822). Patients with ID were matched 1:1 to a control cohort without ID based on age and sex. Inclusion criteria for both cohorts were primary lumbar surgery and quantitative computed tomographic scans within 1 year of date of surgery. Demographic, radiographical, and intraoperative data, along with dual x-ray absorptiometry t scores, were collected and analyzed. A total of 71 patients with ID met the inclusion criteria (38 male, 33 female). Average age of patients with ID was 63.8 ± 12.9 years (range: 34-85 yr). Computed tomographic scans were acquired 1.5 ± 2.2 months away from date of surgery (range: 0-12 mo). Inter-rater reliability for HU measurements between a fellowship-trained spine surgeon and a research fellow was strong (r = 0.901, P < 0.001). HU values were significantly lower in patients with ID than controls (149.2 ± 60.7 [range: 44.5-301.5] versus 177.0 ± 81.4, [range: 62.0-524.0], respectively; P = 0.023). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.603 (P = 0.034). A threshold of 169 HU optimized sensitivity (0.718) and specificity (0.451), and patients with HU value 169 or less were found to be at increased risk for ID (odds ratio: 2.092, 95% confidence interval: 1.042-4.201, P = 0.037). Lower HU value is an accessible clinical marker for increased risk of ID. A threshold value of HU was defined (≤169) that may be used clinically to identify patients at elevated risk for ID

  11. Ulmus davidiana extract improves lumbar vertebral parameters in ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xinming; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Wanguo; Wang, Yuanyi; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the skeletal effect of total ethanolic extract from the stem-bark of Ulmus davidiana (UDE) in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Effective dose of UDE was determined in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by measuring bone regeneration at fracture site. UDE (250 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic SD rats for 12 weeks. OVX rats treated with vehicle or 17β-estradiol, and sham-operated rats treated with vehicle served as various controls. Bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture, biomechanical strength, turnover markers, and uterotrophic effect were studied. Bioactive markers in UDE were analyzed by HPLC. Human osteoblasts was used to study the effect of compounds on differentiation by alkaline phosphase assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test significance of effects. OVX+UDE group showed BMD, microarchitectural parameters and compressive strength at lumbar vertebra (L5) comparable to sham. At proximal femur, OVX+UDE group exhibited significantly higher BMD, better microarchitecture and compressive strength compared with OVX+vehicle. OVX-induced decrease in Ca/P ratio was completely restored at both skeletal sites by UDE treatment. Serum procollagen N-terminal propeptide and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks were respectively higher and lower in OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle group. Osteogenic genes were upregulated in L5 and anti-resorptive genes were suppressed in proximal femur of OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle. UDE had no uterine estrogenicity. Analysis of markers yielded two osteogenic isoforms of catechin. In conclusion, UDE completely restored vertebral trabecular bones and strength in osteopenic rats by an osteogenic mechanism and prevented bone loss at proximal femur. PMID:27158327

  12. Comparison of polymethylmethacrylate versus expandable cage in anterior vertebral column reconstruction after posterior extracavitary corpectomy in lumbar and thoraco-lumbar metastatic spine tumors.

    PubMed

    Eleraky, Mohammed; Papanastassiou, Ioannis; Tran, Nam D; Dakwar, Elias; Vrionis, Frank D

    2011-08-01

    Single-stage posterior corpectomy for the management of spinal tumors has been well described. Anterior column reconstruction has been accomplished using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or expandable cages (EC). The aim of this retrospective study was to compare PMMA versus ECs in anterior vertebral column reconstruction after posterior corpectomy for tumors in the lumbar and thoracolumbar spine. Between 2006 and 2009 we identified 32 patients that underwent a single-stage posterior extracavitary tumor resection and anterior reconstruction, 16 with PMMA and 16 with EC. There were no baseline differences in regards to age (mean: 58.2 years) or performance status. Differences between groups in terms of survival, estimated blood loss (EBL), kyphosis reduction (decrease in Cobb's angle), pain, functional outcomes, and performance status were evaluated. Mean overall survival and EBL were 17 months and 1165 ml, respectively. No differences were noted between the study groups in regards to survival (p = 0.5) or EBL (p = 0.8). There was a trend for better Kyphosis reduction in favor of the EC group (10.04 vs. 5.45, p = 0.16). No difference in performance status or VAS improvements was observed (p > 0.05). Seven patients had complications that led to reoperation (5 infections). PMMA or ECs are viable options for reconstruction of the anterior vertebral column following tumor resection and corpectomy. Both approaches allow for correction of the kyphotic deformity, and stabilization of the anterior vertebral column with similar functional and performance status outcomes in the lumbar and thoracolumbar area.

  13. A predictive mechanical model for evaluating vertebral fracture probability in lumbar spine under different osteoporotic drug therapies.

    PubMed

    López, E; Ibarz, E; Herrera, A; Puértolas, S; Gabarre, S; Más, Y; Mateo, J; Gil-Albarova, J; Gracia, L

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures represent a major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture from bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. A previously developed model, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics, was applied for the evaluation of the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. BMD evolution in untreated patients and in patients with seven different treatments was analyzed from clinical studies in order to compare the variation in the risk of fracture. The predictive model was applied in a finite element simulation of the whole lumbar spine, obtaining detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at vertebral body. For every vertebra, strontium ranelate exhibits the highest decrease, whereas minimum decrease is achieved with oral ibandronate. All the treatments manifest similar trends for every vertebra. Conversely, for the natural BMD evolution, as bone stiffness decreases, the mechanical damage and fracture probability show a significant increase (as it occurs in the natural history of BMD). Vertebral walls and external areas of vertebral end plates are the zones at greatest risk, in coincidence with the typical locations of osteoporotic fractures, characterized by a vertebral crushing due to the collapse of vertebral walls. This methodology could be applied for an individual patient, in order to obtain the trends corresponding to different treatments, in identifying at-risk individuals in early stages of osteoporosis and might be helpful for treatment decisions.

  14. Three-dimensional lumbar spine vertebral motion during running using indwelling bone pins.

    PubMed

    MacWilliams, Bruce A; Rozumalski, Adam; Swanson, Andrew N; Wervey, Roy; Dykes, Daryll C; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H

    2014-12-15

    Eight healthy volunteers participated in this observational study. Quantify 3-dimensional motions of the lumbar vertebrae during running via direct in vivo measurement and compare these motions to walking data from the same technique and running data from a skin-mounted technique. Lumbar spine motions in running are only reported in 1 series of articles using a skin-mounted technique subject to overestimation and only instrumented a single vertebra. Reflective marker triads were attached to Kirschner wires inserted into the spinous processes of L1-S1. Anatomic registration between each vertebra and attached triad was achieved using spinal computed tomographic scans. Skin-mounted trunk markers were used to assess thoracic motions. Subjects ran several times in a calibrated volume at self-selected speed while 3-dimensional motion data were collected. Lumbar spine flexion and pelvic rotation patterns in running were reversed compared with walking. Increased lumbar spine motions during running occurred at the most inferior segments. Thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis exhibited significantly greater range of sagittal plane motion with running. The pelvis had significantly greater range of frontal plane motion, and the thoracic spine had significantly greater range of transverse plane motion with running. Skin-mounted studies reported as much as 4 times the motion range determined by the indwelling bone pin techniques, indicating that the skin motion relative to the underlying bone during running was greater than the motion of the underlying vertebrae. The lumbar spine acts as a distinct functional segment in the spine during running, chiefly contributing lateral flexion to balance the relative motions between the trunk and pelvis. The lumbar spine is also shown to oppose thoracic spine sagittal flexion. While the lumbar spine chiefly contributes to frontal plane motion, the thoracic spine contributes the majority of the transverse plane motion. N/A.

  15. [Case of painful muscle spasm induced by thoracic vertebral fracture: successful treatment with lumbar sympathetic ganglia block].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Kawai, Motoharu; Koga, Michiaki; Ogasawara, Jun-ichi; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    We report a 70-year-old man, who developed painful involuntary muscle contraction of the left leg after the lumbar discectomy, which exacerbated after a vertebral fracture of Th12. This involuntary movement was accompanied with the abnormal position of left leg simulating triple flexion response, and was induced by active or passive movement of his left knee and foot joints. Several drugs including benzodiazepines and dantrolene were ineffective, although treatment with baclofen or carbamazepine was effective. These findings suggest that hyperexcitability of the anterior horn cells following the disturbance of spinal inhibitory interneurons was involved. Electophysiological studies suggested the disturbance of left lumber nerve roots. The spinal root blocks from L3 to S1 were performed, after which the painful involuntary muscle spasm was resolved. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia block was also effective; suggesting that abnormal afferent neuronal input to spinal cord was caused by the nerve root trauma which triggered the formation of secondary abnormal network in the spine. Lumbar sympathetic ganglia block should be recommended to a therapeutic option for the refractory painful muscle spasm of the leg.

  16. Candida reactive T cells for the diagnosis of invasive Candida infection of the lumbar vertebral spine.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Felix C; Cornely, Oliver A; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Chang, De-Hua; Richter, Anne; Koehler, Philipp

    2017-09-05

    Invasive Candida infection is the fourth most common bloodstream infection. Blood cultures are the current gold standard diagnostic method, however false negatives remain a clinical challenge. We developed a new technique measuring Candida reactive T cells as diagnostic read-out for invasive Candida infection. In a pilot study, we followed the treatment course of a patient with an invasive Candida infection of the lumbar vertebral spine. We present the case of the 56 year old patient with HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma who developed septic shock during chemotherapy induced neutropenia. For the first time, we provide flow cytometry based diagnostics with Candida reactive T cells for invasive candidiasis with comprehensive MRI imaging. The Candida reactive T cell assay has potential to complement current diagnostic assays for invasive Candida infection and thus to support targeted treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Age estimation using thoracic and first two lumbar vertebral ring epiphyseal union.

    PubMed

    Albert, Midori; Mulhern, Dawn; Torpey, Melissa A; Boone, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Union of the vertebral centra or "ring" epiphyses occurs during adolescence and early adulthood, providing valuable age at death information. We present a system for estimating age based on the timing and pattern of vertebral ring union. Data from 57 known individuals aged 14-27 years were used to establish age ranges for various patterns of union in females and males. Female age ranges were more well defined with less overlap in patterns of union than male age ranges. The age ranges are accompanied by descriptions of the stages of union observed that aid in applying this method. A test of interobserver error in scoring stages of union demonstrated strong consistency among three observers (r = 0.91-0.97). Estimating age by observing all stages documented resulted in 78%, 88%, and 100% accuracies using vertebral data alone. We encourage the continued use of this method, in conjunction with other age indicators.

  18. The decreased responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to a prior history of spinal muscle lengthening is graded with the magnitude of change in vertebral position

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Weiqing; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    In the lumbar spine, muscle spindle responsiveness is affected by the duration and direction of a lumbar vertebra’s positional history. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between changes in the magnitude of a lumbar vertebra’s positional history and the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to a subsequent vertebral position and subsequent vertebral movement. Neural activity from multifidus and longissimus muscle spindle afferents in deeply anesthetized cats was recorded while creating positional histories of the L6 vertebra. History was induced using a displacement-controlled feedback motor. It held the L6 vertebra for 4 seconds at an intermediate position (hold-intermediate at 0mm) and at 7 positions from 0.07 to 1.55mm more ventralward and dorsalward which lengthened (hold-long) and shortened (hold-short) the lumbar muscles. Following the conditioning hold positions, L6 was returned to the intermediate position. Muscle spindle discharge at this position and during a lengthening movement was compared between hold-intermediate and hold-short conditionings and between hold-intermediate and hold-short conditionings. We found that regardless of conditioning magnitude, the 7 shortening magnitudes similarly increased muscle spindle responsiveness to both vertebral position and movement. In contrast, the 7 lengthening magnitudes produced a graded decrease in responsiveness to both position and movement. The decrease to position became maximal following conditioning magnitudes of ~0.75 mm. The decrease to movement did not reach a maximum even with conditioning magnitudes of ~1.55 mm. The data suggest that the fidelity of proprioceptive information from muscle spindles in the low back is influenced by small changes in the previous length history of lumbar muscles. PMID:22721784

  19. Heavy ion irradiation and unloading effects on mouse lumbar vertebral microarchitecture, mechanical properties and tissue stresses.

    PubMed

    Alwood, J S; Yumoto, K; Mojarrab, R; Limoli, C L; Almeida, E A C; Searby, N D; Globus, R K

    2010-08-01

    Astronauts are exposed to both musculoskeletal disuse and heavy ion radiation in space. Disuse alters the magnitude and direction of forces placed upon the skeleton causing bone remodeling, while energy deposited by ionizing radiation causes free radical formation and can lead to DNA strand breaks and oxidative damage to tissues. Radiation and disuse each result in a net loss of mineralized tissue in the adult, although the combined effects, subsequent consequences for mechanical properties and potential for recovery may differ. First, we examined how a high dose (2 Gy) of heavy ion radiation ((56)Fe) causes loss of mineralized tissue in the lumbar vertebrae of skeletally mature (4 months old), male, C57BL/6 mice using microcomputed tomography and determined the influence of structural changes on mechanical properties using whole bone compression tests and finite element analyses. Next, we tested if a low dose (0.5 Gy) of heavy particle radiation prevents skeletal recovery from a 14-day period of hindlimb unloading. Irradiation with a high dose of (56)Fe (2 Gy) caused bone loss (-14%) in the cancellous-rich centrum of the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) 1 month later, increased trabecular stresses (+27%), increased the propensity for trabecular buckling and shifted stresses to the cortex. As expected, hindlimb unloading (14 days) alone adversely affected microarchitectural and mechanical stiffness of lumbar vertebrae, although the reduction in yield force was not statistically significant (-17%). Irradiation with a low dose of (56)Fe (0.5 Gy) did not affect vertebrae in normally loaded mice, but significantly reduced compressive yield force in vertebrae of unloaded mice relative to sham-irradiated controls (-24%). Irradiation did not impair the recovery of trabecular bone volume fraction that occurs after hindlimb unloaded mice are released to ambulate normally, although microarchitectural differences persisted 28 days later (96% increase in ratio of rod- to plate

  20. [Anterior and anterolateral approach in the treatment of thoracic and lumbar vertebral metastasis causing spinal cord compression].

    PubMed

    Vargas López, Antonio José; Fernández Carballal, Carlos; Panadero Useros, Teresa; Aracil González, Cristina; Garbizu Vidorreta, José Manuel; González Rodrigálvarez, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the results of the anterior and anterolateral approaches in the treatment of thoracic and lumbar spine metastasis. Patients who underwent surgery between 2003 and 2012 in our institution using an anterior or an anterolateral approach for the treatment of thoracic or lumbar spine metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two patients with median age of 49.5 years (26-73 years) and median follow-up of 9.5 months (0-96 months) were analysed. The most common primary malignancies were renal cell carcinomas and breast adenocarcinomas. Before the intervention, 12 (54.5%) patients were able to walk (Frankel D and E). Preoperative arteriography was performed in 14 (63.6%) patients, and 7 (31.8%) of them underwent tumour embolisation. Medical complications occurred in 5 (22.7%) patients during the immediate postoperative period, 2 (9.1%) of whom died. At the end of follow-up, 16 (72%) of the remaining 20 patients were able to walk (Frankel D and E). Ninety percent of the patients could reduce at least 50% of their analgesic drug requirements. During follow-up 16 patients died, with a median survival of 10 months (range 0-48 months). Resection of thoracolumbar vertebral metastases by an anterior/anterolateral approach, despite its considerable risk of morbidity and mortality, offers the possibility of significant improvement in the quality of life of the patient; and it does so not only by preserving or restoring their ability to walk but also by ameliorating pain. Preoperative angiography, considering the embolisation of the lesion, is an important tool. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between lumbar inter-vertebral motion and lordosis in healthy adult males: a cross sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-03-10

    Intervertebral motion impairment is widely thought to be related to chronic back disability, however, the movements of inter-vertebral pairs are not independent of each other and motion may also be related to morphology. Furthermore, maximum intervertebral range of motion (IV-RoMmax) is difficult to measure accurately in living subjects. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships between (IV-RoMmax) and lordosis, initial attainment rate and IV-RoMmax at other levels during weight-bearing flexion using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF). Continuous QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active sagittal flexion of 60° in 18 males (mean age 27.6 SD 4.4) with no history of low back pain in the previous year. IV-RoMmax, lordotic angle, and initial attainment rate at all inter-vertebral levels from L2-S1 were extracted. Relationships between IV-RoMmax and the other variables were explored using correlation coefficients, and simple linear regression was used to determine the effects of any significant relationships. Within and between observer repeatability of IV-RoMmax and initial attainment rate measurements were assessed in a sub-set of ten participants, using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). QF measurements were highly repeatable, the lowest ICC for IV-RoMmax, being 0.94 (0.80-0.99) and highest SEM (0.76°). For initial attainment rate the lowest ICC was 0.84 (0.49-0.96) and the highest SEM (0.036). The results also demonstrated significant positive and negative correlations between IV-RoMmax and IV-RoMmax at other lumbar levels (r = -0.64-0.65), lordosis (r = -0.52-0.54), and initial attainment rate (r = -0.64-0.73). Simple linear regression analysis of all significant relationships showed that these predict between 28 and 42 % of the variance in IV-RoMmax. This study found weak to moderate effects of individual kinematic variables and lumbar lordosis on IV-RoMmax at

  2. [Analysis of pain management in a pre- and post-surgical periods performed for traumatic injury of the lower-thoracic and lumbar portions of the vertebral column].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, Iu A; Tanasiĭchuk, O F; Tolstikhin, O V; Holovan', M V

    2013-11-01

    The results of managing of 129 injured persons, treated for injuries of the lower-thoracic and lumbar portions of vertebral column, are adduced. The puncture transcutaneous vertebroplasty was done in 58 patients, stabilizing systems "Sekstant" were installed in 15, the "Mantis" systems--in 13, rigid systems by the open method--in 43. The pain syndrome dynamics was estimated in of the patients in accordance to the visual analogue scale. Positive dynamics in a frame of the pain syndrome regression was noted postoperatively. Differentiated application of various methods of treatment in the patients, suffering nonstable compressional fracture of the lower-thoracic and lumbar portions of vertebral column, permits to reduce anesthesiological risk significantly, to improve the results of treatment, to reduce the patients rehabilitation duration.

  3. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  4. Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures.

  5. Vertebral osteolysis originating from subchondral cyst end plate defects in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using rhBMP-2. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Sarah; Nottmeier, Eric W

    2010-07-01

    Vertebral osteolysis has been reported as a complication of off-label recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). It has been postulated that end plate violation during disc space preparation, rhBMP-2 overdosing, or a combination thereof can contribute to the development of vertebral osteolysis when rhBMP-2 is used in the lumbar interspace. To present two cases of vertebral osteolysis that occurred after TLIF in which rhBMP-2 was used. In each case, the osteolysis originated from subchondral cysts that were present on preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans. Case report. Two patients underwent instrumented TLIF using INFUSE (Medtronic, Inc., Littleton, MA, USA) on an absorbable collagen sponge carrier. In each patient, approximately 4 mg of rhBMP-2 was placed anteriorly in the disc space with 0.1 mg of rhBMP-2 being placed inside a polyetheretherketone interbody cage. Morcellized allograft bone mixed with demineralized bone matrix was also placed in the disc space and cage. The remaining rhBMP-2 was placed posterolaterally on the contralateral side. Each patient presented with worsening back pain approximately 3 to 4 months postoperatively and CT scans revealed osteolysis affecting the L4 and L5 vertebral bodies. The osteolysis appeared to originate from preoperative vertebral defects caused by subchondral cysts. One patient underwent removal of the interbody cage at the L4-L5 level and revision of the fusion with iliac crest autograft. At 15-month follow-up, he had no complaints of back pain, and CT scanning revealed solid fusion across the L4-L5 disc space. The other patient was offered revision of his fusion but declined any further surgery. At 2-year follow-up, that patient had persistent back pain but still declined any further surgery. A CT scan revealed unchanged osteolysis at the L4 and L5 levels. It has been proposed that rhBMP-2-induced vertebral osteolysis occurring in TLIF

  6. Rod rotation and differential rod contouring followed by direct vertebral rotation for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: effect on thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves assessed with intraoperative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Makino, Hiroto; Mine, Hayato; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2016-03-01

    Although direct vertebral rotation (DVR) is now used worldwide for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the benefit of DVR in reducing vertebral body rotation in these patients has not been determined. We investigated a possible additive effect of DVR on further reduction of vertebral body rotation in the axial plane following intraoperative rod rotation or differential rod contouring in patients undergoing surgical treatment for AIS. The study was a prospective computed tomography (CT) image analysis. We analyzed the results of the two intraoperative procedures in 30 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for AIS (Lenke type I or II: 15; Lenke type V: 15). The angle of reduction of vertebral body rotation taken by intraoperative CT scan was measured and analyzed. Pre- and postoperative responses to the Scoliosis Research Society 22 Questionnaire (SRS-22) were also analyzed. To analyze the reduction of vertebral body rotation with rod rotation or DVR, intraoperative cone-beam CT scans of the three apical vertebrae of the major curve of the scoliosis (90 vertebrae) were taken pre-rod rotation (baseline), post-rod rotation with differential rod contouring, and post-DVR in all patients. The angle of vertebral body rotation in these apical vertebrae was measured and analyzed for statistical significance. Additionally, differences between thoracic curve scoliosis (Lenke type I or II; 45 vertebrae) and thoracolumbar or lumbar curve scoliosis (Lenke type V; 45 vertebrae) were analyzed. Pre- and postoperative SRS-22 scores were evaluated in all patients. The mean (90 vertebrae) vertebral body rotation angles at baseline, post-rod rotation or differential rod contouring, and post-rod rotation or differential rod contouring or post-DVR were 17.3°, 11.1°, and 6.9°, respectively. The mean reduction in vertebral body rotation with the rod rotation technique was 6.8° for thoracic curves and 5.7° for thoracolumbar or lumbar curves (p<.00005). The

  7. Effect of hyperconcavity of the lumbar vertebral endplates on the playing careers of professional american football linemen.

    PubMed

    Paxton, E Scott; Moorman, Claude T; Chehab, Eric L; Barnes, Ronnie P; Warren, Russell F; Brophy, Robert H

    2010-11-01

    Hyperconcavity of the lumbar spine has been found in a disproportionate percentage of college football lineman evaluated at the National Football League (NFL) Combine compared with age-matched controls. College football linemen with hyperconcavity of the lumbar spine are more likely to play in the NFL and to have a longer career in professional football. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Ninety three linemen from the 1992 and 1993 NFL Combines with hyperconcavity of the lumbar spine were compared with 191 linemen from the same combines without these changes in the lumbar spine. The percentage of athletes who played at least 1 game for an NFL team and the average length of career was calculated for both groups. In addition, the length of career for players with these changes was compared with those of matched controls based on other injuries and surgeries, year drafted, and round drafted. There was no difference in the likelihood of playing professional football between linemen with lumbar spine changes (54 of 93 [58%]) and those without (101 of 191 [53%]) (P = .41). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in length of career in terms of years played, games played, or games started. Hyperconcavity of the lumbar spine does not appear to have any effect on the potential professional American football careers of college football linemen entering the NFL. Endplate changes on radiographs are not a significant screening tool for elite American football linemen. Further study of larger populations is needed to definitively answer whether these adaptive changes in the lumbar spine have any clinical relevance to these athletes.

  8. A hierarchical 3D segmentation method and the definition of vertebral body coordinate systems for QCT of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Mastmeyer, André; Engelke, Klaus; Fuchs, Christina; Kalender, Willi A

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new hierarchical 3D technique to segment the vertebral bodies in order to measure bone mineral density (BMD) with high trueness and precision in volumetric CT datasets. The hierarchical approach starts with a coarse separation of the individual vertebrae, applies a variety of techniques to segment the vertebral bodies with increasing detail and ends with the definition of an anatomic coordinate system for each vertebral body, relative to which up to 41 trabecular and cortical volumes of interest are positioned. In a pre-segmentation step constraints consisting of Boolean combinations of simple geometric shapes are determined that enclose each individual vertebral body. Bound by these constraints viscous deformable models are used to segment the main shape of the vertebral bodies. Volume growing and morphological operations then capture the fine details of the bone-soft tissue interface. In the volumes of interest bone mineral density and content are determined. In addition, in the segmented vertebral bodies geometric parameters such as volume or the length of the main axes of inertia can be measured. Intra- and inter-operator precision errors of the segmentation procedure were analyzed using existing clinical patient datasets. Results for segmented volume, BMD, and coordinate system position were below 2.0%, 0.6%, and 0.7%, respectively. Trueness was analyzed using phantom scans. The bias of the segmented volume was below 4%; for BMD it was below 1.5%. The long-term goal of this work is improved fracture prediction and patient monitoring in the field of osteoporosis. A true 3D segmentation also enables an accurate measurement of geometrical parameters that may augment the clinical value of a pure BMD analysis.

  9. An investigation of thoracic and lumbar cancellous vertebral architecture using power-spectral analysis of plain radiographs.

    PubMed

    Buck, A M; Price, R I; Sweetman, I M; Oxnard, C E

    2002-05-01

    The internal architecture of the vertebral bodies spanning the levels T1 to L5 in seven male columns was studied using mammographic-resolution radiographs of 2.5-mm-thick planar parasagittal slices. The overlapping radiographic shadows of vertebral trabeculae combined in the image to form a series of 'elements', broadly representative of the cancellous structure. The orientations and sizes of these elements were analysed by applying the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the digitized radiographic images. Elements aligned in the 'vertical' orientation, along the long axis of the column, were the most prominent for all vertebral levels. The relative prominence of horizontal to vertical elements was generally constant along the column below T5. In contrast, the relative prominence of oblique to vertical elements declined in the cranio-caudal direction, particularly in individuals aged > or = 60 years. The ratio of 'large' (x > 0.3 mm) to 'small' (0.15 mm < or = x < or = 0.3 mm) elements was unchanged cranio-caudally in specimens < 60 years. However, in individuals > or = 60 years, large elements increased in relative prominence in the caudal direction. These results suggest that a basic orthogonal pattern of trabeculae is found along the male human spine, regardless of differences in vertebral body size. Power-spectral analysis is shown to yield information summarizing the predominant orientations and sizes of radiographically rendered architectural elements of vertebral cancellous bone, to define the effects of ageing on architecture, and to identify broad structural differences between vertebral levels in the adult male spine.

  10. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  11. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  12. Vertebral Body Hounsfield Units are Associated With Cage Subsidence After Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion With Unilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jie; Li, Kang; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Chang-Qing; Li, Hua; Zhao, Jie

    2017-10-01

    To assess the association between Hounsfield units (HU) measurement and cage subsidence after lumbar interbody fusion. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with unilateral fixation becomes a popular treatment modality for lumbar degenerative disease. Cage subsidence is a potentially devastating complication after lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral fixation. Recently, a new technique for assessing bone mineral density using HU values from computed tomography has been proposed. Bone quality is believed to be one of the important factors that cause cage subsidence after TLIF. Cage subsidence after single-level (L4/5) TLIF with unilateral fixation was prospectively documented at a single institution between 2013 and 2014. Patients with cage subsidence were matched 1:1 to a control cohort without cage subsidence on the basis of age and sex. HU values were measured from the preoperative computed tomography. All patients received computed tomographic scans at a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. Sagittal images were evaluated for evidence of cage subsidence. Eighteen patients with cage subsidence were well matched 1:1 to a cohort without cage subsidence and had complete imaging data. The global lumbar HU values were significantly lower in patients with cage subsidence than in the controls (112.4±10.08 vs. 140.2±10.17; P=0.0015). Similarly, a regional assessment of HU across the fusion levels was significantly lower in patients with cage subsidence (113.4±10.47 vs. 127.9±8.13; P=0.0075). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic cure were 0.715 and 0.636 for global and regional assessment, respectively. The best cut-offs for global and regional assessment were 132 (sensitivity: 83.3%; specificity: 61.1%) and 122 (sensitivity: 72.2%; specificity: 55.6%), respectively. Lower preoperative HU values is associated with cage subsidence after TLIF with unilateral fixation. HU measurement may be used as a predictor of cage subsidence after

  13. Optical, spectroscopic, and Doppler evaluation of "normal" and "abnormal" reflexology areas in lumbar vertebral pathology: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D; Maran, V B; Das, Raunak Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, S P; Murali Krishna, C; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2012-01-01

    Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of "reflexology/reflex areas" in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of "normal" and "abnormal" reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated "normal" from "abnormal" skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  14. Replacement of Vertebral Lamina (Laminoplasty) in Surgery for Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A review of clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar laminoplasty (LL) for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis (ISL). Purpose The single session performance of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with allograft in the anterior column and providing the realignment of the vertebrae was presented as a preliminary report earlier. Overview of Literature Long-term surgical outcome of cervical laminoplasty in patients has been reported. But, outcome of LL in patients is unclear. Methods The long-term (5 years) year follow-up results of the LL technique are reported in this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative direct X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients that did not respond to conservative treatment were operated. Twenty-one (52.5%) female and 19 (47.5%) male patients were included. Results Mean age was 43,5 years (ranges, 22–57 years). The most common symptoms were low back pain (89%), pelvic and leg pain (69%) and reduction in walking distance (65%). A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted in 40 patients; posterior lumbar interbody fusion and laminoplasty with reduction was performed in 20 patients for L4–L5, 12 patients for L5–S1, 4 patients for L3–L4–L5 and 4 patients for L4–L5-S1. Ten (25%) patients with ILL had accompanying spinal stenosis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative sagittal plane rotation and dislocation degrees and disc space heights were statistically significant in all patients (p<0.05). Solid grade 4 fusion was observed in 38 patients; in only 2 patients grade 2 pseudoarthrosis developed (5%), but these patients were asymptomatic. Visual analog scale, Prolo economical and functional scale was examined with an average follow-up 5.5 years. Conclusions LL technique has the advantages of shorter duration of operation, lack of graft donor site complications, protection of posterior column osseoligamentous structures and

  15. Comparative evaluation of single-level closing-wedge vertebral osteotomies for the correction of fixed kyphotic deformity of the lumbar spine: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Sagi, H C; Liu, B; Yuan, H A

    2001-11-01

    Anatomic study. To compare spinal osteotomies with respect to obtainable correction and change in anterior height and distance of the spinal column and to describe a modification of the decancellation closing-wedge osteotomy to obtain further correction. Fixed kyphotic deformity of the lumbar spine can cause difficulty with sitting, lying flat, and pain and can pose a risk to adjacent spinal cord and nerves as well as impair respiratory and abdominal function. Various corrective osteotomies have been described. Osteotomies involving decancellation and a closing wedge of the apical vertebra theoretically decrease the risk to anterior vascular structures. Single-level vertebral osteotomies were performed on three groups of fresh-frozen human cadaveric lumbar spines. Group 1 underwent a conventional anterior opening-wedge/posterior closing-wedge osteotomy, Group 2 underwent a conventional decancellation posterior closing-wedge osteotomy, and Group 3 underwent our modified decancellation posterior closing-wedge osteotomy. Sagittal plane angulation as well as anterior height and distance of the spinal column were measured before and after osteotomy. The mean correction was 38 degrees for Group 1, 36 degrees for Group 2, and 49 degrees for Group 3. The mean change in anterior height and distance was 20 and 30 mm, respectively, for Group 1. For Groups 2 and 3 it was only 2-4 mm. The authors recommend single-level posterior decancellation procedures for correction of fixed kyphotic deformities of the thoracolumbar spine to decrease the risk to anterior neurovascular structures. An additional 10-13 degrees of correction can be obtained with the authors' modification.

  16. Internal morphology of human facet joints: comparing cervical and lumbar spine with regard to age, gender and the vertebral core

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Zanker, Daniel; Wolfram, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Back pain constitutes a major problem in modern societies. Facet joints are increasingly recognised as a source of such pain. Knowledge about the internal morphology and its changes with age may make it possible to include the facets more in therapeutic strategies, for instance joint replacements or immobilisation. In total, 168 facets from C6/7 and L4/5 segments were scanned in a micro-computed tomography. Image analysis was used to investigate the internal morphology with regard to donor age and gender. Additional data from trabecular bone of the vertebral core allowed a semi-quantitative comparison of the morphology of the vertebral core and the facets. Porosity and pore spacing of the cortical sub-chondral bone does not appear to change with age for either males or females. In contrast, bone volume fraction decreases in females from approximately 0.4 to 0.2 , whereas it is constant in males. Trabecular thickness decreases during the ageing process in females and stays constant in males , whereas trabecular separation increases during the ageing process in both genders. The results of this study may help to improve the understanding of pathophysiological changes in the facet joints. Such results could be of value for understanding back pain and its treatment. PMID:22257304

  17. 166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH AVE. FROM BUILDING 44 SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 46, 48, 55, AND 50 (PART OF ENLISTED BARRACKS COMPLEX), AND BUILDINGS 17, 16, 484, 483, 374, AND 375 (IN THE WAREHOUSE COMPLEX). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  18. Peer Review Handbook 4th Edition, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 4th edition of EPA's Peer Review Handbook, 2015 is the most up to date version. It was prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Members of the Peer Review Advisory Group under the direction of EPA’s Science and Technology Policy Council

  19. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the 4th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. Much has changed since the first "Kids & Family Reading Report" was issued in 2006, but literacy remains the critical skill needed for school success. Today's children are growing up in a world full of…

  20. 4th Annual IRIS Workshop Held

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas

    About 200 scientists gathered at the 4th annual Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) workshop in Santa Fe, N. Mex., April 12-14 and discussed recent research results obtained with the new generation of seismological instruments. The meeting provided a forum for developing new initiatives and disseminating information on how to access the IRIS Data Management Center. Organizers of the scientific program were Douglas Wiens of Washington University in St. Louis and Terry Wallace of the University of Arizona.

  1. 1990 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. The consistency and accuracy of roentgenograms for measuring sagittal translation in the lumbar vertebral motion segment. An experimental model.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, W O; Spratt, K F; Weinstein, J; Lehmann, T R; Goel, V

    1990-08-01

    An experimental model of the L4-L5 lumbar motion segment was developed that allowed precise manipulation of sagittal translation, rotation of L5 relative to L4, tilt of L4 on L5, and control of roentgenogram quality (image clarity) by placing a water bath between the tube and the vertebral body. A series of experiments were designed to systematically assess the consistency and accuracy of sagittal translation measurements from roentgenograms of varying quality, using different measurement protocols and various rater combinations on models with varying degrees of concomitant motions (rotations and tilts). Study 1 assessed the effects of roentgenogram quality, raters, and seven measurement methods on the consistency and accuracy of evaluating translations in the sagittal plane. Results indicated very high reliabilities across roentgenogram quality, raters, and measurement. As expected, high-quality roentgenograms were more accurately evaluated than lower-quality roentgenograms. However, closer inspection of the consequences of errors in measured translations indicated surprisingly high false-positive and false-negative rates, with significant differences observed between measurement methods. Study 2 assessed the effects of concomitant motions and measurement methods on the consistency and accuracy of evaluations. Within-rater consistency and accuracy indices were remarkably high and similar across measurement methods and degrees of concomitant motions. However, important differences in the false-positive and false-negative rates were again observed. Method 2, described by Morgan and King, demonstrated the overall best performance and the least interference due to concomitant motions. Study 3 assessed the effects of raters and measurement methods on the consistency of measuring translation in clinical roentgenograms, where concomitant motion factors may be present, but not explicitly considered. Results indicated substantially lower within- and between

  2. Influence of core stability exercise on lumbar vertebral instability in patients presented with chronic low back pain: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Javadian, Yahya; Akbari, Mohammad; Talebi, Ghoadamali; Taghipour-Darzi, Mohammad; Janmohammadi, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive lumbar vertebrae translation and rotation in sagittal plane has been attributed as an associated factor of lumbar segmental instability (LSI) and low back pain (LBP). Reduction of these abnormalities improves back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of core stability exercise on the translation and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in sagittal plane in patients with nonspecific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with NSCLBP due to LSI were included. The participants were randomly divided into two groups of treatment and control. The treatment group received general exercises plus core stability exercise for 8 weeks whereas; the control group received only general exercises. The magnitude of translation (mm) and rotation (deg) of lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal plane was determined by radiography in flexion and extension at baseline and after intervention. The primary outcome measures were to determine the mean changes from baseline in translation and rotation of the lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal plane after 8 weeks of intervention in each group. The secondary outcome was to compare the two groups in regard to translation and rotation of the lumbar vertebrae at the end of the study period. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: Thirty patients aged 18-40 years old with clinical diagnosis of NSCLBP entered the study. Compared with baseline values, mean value of translation and rotation of the lumbar vertebra reduced significantly in both groups (P<0.05), except L3 translation in the control group. At the endpoint, mean translation value of L4 (P=0.04) and L5 (P=0.001) and rotation of the L5 (P=0.01) in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that in patients presented with NSCLBP due to lumbar segmental instability, core stability exercises plus general exercises are more efficient than

  3. The utility of lumbar spine trabecular bone score and femoral neck bone mineral density for identifying asymptomatic vertebral fractures in well-compensated type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhukouskaya, V V; Eller-Vainicher, C; Ellen-Vainicher, C; Gaudio, A; Privitera, F; Cairoli, E; Ulivieri, F M; Palmieri, S; Morelli, V; Grancini, V; Orsi, E; Masserini, B; Spada, A M; Fiore, C E; Chiodini, I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of trabecular bone score (TBS) and bone mineral density (BMD) for identifying vertebral fractures (VFx) in well-compensated type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. TBS and femoral neck BMD below certain cutoffs may be useful for identifying VFx in well-compensated T2D patients. In T2D, the prevalence of VFx is increased, especially in poorly compensated and complicated diabetic patients. The possibility of predicting the fracture risk in T2D patients by measuring BMD and TBS, an indirect parameter of bone quality, is under debate. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the usefulness of TBS and BMD for identifying VFx in well-compensated T2D patients. Ninety-nine T2D postmenopausal women in good metabolic control (glycosylated haemoglobin 6.8 ± 0.7 %) and 107 control subjects without T2D were evaluated. In all subjects, we evaluated the following: the BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and the femoral neck (FN); the TBS by dual X-ray absorptiometry; and VFx by radiography. In T2D subjects, the presence of diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy was evaluated. T2D subjects had increased VFx prevalence (34.3 %) as compared to controls (18.7 %) (p = 0.01). T2D subjects presented higher BMD (LS -0.8 ± 1.44, FN -1.06 ± 1.08), as compared to controls (LS -1.39 ± 1.28, p = 0.002; FN -1.45 ± 0.91, p = 0.006, respectively). TBS was not different between diabetics and controls. In fractured T2D patients, LS-BMD, FN-BMD, and TBS were reduced (-1.2 ± 1.44; -1.44 ± 1.04; 1.072 ± 0.15) and the prevalence of retinopathy (15.4 %) was increased than in nonfractured T2D subjects (-0.59 ± 1.4, p = 0.035; -0.87 ± 1.05, p = 0.005; 1.159 ± 0.15, p = 0.006; 1.8 %, p = 0.04, respectively). The combination of TBS ≤1.130 and FN-BMD less than -1.0 had the best diagnostic accuracy for detecting T2D fractured patients (SP 73.8 %, SN 63.6 %, NPV 78

  4. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  5. Dynamic fe Model of Sitting Man Adjustable to Body Height, Body Mass and Posture Used for Calculating Internal Forces in the Lumbar Vertebral Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.

    1998-08-01

    Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.

  6. Promoting Maternal and Infant Health in the 4th Trimester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbiest, Sarah B.; Tully, Kristin P.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    The "4th trimester" refers to the transition period after childbirth when infants are adjusting to life outside the womb and mothers are adjusting to new parenthood. This critical period is marked by significant biological, psychological, and social changes, which are currently insufficiently supported. The 4th trimester perspective…

  7. "Effectiveness of continuous vertebral resonant oscillation using the POLD method in the treatment of lumbar disc hernia". A randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, Juan Vicente; Arias-Buría, José Luis; Lopez-Gordo, Estrella; Lopez Gordo, Sandra; Oyarzún, Alejandra P Aros

    2015-06-01

    This study analyses the efficacy of manual oscillatory therapy, following the POLD technique, for acute Lumbar Disc Hernia (LDH) and compares it to usual treatment. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind pilot clinical trial. The sample of 30 patients was divided into two homogeneous groups to receive usual treatment (A) or treatment with the POLD technique (B). We analysed range of motion and subjective variables such as the severity (visual analogue pain scale (VAS)) and extension of the pain. With the application of POLD therapy, patients presented significant changes on range of motion (forward flexion with p < 0.05) at completion of the trial in comparison with the control group. They showed a significant reduction in the severity of pain with a mean VAS scale for lumbar, glutaeus and thigh pain, which improved from 5.09 to 0.79, 5.07 to 0.97 and 4.43 to 0.49 respectively (p < 0.05), and also when compared to usual treatment (p < 0.05) for all body regions. Moreover, we observed a reduction in pain extension (centralization phenomena) (p < 0.001) in comparison with usual treatment. In our study the POLD Method was shown to be an effective manual therapy approach for reducing the severity and irradiation of the pain in LDH patients with sciatica, and more efficient than usual treatment.

  8. Groped for a novel stimulation method for the prevention of lumbar vertebral compression pressure bone fracture and verification using a bone density drop model mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kouji; Nishii, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Kazuyoshi; Teranishi, Toshio; Matsubara, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is leaving bones more fragile and susceptible to fracture. It has a massive impact, both physically and mentally, markedly diminishing quality of life. A new form of therapeutic exercise or physical therapy that mitigates the abrupt decrease in bone density in postmenopausal women must quickly be developed to avoid those problems. In this study, ovariectomy (OVX) mice were used as models to simulate the decrease in bone density observed in postmenopausal women. Physical therapy via a shaking stimulus, in the form of moving a platform that rotates in a roughly circular motion in the horizontal plane, was studied as a way to prevent the decrease in bone density of the lumbar vertebrae by analysis of bone histomorphometry, a feat that the stimulus from conventional therapeutic exercise and physical therapy have failed to achieve. Comparison of the stimulus/ovariectomized (+/+) group with the -/+ group indicated significant increases in ES (P < 0.01), N. Mu. Oc (P < 0.05), OV (P < 0.05), O. Th (P < 0.01), and L. Th (P < 0.01) in the +/+ group. If this finding is used clinically, we believe that it could lead to therapy that would prevent compression fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  9. Optical, Spectroscopic, and Doppler Evaluation of “Normal” and “Abnormal” Reflexology Areas in Lumbar Vertebral Pathology: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D.; Maran, V. B.; Das, Raunak Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, S. P.; Murali Krishna, C.; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2012-01-01

    Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of “reflexology/reflex areas” in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated “normal” from “abnormal” skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23365581

  10. Thoraco-lumbar traumatic vertebral fractures augmentation by osteo-conductive and osteo-inductive bone substitute containing strontium-hydroxyapatite: our experience.

    PubMed

    Masala, Salvatore; Taglieri, Amedeo; Chiaravalloti, Antonio; Calabria, Eros; Morini, Marco; Iundusi, Riccardo; Tarantino, Umberto; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of osteointegrable strontium-hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bone cement in the treatment of thoracolumbar traumatic vertebral fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty (VTP). We treated 35 patients [29 (82.85 %) men, 6 (17.14 %) women, mean age 34.05 ± 8.36 years (range 21-54 years)] with single type A1.1 and A1.2 thoracolumbar traumatic vertebral fracture without endospecal bone fragments. Pain intensity was evaluated before and at 1 day; 1 week; and 1, 6, and 12 months after VTP by a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) score (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). Physical status and quality of life were evaluated by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire before and 1, 6, and 12 months after VTP. Procedural technical success was achieved in all patients with no deaths observed during follow-up. In three patients (8.57 %), postprocedural CT showed cement leakages: one intradiscal and two in venous plexus. No adjacent vertebral body fractures nor intrasomatic recollapse was detected. The VAS and ODI scores showed a statistically significant reduction 1 week after procedure (P value <0.0001) with a progressive statistically significant reduction during follow-up (P value <0.0001). Twenty-three patients (65.71 %) assigned a value of 0 to the VAS scale at 1 year after treatment. Strontium-hydroxyapatite bone cement is an effective and safe bone filler in percutaneous vertebroplasty with low leakage rate and absence of major complications when performed by a skilled equipe. It allows an immediate and long-lasting stabilization with a significant pain reduction and quality of life improvement.

  11. Health Physics and Radiological Health, 4th Edition.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Health Physics and Radiological Health, 4th Edition. Johnson Thomas E., Birky Brian K., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Walter Kluwer business, Baltimore, Maryland, 2012, $205.99. ISBN: 9781609134198, 1288 pp. (hardcover). © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. 4(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop in Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Palacios Bustamante, Nadine; van Hall, Andre; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

    2006-01-01

    More than 70 interested colleagues attended the 4(th) Workshop of HUPO's Brain Proteome Project. The project was presented within nine talks mainly focusing on two running pilot studies as well as on data re-processing. A bioinformatics jamboree in Hinxton, UK, and the 5th Workshop taking place in Dublin next February were announced.

  13. Improving 4th Grade Primary School Students' Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out action research to investigate reading comprehension skills when using the SQ3R reading comprehension strategy. To that end, this strategy was used for improving the reading comprehension skills of 7 primary school 4th grade students who had problems with these skills. An action plan was prepared for 3hours a…

  14. Postoperative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Cerase, A; Lauro, L; Cianfoni, A; Aulisa, L

    2000-01-01

    The differentiation between normal sequelae and complications of any surgical treatment of the lumbar spine is of the utmost importance. Clinical and radiological diagnosis is often difficult. Certainly the introduction of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved and refined the diagnostic possibilities, however not all problems have been resolved. For example, the frequent resort in vertebral surgery to metal implants which may limit or even prevent the interpretation of CT or MR images, should be kept in mind. The main types of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are briefly reviewed, focusing on CT and MRI appearance of normal sequelae of early or late complications and the recurrence of the lesion that necessitated the first procedure.

  15. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hamoud, K.; May, H.; Hay, O.; Medlej, B.; Masharawi, Y.; Peled, N.; Hershkovitz, I.

    2010-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

  16. ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    and to present best practice standards and innovation within a range of disciplines. A member of the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF...interest to the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF) Group of JOAD presented at the ACSPRI 4th International Social Science Methodology conference...the dynamics of manual vs automated data analysis. Research findings related to these themes are contextualised for the TFF S&T forecasting

  17. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  18. Summary of the 4th Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration. PMID:28382222

  19. Report of the 4th European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Susana S; Distel, Martin; Linker, Claudia; Fior, Rita; Monteiro, Rui; Bianco, Isaac H; Portugues, Ruben; Strähle, Uwe; Saúde, Leonor

    2016-12-01

    The European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting (EZPM) is an ideal forum for group leaders using this fantastic animal model not only to discuss science but also to strengthen their interactions, to push forward technological advances, and to define guidelines for the use of this fish in research. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) was voted by the European group leaders to be the setting for the 4th EZPM, and the organizing committee, composed by Leonor Saúde (iMM Lisboa, PT), Susana Lopes (CEDOC, PT), Michael Orger (Champalimaud Foundation, PT), Rui Oliveira (ISPA, PT), and António Jacinto (CEDOC, PT), was very enthusiastic to organize a productive event. The 4th EZPM took place from March 15 to 19 at Pavilhão do Conhecimento, a Science Museum and Educational Center winner of The Great Prize FAD of Arquitecture 1999 and The Society for Environmental Graphic Design Award 2011. Over 5 days, 135 group leaders (89 men and 46 women) coming from 19 different European countries and also from the United States, Turkey, Israel, Chile, and Singapore presented and discussed their recent research achievements. In addition to the scientific oral and poster presentations, the group leaders gathered in very lively community sessions on morphants versus mutants (chaired by Didier Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, DE), funding issues (chaired by Uwe Strahle, KIT-ITG, DE), and gender equality (chaired by Corinne Houart, KCL, United Kingdom). One of the highlights of the 4th EZPM was the guided visit to Oceanário de Lisboa, an international award-winning place that celebrates life with a stunning display of living aquatic creatures.

  20. Fine PM2.5 around July 4th

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data used in these analyses was obtained from publically-available sources, specifically the EPA's AirNow website (https://www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data). The dataset provided includes the subset of data from AirNow that was used in our analyses.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Dickerson, A., A. Benson, B. Buckley, and E. Chan. Concentrations of individual fine particulate matter components in the United States around July 4th. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. Springer Netherlands, NETHERLANDS, 1-10, (2016).

  1. 4TH Marine Division Operation Plan Number 49-44

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-26

    I / i i -4- A. o. o o o 3 4-’ 4TH MARINE DIVISION 54 OPERATION PLAN NO. 49-44 DECLASSIFIED IAW CLIASSIFICATION $4...INTO ENEMY HANDS. LUISrAR! UNCLASS0FIDo .-O UNCLASSIFIED ri LL!n .. I . 155 - - o.- sr Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...the remainder of O-1 within Z, repared or further OPN PLAN 49-44 - 1 - O1 :?’:¢ . ... ~·~:~ I I - I --" , I %,"_’,: A I 1-W_ , - I I ---. -

  2. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton.

  3. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Chang, Shan; Zhang, Yuan-zhi; Ding, Zi-hai; Xu, Xin Ming; Xu, Yong-qing

    2011-04-14

    Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH) data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP). All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical operations by its relative position to the lumbar plexus. 3D

  4. Rate of Missing Socioeconomic Factors in the 4th KNHANES.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ah

    2012-11-01

    This study is to assess how missing values in socioeconomic status (SES) variables were handled in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine (KJFM) article using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data and to estimate the rate of missing SES variables from the 4th KNHANES. We searched all original articles published in the KJFM from 2007 to 2011 and identified those that used KNHANES as their primary source of data. None of the 11 articles which presented KNHANES SES variables took into account of omitions in the analysis. The estimated rate of missing data on education, household income, marital status, and occupation data of the 4th KNHANES was 0.3 (0.05)%, 2.7 (0.2)%, 0.5 (0.1)%, and 9.4 (0.9)%, respectively. When all four variables were used simultaneously, the rates increased to 11.8 (0.9)%. Respondents with missing household income tended to be older (P < 0.001), less educated (P < 0.001), and more likely to be unemployed (P < 0.001), and widowed (P < 0.001). A similar relationship was shown for missing occupation data. Omissions in SES variables in KNHANES were related to certain characteristics of study participants. Researchers using KNHANES data should keep in mind the possible bias which can be introduced by missing SES values.

  5. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  6. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [4th guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Jelcić, Jozo; Baretić, Maja; Korsié, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading public health problems in today's world. The situation is not significantly better in our country. The Republic of Croatia is among the countries with highest prevalence of obesity in the world. All attempts to stop the progression of obesity pandemic have not given satisfactory results up to date. On the other hand, the treatment of obesity is a long-term, exhausting and very complicated process with modest results. From 15th to 18th April 2010 the 4th Croatian Congress on Obesity with international participation was held in Umag with the aim of furthering knowledge about epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, complications and obesity treatment and to provide doctors who treat obesity with opportunity to share insights and experience. The Congress was attended by 200 doctors. At the Congress the Guidelines on Obesity Diagnostics and Treatment were adopted, which will provide practical help to doctors treating patients with obesity.

  8. The evolution of vertebral formulae in Hominoidea.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nathan E; Almécija, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    Primate vertebral formulae have long been investigated because of their link to locomotor behavior and overall body plan. Knowledge of the ancestral vertebral formulae in the hominoid tree of life is necessary to interpret the pattern of evolution among apes, and to critically evaluate the morphological adaptations involved in the transition to hominin bipedalism. Though many evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed based on living and fossil species, the application of quantitative phylogenetic methods for thoroughly reconstructing ancestral vertebral formulae and formally testing patterns of vertebral evolution is lacking. To estimate the most probable scenarios of hominoid vertebral evolution, we utilized an iterative ancestral state reconstruction approach to determine likely ancestral vertebral counts in apes, humans, and other anthropoid out-groups. All available ape and hominin fossil taxa with an inferred regional vertebral count were included in the analysis. Sensitivity iterations were performed both by changing the phylogenetic position of fossil taxa with a contentious placement, and by changing the inferred number of vertebrae in taxa with uncertain morphology. Our ancestral state reconstruction results generally support a short-backed hypothesis of human evolution, with a Pan-Homo last common ancestor possessing a vertebral formulae of 7:13:4:6 (cervical:thoracic:lumbar:sacral). Our results indicate that an initial reduction in lumbar vertebral count and increase in sacral count is a synapomorphy of crown hominoids (supporting an intermediate-backed hypothesis for the origins of the great ape-human clade). Further reduction in lumbar count occurs independently in orangutans and African apes. Our results highlight the complexity and homoplastic nature of vertebral count evolution, and give little support to the long-backed hypothesis of human evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  10. Lumbar facet stress fracture in a ballet dancer.

    PubMed

    Fehlandt, A F; Micheli, L J

    1993-12-01

    A frequent cause of back pain in athletes and dancers is stress injury to the posterior vertebral elements. Stress fractures affect the pars interarticularis and, rarely, other vertebral regions. The authors present their experience with the diagnosis and treatment of a fourth lumbar inferior articular facet stress fracture in a ballerina in this brief report and discuss the literature concerning posterior element stress fractures.

  11. Lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis is a key postural component that has interested both clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite its wide use in assessing postural abnormalities, there remain many unanswered questions regarding lumbar lordosis measurements. Therefore, in this article we reviewed different factors associated with the lordosis angle based on existing literature and determined normal values of lordosis. We reviewed more than 120 articles that measure and describe the different factors associated with the lumbar lordosis angle. Because of a variety of factors influencing the evaluation of lumbar lordosis such as how to position the patient and the number of vertebrae included in the calculation, we recommend establishing a uniform method of evaluating the lordosis angle. Based on our review, it seems that the optimal position for radiologic measurement of lordosis is standing with arms supported while shoulders are flexed at a 30° angle. There is evidence that many factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and sport, may affect the lordosis angle, making it difficult to determine uniform normal values. Normal lordosis should be determined based on the specific characteristics of each individual; we therefore presented normal lordosis values for different groups/populations. There is also evidence that the lumbar lordosis angle is positively and significantly associated with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, no association has been found with other spinal degenerative features. Inconclusive evidence exists for association between lordosis and low back pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The optimal lordotic range remains unknown and may be related to a variety of individual factors such as weight, activity, muscular strength, and flexibility of the spine and lower extremities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PREFACE: The 4th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondorf, Jakob; Hagermann, Gudrun

    1983-01-01

    Nordic meetings on nuclear physics have been held regularly in the various Nordic countries. The 4th Nordic meeting took place in August 16th-20th, 1982, at Fuglsø, situated in the "Mols mountains" in Jylland. The scientific nuclear physics program includes a broad spectrum of topics of current interest to nuclear physicists. The present issue of Physica Scripta covers nearly all the talks presented at the conference. The order of invited talks and contributions follows the conference program closely. We are pleased to have the opportunity to collect some of the highlights of nuclear structure and heavy ion reactions in one volume. The meeting was sponsored by The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Danish Natural Science Research Council and The Niels Bohr Institute. The financial support from these sources is gratefully acknowledged. The practical organization of the conference was most professionally handled by Bitten Brøndum and Agnethe Elsving. We are indebted to J. Ross Sørensen and his staff at "Fuglsø Centret" for the excellent and comfortable conference and housing facilities. We thank all of our speakers for a smooth cooperation. Last, but not least, we express our gratitude to Nils Robert Nilsson for undertaking the responsibility in editing these proceedings.

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt.

  14. The 4th Concept Detector for the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzacane, A.

    2010-05-01

    The 4th Concept Detector is designed for high precision measurements of Physics processes accessible at ILC. It consists of four basic subsystems: a pixel vertex detector for high precision vertex definitions, impact parameter tagging and near-beam occupancy reduction; a cluster-counting low-mass drift chamber for robust pattern recognition with over 100 three-dimensional space-points each with about 55 μm resolution, 3.5% specific ionization measurement; a high precision dual-readout fiber calorimeter, complemented with an EM dual-readout crystal calorimeter, both with time-history readout, for the energy measurement of hadrons, jets, electrons, photons, missing momentum, and the tagging of muons; and, an iron-free dual-solenoid to return the flux and provide a second field region for the inverse direction bending of muons in a gas volume to achieve high acceptance and good muon momentum resolution. All four subsystems separately achieve the important scientific goal to be 2-to-10 times better than the already excellent LEP detectors, Aleph, Delphi, L3, and Opal. All four sub-detector will be described along with their performance and Physics capabilities obtained with full simulation studies.

  15. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products.

  16. A kind of specific osteolytic destruction of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Chen, Jinhong; Pang, Xiaodong; Hei, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This report describes two young patients with osteolytic destruction in two adjacent vertebral bodies along with the intervertebral disc, and reveals its possible mechanism. A lateral radiograph and CT scan displayed a giant osteolytic cavity in the L4 vertebral body. An MRI or CT scan with a two-dimensional reconstruction displayed the same changes in the L4 vertebral body and lower endplate erosion in the L3 vertebral body. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation did not identify a specific cause of vertebral destruction. Both patients underwent anterior lumbar fusion surgery. The lesions were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Histopathological study of the destructed vertebral bodies in the two patients revealed the disruption or atrophy of bone trabeculae with infiltration of a large amount of B-lymphocytes and macrophages into the marrow cavities. Studies of its pathogenesis reveal that it is likely to be a B-lymphocyte-mediated local immune inflammatory reaction in the lumbar spine. PMID:22675148

  17. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans.

  18. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  19. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".

  20. Plasma-based studies on 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. W.; Baldis, H. A.; Cauble, R. C.; Landen, O. L.; Wark, J. S.; Ng, A.; Rose, S. J.; Lewis, C.; Riley, D.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Audebert, P.

    2001-08-01

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warm dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (Te), the density (ne), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, ne⩾1022cm-3 implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities end for plasmas with ne⩾1022 since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  1. Plasma-Based Studies on 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W; Baldis, H A; Cauble, R C; Landen, O L; Wark, J S; Ng, A; Rose, S J; Lewis, C; Riley, D; Gauthier, J-C; Audebert, P

    2000-11-28

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warn dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (T{sub e}), the density (n{sub e}), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, n{sub e}, {ge} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However. the possibilities end for plasmas with n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 22} since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  2. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  3. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs†

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior–inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  5. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  6. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis. PMID:26949473

  7. Morphological castes in a vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

    2000-01-01

    Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies. PMID:11087866

  8. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  9. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  10. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... issued to establish a temporary restricted area in Lake Tahoe, in the vicinity of Jameson Beach at South...

  11. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...

  12. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  13. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  14. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks...

  15. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  16. The prevalence of vertebral fracture amongst patients presenting with non-vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, S J; Gallagher, A P; McQuillian, C; Mitchell, P J; Dixon, T

    2007-02-01

    Despite vertebral fracture being a significant risk factor for further fracture, vertebral fractures are often unrecognised. A study was therefore conducted to determine the proportion of patients presenting with a non-vertebral fracture who also have an unrecognised vertebral fracture. Prospective study of patients presenting with a non-vertebral fracture in South Glasgow who underwent DXA evaluation with vertebral morphometry (MXA) from DV5/6 to LV4/5. Vertebral deformities (consistent with fracture) were identified by direct visualisation using the Genant semi-quantitative grading scale. Data were available for 337 patients presenting with low trauma non-vertebral fracture; 261 were female. Of all patients, 10.4% were aged 50-64 years, 53.2% were aged 65-74 years and 36.2% were aged 75 years or over. According to WHO definitions, 35.0% of patients had normal lumbar spine BMD (T-score -1 or above), 37.4% were osteopenic (T-score -1.1 to -2.4) and 27.6% osteoporotic (T-score -2.5 or lower). Humerus (n=103, 31%), radius-ulna (n=90, 27%) and hand/foot (n=53, 16%) were the most common fractures. For 72% of patients (n=241) the presenting fracture was the first low trauma fracture to come to clinical attention. The overall prevalence of vertebral deformity established by MXA was 25% (n=83); 45% (n=37) of patients with vertebral deformity had deformities of more than one vertebra. Of the patients with vertebral deformity and readable scans for grading, 72.5% (58/80) had deformities of grade 2 or 3. Patients presenting with hip fracture, or spine T-score vertebral fracture were all significantly more likely to have evidence of a prevalent vertebral deformity (p<0.05). However, 19.8% of patients with an osteopenic T-score had a vertebral deformity (48% of which were multiple), and 16.1% of patients with a normal T-score had a vertebral deformity (26.3% of which were multiple). Following non-vertebral fracture, some

  17. Incidence of and risk factors for non-vertebral and vertebral fracture in female Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a five-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T Y; Griffith, J F; Au, S-K; Tang, X-L; Kwok, A W; Leung, P-C; Li, E K; Tam, L-S

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the incidence of both non-vertebral and vertebral fracture in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to identify risk factors for incident fracture. In a five-year prospective study of 127 female Chinese SLE patients with an average age of 46.9 years (SD: 10.1 years), information on potential risk factors, including demographics, clinical data and bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine and hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was collected at baseline. At follow-up, participants reported incident non-vertebral fracture during the study period. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to determine incident vertebral fracture on lateral thoracic and lumbar radiographs, defined as any vertebral body graded normal at baseline and at least mildly deformed (20%-25% reduction or more in any vertebral height) at follow-up. Nine incident non-vertebral fractures occurred in eight patients during the study period. Six patients had one or more incident vertebral fractures. The incidence of non-vertebral and vertebral fracture was 1.26 and 0.94 per 100 patient-years, respectively. In multivariate logistic analyses, independent variables associated with incident non-vertebral fracture were duration of glucocorticoid use and prevalent lumbar spine osteoporosis, while risk factors associated with incident vertebral fracture were higher organ damage and prevalent lumbar spine osteoporosis. The incidence of fracture in SLE patients is lower than the prevalence reported in cross-sectional studies. Lumbar spine BMD appears to have a stronger relationship with incident fracture than hip BMD. This warrants further investigation regarding the optimal site of BMD measurement when predicting fracture risk in SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment. PMID:28056595

  19. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  20. Nontraumatic Rupture of Lumbar Artery Causing an Intravertebral Body Pseudoaneurysm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, Yoshinori Kudoh, Kouichi; Nakasone, Yutaka; Fujisaki, Tadashi; Uemura, Shouichirou; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2006-10-15

    We report a case of nontraumatic rupture of the lumbar artery that led to a pseudoaneurysm in the vertebral body and massive retroperitoneal to retropleural hematoma. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular embolization. To our knowledge, idiopathic rupture of the lumbar artery has been reported in a limited number of cases and pseudoaneurysm formation in the vertebral body has not been presented in the literature. The etiology of hemorrhage has been discussed based on CT, MRI, and three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  1. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen.

  2. Lumbar intrathecal ligaments.

    PubMed

    Kershner, David E; Binhammer, Robert T

    2002-03-01

    A meticulous examination was performed on 56 vertebral columns from cadavers between 64 and 89 years of age. Identification of all contents within the dural sac was completed; however, the main focus was the cauda equina and lumbar region. In addition to scope dissection, radiographs and histological preparations were used to identify structures, tissue types, and any possible pathology. Discrete intrathecal ligamentous bands were observed in all cadavers examined. They were found randomly binding the dorsal nerve roots of the cauda equina to the dura. Occasional binding of the ventral nerve roots to the dorsal roots was observed. Histological examination demonstrated a dense collagen ligament varying between 0.13 and 0.35 microm in thickness and from 3 mm to 3.5 cm in length. The average number of ligaments found per cadaver was 18. These ligaments displayed a broad base attachment to the nerve root or dura of approximately 3 mm. Looping of the nerve roots associated with these ligaments was seen in one cadaver with a burst fracture. Electron microscopic studies of these ligaments demonstrated similarities to denticulate ligaments. It is suggested that the intrathecal ligaments represent remnants from fetal development of the denticulate ligaments.

  3. Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Presenting as Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moutsoglou, Daphne M; Merritt, Frank; Cumbler, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium chimaera, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex, is a slow-growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium associated with outbreaks in cardiac-surgery patients supported on heart-lung machines. We report a case of an elderly woman on chronic prednisone who presented with a six-month history of worsening chronic back pain, recurrent low-grade fevers, and weight loss. Imaging identified multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis and lumbar soft-tissue abscess. Abscess culture identified M. chimaera.

  4. Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Heroin Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Fishbach, Ronald S.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Dahlgren, James G.

    1973-01-01

    The diagnosis of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis was made in seven narcotic addicts between 1967 and 1972. Vertebrae involved were either cervical or lumbar. Bacteriologic diagnosis was made in each case by percutaneous needle biopsy and aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in two patients. Five patients had infections due to Gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter. All patients were cured by treatment with antibiotics and immobilization. PMID:4199351

  5. Vertebrate skeletogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Véronique; Bhattaram, Pallavi

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate skeletogenesis consists in elaborating an edifice of more than 200 pieces of bone and cartilage. Each skeletal piece is crafted at a distinct location in the body, is articulated with others, and reaches a specific size, shape, and tissue composition according to both species instructions and individual determinants. This complex, customized body frame fulfills multiple essential tasks. It confers morphological features, allows controlled postures and movements, protects vital organs, houses hematopoiesis, stores minerals, and adsorbs toxins. This review provides an overview of the multiple facets of this ingenious process for experts as well as non-experts of skeletogenesis. We explain how the developing vertebrate uses both specific and ubiquitously expressed genes to generate multipotent mesenchymal cells, specify them to a skeletogenic fate, control their survival and proliferation, and direct their differentiation into cartilage, bone and joint cells. We review milestone discoveries made towards uncovering the intricate networks of regulatory factors that are involved in these processes, with an emphasis on signaling pathways and transcription factors. We describe numerous skeletal malformation and degeneration diseases that occur in humans as a result of mutations in regulatory genes, and explain how these diseases both help and motivate us to further decipher skeletogenic processes. Upon discussing current knowledge and gaps in knowledge in the control of skeletogenesis, we highlight ultimate research goals, and propose research priorities and approaches for future endeavors. PMID:20691853

  6. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 97. VIEW NORTHWEST OF 4TH FLOOR OF BUILDING 112; NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW NORTHWEST OF 4TH FLOOR OF BUILDING 112; NOTE REMNANTS OF BEARING SUPPORTS FOR OVERHEAD BELT AND PULLEY POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  8. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  9. Qualification of the 4th stage propulsor of the Brazilian launcher. SLV: A new sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscov, Jayme; Toyama, Wilson Katsumi

    1989-06-01

    The development of the Satellite Launcher Vehicle (SLV) is presented. In particular, the attention is focused on the acquisition of the propulsion parameters of the 4th stage propulsor. The device feasibility analysis is considered. The system consists of a two staged sounding rocket. Its second stage contains the SVL, which can be launched by the 4th stage propulsor to a height range of about 50 to 60 km.

  10. State-Space Modeling, System Identification and Control of a 4th Order Rotational Mechanical System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF A 4th ORDER ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM by Jeremiah P. Anderson December 2009 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE State-space Modeling, System Identification and Control of a 4th Order Rotational Mechanical...Educational Control Products is modeled from first principles and represented in state-space form. Identification of the state-space parameters was

  11. Curricular reform of the 4th year of medical school: the colleges model.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Stuart J; Wilkes, Michael S; Usatine, Richard P; Hoffman, Jerome R

    2003-01-01

    The practice of medicine has changed dramatically over the last 3 decades. Medical education has struggled to keep up with these changes, with only limited success. The 4th year of medical school offers a tremendous opportunity for curricular innovation, but little change has occurred in the past 30 years. This article traces the history of the 4th year, from the Flexnerian era in which the classic preclinical-clinical model for medical education was developed, through the 1970s, when virtually every medical school adopted a largely elective 4th year, to the present. Although the classic 4th-year curriculum has a number of strengths such as flexibility and relative autonomy of scheduling for students, it also has significant weaknesses. A major educational initiative for the 4th year-the "College Phase"-has been implemented at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. It is designed to remedy many of the weaknesses of the 4th-year curriculum while preserving the benefits. Five colleges have been created: acute care, applied anatomy, medical science, primary care, and urban underserved. Students participate in a number of different college-specific activities that are hoped to produce a more engaging, rigorous, and enriching experience for students and faculty alike

  12. Lumbar vertebral growth is governed by "chondral growth force response curve" rather than "Hueter-Volkmann law": a clinico-biomechanical study of growth modulation changes in childhood spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Natarajan, Raghu N; Babu, J Naresh; Kanna, P Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Andersson, Gunnar B J

    2011-10-15

    Vertebral defects were created in a validated 3D finite element model (FEM) to simulate destructive tubercular lesions of increasing severity. Forces in various parts of the spine were then calculated and correlated to deformity progression and growth modulation (GM) changes. To understand the biomechanical basis of GM, which governs spinal growth and the progression of kyphosis in posttubercular kyphotic (PTK) deformities. Hueter-Volkmann Law (HVL), chondral growth force response curve (CGFRC), and regional growth acceleratory phenomenon have all been proposed to explain the modulation of growth in limbs but have not been tested in vertebral end plates (VEP). We have previously documented various GM changes in posttubercular kyphotic. By simulating the kyphotic collapse in a validated FEM, the mechanical basis of GM can be established. Sixty-three children with tuberculosis treated conservatively formed the clinical material. The progress of deformity and GM changes in the fusion mass and the kyphotic curve was documented. Defects simulating lesions of four levels of severity (types A, B, C, and D) were created in a validated 3D FEM and subjected to load till restabilization occurred. The stresses at the end plates, discs, facet joints, and the points of contact were calculated. Regional growth acceleratory phenomenon and favorable growth changes were found in type A collapse where the facets were intact. With increasing destruction, the forces in the facet capsules increased beyond 30 MPa predicting facet dislocations in types B, C, and D collapse. As the contact stress on the VEP increased to 16.6 MPa (type B) and 40 MPa (type C), this was associated with growth suppression. Type D collapse involved facet dislocation at multiple levels leading to "buckling collapse". Acceleratory growth was found both in tension and compression phases proving that VEP growth followed principles of CGFRC rather than HVL. This is the first study in the current literature to

  13. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations.

  14. Etiology of lumbar lordosis and its pathophysiology: a review of the evolution of lumbar lordosis, and the mechanics and biology of lumbar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Bailey, Jeannie F; Safaee, Michael; Clark, Aaron J; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of postural degeneration, particularly the loss of lumbar lordosis commonly observed in the elderly in the context of evolution, mechanical, and biological studies of the human spine and to synthesize recent research findings to clinical management of postural malalignment. Lumbar lordosis is unique to the human spine and is necessary to facilitate our upright posture. However, decreased lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis are hallmarks of an aging human spinal column. The unique upright posture and lordotic lumbar curvature of the human spine suggest that an understanding of the evolution of the human spinal column, and the unique anatomical features that support lumbar lordosis may provide insight into spine health and degeneration. Considering evolution of the skeleton in isolation from other scientific studies provides a limited picture for clinicians. The evolution and development of human lumbar lordosis highlight the interdependence of pelvic structure and lumbar lordosis. Studies of fossils of human lineage demonstrate a convergence on the degree of lumbar lordosis and the number of lumbar vertebrae in modern Homo sapiens. Evolution and spine mechanics research show that lumbar lordosis is dictated by pelvic incidence, spinal musculature, vertebral wedging, and disc health. The evolution, mechanics, and biology research all point to the importance of spinal posture and flexibility in supporting optimal health. However, surgical management of postural deformity has focused on restoring posture at the expense of flexibility. It is possible that the need for complex and costly spinal fixation can be eliminated by developing tools for early identification of patients at risk for postural deformities through patient history (genetics, mechanics, and environmental exposure) and tracking postural changes over time.

  15. Herpes zoster sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koda, Masao; Mannoji, Chikato; Oikawa, Makiko; Murakami, Masazumi; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Okawa, Akihiko; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2015-07-29

    Symptom of herpes zoster is sometimes difficult to distinguish from sciatica induced by spinal diseases, including lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis. Here we report a case of sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis. A 74-year-old Chinese male patient visited our hospital for left-sided sciatic pain upon standing or walking for 5 min of approximately 1 month's duration. At the first visit to our hospital, there were no skin lesions. A magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis between the 4th and 5th lumbar spine. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with sciatica induced by spinal canal stenosis. We considered decompression surgery for the stenosis of 4th and 5th lumbar spine because conservative therapy failed to relieve the patient's symptom. At that time, the patient complained of a skin rash involving his left foot for several days. A vesicular rash and erythema were observed on the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the great toe and lateral malleolus. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster in the left 5th lumbar spinal nerve area based on clinical findings, including the characteristics of the pain and vesicular rash and erythema in the 5th lumbar spinal dermatome. The patient was treated with famciclovir (1,500 mg/day) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After 1 week of medication, the skin rash resolved and pain relief was obtained. In conclusion, spinal surgeons should keep in mind herpes zoster infection as one of the possible differential diagnoses of sciatica, even if there is no typical skin rash.

  16. Identification of Gifted Children: A Comparison of the Scores on Stanford-Binet 4th Edition and Form LM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluever, Raymond C.; Green, Kathy E.

    1990-01-01

    Composite scores for 51 gifted children (ages 3-12) on the Stanford-Binet LM were found to be significantly higher than scores on the Stanford-Binet 4th Edition. Correlations between the LM total and 4th Edition area scores were significant. Results suggest that the 4th Edition composite score cut-off value for assessing giftedness may require…

  17. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2016-04-11

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the influence of defined geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilising five parametrised musculoskeletal lumbar spine models for four different postures. The influence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine was studied. Additionally, simulations with combinations of selected parameters were conducted. Changes in L4/L5 resultant joint force were used as outcome variable. Variations of the vertebral body height, disc height, transverse process width and the curvature of the lumbar spine were the most influential. These parameters can be easily acquired from X-rays and should be used to morph a musculoskeletal lumbar spine model for subject-specific approaches with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, the model was very sensitive to uncommon configurations and therefore, it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualised.

  18. Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with multilevel lumbar spinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junming; Xiao, Jianru; Wang, Liangzhe

    2008-07-01

    The authors describe the case of a 44-year-old man with multilevel lumbar spinal Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), a rare clinical entity. To the authors' knowledge, there have been only 2 cases of lumbar spinal involvement of RDD (epidural) reported in the literature, and the current case is the third but the only one showing lumbar spinal intradural involvement of RDD. This case of RDD mimicked a meningioma both clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent a procedure in which the tumor was excised, and postoperatively the patient made a clinically acceptable recovery. Vertebral canal involvement of RDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vertebral canal tumors. Resection is an acceptable treatment option.

  19. Developmental control of segment numbers in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Céline; Pourquié, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation or metamery in vertebrates is best illustrated by the repetition of the vertebrae and ribs, their associated skeletal muscles and blood vessels, and the spinal nerves and ganglia. The segment number varies tremendously among the different vertebrate species, ranging from as few as six vertebrae in some frogs to as many as several hundred in some snakes and fish. In vertebrates, metameric segments or somites form sequentially during body axis formation. This results in the embryonic axis becoming entirely segmented into metameric units from the level of the otic vesicle almost to the very tip of the tail. The total segment number mostly depends on two parameters: (1) the control of the posterior growth of the body axis during somitogenesis—more same-size segments can be formed in a longer axis and (2) segment size—more smaller-size segments can be formed in a same-size body axis. During evolution, independent variations of these parameters could explain the huge diversity in segment numbers observed among vertebrate species. These variations in segment numbers are accompanied by diversity in the regionalization of the vertebral column. For example, amniotes can exhibit up to five different types of vertebrae: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal, the number of which varies according to the species. This regionalization of the vertebral column is controlled by the Hox family of transcription factors. We propose that during development, dissociation of the Hox- and segmentation-clock-dependent vertebral patterning systems explains the enormous diversity of vertebral formulae observed in vertebrates. PMID:19621429

  20. Multisegmental pneumatocysts of the lumbar spine mimic osteolytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Steingruber, I E; Bach, C M; Wimmer, C; Nogler, M; Buchberger, W

    2001-01-01

    Circumscribed radiolucencies within the vertebral bones can be due to a variety of changes including benign and malignant tumours or tumour-like lesions. Radiolucencies due to degenerative intraosseous pneumatocyst are very uncommon but have to be taken into the differential diagnosis in well-circumscribed lytic lesions of the vertebral bodies. We describe the first case of multisegmental pneumatocysts in the lumbar spine mimicking osteolytic lesions. On computed tomography, the air-equivalent attenuation values of the lesions and the close vicinity to the degenerated vertebral endplates with vacuum phenomenon led to the correct diagnosis.

  1. Concomitant Lumbar Stenosis and Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Christoph; Niemeier, Thomas E; Neway, William E

    2016-01-01

    Aortic pseudoaneurysm can create a constellation of symptoms that can mimic lumbar back pain. There are rare but well-documented reports of aortic pathology (aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and chronic contained aneurysm ruptures) eroding into the vertebral column causing neural compression. We report a case of a rapidly progressive aortic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with pre-existing lumbar spine pathology which had the potential for catastrophic intraoperative bleeding during a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) technique. Postoperatively, the patient’s radicular pain resolved but her back pain remained. Further workup identified the pseudoaneurysm and the patient subsequently underwent open vascular repair. In this report, we highlight a lesser known mimicker of lumbar back pain. PMID:27882269

  2. Vertebral osteomyelitis: clinical features and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eren Gök, S; Kaptanoğlu, E; Celikbaş, A; Ergönül, O; Baykam, N; Eroğlu, M; Dokuzoğuz, B

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to describe clinical and diagnostic features of vertebral osteomyelitis for differential diagnosis and treatment. This is a prospective observational study performed between 2002 and 2012 in Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. All the patients with vertebral osteomyelitis were followed for from 6 months to 3 years. In total, 214 patients were included in the study, 113 out of 214 (53%) were female. Out of 214 patients, 96 (45%) had brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis (BVO), 63 (29%) had tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis (TVO), and 55 (26%) had pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). Mean number of days between onset of symptoms and establishment of diagnosis was greater with the patients with TVO (266 days) than BVO (115 days) or PVO (151 days, p <0.001). In blood cultures, Brucella spp. were isolated from 35 of 96 BVO patients (35%). Among 55 PVO patients, the aetiological agent was isolated in 11 (20%) patients. For tuberculin skin test >15 mm, sensitivity was 0.66, specificity was 0.97, positive predictive value was 0.89, negative predictive value was 0.88, and receiver operating characteristics area was 0.8. Tuberculous and brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis remained the leading causes of vertebral osteomyelitis with delayed diagnosis. In differential diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis, consumption of unpasteurized cheese, dealing with husbandry, sweating, arthralgia, hepatomegaly, elevated alanine transaminase, and lumbar involvement in magnetic resonance imaging were found to be predictors of BVO, thoracic involvement in magnetic resonance imaging and tuberculin skin test > 15 mm were found to be predictors of TVO, and history of spinal surgery and leucocytosis were found to be predictors of PVO.

  3. Vascular complication involving the conus medullaris or cauda equina after vertebral manipulation for an L4-L5 disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Balblanc, J C; Pretot, C; Ziegler, F

    1998-04-01

    A case of injury to the cauda equina or conus medullaris after lumbar vertebral manipulation is reported. In contrast to all other previously reported cases, no migrated disk fragment was demonstrated. Similar to experience at the cervical spine, lumbar vertebral manipulation may carry a risk of vascular injury. The neurological manifestations in our patient were consistent with compression of the Desproges-Gotteron artery by a small L4-L5 disk herniation.

  4. Vertebral osteomyelitis complicated by iliopsoas muscle abscess in an immunocompetent adolescent: successful conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Yao; Wei, Ta-Sen; Chen, Yen-Chun; Huang, Shih-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is rare in children. The lumbar spine is the most commonly involved region. Vertebral osteomyelitis occurs more frequently in the vertebral body, and involvement of posterior element is rare. Vertebral osteomyelitis results from hematogenous seeding, spread from contiguous infections, and direct inoculation from spinal surgery. Initial symptoms include low back pain, difficulty standing, limping gait, and fever. Blood cultures should be obtained for children with vertebral osteomyelitis because it is the definite guide for providing accurate treatment. Computed tomographyi-guided abscess aspiration should be considered for patients with negative blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism in vertebral osteomyelitis, and the incidence of methicillin-resistant S aureus has increased in recent years. Plain radiographs, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful for making the diagnosis. Antimicrobial therapy for 6 weeks is usually successful, and an early transition to oral form does not increase the risk of treatment failure. Debridement with implant removal is required, especially for late-onset infections associated with previous spinal surgery. Vertebral osteomyelitis can cause motor weakness and paralysis. Because of the involvement of spinal development, spinal deformities, including scoliosis and loss of normal lumbar lordosis, should be a concern in pediatric patients. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment for vertebral osteomyelitis are important to prevent severe complications and lifelong disabilities.This article describes the case of a 14-year-old boy with spontaneous lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis who initially presented with low back pain and was successfully treated nonoperatively.

  5. Characteristics of thoracic and lumbar movements during gait in lumbar spinal stenosis patients before and after decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Wataru; Deie, Masataka; Fujita, Naoto; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Sunagawa, Toru; Asaeda, Makoto; Nakamura, Haruka; Kono, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2016-12-01

    Although gait analysis has been previously conducted for lumbar spinal stenosis patients, the vertebral segmental movements, such as of the thoracic and lumbar regions, and whether the spinal movement during gait changes after decompression surgery remain unclear. Ten patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and 10 healthy controls participated. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale. Spinal kinematic data of the participants during gait were acquired using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The trunk (whole spine), thoracic, and lumbar flexion and pelvic tilting values were calculated. Spinal kinematic data and clinical outcomes were collected preoperatively and 1month postoperatively for the patients. Compared to that observed preoperatively, the clinical outcomes significantly improved at 1month postoperatively. In the standing position, the preoperative lumbar extension of the patients was significantly smaller than that of the controls. Moreover, during gait, the lumbar flexion relative to the standing position of the patients was smaller than that of the controls preoperatively, and increased at 1month postoperatively. The sum of the thoracic and lumbar flexion values during gait negatively correlated with the score for leg pain. The epidural pressure of lumbar spinal stenosis patients is known to be higher than that of normal subjects during gait, and to decrease during walking with lumbar flexion. Preoperatively, smaller thoracic and lumbar flexion movements during gait relative to the standing position cannot decrease epidural pressure; as a result, severe leg pain might be induced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents in Partnership for Proficiency: For 3rd & 4th Graders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiner, Christine; And Others

    This document contains a series of learning materials for 3rd and 4th graders and their families. The materials are designed to augment classroom learning. Included are worksheets, games, and other skill building activities for writing, reading, math, citizenship, and science. These activities are meant to help children prepare for proficiency…

  7. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  8. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  9. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  10. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. This safety zone is intended to...

  12. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for the launching of fireworks being sponsored by the City of Martinez...

  13. Improving the Attitudes of 4th Graders toward Older People through a Multidimensional Intergenerational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Patricia P.; Merola, Pamela R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intergenerational program on children's attitudes toward older people. Four 4th grade classes, one each during the years 2002 through 2005, participated in the study. The elders and school children engaged in meaningful activities over a 5 month period, including the performance of a play…

  14. 4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  16. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  17. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  18. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  19. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  20. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  1. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  2. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  3. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Critical analysis of extra peritoneal antero-lateral approach for lumbar plexus.

    PubMed

    Martins, Roberto Sérgio; Monaco, Bernardo Assumpção; Siqueira, Mario Gilberto; Foroni, Luciano; Heise, Carlos Otto; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2011-08-01

    Lesions of lumbar plexus are uncommon and descriptions of surgical access are derived from vertebral spine approaches. The extraperitoneal anterolateral approach to the lumbar plexus was performed in six adult fresh cadavers. The difficulties on dissection were related. An exposure of all distal elements of lumbar plexus was possible, but a cranial extension of the incision was needed to reach the iliohypogastric nerve in all cases. Ligation of vessels derived from common iliac artery was necessary for genitofemoral and obturator nerves exposure in two cases. The most proximal part of the lumbar roots could be identified only after dissection and clipping of most lumbar vessels. The extraperitoneal anterolateral approach allows appropriate exposure of terminal nerves of lumbar plexus laterallly to psoas major muscle. Cranial extension of the cutaneous incision may be necessary for exposure of iliohypogastric nerve. Roots exposure increases the risk of vascular damage.

  5. Morphological modularity in the vertebral column of Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Goswami, Anjali

    2017-06-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the clear morphological differences among vertebrae across the presacral column are accompanied by heterogeneous functional signals in vertebral shape. Further, several lines of evidence suggest that the mammalian axial skeleton is a highly modular structure. These include its composition of serial units, a trade-off between high shape variance and strong conservation of vertebral count, and direct association of regions with anterior expression sites of Hox genes. Here we investigate the modular organisation of the presacral vertebral column of modern cats (Felidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) with pairwise comparisons of vertebral shape covariation (i.e. integration) and evaluate our results against hypotheses of developmental and functional modularity. We used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to quantify vertebral shape and then assessed integration between pairs of vertebrae with phylogenetic two-block partial least square analysis (PLS). Six modules were identified in the pairwise analyses (vertebrae included are designated as 'C' for cervical, 'T' for thoracic, and 'L' for lumbar): an anterior module (C1 to T1); a transitional module situated between the last cervicals and first thoracics (C6 to T2); an anterior to middle thoracic set (T4 to T8); an anticlinal module (T10 and T11); a posterior set composed of the last two thoracics and lumbars (T12 to L7); and a module showing covariation between the cervicals and the posterior set (T12 to L7). These modules reflect shared developmental pathways, ossification timing, and observed ecological shape diversification in living species of felids. We show here that patterns of shape integration reflect modular organisation of the vertebral column of felids. Whereas this pattern corresponds with hypotheses of developmental and functional regionalisation in the axial skeleton, it does not simply reflect major vertebral regions. This modularity may also have permitted vertebral

  6. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... at and just below the waist. A herniated lumbar disc can press on the nerves in the spine and may cause pain, numbness, ... point injections do not help heal a herniated lumbar ... on and irritating the nerves, causing symptoms of pain and weakness. The most ...

  7. Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. This narrowing is called “stenosis.” As the lumbar spinal canal narrows, the nerves that go through it are squeezed. This squeezing ... chest). It’s thought that these positions “open” the lumbar canal and take the pressure off the nerves that go to the legs. In severe cases, ...

  8. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Population reference range for developmental lumbar spinal canal size

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junbin; Law, Sheung-Wai; Xiao, Fan; Leung, Jason Chi Shun; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Considerable variability exists in normal developmental lumbar spinal canal size. This impacts the likelihood of neural compromise. Spinal canal development is complete by 17 years. As diseases incurred thereafter do not knowingly affect the developmental size of the spinal canal, it is reasonable to use a selected population undergoing abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) examination to determine developmental lumbar spinal canal size. Methods Study approval was granted by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee. Between Feb 2014 and Jan 2015, mid-vertebral spinal canal cross-sectional area (CSA), depth, width, and vertebral body CSA at each level from L1–L5 was measured, using a semi-automated computerized method in 1,080 ambulatory patients (540 males, 540 females, mean age, 50.5±17 years). Patient height and weight was measured. Results A reference range for developmental lumbar spinal canal dimensions was developed at each lumbar level for each sex. There was a 34% variation in spinal canal CSA between smallest and largest quartiles. Developmental spinal canal CSA and depth were consistently smallest at L3, enlarging cranially and caudally. Taller people had slightly larger lumbar spinal canals (P<0.0001). Males had larger spinal canal CSAs than females though relative to vertebral body CSA, spinal canal CSA was larger in females. There was no change in spinal canal CSA with age, weight or BMI (P<0.05). Conclusions A population reference range for developmental lumbar spinal canal size was developed. This allows one to objectively determine the degree of developmental spinal canal stenosis present on an individual patient basis. PMID:28090445

  10. Variations in the number and position of human lumbar sympathetic ganglia and rami communicantes.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamagata, Masatsune; Takahashi, Yuzuru; Shimada, Yutaka; Moriya, Hideshige

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide precise anatomical and statistical information about the number and location of lumbar sympathetic ganglia and the number and length of the related rami communicantes, and to consider the neurological pathway for nociception from the low back. Three-hundred ninety-three ganglia and 719 rami communicantes from 50 human cadavers were identified by gross dissection. The number of ganglia in a single lumbar chain ranged from 2 to 6, the mean being 3.9. The mean lengths of rami connected to the 1st and 5th lumbar spinal nerves, respectively, were significantly longer and shorter than those connected to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th nerves. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia and rami communicantes were not distributed segmentally. The present results may assist in understanding the nociceptive pathway from the low back. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Comprehensive therapy of symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas].

    PubMed

    Hrabálek, L

    2010-04-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas (VH) are usually asymptomatic and are often found incidentally at spinal examination by imaging methods. Nevertheless, some haemangiomas can be clinically manifested by various degrees of axial pain and neurological deficit. The aim of this report is to show that this is a complex issue that requires a comprehensive approach to its treatment. The author reports on three patients with aggressive forms of cervical and lumbar VH treated by radiation therapy or vertebroplasty and hemilaminectomy with resection of the intraspinal thoratic component of a tumour. He discusses his findings in relation to the scarce data found on this topic in the literature.

  12. A Generalized 4th-Order Runge-Kutta Method for the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We present the implementation of a method-of-lines approach for numerically approximating solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevksii equation in non-uniformly rotating reference frames. Implemented in parallel using a hybrid MPI + OpenMP framework, which will allow for scalable, high-resolution numerical simulations, we utilize an explicit, generalized 4th-order Runge-Kutta time-integration scheme with 2nd- and 4th-order central differences to approximate the spatial derivatives in the equation. The principal objective of this project is to model the effect(s) of inertial forces on quantized vortices within weakly-interacting dilute atomic gas Bose-Einstein condensates in the mean-field limit of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Here, we discuss our work-to-date and preliminary results.

  13. 4th European Seminars in Virology on Oncogenic and Oncolytic Viruses, in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy.

    PubMed

    Reale, Alberto; Messa, Lorenzo; Vitiello, Adriana; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    The 4th European Seminars in Virology (EuSeV), which was focused on oncogenic and oncolytic viruses, was held in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy, from June 10 to 12, 2016. This article summarizes the plenary lectures and aims to illustrate the main topics discussed at 4th EuSeV, which brought together knowledge and expertise in the field of oncogenic and oncolytic viruses from all over the world. The meeting was divided in two parts, "Mechanisms of Viral Oncogenesis" and "Viral Oncolysis and Immunotherapy," which were both focused on dissecting the complex and multi-factorial interplay between cancer and human viruses and on exploring new anti-cancer strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2641-2648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    PubMed Central

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  15. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  16. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  17. LESSONS LEARNED, HEADQUARTERS, 4TH BATTALION (AW)(SP), 60TH ARTILLERY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 4th Battalion (AW)(SP) 60th Artillery with attached Battery E (MG), 41st Artillery, remained assigned to I Field Force Vietnam, attached to I ...Battalion (AW)(SP), 60th Artillery, with attached Battery E (MG), 41st Artillery, was detached from 41st Artillery Group and fully attached to I Field Force...States and Free World Military Assistance Forces throughout the II Corps Tactical Zone and the I Corps Tactical Zone.

  18. SPI Observations of Positron Annihilation Radiation from the 4th Galactic Quadrant: Sky Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenspointner, G.; Lonjou, V.; Knödlseder, J.; Jean, P.; Allain, M.; von Ballmoos, P.; Harris, M. J.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Guessoum, N.; Schönfelder, V.; Chapuis, C.; Durouchoux, Ph.; Cisana, E.; Valsesia, M.

    2004-10-01

    During its first year in orbit the INTEGRAL observatory performed deep exposures of the Galactic Center region and scanning observations of the Galactic plane. We report on the status of our analysis of the positron annihilation radiation from the 4th Galactic quadrant with the spectrometer SPI, focusing on the sky distribution of the 511 keV line emission. The analysis methods are described; current constraints and limits on the Galactic bulge emission and the bulge-to-disk ratio are presented.

  19. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-03-17

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  1. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  2. Analysis of lumbar lordosis in an asymptomatic population of young adults *

    PubMed Central

    Busche-McGregor, Marion; Naiman, Joseph; Grice, Adrian S.

    1981-01-01

    The lateral lumbar x-ray films of 60 asymptomatic adults ranging in age from 18 to 30 years were analyzed with respect to 19 end-plate angles and the vertebral body heights. The mean, standard deviation and variance for each of the angles and heights measured is reported, and statistical evaluation is made to determine any difference between the male and female lordosis. No significant difference was found, other than the vertebral heights of L1, L3, L4 and L5 which were statistically larger in males. A fairly consistent pattern of vertebral heights was noted with respect to the level of the lumbar spine measured. Differences in the end-plate angles in each segmental region of the lumbar spine were calculated, and the angulation of the curve was found to increase the farther down the lordosis that measurements were taken.

  3. Herniated Lumbar Disks: Real-time MR Imaging Evaluation during Continuous Traction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Sub; Yang, Hea-Eun; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    To assess the morphologic changes in herniated lumbar intervertebral disks and surrounding structures during lumbar traction by using real-time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-eight consecutive patients with lumbar disk herniation (13 men and 35 women) were treated with continuous lumbar traction by using a nonmagnetic traction device. Real-time MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed before the initiation of traction and at 10-minute intervals during 30 minutes of 30 kg of continuous traction. Sagittal and axial MR images were analyzed to determine qualitative changes during lumbar traction. Quantitative changes caused by traction on the lumbar spine were determined by measurement of lumbar vertebral column elongation and the disk reduction ratio. Continuous traction on herniated lumbar disks and surrounding structures resulted in change in disk shape, disk reduction with opening in the intervertebral disk, reduction of herniated disk volume, separation of the disk and adjoining nerve root, and widening of the facet joint. Both the mean lumbar vertebral column length (elongation of 1.45% after 30 minutes, P < .001) and the mean disk reduction ratio (8.57%, 15.24%, and 17.94% after 10, 20, and 30 minutes of traction, respectively) increased with time of traction. The results of this study demonstrated that the real-time effects of continuous traction on herniated lumbar intervertebral disks and their surrounding structures can be visualized by using MR imaging. RSNA, 2015

  4. Extracranial vertebral artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Pineda, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vertebral artery stenosis and has a predilection for the origin and proximal section of the extracranial portion of the vessel and also the intracranial portion of the vessel. Although it has generally been thought that extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA) disease has a more benign outcome compared to intracranial vertebral artery disease, significant occlusive disease of the proximal vertebral artery is the primary cause of vertebral artery ischemia in a significant proportion of patients. We focus on the interventional management of patients with proximal ECVA disease in this article.

  5. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhang, Wei; Qie, Suhui; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery.In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared.The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively.PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period, and financial

  6. Quantification of lumbar endurance on a backup lumbar extension dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Hager, Staci M; Udermann, Brian E; Reineke, David M; Gibson, Mark H; Mayer, John M; Murray, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of static and dynamic lumbar muscle endurance measurements on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer. Sixteen healthy participants (8 male; 8 female) volunteered for this investigation. Fifty percent of each participant's body weight was calculated to determine the weight load utilized for the static (holding time) and dynamic (repetitions) lumbar extension endurance tests. Four separate tests (2 static, 2 dynamic) were conducted with at least a 24-hour rest period between tests. Test-retest intraclass correlations were shown to be high (static lumbar endurance, ICC = 0.92 (p < 0.0005); dynamic lumbar endurance, ICC = 0.93 (p < 0.0005) for both of the performed tests. Our results demonstrated that static and dynamic lumbar endurance can be assessed reliably on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer. Key PointsReliability studies that test lumbar endurance on machines that effectively stabilize the pelvis and isolate the lumbar extensors are limited.This is the first study to report reliability measures of static and dynamic lumbar endurance on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer.Static and dynamic lumbar endurance on a BackUP lumbar extension dynamometer, which uses a variety of pelvic stabilization mechanisms, can be reliably assessed in apparently healthy individuals.Future research is necessary to examine the reliability of lumbar extension endurance on the BackUP dynamometer in patient populations and validity in various settings.

  7. Percutaneous stabilization of lumbar spine: a literature review and new options in treating spine pain

    PubMed Central

    Marcia, Stefano; Marras, Mariangela; Suri, Jasjit S; Calabria, Eros; Masala, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fracture (VF) is a common condition with >160,000 patients affected every year in North America and most of them with affected lumbar vertebrae. The management of VF is well known and defined by many protocols related to associated clinical neurological symptoms, especially in case of the presence or absence of myelopathy or radicular deficit. In this article, we will explore the percutaneous stabilization of the lumbar spine by showing the newest approaches for this condition. PMID:27351691

  8. [A digital radiology method for assessing vertebral osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Diacinti, D; Acca, M; Tomei, E

    1996-01-01

    The radiologic identification of vertebral fractures is usually subjective and reproducibility is poor. This paper describes a new digital radiologic method to perform vertebral morphometry, i.e. osteoradiometry (ORM). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained in 50 premenopausal women and digitalized by means of a video camera. A special computer software enables to calculate the anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), and posterior (Hp) heights of vertebral bodies (T4-L5) and the morphometric indices of vertebral fractures. ORM reproducibility was assessed by comparing repeated measurements made by two radiologists: the intra- and interobserver variation coefficients (CV) were respectively 1.5% and 2.3% for Hp; 1.3% and 2% for Hm; 1.4% and 2.1% for Ha. The normal range for vertebral dimensions was therefore established. The anterior and posterior heights increased from T4 to L2, but for L3-L5 the posterior height was lower than the anterior height (Ha/Hp > 1). Vertebral heights positively correlated with the standing heights of the subjects (r = 0.2, p < 0.05). Weight and the body mass index (BMI) were not correlated with vertebral heights. These normal values, compared with those found in osteoporosis patients, will allow to assess ORM diagnostic efficacy in identifying vertebral fractures.

  9. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou; Niceville, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July 4th...

  10. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Crescent City, CA in support of the Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks on July 4, 2013. This safety...

  11. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... of Redwood City near Redwood City, CA in support of the Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show...

  12. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  13. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  14. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-02-09

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for

  15. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  16. Interobserver reproducibility of radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability

    PubMed Central

    Segundo, Saulo de Tarso de Sá Pereira; Valesin, Edgar Santiago; Lenza, Mario; Santos, Durval do Carmo Barros; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Ferretti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the interobserver reproducibility of the radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability. Methods: Measurements of the dynamic radiographs of the lumbar spine in lateral view were performed, evaluating the anterior translation and the angulation among the vertebral bodies. The tests were evaluated at workstations of the organization, through the Carestream Health Vue RIS (PACS), version 11.0.12.14 Inc. 2009© system. Results: Agreement in detecting cases of radiographic instability among the observers varied from 88.1 to 94.4%, and the agreement coefficients AC1 were all above 0.8, indicating excellent agreement. Conclusion: The interobserver analysis performed among orthopedic surgeons with different levels of training in dynamic radiographs of the spine obtained high reproducibility and agreement. However, some factors, such as the manual method of measurement and the presence of vertebral osteophytes, might have generated a few less accurate results in this comparative evaluation of measurements. PMID:27759827

  17. Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Sex determination is critical for developing the biological profile of unidentified skeletal remains. When more commonly used elements (os coxa, cranium) for sexing are not available, methods utilizing other skeletal elements are needed. This study aims to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism of the lumbar vertebrae and develop discriminant functions for sex determination from them, using a sample of South African blacks from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (47 males, 51 females). Eleven variables at each lumbar level were subjected to univariate and multivariate discriminant function analyses. Univariate equations produced classification rates ranging from 57.7% to 83.5%, with the highest accuracies associated with dimensions of the vertebral body. Multivariate stepwise analysis generated classification rates ranging from 75.9% to 88.7%. These results are comparable to other methods for sexing the skeleton and indicate that measures of the lumbar vertebrae can be used as an effective tool for sex determination.

  18. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  19. Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan

    2010-12-15

    The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

  20. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. Methods: 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4th, 8th and 16th weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. Results: No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. Conclusions: The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar. PMID:26885221

  1. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4(th), 8(th) and 16(th) weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar.

  2. Vertebral osteomyelitis in children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, R; Kohl, S; Pickering, L K

    1978-10-01

    Four children had vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Abdominal signs and fever were frequent clinical manifestations. Back pain was an uncommon symptom except as a late manifestation in one patient. The portal of entry of the organism generally was not apparent. Location of infection was in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Diagnosis was based on roentgenographic changes, radionuclide imaging, and bacteriologic corroboration. We conclude that symptoms and signs of vertebral osteomyelitis in children can be atypical and that a diligent attempt to rapidly diagnose and promptly treat this condition will prevent orthopedic and neurologic sequelae.

  3. Evaluation and Interventional Management of Pain After Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A small subset of patients who underwent successful vertebral compression fracture (VCF) augmentation procedures may develop subsequent pain requiring spinal injections. In a retrospective analysis, we determined whether the pain was related to the original fracture site or to another area within the lumbar or thoracic spine. The pain occurred either at the same/adjacent level and/or non-adjacent level as the VCF. Interventional treatments primarily targeted the facet joints, specifically in the form of facet joint blocks and/or radiofrequency ablation to the medial branches. The pattern of facet injections relative to the original fracture level was studied. Additionally, the elapsed time between the vertebral augmentation and the subsequent interventional blocks was also evaluated. Methods A total of 56 patients sustained VCFs. 12 of these patients underwent interventional procedures after vertebral augmentation procedures. The level(s) of same/adjacent level and non-adjacent level pain were determined via physical examination and/or imaging studies. These levels were subsequently treated with interventional procedures primarily focused on the facet joints. The time period of the injections varied from two weeks status post-vertebral augmentation to as late as 304 weeks (5.8 years) status post-vertebral augmentation. Results We performed 25 vertebral augmentation procedures on these 12 patients. 15 lumbar, eight lower thoracic, and two mid-thoracic VCFs were augmented. 9/14 cases of blocks included those performed at non-adjacent levels, whereas 5/14 cases of blocks were performed only at the same and/or adjacent levels as the VCF. For the events in which thoracic VCFs were augmented, 6/7 (or 86%) had developed non-adjacent level pain in areas of the lumbar spine.  The time from vertebral augmentation procedure to subsequent pain procedure ranged from two weeks to five plus years. The average time elapsed was 83 weeks. Only one case

  4. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  5. [Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health. InformAzione (InformAction) is the title of the last OISG report (Italian observatory on Global Health), dedicated to information and education, the essential bases for a conscious action aimed at decreasing inequalities. Increasing the investments in information, education and interventions oriented to global health may broaden the number of aware and informed citizens, able to start a dialogue, to make pressures to increase the interventions in favor of those in need.

  6. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  7. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  8. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  9. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  10. 4TH Mediterranean Workshop and Tropical Meeting "Novel Optical Materials and Applications" NOMA 99.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-19

    ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 298-102 4th...point of view. We use a statistical approach for the nematic order including surface anisotropy in the frame of mean field theory. It gives a Boltzmann...500 pm thick. The crystals, which had damage thresholds > 400 GW/cm2 for 100 fsec pulses at 1600 nm were investigated with open and closed aperture

  11. Risk factors of adjacent vertebral collapse after percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral fracture in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kenji; Kamimura, Mikio; Moriya, Hideki; Ashizawa, Ryohei; Koike, Tsuyoshi; Hidai, Yohei; Ikegami, Shota; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-12

    Recently percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) was frequently performed for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). It is widely accepted that new compression fractures tend to occur adjacent to the vertebral bodies, typically within a month after PVP. To determine the risk factors among several potential predictors for de novo VFs following PVP in patients with osteoporosis. We retrospectively screened the clinical results of 88 patients who had been treated by PVP. Fifteen cases were excluded due to non-union. Of the remaining 73 patients, 19 (26.0%) later returned with pain due to a new vertebral compression fracture. One patient with a non-adjacent fracture and 2 patients with adjacent factures occurring 3 months later were excluded from the study. The 9 male patients were excluded to avoid gender bias. Ultimately, we divided the 61 remaining postmenopausal female patients (mean age: 78.9 years) into the collapse group (14 patients) who had experienced adjacent vertebral collapse after PVP and the non-collapse group (47 patients) who had not. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for new VFs after PVP. All 14 cases of adjacent VF occurred within the first month after surgery. The collapse group had significantly advanced age, higher urinary N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, and lower lumbar and hip bone mineral density (BMD) scores as compared with the non-collapse group. The odds ratios for age, lumbar, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanteric BMD were 4.5, 8.2, 4.5, 7.2, and 9.6, respectively. Positive likelihood ratios suggested that age more than 85 years, lumbar BMD less than 0.700 [-2.6SD], total hip BMD less than 0.700 [-1.8SD], neck BMD less than 0.600 [-2.1], and trochanter BMD less than 0.600 conferred an elevated risk of adjacent VF. Our study revealed that advanced age and decreased lumbar and hip BMD scores most strongly indicated a risk of adjacent VF following PVP.

  12. Beliefs about the causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Burke, Sara E; Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel; Morris, Megan; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    Physician knowledge of the complex contributors to obesity varies. We do not know whether today's medical students are graduating with deep understanding of the causes of obesity. Our objective was to assess beliefs about causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students. We randomly selected 2000 4th year students from a random sample of 50 U.S. medical schools and asked them to rate the importance of several factors as causes of obesity. Of those invited, 1244 (62%) responded. We conducted latent class analysis to identify groups with similar response patterns. Most students demonstrated knowledge that obesity has multiple contributors. Students fell into 1 of 4 classes: (1) more likely to endorse all contributors (28%), (2) more likely to endorse physiological contributors (27%), (3) more likely to endorse behavioral or social contributors (24%), and (4) unlikely to endorse contributors outside of overeating and physical activity (22%). Though students were generally aware of multiple causes, there were 4 distinct patterns of beliefs, with implications for patient care. Targeted interventions may help to improve depth of knowledge about the causes of obesity and lead to more effective care for obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  14. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  15. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  16. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Lutchmaya, S; Baron-Cohen, S; Raggatt, P; Knickmeyer, R; Manning, J T

    2004-04-01

    The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic (mean 2D:4D is lower in males than females) and is thought to be fixed early in development. 2D:4D has been reported to be related to fetal growth, hand preference, autism, Asperger's syndrome, sperm counts, family size, age at myocardial infarction in men and breast cancer in women. There is indirect evidence that 2D:4D is established in utero and is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estradiol. However, there are no studies which show direct relationships between fetal testosterone (FT), fetal estradiol (FE) and 2D:4D. To investigate the relationships between 2D:4D ratios and FT and FE from amniotic fluid. Cohort study. 33 children. Radioimmunoassays of FT and FE obtained from routine amniocentesis; 2D:4D ratios calculated from 2nd and 4th digit length of the right and left hands at age 2 years. A significant negative association between right 2D:4D ratio and FT/FE ratio, which was independent of sex. These preliminary findings lend support to an association between low 2D:4D and high levels of FT relative to FE, and high 2D:4D with low FT relative to FE.

  17. Improving the quality of adverse drug reaction reporting by 4th-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Rosebraugh, Curtis J; Tsong, Yi; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Min; Mackey, Ann Corken; Flowers, Charlene; Toyer, Denise; Flockhart, David A; Honig, Peter K

    2003-03-01

    Evaluate whether a 15-minute lecture intervention will improve adverse drug reaction reporting quality on standard MedWatch forms. Seventy-eight 4th-year medical students were randomized to intervention 'Group-A' or non-intervention 'Group-B' on the first day of a required five-day clinical pharmacology rotation. Group-A participants attended a 15-minute lecture on completing a MedWatch form with quality information considered by the Food and Drug Administration as critical to adequate adverse drug reaction reporting. Group-B participants did not attend this lecture. Both groups then watched a standardized patient interview of a recognizable adverse drug reaction and completed MedWatch forms. Four Safety Evaluators from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rated student responses in a blinded fashion for the primary efficacy variable of Overall Impression and six informational domins using a standardized data quality analysis form that was developed within the Office of Postmarketing Drug Risk Assessment of the FDA. Seventy-eight MedWatch forms were evaluated (Group-A = 40, Group B = 38). Overall MedWatch information quality scores for the intervention group were significantly higher than the non-intervention group (p < 0.004). As little as a 15-minute intervention can significantly improve the quality of adverse drug reaction reporting by 4th-year medical students. Academic medical centers should consider incorporating adverse drug reaction reporting curriculum into the clinical training of medical students.

  18. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  19. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-05-14

    Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. We used data from the 2004-2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression. 4th grade boys were

  20. Effects of sagittal endplate shape on lumbar segmental mobility as evaluated by kinetic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yawei; Lord, Elizabeth; Cohen, Yermie; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guohua; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Retrospective analysis using kinetic magnetic resonance imaging. To investigate relationships between vertebral endplate remodeling, Modic changes, disc degeneration, and lumbar segmental mobility. Previous studies have shown that disc degeneration and vertebral endplate Modic changes are associated with differences in spinal motion, however, the effects of vertebral endplate morphology on lumbar segmental motion have not been fully investigated. A total of 420 patients underwent kinetic magnetic resonance imaging of 2100 lumbar motion segments. Sagittal endplate shapes (concave, flat, irregular), Modic changes (types, 0-3), and disc degeneration (grade, I-V) were assessed along with translational and angular motion of vertebral segments in flexion, extension, and neutral positions. The most common findings were concave endplate shape (63.24%), type 2 Modic change (71.79%), and grade II disc degeneration (40.33%). Flat, irregular endplates were more common at L1-L2, L4-L5, and L5-S1 than L2-L3 and L3-L4. Types 1, 2, and 3 Modic changes increased in frequency according to endplate shape: concave less than flat less than irregular. Type 0 was observed to decrease with the change of endplate shape from flat to concave to irregular. Vertebral levels with irregular endplates had more disc generation than those with flat; levels with flat endplates had significantly more disc degeneration than those with concave. Translational motion of the lumbar segment was greatest at levels with irregular endplates and decreased at those with flat and then concaves endplates. Angular motion was least at levels with irregular endplates and increased at levels with flat, then concave endplates. The degree of pathogenic lumbar segmental motion is associated with remodeling of the sagittal endplate. Endplate remodeling may occur as an adaptation to restrain abnormal movement of the lumbar segment. N/A.

  1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vertebral Osteomyelitis Following Epidural Catheterization: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, R.; Renjitkumar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Indwelling epidural catheters are frequently used to manage postoperative pain. This report describes a patient who developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) vertebral osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine following epidural catheterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MRSA vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to epidural catheter use in the English orthopedic literature. The patient and his family consented to publishing the data. PMID:24353973

  2. Sympathetic radiofrequency neurolysis for unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aşik, Züleyha Soytürk; Orbey, Başak Ceyda; Aşik, Ibrahim

    2008-07-01

    Patients with hyperhidrosis suffer from physical, social and mental discomfort which often cannot be treated sufficiently using conservative measures. A new percutaneous approach to sympathectomy using radiofrequency denervation has seemed to offer longer duration of action and less incidence of post sympathetic neuralgia. This article reports the authors' experience with sympathetic RF neurolysis in a 35 year old male with right unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis. Under scopy guided localization of the lumbar spine sympathetic blockade with local anesthetics to L2-5 vertebral levels were performed as a diagnostic block. Lesion effectiveness is monitored by bilateral feet skin temperature measurement. Clinical effects produced by the first sympathetic ganglion block were sustained for 1 week and then RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglion was performed to the same levels for a longer effect. The procedure was accomplished within 30 minutes and the patient was discharged within 2 hours after the procedure. Hyperhidrosis was relieved after the procedure and there were no postsympathectomy neuralgia and sexual dysfunction. The patient obtained improvement of lumbar hyperhidrosis at his first month of follow- up and was satisfied with the outcome. In conclusion, RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglions is a safe and effective palliative procedure with minimal invasiveness for relieving excessive sweat secretion in patients with localized hyperhidrosis.

  3. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  4. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  5. Identification of 4th intercostal space using sternal notch to xiphoid length for accurate electrocardiogram lead placement.

    PubMed

    Day, Kevin; Oliva, Isabel; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Marcus, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Precordial ECG lead placement is difficult in obese patients with increased chest wall soft tissues due to inaccurate palpation of the intercostal spaces. We investigated whether the length of the sternum (distance between the sternal notch and xiphoid process) can accurately predict the location of the 4th intercostal space, which is the traditional location for V1 lead position. Fifty-five consecutive adult chest computed tomography examinations were reviewed for measurements. The sternal notch to right 4th intercostal space distance was 67% of the sternal notch to xiphoid process length with an overall correlation of r=0.600 (p<0.001). The above measurement may be utilized to locate the 4th intercostal space for accurate placement of the precordial electrodes in adults in whom the 4th intercostal space cannot be found by physical exam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Giant cell tumor of the 4th metacarpal bone of the left hand. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamel, E J; Pinto, J A; Potenza, L; Michelena, A; Perez Signini, F; Fuenmayor, A

    1983-01-01

    He is a 46 year old patient that consults on a tumor that deforms the back of his left hand. The X-ray examination shows a bone osteolytic tumor with complete dis appearance of the 4th metacarpal. Surgical removal of the tumor was practiced with immediate reconstruction of the 4th metacarpal by an oseo-iliac graft. Anatomopathological examination. It is an ovoid tumor 6.5 long and irregular surface.

  7. Is it possible to preserve lumbar lordosis after hybrid stabilization? Preliminary results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar pathologies.

    PubMed

    Formica, Matteo; Cavagnaro, Luca; Basso, Marco; Zanirato, Andrea; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization technique in lumbar degenerative segment diseases (DSD), expressly pointing out the preservation of postoperative lumbar lordosis (LL). Forty-one patients with one level lumbar DSD and initial disc degeneration at the adjacent level were treated. Circumferential lumbar arthrodesis and posterior hybrid instrumentation were performed to preserve an initial disc degeneration above the segment that has to be fused. Clinical and spino-pelvic parameters were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. At 2-year follow-up, a significant improvement of clinical outcomes was reported. No statistically significant difference was noted between postoperative and 2-year follow-up in LL and in disc/vertebral body height ratio at the upper adjacent fusion level. When properly selected, this technique leads to good results. A proper LL should be achieved after any hybrid stabilization to preserve the segment above the fusion.

  8. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  9. Can infant malnutrition cause adult vertebral stenosis?

    PubMed

    Clark, G A; Panjabi, M M; Wetzel, F T

    1985-03-01

    Does infant malnutrition produce smaller adult spinal canals? Lumbar and thoracic vertebrae (n X 1073), from a prehistoric American Indian population (15-55 yrs of age), were measured for anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TR) vertebral canal sizes, nerve root tunnel (intervertebral foramen) widths (NRT), vertebral heights (VH), vertebral osteophytosis (VO), and tibial lengths. They underwent a dietary change from hunting-gathering, protein rich (PR), to maize agriculture, protein deficient (PD), between 950 and 1300 A.D. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, sex, culture, NRT, VH, VO, and wedging. Canal size was significantly smaller in the PD. AP diameters were generally and highly correlated with NRT, and thus both spinal stenosis and sciatica may have a developmental basis. Canal size was independent of statural components. Consequently, canal size is a most powerful tool in assessing the presence infant malnutrition. Moreover, perhaps the association between canal size and low-back pain (LBP) found in living populations has been underestimated, and this component of LBP is preventable.

  10. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  11. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science ASU Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher

    This is a Co-Investigator proposal for "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science" with Prof. Christopher K. Walker (University of Arizona) as PI. As a participant in the STO-2 mission, ASU will participate in instrument design and construction, mission I&T, flight operations and data analysis. ASU has unique capabilities in the field of direct metal micromachining, which it will bring to bear on the STO-2 cold optical assembly, flight mixers and LO hardware. In addition, our extensive experience with receiver integration and test will supplement the capabilities of the PI institution during the I&T phase at the University of Arizona, CSBF (Palestine, TX) and in Antarctica. Both the ASU PI and student will also participate in data analysis and publication after the flight.

  12. Giant viruses in the oceans: the 4th Algal Virus Workshop.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2005-06-20

    Giant double-stranded DNA viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 microm, genomes of 300 kbp to 1.200 kbp, and commensurate complex gene contents, constitute an evolutionary mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes optimally fitted to the smallest possible--filterable--package. Such giant viruses are now discovered in increasing numbers through the systematic sampling of ocean waters as well as freshwater aquatic environments, where they play a significant role in controlling phyto- and bacterio- plankton populations. The 4th Algal Virus Workshop showed that the study of these ecologically important viruses is now massively entering the genomic era, promising a better understanding of their diversity and, hopefully, some insights on their origin and the evolutionary forces that shaped their genomes.

  13. [Analysis of the 4th generation outer space bred Angelica dahurica by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-ying; Wu, Peng-le; Liu, Mei-yi; Wang, Zhi-zhou; Guo, Xi-hua; Guan, Ying

    2012-03-01

    The major components of the 4th generation outer space bred angelica and the ground group were determined and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectrum, considering the large mutation of the plants with space mutagenesis. The results show that the content of the coumarin (1741 cm(-1)), which is the main active components of the space angelica dahurica increased, and the content of the protein (1 459, 1 419 cm(-1)) and the fat (930 cm(-1)) increased slightly, whereas the content of the starch and the dietary fiber reduced drastically. There are obvious differences between the peak values of the second derivative spectra of the plants, revealing that the outer space angelica dahurica contained amine component at 1 279 cm(-1). Space mutation breeding is favor of breeding angelica with better idiosyncrasy.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2016-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).

  15. Cage Regional Energy Budgets from the GLAS 4TH Order Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Alexder, M. A.; Shubert, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The status and future plans of a study to (1) assess the accuracy of regional energy balance calculations obtained from the 4th-order model, (2) determine the impact of satellite data on the calculations, and (3) determine their utility for ocean energy transport studies are discussed. An equation is presented which models the vertically-integrated, time and areally-averaged total energy content of a region of the atmosphere extending from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. All of the terms of the equation were evaluated using early versions of the GLAS FGGE IIIb analysis, and analysis with satellite data deleted. Results show that the budget is dominated by the surface fluxes, net radiation, and horizontal atmospoheric divergence.

  16. 4th generation of the 1st level surface detector trigger in the Pierre Auger Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    The proposal of a new 4th generation of the Front-End with the advanced 1st level triggers for the Infill Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory and for the Auger North is described. Newest FPGA chips offer much higher capacity of logic registers and memories, as well as DSP blocks. The calibration channel, previously supported by an external dual-port RAM, has been fully implemented into FPGA chip, through a large internal memory. In turn DSP blocks allowed on implementation of much more sophisticated spectral trigger algorithms. A single chip simplified board design, newer architecture of FPGA reduced resouces utilization and power consumption. Higher sampling in the new Front- End in comparison with previous 40 MHz designs as well as free resources for new detection algotithms can be a good platform for CR radio detection technique at Auger enhancing a duty cycle for the detection of UHECR’s.

  17. The 4th Bologna Winter School: Hot Topics in Structural Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The 4th Bologna Winter School on Biotechnologies was held on 9–15 February 2003 at the University of Bologna, Italy, with the specific aim of discussing recent developments in bioinformatics. The school provided an opportunity for students and scientists to debate current problems in computational biology and possible solutions. The course, co-supported (as last year) by the European Science Foundation program on Functional Genomics, focused mainly on hot topics in structural genomics, including recent CASP and CAPRI results, recent and promising genomewide predictions, protein–protein and protein–DNA interaction predictions and genome functional annotation. The topics were organized into four main sections (http://www.biocomp.unibo.it). PMID:18629078

  18. Increased ratio of 2nd to 4th digit (2D:4D) in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Simon Lowes; Lim, Matthew; Chaw, Jia Hui; Verma, Swapna; Sim, Kang; Rapisarda, Attilio; Chong, Siow Ann

    2010-03-30

    Sex differences in the onset, epidemiology, clinical presentation and neuropathology of schizophrenia suggest that sexual dimorphism in brain development may be relevant to pathogenesis. Sex hormones, in particular testosterone, are considered to be crucial in brain development, but few investigations have examined the potential role of prenatal testosterone in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined a retrospective marker of prenatal testosterone release - 2D:4D finger length ratio (2D:4D), the relative length of 2nd to 4th digit, in 64 Asian patients with schizophrenia and 64 sex-matched controls. No significant difference in mean finger lengths was present, however 2D:4D ratio was significantly different between patients and controls. The effect was primarily seen in males consistent with a 'less masculinised' pattern and hypotheses suggesting that schizophrenia may be associated with an abnormality in prenatal circulating testosterone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond the genomics blueprint: the 4th Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Biennial Meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium was held at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 11-15 June 2012. The Human Variome Project, a nongovernmental organization and an official partner of UNESCO, enables the routine collection, curation, interpretation, and sharing of information on all human genetic variation. This meeting was attended by more than 180 delegates from 39 countries and continued the theme of addressing issues of implementation in this unique project. The meeting was structured around the four main themes of the Human Variome Project strategic plan, "Project Roadmap 2012-2016": setting normative function, behaving ethically, sharing knowledge, and building capacity. During the meeting, the members held extensive discussions to formulate an action plan in the key areas of the Human Variome Project. The actions agreed on were promulgated at the Project's two Advisory Council and Scientific Advisory Committee postconference meetings.

  20. Trabecular mineral contents of lumbar vertebra in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Okumura, H; Yamamuro, T

    1990-01-01

    The trabecular mineral contents (TMCs) of the third lumbar vertebra in normal subjects and patients with spinal osteoporosis and with femoral neck fracture were measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) using a reference phantom. The present paper describes these results. The TMCs in patients with spinal osteoporosis and with femoral neck fracture were significantly lower than those in normal subjects. When evaluated in terms of the ratio to the mean trabecular mineral content (mTMC) in normal subjects of the same decade groups, it was assumed that there should be a threshold value of vertebral compression fracture, and that value was approximately 50% of the mTMC in normal subjects. A correlation was noted between the data of the QCT method and those of the microdensitometric method in the groups with vertebral compression fracture and with femoral neck fracture, but not in the group without vertebral fracture.

  1. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  2. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food.

  3. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events.

  5. 4th generation HIV screening in Massachusetts: a partnership between laboratory and program.

    PubMed

    Goodhue, Tammy; Kazianis, Arthur; Werner, Barbara G; Stiles, Tracy; Callis, Barry P; Dawn Fukuda, H; Cranston, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Office of HIV/AIDS (OHA) and Hinton State Laboratory Institute (HSLI) have offered HIV screening since 1985. Point-of-care screening and serum collection for laboratory-based testing is conducted at clinic and non-clinic-based sites across Massachusetts as part of an integrated communicable disease screening intervention. MDPH aimed to transition to a 4th generation HIV screening-based algorithm for testing all serum specimens collected at OHA-funded programs and submitted to the HSLI to detect acute HIV infections, detect and differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, eliminate indeterminate results, reduce cost and turnaround time, and link newly diagnosed HIV+ individuals to care. The HSLI and OHA created a joint project management team to plan and lead the transition. The laboratory transitioned successfully to a 4th generation screening assay as part of a revised diagnostic algorithm. In the 12 months since implementation, a total of 7984 serum specimens were tested with 258 (3.2%) positive for HIV-1 and one positive for HIV-2. Eight were reported as acute HIV-1 infections. These individuals were linked to medical care and partner services in a timely manner. Turnaround time was reduced and the laboratory realized an overall cost savings of approximately 15%. The identification of eight acute HIV infections in the first year underscores the importance of using the most sensitive screening tests available. A multi-disciplinary program and laboratory team was critical to the success of the transition, and the lessons learned may be useful for other jurisdictions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asadian, Leila; Haddadi, Kaveh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Zare, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. This is a cross-sectional study. This case-control study was performed during 2012-2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. A total of 50 patients (15.2%) were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1%) in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4%) in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10%) in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls (P < 0.0001). Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  7. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Asadian, Leila; Haddadi, Kaveh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Zare, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. STUDY DESIGN This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS This case–control study was performed during 2012–2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. RESULTS A total of 50 patients (15.2%) were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1%) in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4%) in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10%) in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls (P < 0.0001). Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. CONCLUSIONS There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:27168730

  8. Herniated lumbar disk (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herniated lumbar disk is a condition in which part or all of the soft, gelatinous central portion of an intervertebral disk (the nucleus pulposus) is forced through a weakened part of the disk, resulting in back pain and nerve root irritation.

  9. Increase in vertebral body size in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, K; Kolta, S; Fechtenbaum, J; Said-Nahal, R; Benhamou, C L; Roux, C

    2010-08-01

    Bone geometry plays a prominent role in bone strength. Cross-sectional studies have shown that advancing age is associated with increasing diameter of long bones, related to both periostal apposition and endosteal resorption. However, there are few data provided by prospective studies, especially concerning the changes in vertebral body dimensions. The objective of this prospective study was to measure the changes occurring in the vertebral body size of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-year data from placebo groups of the SOTI and TROPOS trials, performed in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, were used for this study. In these trials, patients underwent lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine at baseline and annually over 3 years, according to standardized procedures. Six-point digitization method was used: the four corner points of the vertebral body from T4 to L4 are marked, as well as an additional point in the middle of the upper and lower endplates. From these 6 points, the vertebral body perimeter, area and depth were measured at baseline and at 3 years. The analysis excluded all vertebrae with prevalent or incident fracture. A total of 2017 postmenopausal women (mean age 73.4+/-6.1 years) with a mean lumbar spine T score of -3.1+/-1.5, and a mean femoral neck T score of -3.0+/-0.7 are included in the analysis. Vertebral body dimensions increased over 3 years, by 2.1+/-5.5% (mean depth+/-SD), by 1.7+/-8.3% (mean area+/-SD) and by 1.5+/-4.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD) at the thoracic level (T4 to T12). At the lumbar level (L1 to L4), these dimensions increased as well: 1.4+/-3.6% (mean depth+/-SD), 1.4+/-5.7% (mean area+/-SD), 0.7+/-2.9% (mean perimeter+/-SD). A significant increase in vertebral body size was observed for each vertebral level from T5 to L4 for each of these parameters (p<0.01). These prospective results demonstrate that vertebral body dimensions increase over 3 years in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

  10. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaire or examination. Lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD and BMC were measured by DXA. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 10.6% in black and 19.1% in white women. In age-adjusted logistic regression models, a 1 SD decrease in femoral neck BMD was associated with 47% increased odds of fracture in black women (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12–1.94) and 80% increased odds in white women (OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.68–1.94; interaction p = 0.14). The overall lower odds of fracture among black women compared with white women was independent of femoral neck BMD and other risk factors (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37–0.72). However, the prevalence of vertebral fractures increased with increasing number of risk factors in both groups. The prevalence of vertebral fractures is lower in black compared with white women but increases with age, low BMD, and number of risk factors. PMID:18442309

  11. L2 spinal nerve-block effects on acute low back pain from osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Inoue, Gen; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Takaso, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2009-08-01

    Elderly patients with osteoporosis sometimes experience lumbar vertebral fracture and may feel diffuse nonlocalized pain in the back, the lateral portion of the trunk, and the area surrounding the iliac crest. The pattern of sensory innervation of vertebral bodies remains unclear. Some sensory nerves from the L2 and L5 vertebral bodies may enter the paravertebral sympathetic trunks and reach the L2 dorsal root ganglion. Our randomized controlled study was to clarify the effect of L2 spinal nerve block on low back pain originating from acute osteoporotic lumbar vertebral fracture. Patients with low back pain originating from acute L3 or L4 osteoporotic vertebral fractures received a spinal nerve root block (L2 block group, n = 30) or subcutaneous injection (control, n = 30). Both groups received 1.5 mL of 1% lidocaine. The visual analog scale score, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Short Form questionnaire were examined before and after treatment. In both groups, spinal nerve blocks were significantly effective in alleviating low back pain (P < .05). One hour, 1 week, and 2 weeks after treatment, the visual analog scale score improved more in the L2 block group than in the control group (P < .05). From 1 month to 4 months after treatment, there were no significant differences in the pain scores between groups (P > .05). We conclude that L2 spinal nerve block for acute L3 or L4 osteoporotic vertebral body fracture was effective for 2 weeks, but it had no long-term effects on pain and social function. L2 spinal nerve block treatment for L3 or L4 osteoporotic vertebral body fracture was effective. This results suggest that the L2 dorsal root ganglion may innervate the L3 and L4 vertebral bodies in humans. L2 spinal nerve block for lumbar osteoporotic vertebral fracture may be a useful strategy to treat acute low back pain.

  12. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  13. Palpatory accuracy of lumbar spinous processes using multiple bony landmarks.

    PubMed

    Snider, Karen T; Snider, Eric J; Degenhardt, Brian F; Johnson, Jane C; Kribs, James W

    2011-06-01

    Accurate localization of vertebral segments is crucial for many treatment procedures. The objective of this study was to determine accuracy of identification of lumbar spinous process levels by palpation. Three examiners independently identified the spinous processes of L1-L4 on 60 prone volunteers using multiple bony landmarks including the sacral base, L5, Tuffier's line, T12, and the 12th ribs. The spinous processes were marked with radiopaque skin markers. Location of marker placement and presence of anatomical anomalies were determined by posteroanterior lumbar radiographs. Accuracy of marker placement and interobserver reliability were assessed using weighted κ values. Generalized linear mixed models and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests assessed the relationship of accuracy to training level, presence of anatomical anomalies, and participant characteristics. Examiners identified a spinous process in 91% of vertebral assessments. Correct identification of vertebral level occurred 69% of the time (κ = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.83). Faculty examiners were significantly more accurate in identifying the correct vertebral level than the resident examiner (67%-78% vs 51%, P ≤ .03). The presence of 12th rib anomalies decreased accuracy for all examiners (P ≤ .05), reducing accuracy from 74% to 55%. Accuracy was higher in male participants than in female participants (P = .01). Obesity significantly decreased accuracy (P = .0003) at L3 (50% vs 73%) and L4 (44% vs 72%). Identification of lumbar spinous processes using multiple landmarks was more accurate than previously reported values. However, accuracy was dependent on examiner experience, presence of anatomical anomalies, and participant characteristics. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  15. Four-level noncontiguous fracture of the vertebral column: a case report.

    PubMed

    Acaroğlu, E R; Alanay, A

    2001-05-01

    The case of a patient with four-level fractures of the vertebral column, located at the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions, three of which were unstable, is reported. There were no injuries in the appendicular skeleton. Neurological involvement was potentially caused by multilevel compressions. This patient was treated aggressively with early surgical stabilization of all unstable levels, which facilitated early expeditious rehabilitation.

  16. Prevalent Morphometric Vertebral Fractures in Professional Male Rugby Players

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Karen; Birrell, Fraser; Beck, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52) and union (n = 43) players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3) years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9) kg.m2) participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA). One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1), 40 moderate (grade 2) and 6 severe (grade 3). Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2) were found in 37 players (39%). There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05). The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23), T9 (n = 18) and T10 (n = 21). The mean (SD) lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3) indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation. PMID:24846310

  17. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... osteogenesis imperfecta contact : Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue, Suite 210, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel: 800- ...

  18. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  19. [Posterior interbody fusion versus improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in segmental spinal fixation for aged spondylolisthesis with lumbar spinal canal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Wu, Ji-bin; Zhao, Meng; Dai, Wei-xiang; Wu, De-hui; Wang, Zhao-hong; Feng, Jie; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Qing-hua; Tian, Ji-wei

    2012-03-06

    To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterior lumbar fixation and posterior interbody fusion or improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for Meyerding grade II/III spondylolisthesis so as to address the suitability of a dynamic stabilization. A total of 28 consecutive patients underwent posterior lumbar fixation and posterior interbody fusion or improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for Meyerding grade II/III spondylolisthesis. Among them, 13 patients underwent posterior interface fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation. And improved transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ITLIF) and placement of the same system were performed in 15 patients. Their clinical, economic, functional, and radiographic data were recorded both pre- and postoperatively. The average changes of economic and functional scores on the Prolo scale were 1.36 and 1.48 respectively. In patients with posterior interbody fusion; the average preoperative vertebral slippage was 46.9% (range: 25 - 75%) versus 14.6% (range: 15 - 25%) postoperatively. In patients with ITLIF, the average changes in economic and functional scores were 1.75 and 1.63 respectively. And the average preoperative vertebral slippage was 45.2% (range: 28 - 78%) compared with 26.3% (range: 14 - 28%) postoperatively. When two fusion techniques were compared, an overall superior reliability and resistance of systems was associated with the ITLIF procedure. But their clinical outcomes did not differ greatly (P > 0.05). The application of a segmental pedicle screw fixation is both feasible and efficacious.

  20. [Mechanical studies of lumbar interbody fusion implants].

    PubMed

    Bader, R J; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Mittelmeier, W; Bertagnoli, R; Gradinger, R

    2002-05-01

    In addition to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages composed of metal or plastic are being used increasingly as spacers for interbody fusion of spinal segments. The goal of this study was the mechanical testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fusion cages used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. With a special testing device according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, the mechanical properties of the implants were determined under four different loading conditions. The implants (UNION cages, Medtronic Sofamor Danek) provide sufficient axial compression, shear, and torsional strength of the implant body. Ultimate axial compression load of the fins is less than the physiological compression loads at the lumbar spine. Therefore by means of an appropriate surgical technique parallel grooves have to be reamed into the endplates of the vertebral bodies according to the fin geometry. Thereby axial compression forces affect the implants body and the fins are protected from damaging loading. Using a supplementary anterior or posterior instrumentation, in vivo failure of the fins as a result of physiological shear and torsional spinal loads is unlikely. Due to specific complications related to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages made of metal or carbon fiber reinforced plastic are an important alternative implant in interbody fusion.

  1. Management of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Luke; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Spector, Leo R; Milam, R Alden

    2009-02-01

    Symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease, or discogenic back pain, is difficult to treat. Patients often report transverse low back pain that radiates into the sacroiliac joints. Radicular or claudicatory symptoms are generally absent unless there is concomitant nerve compression. Physical examination findings are often unremarkable. Radiographic examination may reveal disk space narrowing, end-plate sclerosis, or vacuum phenomenon in the disk; magnetic resonance imaging is useful for revealing hydration of the disk, annular bulging, or lumbar spine end-plate (Modic) changes in the adjacent vertebral bodies. The use of diskography as a confirmatory study remains controversial. Recent prospective, randomized trials and meta-analyses of the literature have helped expand what is known about degenerative disk disease. In most patients with low back pain, symptoms resolve without surgical intervention; physical therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the cornerstones of nonsurgical treatment. Intradiskal electrothermal treatment has not been shown to be effective, and arthrodesis remains controversial for the treatment of discogenic back pain. Nucleus replacement and motion-sparing technology are too new to have demonstrated long-term data regarding their efficacy.

  2. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  3. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ying Ying; Chen, John L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits. PMID:27034871

  4. Supernumerary lumbar ribs: a rare occurrence on an adult African male skeleton.

    PubMed

    Chengetanai, Samson; Nchabeleng, Elsie K; Bacci, Nicholas; Billings, Brendon K; Mazengenya, Pedzisai

    2017-06-01

    Supernumerary lumbar ribs are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during routine diagnostic radiography. During a routine inventory of the research skeletal repository at the University of the Witwatersrand, a rare case of bilateral supernumerary ribs on the first lumbar vertebra was observed. The skeletal specimen belonged to a 70-year-old African male whose recorded cause of death was esophageal carcinoma. Plain radiography revealed bilateral joint cavities between the transverse processes of the first lumbar vertebra and the supernumerary ribs. Clinically, supernumerary lumbar ribs may present with pain of the renal angle, cause confusion during enumeration of the vertebral levels on radiographs, and may be misinterpreted as fractures, kissing osteophytes, and/or calcification of abdominal vasculature.

  5. Supernumerary lumbar ribs: a rare occurrence on an adult African male skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chengetanai, Samson; Nchabeleng, Elsie K.; Bacci, Nicholas; Billings, Brendon K.

    2017-01-01

    Supernumerary lumbar ribs are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during routine diagnostic radiography. During a routine inventory of the research skeletal repository at the University of the Witwatersrand, a rare case of bilateral supernumerary ribs on the first lumbar vertebra was observed. The skeletal specimen belonged to a 70-year-old African male whose recorded cause of death was esophageal carcinoma. Plain radiography revealed bilateral joint cavities between the transverse processes of the first lumbar vertebra and the supernumerary ribs. Clinically, supernumerary lumbar ribs may present with pain of the renal angle, cause confusion during enumeration of the vertebral levels on radiographs, and may be misinterpreted as fractures, kissing osteophytes, and/or calcification of abdominal vasculature. PMID:28713620

  6. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  7. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  8. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  9. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.

  10. The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors.

  11. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  12. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shane; Frantz, Cindy M.; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these “systems thinking” skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses “sociotechnical” feedback–information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention. PMID:28448586

  13. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  14. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  15. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  16. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds."

  17. Putting agent-based modeling to work: results of the 4th International Project Albert Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Gary E.; Bjorkman, Eileen A.; Colton, Trevor

    2002-07-01

    Project Albert is an initiative of the US Marine Corps which uses a series of new models and tools, multidisciplinary teams, and the scientific method to explore questions of interest to military planners. Project Albert attempts to address key areas that traditional modeling and simulation techniques often do not capture satisfactorily and uses two data management concepts, data farming and data mining, to assist in identifying areas of interest. The current suite of models used by Project Albert includes four agent-based models that allow agents to interact with each other and produce emergent behaviors. The 4th International Project Albert Workshop was held 6-9 August 2001 in Australia. Workshop participants split into five groups, each of which attempted to apply various combinations of the Project Albert models to answer a series of questions in five areas: Control Operations; Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Intelligence Force Mix; Precision Maneuver; Mission Area Analysis; and Peace Support Operations. This paper focuses on the methodology used during the workshop, the results of the workshop, and a summary of follow-on work since the workshop.

  18. A 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radio applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiwei, Wang; Xuegui, Chang; Xiao, Wang; Kefeng, Han; Xi, Tan; Na, Yan; Hao, Min

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radios. The design exploits an active-RC low pass filter (LPF) structure with digital assistant, which is flexible for tunability of filter characteristics, such as cut-off frequency, selectivity, type, noise, gain and power. A novel reconfigurable operational amplifier is proposed to realize the optimization of noise and scalability of power dissipation. The chip was fabricated in an SMIC 0.13 μm CMOS process. The main filter and frequency calibration circuit occupy 1.8 × 0.8 mm2 and 0.48 × 0.25 mm2 areas, respectively. The measurement results indicate that the filter provides Butterworth and Chebyshev responses with a wide frequency tuning range from 280 kHz to 15 MHz and a gain range from 0 to 18 dB. An IIP3 of 29 dBm is achieved under a 1.2 V power supply. The input inferred noise density varies from 41 to 133 according to a given standard, and the power consumptions are 5.46 mW for low band (from 280 kHz to 3 MHz) and 8.74 mW for high band (from 3 to 15 MHz) mode.

  19. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  20. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shane; Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cindy M; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these "systems thinking" skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses "sociotechnical" feedback-information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention.

  1. The 4th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Howard E; Balogh, Lajos P; Bawa, Raj; Bradbury, Michelle; Chang, Esther H; Chiu, Wah; Farokhzad, Omid; Foldvari, Marianna; Lanza, Gregory; Wang, Kuan

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Conference of the American Society for Nanomedicine is being held March 28-30, 2014 at the Universities at Shady Grove, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting's theme is on defining the role of nanomedicines for nervous system diagnostics and disease but balanced by broad and timely topics for nanotechnology. Nanoneuromedicine, as defined by the development of small drug formulations for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, infectious, vascular, addictive, behavioral and metabolic disorders of the nervous system, will provide a focus for each of the scientific sessions. This research is interdisciplinary and it's in its infancy. The hurdles that preclude translation from bench to bedside would include its delivery across the blood brain barrier, limiting nervous system toxicities, and improving drug targeting to diseased brain subregions. These all pose challenges. Multidisciplinary works in neuroscience (neurobiology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neuroinflammation), bioimaging, and polymer chemistry to facilitate outcomes for formulation manufacture will be vigorously discussed. How drugs reach sites of action need include neural cell specific subcellular compartments. The ASNM meeting will showcase nanoneuromedicine research from leading investigators of divergent scientific backgrounds who define this new field. It will also serve as an incubator for developing investigators and broad new field discoveries. Welcome to the conference and enjoy!

  2. Water quality and occurrence of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Nkeng, George Elambo; Takem, Gloria Eyong Eneke

    2009-01-01

    The monthly occurrence and mean age distribution of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon (1995-2006) were studied and probable causes of diseases spread were established. Diseases of interest included gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera. Water-borne disease occurrence was observed to follow a seasonal pattern with peaks occurring between the months of January and May followed by drops between June and October and rose again from November. Children below 5 years were found to be more vulnerable to diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery while persons between 15-44 years were more vulnerable to typhoid and cholera. Physico-chemically, water samples had turbidities varying between 5.5-86 NTU, pH values between 4.2 and 7.1 and zero residual chlorine. Bacteriological analysis showed that the total coliform count was averagely 74/100 ml, the faecal colform count was 43/100 ml and the faecal streptococci count was 27/100 ml. Lack of access to potable water, absence of sanitation facilities and environmental factors could be advanced as the probable causes of water-borne disease spread.

  3. [Analysis of the 4th generation Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with space mutagenesis via FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-feng; Gao, Hua-na; Guo, Xi-hua; Wang, Zhi-zhou; Yang, La-huz; Guan, Ying; Shi, Jin-shan

    2009-05-01

    Determination and analysis for the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with space mutagenesis and the ground group were carried out with FTIR for the first time in order to fully understand the quality changes of the 4th generation of space mutagenesis of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and do further research. The result shows that for the FTIR spectra of the two samples the position and shape of main absorption peaks are approximately the same, indicating that the major components and the structures of space group remain intact, but the intensities of the absorption peaks are obviously different, with the intensities of the space group significantly enhanced compared to the ground group, especially for the flavonoid compounds (baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin and wogonoside etc), which are the main active components of the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, the absorption peak intensities at 3391, 1655 and 1069 cm(-1) are obviously stronger than those of the ground group, so the contents of flavonoid compounds and other components are higher, and the amorphous active components are optimized. Space mutation breeding is conducive to breeding new varieties of highly active components, and it is also one of the ways to innovate Chinese medicines germplasm resources efficiently.

  4. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  5. Ossification of the vertebral column in human foetuses: histological and computed tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Skórzewska, A; Grzymisławska, M; Bruska, M; Lupicka, J; Woźniak, W

    2013-08-01

    There is no agreement in the literature as to the time of the onset and progress of the vertebral column ossification. The aim of the present study was to determine the precise sequence of ossification of the neural arches and vertebral centra.Histological and radiographic studies were performed on 27 human foetuses aged from 9 to 21 weeks. It was found that the ossification of vertebrae commences in foetuses aged 10 and 11 weeks. Ossification centres appear first for neuralarches in the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae and by the end of 11th week they are present in all thoracic and lumbar neural arches. In the vertebral centrain foetus of 10 weeks ossification was found in the lower 7 thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. By the end of 11th week ossification is present in the lower 4 cervical, all thoracic, all lumbar and 4 sacral vertebral centra. The study indicates that ossification of the neural arches proceeds in the craniocaudal direction,whereas in the vertebral centra it progresses from the lower thoracic vertebrae into both directions. Different shapes of ossification centres were also described.

  6. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Alan

    2002-04-01

    Indication and technique of TLIF procedure are described. TLIF provides for anterior column support and posterior tension band. It is a unilateral approach to the spine, and there is no need to expose or manipulate the dura. It provides the benefits of a 360 degrees fusion without performing an anterior approach. It restores the normal anatomy of the motion segment and maintains normal lumbar lordosis. Patients are mobilized quickly and resume activities early.

  7. Lumbar retrodiscal transforaminal injection.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Joseph F

    2007-05-01

    Spinal injections are commonly used to treat lumbar radiculitis and back pain. Delivery of medication to specific targeted pathology is considered important for a successful therapeutic outcome. A variety of routes of injection have been devised for epidural injection of corticosteroid. The author demonstrates a variation of the transforaminal injection technique. The radiographic spread of contrast is described using a more oblique and ventral caudad approach in the epidural space "retrodiscal." It is suggested that the radiographic findings of this technique for discogenic causes of induced radiculitis and/or back pain may yield more precise targeting of putative pathologic sources of radiculopathy and back pain in selected patients. In patients with disc pathology and radiculitis, the anatomy of the lumbar epidural space is reviewed for its potential effect on the flow of injectate. Contrast spread was documented for lumbar transforaminal injection using a needle placement more oblique and behind the disc rather than in the cranial portion. Comparison is made to a typical contrast spread of an infra-pedicular placed transforaminal injection. Retrodiscal contrast injection results in reliable coverage of the retrodiscal region, the exiting nerve at that foraminal level and the proximal portion of the transiting segmental neural sleeve. The radiographic findings demonstrate a difference between classic infra-pedicular versus retrodiscal transforaminal epidural contrast injection patterns, particularly at relatively low volumes. The clinical advantage of one technique versus the other should be established in randomized prospective studies.

  8. Vertebral involvement in hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Blay, P; Fernández-Martínez, J M; Díaz-López, B

    2001-03-01

    Hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis (HTC) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by calcified soft tissue masses and hyperphosphatemia. Besides these typical features, a number of less common manifestations have been reported, all of them related to pathologic calcification of various tissues. We have investigated the case of a woman with hyperphosphatemia, recurrent episodes of lumbar pain, and a positive familial history of HTC. A bone scan showed markedly increased uptake in the lower lumbar spine. Magnetic resonance imaging showed pathological changes in L5 compatible with an inflammatory reaction and not suggestive of neoplastic process. There was no evidence of infection, trauma, malignancy, or other disease that could cause the lesion. We treated the patient with analgesics and NSAIDs and the pain remitted over a period of 1 week. In a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 7 months later, the L5 lesion had disappeared completely. A computed tomography scan analysis with a bone window showed a sclerotic area at the L5 vertebral body. We believe that this patient was affected by the syndrome of HTC and that the inflammatory phenomena found in L5 are a manifestation of this disease.

  9. Thoracic paraplegia due to missed thoracic compressive lesions after lumbar spinal decompression surgery. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Kei; Hosoe, Hideo; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss the cases of three patients in whom thoracic paraplegia developed after lumbar spinal decompressive surgery for slight lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Careful computerized tomography myelography and magnetic resonance imaging examination of the thoracic spine revealed another compressive lesion (spinal cord tumor, disc herniation, osteophyte of vertebral body, and ossification of the ligamentum flavum). Additional thoracic decompressive surgery provided partial amelioration of each patient's neurological condition. The authors suggest that to avoid such a complication physical and radiographic examination of the thoracic spine should be performed preoperatively if the lumbar imaging is inconclusive.

  10. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Tophaceous gout causing lumbar stenosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huigen; Sheng, Jianming; Dai, Jiaping; Hu, Xuqi

    2017-08-01

    Gout in the spine is very rare. The clinical symptoms of the spinal gout are various and lack of specificity. The authors report a case of spinal gout causing lumbar stenosis. We never find such wide-invasive spinal gouty lesion in the published studies. A 68-year-old male had low back pain radiating to bilateral lower limbs, accompanying with intermittent claudication that lasted for 3 months and aggravated 5 days ago. Spinal gout, lumbar stenosis. The patient underwent L2-L4 laminectomy, L2/3 L3/4 an d L4/5 discectomy and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation. Dual-energy computed tomography detected extensive tophaceous deposits in L1/2 L2/3 L3/4 and L4/5 lumbar discs as well as the posterior column, especially L2-L3 and L4-L5 facet joints. During the surgery, we found a mass of chalky white material at the posterior column of L3 to L5 vertebral bodies, which also involved the intervertebral discs. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of spinal gout. Although spinal gout is thought to be rare, the diagnosis should be considered if the patient had severe back pain and a history of gout. Dual-energy computed tomography is highly recommended for these patients.

  12. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  13. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  14. PRIMARY LIPOSARCOMA OF THE LUMBAR SPINE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Cardoso, André Luiz Passos; Tristão, Newton Antônio; Pimenta, Wilson Eloy; Daher, Sérgio; de Souza Carneiro, Siderley; Barbosa, Nathalia Parrode Machado; de Lima Malta, Nayanne; Ribeiro, Noara Barros

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of primary bone liposarcoma of the lumbar spine, for which only one case has been reported. A female patient, 60 years of age, with lumbar pain and left sciatalgy for six months. In the imaging exams, a destructive tumor was found in the L4 vertebral body, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumoral lesion with T1 hiposignal and T2 hypersignal. Histological diagnosis was difficult, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical treatment was performed with wide ressection, spinal cord decompression, and anterior and posterior fusion of L3 to L5 complemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After three years, a computed tomography (CT) scan evidenced an expansive injury in the lung. Despite its rarity, liposarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica and primary tumors of the spine. PMID:27027092

  15. Lumbar laminectomy in a captive, adult polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Morrison, John F; Vakharia, Kunal; Moreland, Douglas B

    2017-01-01

    Animals held in captivity tend to live longer than do their wild counterparts, and as such, are prone to developing age-related degenerative injuries. Here, we present a case of an adult female polar bear with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. There is a paucity of literature on large mammalian spine surgery, and anatomical differences between humans and other vertebrates must be taken into consideration. A 24-year-old female polar bear residing at the zoo was found to have decreased motor function in her hind legs. Diagnostic myelography performed at the L7/S1 level demonstrated lumbar stenosis at L5/6 for which a laminectomy was performed. Postoperatively, she returned to premorbid functional level, with no apparent associated adverse sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spine surgery in a polar bear and demonstrates that neurosurgical diagnostic and operative techniques developed for humans can also be applied to large mammals with successful results.

  16. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  17. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PREFACE: CYGNUS 2013: 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Tatsuhiro; Miuchi, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    It is a great pleasure to publish the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter held in Toyama, Japan on 10-12 June 2013 (CYGNUS 2013). These proceedings contain written versions of the presentations made at CYGNUS 2013 as scientific outputs of the directional detection of dark matter. The GYGNUS workshop started in 2007 at Boulby Underground Laboratory (UK), followed by CYGNUS 2009 (MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) and CYGNUS 2011 (AUSSOIS, France). CYGNUS 2013 was held by the combination of a two and a half days of scientific program and a half day visit to the underground laboratory (Kamioka Observatory) as a 'tradition' of CYGNUS workshops. The name 'CYGNUS' came from the fact that the 'dark matter wind' is expected to come from the direction of the constellation Cygnus due to the motion of the Solar system in the galaxy. A general aim of these CYGNUS workshops is to bring together the theoretical and experimental studies on the directional dark matter detection. Directional detection of dark matter is a promising approach to a 'clear detection' and also to 'further investigations' of galactic dark matter, or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Directional detection requires the simultaneous detection of the energy and track of low energy recoils. Among many technological challenges for the requirement above, three of them, namely size, background, and directionality (angular resolution and head-tail detection), are most important to demonstrate and improve the quality as a dark matter detector. In the workshop, up-to-date activities by the international reserchers are discussed. The workshop was a great success thanks to the oral contributions and fruitful discussions held throughout the workshop period. We hope that readers will remember and share the great enthusiasm shown during the CYGNUS 2013 workshop. The Editors Tatsuhiro Naka and Kentaro Miuchi

  19. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions."

  20. Support for the 4th Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-25

    Intellectual Merit: Following the success of the first three Pan-American Congresses on Plants and BioEnergy held biennially, the 4th congress will be held at the University of Guelph, Canada June 4-7, 2014. We aim to continue a tradition of showcasing major advances in energy crop improvement yet keep in perspective the realities of the economic drivers and pressures that govern the translation of scientific success into a commercial success. The congress is endorsed by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Canadian Society of Plant Biologists. The program will cover a range of disciplines, including algal and plant systems for bioenergy, plant genetics and genomics, gene discovery for improvement of bioenergy production and quality, regulatory mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, strategies for 3rd generation biofuel production and the promise of synthetic biology in production of biofuels and bio-based products, cropping systems and productivity for biomass production, and mitigation of environmental impacts of bioenergy production. Broader Impacts: We are requesting support to generate stipends for domestic and permanent-resident students, post-doctorals, and pre-tenured faculty members to attend and benefit from the outstanding program. The stipends will be limited to registration and on-site lodging costs, with partial support for travel in instances of great need. So that as great a number can benefit as possible, airfare costs will be provided for only applicants with great need. ASPB has endorsed this meeting and will assist in advertising and promoting the meeting. ASPB has a long-standing commitment to increase participation and advance the careers in plant biology of women, minorities and underrepresented scientists, and they will assist us in identifying worthy candidates.

  1. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  2. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  3. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  4. Late-breaking news from the "4th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases" Capri, 2006.

    PubMed

    Latella, Giovanni; Fiocchi, Claudio; Caprilli, Renzo

    2007-08-01

    At the "4th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: on the Way to New Therapies," Capri, 2006, genetics, bacteria-host interactions, immunomodulation, and tissue response were discussed deeply in order to understand, rationalize, and develop novel therapies. About genetics, the importance of a better understanding of the nature of known loci and of the putative associations was stressed. It was confirmed that genotype-phenotype associations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have important clinical and therapeutic implications. The importance of the search for dominant bacterial antigens in chronic immune-mediated intestinal inflammation emerged, as well as knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms of bacterial-host interactions. It was discussed how innate and adaptive immunity signaling events can perpetuate chronic inflammation. Signal transduction pathways provide an intracellular mechanism by which cells respond and adapt to environmental stress. The identification of these signals have led to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD and pointed to potential therapeutic targets. It was shown that immune homeostasis is lost in IBD, resulting in a complex tissue response involving the action of immune and nonimmune cells. The nonimmune tissue response in IBD could be regarded as a new target for control of chronic intestinal inflammation. The changing role of biotherapy in IBD was widely discussed and in particular the anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibodies. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stem cells therapies were also discussed. The risk-to-benefit ratio of the novel therapies was analyzed in detail. Finally, future directions for basic science and the unmet needs for clinical practice were presented.

  5. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  6. Vertebral sclerosis in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Lentle, B C

    1979-01-01

    Narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with sclerosis of the adjacent vertebral bodies may occur as a consequence of infection, neoplasia, trauma, or rheumatic disease. Some patients have been described with backache and these radiological appearances without any primary cause being apparent. The lesions were almost always of 1 or, at most, 2 vertebrae and most frequently involved the inferior margin of L4. We describe 3 patients with far more extensive vertebral involvement and present the clinical, radiological, scintiscan, and histological findings. The only patient we have seen with the better known, isolated L4/5 lesion was shown on biopsy to have staphylococcal osteomyelitis. For this reason we would still recommend a biopsy of all such sclerotic vertebral lesions if they occur in the absence of other rheumatic disease. Images PMID:434941

  7. An extensive vertebral hydatidosis revealed by a lumbosciatica.

    PubMed

    Rkain, H; Bahiri, R; Benbouazza, K; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2007-08-01

    The vertebral hydatidosis is uncommon. It causes problems in diagnosis and in management. A case of an extensive vertebral hydatidosis with few symptoms is reported. A 21-year-old man has consulted for recurrent lumbosciatica that has been evolving for 1 year. Clinical exam was normal. Plain radiographic films disclosed a lytic lesion throughout the bodies of L4 and L5 and calcifications thrown on the liver area. The computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed multicystic bony lesions involving the lumbar spine with extension into the spinal canal. Abdominal ultrasound showed also cyst lesions in the right kidney and in the liver. The diagnosis of vertebral and abdominal (liver and kidney) hydatidosis was retained. Four sets of 4-week albendazole cures were given with a 2-week interval in between. Our case of extended vertebral hydatidosis with few symptoms confirms the clinical latency and diagnosis difficulties usually encountered in this disease. This often leads to a late diagnosis of the stage of spinal cord compression. Radiological diagnosis and determination of extension of the hydatid cyst are usually provided by CT and MRI. Vertebral hydatidosis should be evoked in lumbosciatica especially in endemic regions.

  8. Incidental vertebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Walcott, Brian P

    2011-12-01

    Incidental vertebral lesions on imaging of the spine are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Contributing factors include the aging population, the increasing prevalence of back pain, and increased usage of MR imaging. Additionally, refinements in CT and MR imaging have increased the number of demonstrable lesions. The management of incidental findings varies among practitioners and commonly depends more on practice style than on data or guidelines. In this article we review incidental findings within the vertebral column and review management of these lesions, based on available Class III data.

  9. Autophagy during vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Aburto, María R; Hurlé, Juan M; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Magariños, Marta

    2012-08-02

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process by which cells degrade their own components through the lysosomal machinery. In physiological conditions, the mechanism is tightly regulated and contributes to maintain a balance between synthesis and degradation in cells undergoing intense metabolic activities. Autophagy is associated with major tissue remodeling processes occurring through the embryonic, fetal and early postnatal periods of vertebrates. Here we survey current information implicating autophagy in cellular death, proliferation or differentiation in developing vertebrates. In developing systems, activation of the autophagic machinery could promote different outcomes depending on the cellular context. Autophagy is thus an extraordinary tool for the developing organs and tissues.

  10. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  11. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  12. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  13. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention... Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Recovery for the Iraq...

  14. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  15. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Weber... Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display on July 4, 2010, on the navigable waters of Weber Point, off of... temporary safety zone is established for the waters of Weber Point off of Stockton, CA. The fireworks launch...

  16. Analysis of Lexical Quality and Its Relation to Writing Quality for 4th Grade, Primary School Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Vera, Gabriela; Sotomayor, Carmen; Bedwell, Percy; Domínguez, Ana María; Jéldrez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have addressed vocabulary quality in developing writing skill in Spanish. Even less addressed it within the Chilean educational system. The specific objective of this study was to characterize, using a comprehensive set of indicators, the quality of the vocabulary produced by Chilean 4th grade students. Based on a national writing…

  17. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  18. 76 FR 33157 - Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones during Fourth of July fireworks events on the... displays are planned for the Fourth of July celebration throughout the Captain of the Port Miami Zone. The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays Within the...

  19. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  20. Comparative analysis of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year MD students' attitudes toward Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Riccard, Christopher P; Skelton, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background To identify and report the attitudes and beliefs of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year medical students toward complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods The previously validated and reliability tested CHBQ was administered to medical students attending the University of South Florida School of Medicine. Results Significant changes were found between both 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students. No significant difference was found between 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) year students. When comparing scores based on gender, a significant difference was present between males (41.2 ± 12.2) and females (46.1 ± 11.0). Conclusion CHBQ scores were significantly more positive in both 1st and 2nd year medical students in comparison with 4th year student's scores. These findings suggest that as student exposure to allopathic techniques and procedures increases during the last year of medical school, their attitudes toward CAM decrease. Females were also significantly more likely to have stronger positive attitudes toward CAM than males, though both genders represented an overall positive attitude toward CAM. PMID:18799010

  1. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing two temporary safety zones on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois. These...

  2. 75 FR 22330 - Safety Zone; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois. This...

  3. Effect of the SQ4R Technique on the Reading Comprehension of Elementary School 4th Grade Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…

  4. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, Michigan. This zone is...

  5. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  6. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  7. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  8. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  9. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  10. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  11. The investigation of vertebral injury sustained during aircrew ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on excised human vertebral segments to determine the static and dynamic response of the thoraco-lumbar spine when loaded in flexion. A total of fifteen tests were performed on eleven specimens. Specimens were obtained from male donors ranging in age from 34 to 60 years. Demographic data pertinent to each specimen and the elapsed time between death of the donor and testing of each corresponding specimen are presented. Only spinal segments comprised of lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae were tested because in aircraft ejection injuries clinical complications in this anatomical region predominate. A complex continuum mathematical model describing the dynamic response of the human spine was formulated, solved, and verified experimentally. Detailed results are presented in figures, tables, and equations.

  12. Differential segmental growth of the vertebral column of the rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Philip J; Melin, Amanda D; Russell, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Despite the pervasive occurrence of segmental morphologies in the animal kingdom, the study of segmental growth is almost entirely lacking, but may have significant implications for understanding the development of these organisms. We investigate the segmental and regional growth of the entire vertebral column of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) by fitting a Gompertz curve to length and age data for each vertebra and each vertebral region. Regional lengths are calculated by summing constituent vertebral lengths and intervertebral space lengths for cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal regions. Gompertz curves allow for the estimation of parameters representing neonatal and adult vertebral and regional lengths, as well as initial growth rate and the rate of exponential growth decay. Findings demonstrate differences between neonatal and adult rats in terms of relative vertebral lengths, and differential growth rates between sequential vertebrae and vertebral regions. Specifically, relative differences in the length of vertebrae indicate increasing differences caudad. Vertebral length in neonates increases from the atlas to the middle of the thoracic series and decreases in length caudad, while adult vertebral lengths tend to increase caudad. There is also a general trend of increasing vertebral and regional initial growth and rate of growth decay caudad. Anteroposterior patterns of growth are sexually dimorphic, with males having longer vertebrae than females at any given age. Differences are more pronounced (a) increasingly caudad along the body axis, and (b) in adulthood than in neonates. Elucidated patterns of growth are influenced by a combination of developmental, functional, and genetic factors.

  13. The Pedicles Are Not the Densest Regions of the Lumbar Vertebrae: Implications for Bone Quality Assessment and Surgical Treatment Strategy.

    PubMed

    Hohn, Eric A; Chu, Bryant; Martin, Audrey; Yu, Elizabeth; Telles, Connor; Leasure, Jeremi; Lynch, Tennyson L; Kondrashov, Dimitriy

    2017-09-01

    Cadaver study. To determine the bone density of lumbar vertebral anatomic subregions. Bone mineral density (BMD) is a major factor in osseous fixation construct strength. The standard region for implant fixation of the spine is the pedicle; however, other regions may be more viable options with higher bone quality. Using computed tomography images, the spine was digitally isolated by applying a filter for adult bone. The spine model was separated into 5 lumbar vertebrae, followed by segmentation of each vertebra into 7 regions and determination of average Hounsfield units (HU). HU was converted to BMD with calibration phantoms of known BMD. Overall mean BMD in vertebral regions ranged from 172 to 393 mg/cm(3) with the highest and lowest BMD in the lamina and vertebral body, respectively. Vertebral regions formed 3 distinct groups (P < .03). The vertebral body and transverse processes represent one group with significantly lower BMD than other regions. Spinous process, pedicles, and superior articular processes represent a second group with moderate BMD. Finally, inferior articular process (IAP) and lamina represent a third group with significantly higher BMD than other regions. Standard lumbar fusion currently uses the vertebral body and pedicles as primary locations for fixation despite their relatively low BMD. Utilization of posterior elements, especially the lamina and IAP, may be advantageous as a supplement to modern constructs or the primary site for fixation, possibly mitigating construct failures due to loosening or pullout.

  14. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized.

  15. Outcomes following surgical repair using layered closure of unrepaired 4th degree perineal tear in rural western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goh, Judith T W; Tan, Stephanie B M; Natukunda, Harriet; Singasi, Isaac; Krause, Hannah G

    2016-11-01

    In many rural low-income countries, perineal tears at time of vaginal birth are not repaired at time of delivery. The aims of this study are to describe the surgical technique for management of the unrepaired 4th degree tear, performed without flaps, and short-term follow up on anal incontinence symptoms using a validated questionnaire. Women presenting to fistula camps in western Uganda with unrepaired 4th degree tears were interviewed using the Cleveland Clinic Continence Score. Interviews were undertaken pre-operatively, at 4-6 weeks post-operatively and 12 months following surgery. Repair of the 4th degree tear was performed in layers, with an overlapping anal sphincter repair and reconstruction of the perineal body, without flaps. All women were examined prior to discharge. 68 women completed pre-operative Cleveland Clinic Continence Scores. Prior to surgery, 59 % of women complained of daily incontinence to solid stools. Over 70 % of women complained of restriction to lifestyle due to the unrepaired 4th degree tear. About 50 % of the women are rejected by their husbands because of the condition. Only 1 woman had wound breakdown on Day 2. At 4 to 6 weeks follow-up, 61 women were contacted and all reported perfect continence. This study highlights the hidden problem of unrepaired 4th degree tears in rural areas of low-income countries where most deliveries are undertaken in the village without professional health care workers. These tears have significant impact on quality of life and anal incontinence. Short-term outcomes following surgical repair using a layered closure are promising.

  16. An atlas improves interobserver agreement regarding application of the ISCD vertebral body exclusion criteria.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Binkley, Neil; Blank, Robert D; Krueger, Diane C; Christian, Rose C; Malone, Daniel G; Baim, Sanford

    2007-01-01

    Coexisting conditions such as osteoarthritis and compression fracture may spuriously elevate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lumbar spine bone mass. To improve the diagnostic utility of lumbar spine DXA to diagnose osteoporosis, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) suggests excluding vertebrae affected by focal structural anomalies or unusual T-score discrepancies. However, we previously demonstrated only moderate agreement between physicians regarding vertebral body exclusion. We hypothesized that an atlas containing examples of vertebrae to exclude would improve interobserver agreement. Subsequently, we developed an interactive web-based atlas of lumbar spine DXA images with options to exclude vertebrae and compare one's answers to those derived by group consensus. Before and after review of the atlas, 5 ISCD-certified physicians applied the exclusion criteria to 90 DXA scans, recording the indications for vertebral exclusion on a standardized worksheet. After development and review of the atlas, interobserver agreement regarding vertebral body exclusion improved significantly (p<0.0001). We plotted the deviation of each physician's reported T-score vs the mean T-score for each of 90 scans, and demonstrated that the scatter from the mean is decreased after atlas review. Furthermore, correlations in T-score improved in 7 of 10 physician pairs after atlas review. We conclude that an interactive atlas promotes uniform lumbar spine DXA interpretation.

  17. Dumb-bell-type teratoma in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, K; Abe, E; Hoshi, N; Misawa, A; Tamura, Y; Chiba, M

    2000-02-01

    We report a case of a lumbar teratoma in a 50-year-old woman. The teratoma showed a dumb-bell-type expansion at the level of the left L3/4 foramen with massive erosion of the L3 vertebral body. MRI revealed inhomogeneous signal changes in the tumor, which were histologically compatible with a mixture of bone, muscle, fat, and cyst containing sebaceous material. Complete resection of the tumor and spinal arthrodesis with pedicle screw fixation was necessary to obtain stability of the affected spinal segment.

  18. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  19. Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

    1983-01-01

    Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained. PMID:21283322

  20. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  1. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  2. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  3. Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Katherine A.; Li Chenghong; Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

  4. Brief communication: Transportation and trauma: Dog-sledding and vertebral compression in Alaskan Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Legge, Scott S

    2010-04-01

    Vertebral compression, as evidenced by compression of the centrum, was observed within two Native Alaskan skeletal samples. Information was collected from 1,071 and 656 vertebrae from Golovin Bay and Nunivak Island, Alaska, respectively. In addition, patterns of compression related vertebral change in each collection were characterized by sex and location within the vertebral column. The overall frequencies of vertebral compression were 3.6% (n = 721) at Golovin Bay and 1.7% (n = 403) at Nunivak Island for all observable thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (T1-L5). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of compression among adults between these two collections. When examining the thoracic and lumbar vertebral segments by sex, females at Golovin Bay (4.5%; n = 442) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of vertebral compression than females at Nunivak (1.0%; n = 203). However, this difference in occurrence of compression could be accounted for by the age distributions of the two samples. No difference was noted between the males of the two collections. Compression frequencies in both samples are discussed in relation to the modes of transportation historically utilized by each community. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Minerva; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos; Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Diaz-Lopez, Jose Bernardino; Diaz-Corte, Carmen; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcifications and the bone fractures caused by abnormal bone fragility, also called osteoporotic fractures, are frequent complications associated with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vascular calcifications, osteoporotic bone fractures and survival in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods. A total of 193 HD patients were followed up to 2 years. Vascular calcifications and osteoporotic vertebral fractures (quoted just as vertebral fractures in the text) were assessed by thoracic, lumbar spine, pelvic and hand X-rays and graded according to their severity. Clinical, biochemical and therapeutic data gathered during the total time spent on HD were collected. Results. The prevalence of aortic calcifications was higher in HD patients than in a random-based general population (79% versus 37.5%, P < 0.001). Total time on any renal replacement therapy (RRT) and diabetes were positively associated with a higher prevalence of vascular calcifications. In addition to these factors, time on HD was also positively associated with the severity of vascular calcifications, and higher haemoglobin levels were associated with a lower prevalence of severe vascular calcifications in large and medium calibre arteries. The prevalence of vertebral fractures in HD patients was similar to that of the general population (26.5% versus 24.1%). Age and time on HD showed a positive and statistically significant association with the prevalence of vertebral fractures. Vascular calcifications in the medium calibre arteries were associated with a higher rate of prevalent vertebral fractures. In women, severe vascular calcifications and vertebral fractures were positively associated with mortality [RR = 3.2 (1.0–10.0) and RR = 4.8 (1.7–13.4), respectively]. Conclusions. Positive associations between vascular calcifications, vertebral fractures and mortality have been found in patients on HD. PMID:18725376

  6. Variations in vertebral body dimensions in women measured by 3D-XA: a longitudinal in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kolta, S; Kerkeni, S; Travert, C; Skalli, W; Eastell, R; Glüer, C C; Roux, C

    2012-03-01

    Bone size and shape play an important role in bone strength, as shown by biomechanical testing and clinical studies. Vertebral body dimensions determine vertebral body strength even after adjustment for bone mineral density. We have recently proposed an in vivo method for 3D reconstruction of vertebral bodies using the whole spine imaging on a standard DXA device (3D-XA). The aim of our study was to measure in vivo vertebral body dimension changes by 3D-XA in women over a 6 year period. A total of 174 women were included in this study. They were divided into 3 groups: premenopausal (20-40 years; N=53), postmenopausal women (55-60 years; N=65) and elderly women (70-80 years; N=56). Thoracic and lumbar spine (T4-L4) were reconstructed using the 3D-XA method at baseline and 6 years later. Biochemical markers of bone remodeling were measured at baseline. In premenopausal women, there was an increase in minimal cross-sectional area (minCSA), vertebral body volume as well as end plate width of the lumbar vertebrae, without statistically significant change of these parameters at the thoracic spine; there was no change in anterior heights. In postmenopausal women, there was a decrease in vertebral body anterior height and depth, driven by results in the elderly group at both the thoracic and lumbar spine. Vertebral body width decreased at the thoracic spine but increased at the lumbar spine. MinCSA and volume decreased at the thoracic spine, in contrast with an increase of these 2 parameters at the lumbar spine in early postmenopausal women (55-60 years). In elderly women (70-80 years), the change in minCSA and volume of the lumbar spine was not statistically significant over 6 years. In postmenopausal women, there was no correlation between changes in vertebral dimensions and baseline biochemical markers of bone remodeling except for NTX/Cr and anterior height decrease. Our study confirms that an increase in geometric dimensions of lumbar vertebrae occurs through adult

  7. [Lumbar nerve root pain with fever in tropical area: posterior spinal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, D D; Daboiko, J C; Eti, E; Ouali, B; Ouattara, B; Gbané, M; Gbazi, C; Kouakou, N M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the case of tuberculosis osteitis of the posterior vertebral arch in a 35-year-old man with recent history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical findings were pain due to bilateral inflammation of the lumbar nerve roots, fistulised cold abcess and motor deficit in both lower extremities. The tomodensitometry demonstrated a lytic bone lesion involving the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra in association with spondylitis and a large paravertebral abscess with calcification typical of tuberculosis. Cure was achieved by a single 12-month course of appropriate treatment.

  8. Lumbar radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Govind, Jay

    2004-06-01

    Radicular pain is caused by irritation of the sensory root or dorsal root ganglion of a spinal nerve. The irritation causes ectopic nerve impulses perceived as pain in the distribution of the axon. The pathophysiology is more than just mass effect: it is a combination of compression sensitising the nerve root to mechanical stimulation, stretching, and a chemically mediated noncellular inflammatory reaction. This article discusses the clinical features, assessment and management of lumbar radicular pain (LRP). Lumbar radicular pain is sharp, shooting or lancinating, and is typically felt as a narrow band of pain down the length of the leg, both superficially and deep. It may be associated with radiculopathy (objective sensory and/or motor dysfunction as a result of conduction block) and may coexist with spinal or somatic referred pain. In more than 50% of cases, LRP settles with simple analgesics. Significant and lasting pain relief can be achieved with transforaminal epidural steroid injection. Surgery is indicated for those patients with progressive neurological deficits or severe LRP refractory to conservative measures.

  9. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Testing biomechanical models of human lumbar lordosis variability.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Eric R; Hsu, Connie; Mair, Ross W; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2017-05-01

    Lumbar lordosis (LL) is a key adaptation for bipedalism, but factors underlying curvature variations remain unclear. This study tests three biomechanical models to explain LL variability. Thirty adults (15 male, 15 female) were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standing posture analysis was conducted, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) was assessed. Three measures of LL were compared. The trunk's center of mass was estimated from external markers to calculate hip moments (Mhip ) and lumbar flexion moments. Cross-sectional areas of lumbar vertebral bodies and trunk muscles were measured from scans. Regression models tested associations between LL and the Mhip moment arm, a beam bending model, and an interaction between relative trunk strength (RTS) and ROM. Hip moments were not associated with LL. Beam bending was moderately predictive of standing but not supine LL (R(2)  = 0.25). Stronger backs and increased ROM were associated with greater LL, especially when standing (R(2)  = 0.65). The strength-flexibility model demonstrates the differential influence of RTS depending on ROM: individuals with high ROM exhibited the most LL variation with RTS, while those with low ROM showed reduced LL regardless of RTS. Hip moments appear constrained suggesting the possibility of selection, and the beam model explains some LL variability due to variations in trunk geometry. The strength-flexibility interaction best predicted LL, suggesting a tradeoff in which ROM limits the effects of back strength on LL. The strength-flexibility model may have clinical relevance for spinal alignment and pathology. This model may also suggest that straight-backed Neanderthals had reduced lumbar mobility. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Lumbar Lordosis in Males and Females, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Ori; Dar, Gali; Abbas, Janan; Stein, Dan; May, Hila; Masharawi, Youssef; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether differences exist in male and female lumbar lordosis has been debated by researchers who are divided as to the nature of variations in the spinal curve, their origin, reasoning, and implications from a morphological, functional and evolutionary perspective. Evaluation of the spinal curvature is constructive in understanding the evolution of the spine, as well as its pathology, planning of surgical procedures, monitoring its progression and treatment of spinal deformities. The aim of the current study was to revisit the nature of lumbar curve in males and females. Methods Our new automated method uses CT imaging of the spine to measure lumbar curvature in males and females. The curves extracted from 158 individuals were based on the spinal canal, thus avoiding traditional pitfalls of using bone features for curve estimation. The model analysis was carried out on the entire curve, whereby both local and global descriptors were examined in a single framework. Six parameters were calculated: segment length, curve length, curvedness, lordosis peak location, lordosis cranial peak height, and lordosis caudal peak height. Principal Findings Compared to males, the female spine manifested a statistically significant greater curvature, a caudally located lordotic peak, and greater cranial peak height. As caudal peak height is similar for males and females, the illusion of deeper lordosis among females is due partially to the fact that the upper part of the female lumbar curve is positioned more dorsally (more backwardly inclined). Conclusions Males and females manifest different lumbar curve shape, yet similar amount of inward curving (lordosis). The morphological characteristics of the female spine were probably developed to reduce stress on the vertebral elements during pregnancy and nursing. PMID:26301782

  12. The Lumbar Lordosis in Males and Females, Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hay, Ori; Dar, Gali; Abbas, Janan; Stein, Dan; May, Hila; Masharawi, Youssef; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Whether differences exist in male and female lumbar lordosis has been debated by researchers who are divided as to the nature of variations in the spinal curve, their origin, reasoning, and implications from a morphological, functional and evolutionary perspective. Evaluation of the spinal curvature is constructive in understanding the evolution of the spine, as well as its pathology, planning of surgical procedures, monitoring its progression and treatment of spinal deformities. The aim of the current study was to revisit the nature of lumbar curve in males and females. Our new automated method uses CT imaging of the spine to measure lumbar curvature in males and females. The curves extracted from 158 individuals were based on the spinal canal, thus avoiding traditional pitfalls of using bone features for curve estimation. The model analysis was carried out on the entire curve, whereby both local and global descriptors were examined in a single framework. Six parameters were calculated: segment length, curve length, curvedness, lordosis peak location, lordosis cranial peak height, and lordosis caudal peak height. Compared to males, the female spine manifested a statistically significant greater curvature, a caudally located lordotic peak, and greater cranial peak height. As caudal peak height is similar for males and females, the illusion of deeper lordosis among females is due partially to the fact that the upper part of the female lumbar curve is positioned more dorsally (more backwardly inclined). Males and females manifest different lumbar curve shape, yet similar amount of inward curving (lordosis). The morphological characteristics of the female spine were probably developed to reduce stress on the vertebral elements during pregnancy and nursing.

  13. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  14. Nursing Review Section of Surgical Neurology International Part 2: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E; Hollingsworth, Renee D

    2017-01-01

    The lumbar spine includes 5 lumbar vertebral bodies, L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5. At each level, there is a disc space defined by the two bones (vertebral bodies) in the back; for example, there is a disc space at the L5-S1 level etc. The normal front to back (anterior to posterior or AP diameter) measurement of the spinal canal is typically 18-20 mm, but some patients have narrowing called spinal stenosis. Lumbar stenosis is defined by two major types. Central stenosis compresses the midline (in the middle) sac of nerve tissue (dural or thecal sac containing the lumbar nerve roots). Lateral recess stenosis (off to the sides) compresses the individual exiting nerve roots. At each lumbar level, there may be compression of the nerve tissue centrally (dura also called cauda equina) or the nerve roots (on one or both sides). Compression may occur due to soft or calcified discs in the front (anteriorly) of the spine at different levels or from behind (posteriorly) due to arthritic enlargement (hypertrophy) or calcification (ossification) of the yellow ligament, facet joints, and/or bones (laminae). Surgery to remove bone and arthritic structures from the back of the spinal canal to decompress nerve tissue is called a laminectomy. Patients with narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal may have central or lateral recess stenosis that compresses the thecal sac and/or exiting nerve roots at any of 5 levels. Laminectomy, performed at single or multiple levels, decompresses lumbar spinal stenosis.

  15. Nursing Review Section of Surgical Neurology International Part 2: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The lumbar spine includes 5 lumbar vertebral bodies, L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5. At each level, there is a disc space defined by the two bones (vertebral bodies) in the back; for example, there is a disc space at the L5-S1 level etc. The normal front to back (anterior to posterior or AP diameter) measurement of the spinal canal is typically 18-20 mm, but some patients have narrowing called spinal stenosis. Methods: Lumbar stenosis is defined by two major types. Central stenosis compresses the midline (in the middle) sac of nerve tissue (dural or thecal sac containing the lumbar nerve roots). Lateral recess stenosis (off to the sides) compresses the individual exiting nerve roots. Results: At each lumbar level, there may be compression of the nerve tissue centrally (dura also called cauda equina) or the nerve roots (on one or both sides). Compression may occur due to soft or calcified discs in the front (anteriorly) of the spine at different levels or from behind (posteriorly) due to arthritic enlargement (hypertrophy) or calcification (ossification) of the yellow ligament, facet joints, and/or bones (laminae). Surgery to remove bone and arthritic structures from the back of the spinal canal to decompress nerve tissue is called a laminectomy. Conclusions: Patients with narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal may have central or lateral recess stenosis that compresses the thecal sac and/or exiting nerve roots at any of 5 levels. Laminectomy, performed at single or multiple levels, decompresses lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:28781916

  16. The effect of reduction mammaplasty on the vertebral column: a radiologic study.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Onder; Demirkiran, H Gokhan; Silistreli, Ozlem; Sonmez, Erhan; Bedir, Yagmur Kaan; Can, Melih; Caliskan, Gorkem; Aslan, Cem; Oral, Meltem Ayhan; Kankaya, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    Some studies emphasized that anatomic mechanisms of vertebral aberrations could be associated with large breasts. The effect of mammaplasty operation on the vertebral column and body posture seems to be beneficial; in this trial, it was planned to investigate the objective radiologic effect of reduction mammaplasty on the posture of the vertebral column in a group of patients operated due to the large breasts. Thirty-four white women with large breasts were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to their breast cup sizes. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the lumbosacral and thoracic spine were taken at baseline preoperatively, and the same radiographic images were taken in an average of 12 months later than the reduction mammaplasty operation. All were evaluated and compared for thoracic kyphosis angle and lumbar lordosis angle both preoperatively and postoperatively. The mean thoracic kyphosis angle was 40,53 preoperatively and 39,38 postoperatively. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative measurements in all groups (P > 0,05). The mean lumbar lordosis angle was 54,71 preoperatively and 53,18 postoperatively. Regarding the preoperative and postoperative measurements of lumbar lordosis angles, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (P > 0,05). Although breast size may be an important factor that affects body posture, reduction mammaplasty operations have little or no radiologic effect on the vertebral column.

  17. Complications and Rates of Subsequent Lumbar Surgery Following Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty and Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Eliasberg, Claire D; Kelly, Michael P; Ajiboye, Remi M; SooHoo, Nelson F

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective analysis. To examine complications and rates of subsequent surgery following lumbar spinal fusion (LF) and lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) at up to 5-year follow-up. LF is commonly used in the management of degenerative disc disease causing pain refractory to nonoperative management. Lumbar TDA was developed as an alternative to fusion with the theoretical advantage of reducing rates of adjacent segment pathology and reoperation. Most prior reports comparing these 2 interventions have come from industry-sponsored investigational device exemption trials and no large-scale administrative database comparisons exist. The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database was queried for patients aged 18 to 65 years undergoing lumbar TDA and LF for degenerative disc disease from 2004 to 2010. Patient characteristics were collected, and rates of complications and readmission were identified. Rates of repeat lumbar surgery were calculated at 90-day and 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up intervals. A total of 52,877 patients met the inclusion criteria (LF = 50,462, TDA = 2415). Wound infections were more common following LF than TDA (1.03% vs. 0.25%, P < 0.001). Rates of subsequent lumbar surgery at 90-day and 1-year follow-up were lower with lumbar TDA than LF (90-day-TDA: 2.94% vs. LF: 4.01%, P = 0.007; 1-yr-TDA: 3.46% vs. LF: 4.78%, P = 0.009). However, there were no differences in rates of subsequent lumbar surgery between the 2 groups at 3-year and 5-year follow-up. Lumbar TDA was associated with fewer early reoperations, though beyond 1 year, rates of reoperation were similar. Lumbar TDA may be associated with fewer acute infections, though this may be approach related and unrelated to the device itself. 3.

  18. Complications and Rates of Subsequent Lumbar Surgery Following Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty and Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Eliasberg, Claire D.; Kelly, Michael P.; Ajiboye, Remi M.; SooHoo, Nelson F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Objectives To examine complications and rates of subsequent surgery following lumbar spinal fusion (LF) and lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) at up to 5 years follow-up. Summary of Background Data LF is commonly used in the management of degenerative disc disease causing pain refractory to nonoperative management. Lumbar TDA was developed as an alternative to fusion with the theoretical advantage of reducing rates of adjacent segment pathology and reoperation. Most prior reports comparing these two interventions have come from industry-sponsored investigational device exemption trials and no large-scale administrative database comparisons exist. Methods The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database was queried for patients aged 18 to 65 years undergoing lumbar TDA and LF for degenerative disc disease from 2004 to 2010. Patient characteristics were collected, and rates of complications and readmission were identified. Rates of repeat lumbar surgery were calculated at 90-day and 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up intervals. Results A total of 52,877 patients met the inclusion criteria (LF = 50462, TDA = 2415). Wound infections were more common following LF than TDA (1.03% vs. 0.25%, p<0.001). Rates of subsequent lumbar surgery at 90-day and 1-year follow-up were lower with lumbar TDA than LF (90-day – TDA: 2.94% vs. LF: 4.01%, p=0.007; 1-year – TDA: 3.46% vs. LF: 4.78%, p=0.009). However, there were no differences in rates of subsequent lumbar surgery between the two groups at 3-year and 5-year follow-up. Conclusions Lumbar TDA was associated with fewer early reoperations, though beyond one year, rates of reoperation were similar. Lumbar TDA may be associated with fewer acute infections, though this may be approach-related and unrelated to the device itself. PMID:26751061

  19. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  20. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  1. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science (JPL co-I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Jonathan

    Here we propose "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science," a project being led by Dr. Christopher Walker of the University of Arizona. The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory was ready for its second Antarctic flight (STO-2) in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to December 31st, 2016. Here, we request resources for calendar year 2017 to support mission operations, payload recovery, and science operations. These elements will enable the team to deliver fully on STO-2's science mission, and maximize NASA's demonstrated investment in STO-2's success. STO-2 addresses a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately ˜ of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3- dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky

  2. [Improvement of approach to performance of lumbar sympathetic blockade in patients with tissue ischemia of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Panov, V M; Fesenko, U A; Kutsyn, V M

    2014-06-01

    New access for performance of sympathic blockade in region of aortal bifurcation, was elaborated, basing on calculations, conducted on 30 spiral computeric tomograms of lumbar and sacral parts of vertebral column. Application of the method permits to escape such complications, as a renal and the main vessels damage, the sympathetic nerves blockade, do not demand roentgenological control.

  3. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  4. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review.

  5. Influence of Physiological Loading on the Lumbar Spine of National Level Athletes in Different Sports.

    PubMed

    Rozan, Mansoorehossadat; Rouhollahi, Vahid; Rastogi, Amit; Dureha, Dilip Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The lumbar spine is subjected to considerable stress during many athletic efforts. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of physiological loading on the lumbar spine in national male players of different games, which may be predictive of the future development of low back pain and injury symptoms. Thirty-four national players (12 cricket players, 12 field hockey players, and 10 basketball players) underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and selected geometric variables including intervertebral disc angles, the Farfan ratio, the lumbar body index, the compression deformity ratio, the biconcave deformity ratio and the anterior wedge deformity ratio were measured using KINOVEA-0.8.15 software and syngo fast view software and calculated using specific formulas. The results indicated a significant difference in the intervertebral disc angle between the three groups at the L2/3, L3/4 and L4/5 levels. In relation to the lumbar vertebral body shape and size, significant differences were found in the lumbar index at the L2 level, in the biconcave deformity at the L1 and L2 levels and in relation to the anterior wedge deformity at L2 between the three selected groups. Our data suggest that the different physiological loadings in the selected sports play an important role in the development of degenerative changes of the lumbar spine, which may be considered a risk factor for future injury and/or low back pain in each specific sport because of the unique demands of each discipline.

  6. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Gunathilka, H D P; Weerasinghe, K D C M; Kalawana, O T M R K S B

    2013-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family "Weerasinghe." A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion.

  7. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, E. R. H. S. S.; Gunathilka, H. D. P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. C. M.; Kalawana, O. T. M. R. K. S. B.

    2013-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family “Weerasinghe.” A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion. PMID:24049411

  8. Working Group on Ice Forces (4th) State-of-the-Art Report Held in Iowa City, Iowa in 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    OTTAWA OF CANADA CANADA HYDRAULICS LABORATORY Preface The following papers comprise the contributions to the 4 th State-of-the-Art Report on Ice Forces...in developing an understanding of ice interacting with offshore structures. : Odes iili/or AjA Jordaan and McKenna follow with a description of the...and Moore follow with a more detailed look at ice impact loads on ship hulls. This review is based on full scale trials of several icebreaking vessels

  9. Abstracts for the 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports, May 30, 2017, Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    The 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports will be held on May 30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado. While prior meetings have been multiple-day events, the 2017 Congress will be an intense 1-day preconference to the American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting. Details of this Congress, as well as past and future meetings, can be found at the Ultra Sports Science Foundation Web site: http://ultrasportsscience.us.

  10. Reliability of a new 4th generation FloTrac algorithm to track cardiac output changes in patients receiving phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fuhai; Li, Jian; Fleming, Neal; Rose, David; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Phenylephrine is often used to treat intra-operative hypotension. Previous studies have shown that the FloTrac cardiac monitor may overestimate cardiac output (CO) changes following phenylephrine administration. A new algorithm (4th generation) has been developed to improve performance in this setting. We performed a prospective observational study to assess the effects of phenylephrine administration on CO values measured by the 3rd and 4th generation FloTrac algorithms. 54 patients were enrolled in this study. We used the Nexfin, a pulse contour method shown to be insensitive to vasopressor administration, as the reference method. Radial arterial pressures were recorded continuously in patients undergoing surgery. Phenylephrine administration times were documented. Arterial pressure recordings were subsequently analyzed offline using three different pulse contour analysis algorithms: FloTrac 3rd generation (G3), FloTrac 4th generation (G4), and Nexfin (nf). One minute of hemodynamic measurements was analyzed immediately before phenylephrine administration and then repeated when the mean arterial pressure peaked. A total of 157 (4.6 ± 3.2 per patient, range 1-15) paired sets of hemodynamic recordings were analyzed. Phenylephrine induced a significant increase in stroke volume (SV) and CO with the FloTrac G3, but not with FloTrac G4 or Nexfin algorithms. Agreement between FloTrac G3 and Nexfin was: 0.23 ± 1.19 l/min and concordance was 51.1%. In contrast, agreement between FloTrac G4 and Nexfin was: 0.19 ± 0.86 l/min and concordance was 87.2%. In conclusion, the pulse contour method of measuring CO, as implemented in FloTrac 4th generation algorithm, has significantly improved its ability to track the changes in CO induced by phenylephrine.

  11. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  12. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  13. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  14. Occult lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, A R; Taylor, J C

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients presenting with low back pain, associated with sciatic or femoral neuropathy, were found to have lateral recess stenosis occurring as a result of hypertrophy of the facet joints, with preservation within normal limits of the sagittal AP diameter of the lumbar canal. Pathology was believed to be traumatic in origin, and the variable nature of the adhesions suggested recurrent inflammation; the hypertrophy of the facet joints may have been the result of traumatic inflammatory hyperaemia. Radiological investigations were unhelpful. The diagnosis of the condition was made at the time of surgical exploration by the findings of alteration of the facet joints, adhesions and fixity of the nerve roots, normal sagittal AP diameter of the canal, and absence of other significant lesions. Gratifying results were obtained with decompression by wide laminectomy with excision of overhanging facet joints and release of adhesions. PMID:894321

  15. [Intradural lumbar disk hernia].

    PubMed

    Alonso-Bartolomé, P; Canga, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; García-Valtuille, R; Abascal, F; Cerezal, L

    2001-04-01

    Intradural disc herniation is a rare complication of degenerative disc disease. A correct diagnosis of this process is frequently difficult. If this entity is not preoperatively diagnosed and is omitted at surgery, severe neurologic sequels may be provoked. We report a case of a pathologically proven intradural disc herniation preoperatively diagnosed by MR imaging. Clinically, it was manifested by sudden onset of right leg ciatalgia and progressive right lower extremity weakness. The patient also referred a one-month history of sexual dysfunction. MR imaging revealed interruption of the low signal of the anulus fibrosus and of the posterior longitudinal ligament at L2-L3 level and a voluminous disc fragment migrated in the dural sac that showed rim enhancement with gadolinium.The clinical, neuroradiological, and surgical management of lumbar intradural disc herniation are reviewed.

  16. Outcome of Salvage Lumbar Fusion after Lumbar Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose This study aims to define the role of lumbar fusion for persistent back pains after the lumbar disc replacement. Overview of Literature Little is written about lumbar fusion after optimally placed lumbar arthroplasty in patients with persistent lower back pains. Methods Retrospective review of cases of lumbar artificial disc requiring subsequent fusion because of persistent back pains despite optimally placed artificial discs. Outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical improvements indicated 25% improvement in ODI and VAS values. Results Five patients met the study criteria. The mean baseline ODI for the five patients was 52. The mean baseline VAS scores for back and leg pains were 76 and 26, respectively. All the five patients had optimally placed prosthesis. The indication for surgery was the constant low back pains found in all the patients. Revision surgery involved disc explantation and fusion in two of the patients and posterolateral fusion without removing the prosthesis in three. None of the patients achieved adequate pain control after the revision surgery despite the solid bony fusion documented by postoperative computed tomography. The mean ODI value after the fusion was 55. The mean values for back and leg pains VAS were 72 and 30, respectively. Conclusions Lack of good pain relief after successful lumbar artifical disc replacements may indicate different etiology for the back pains. The spine-treating surgeons should have a high threshold level to perform salvage fusion at that level. PMID:24596600

  17. Vertebral bending mechanics and xenarthrous morphology in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jillian D; Jones, Katrina E; Hautier, Lionel; Loughry, W J; Pierce, Stephanie E

    2016-10-01

    The vertebral column has evolved to accommodate the broad range of locomotor pressures found across vertebrate lineages. Xenarthran (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) vertebral columns are characterized by xenarthrous articulations, novel intervertebral articulations located in the posterior trunk that are hypothesized to stiffen the vertebral column to facilitate digging. To determine the degree to which xenarthrous articulations impact vertebral movement, we passively measured compliance and range of motion during ventroflexion, dorsiflexion and lateral bending across the thoracolumbar region of the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus Patterns of bending were compared with changes in vertebral morphology along the column to determine which morphological features best predict intervertebral joint mechanics. We found that compliance was lower in post-diaphragmatic, xenarthrous vertebrae relative to pre-xenarthrous vertebrae in both sagittal and lateral planes of bending. However, we also found that range of motion was higher in this region. These changes in mechanics are correlated with the transition from pre-xenarthrous to xenarthrous vertebrae, as well as with the transition from thoracic to lumbar vertebrae. Our results thus substantiate the hypothesis that xenarthrous articulations stiffen the vertebral column. Additionally, our data suggest that xenarthrous articulations, and their associated enlarged metapophyses, also act to increase the range of motion of the post-diaphragmatic region. We propose that xenarthrous articulations perform the dual role of stiffening the vertebral column and increasing mobility, resulting in passively stable vertebrae that are capable of substantial bending under appropriate loads. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Complete set of invariants of a 4th order tensor: the 12 tasks of HARDI from ternary quartics.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulo, Théo; Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Invariants play a crucial role in Diffusion MRI. In DTI (2nd order tensors), invariant scalars (FA, MD) have been successfully used in clinical applications. But DTI has limitations and HARDI models (e.g. 4th order tensors) have been proposed instead. These, however, lack invariant features and computing them systematically is challenging. We present a simple and systematic method to compute a functionally complete set of invariants of a non-negative 3D 4th order tensor with respect to SO3. Intuitively, this transforms the tensor's non-unique ternary quartic (TQ) decomposition (from Hilbert's theorem) to a unique canonical representation independent of orientation - the invariants. The method consists of two steps. In the first, we reduce the 18 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) of a TQ representation by 3-DOFs via an orthogonal transformation. This transformation is designed to enhance a rotation-invariant property of choice of the 3D 4th order tensor. In the second, we further reduce 3-DOFs via a 3D rotation transformation of coordinates to arrive at a canonical set of invariants to SO3 of the tensor. The resulting invariants are, by construction, (i) functionally complete, (ii) functionally irreducible (if desired), (iii) computationally efficient and (iv) reversible (mappable to the TQ coefficients or shape); which is the novelty of our contribution in comparison to prior work. Results from synthetic and real data experiments validate the method and indicate its importance.

  19. Required and Elective Experiences During the 4th Year: An Analysis of ACGME Accredited Psychiatry Residency Program Websites.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Heather S; Belitsky, Richard; Bernstein, Carol A; Chaukos, Deanna; Cohen, Mitchell B; Dickstein, Leah J; Hilty, Donald M; Hutner, Lucy; Sakman, Ferda; Scheiber, Stephen C; Wrzosek, Marika I; Silberman, Edward K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and describe required and elective components of the 4th post-graduate year (PGY4) in psychiatry residency programs. We reviewed the websites of all 193 2014-2015 ACGME accredited psychiatry residency programs for content describing the specific components of the PGY4 year. Nearly all residency programs (99 %) had some form of required experiences during the PGY4 year. Ninety-four percent had clinical requirements for PGY4 residents, with longitudinal outpatient clinic being the most common (77 %). All programs offered some elective time during PGY4, but the amount of time ranged from 2 months to 100 %. Virtually all residency programs include some requirements in the 4th year (most commonly didactics and outpatient clinic) in addition to a broad array of elective experiences. Although 3 years may suffice for residents to complete ACGME requirements, a variety of factors may motivate programs to include required 4th year curricula. Future studies should explore the rationales for and possible benefits of programmatic requirements throughout 4 versus only 3 years of psychiatric training.

  20. Kidney retransplantation from HLA incompatible living donors: a single centre study of 3(rd) /4(th) transplants.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J C H; Goodyear, S J; Imray, C E A; Lam, F T; Kashi, S H; Tan, L C; Higgins, R; Imray, C H E

    2017-09-04

    The demand for kidney retransplantation following graft failure is rising. Repeat transplantation is often associated with poorer outcomes due to both immunological and surgical challenges. The aim of this study was to compare surgical and functional outcomes of kidney retransplantation in recipients that had previously had at least 2 kidney transplants with a focus on those with antibody incompatibility. We analysed 66 patients who underwent renal transplantation at a single centre between 2003 and 2011. Consecutive patients receiving their 3(rd) or 4(th) kidney were case-matched with an equal number of 1(st) and 2(nd) transplants. Twenty-two 3(rd) and 4(th) kidney transplants were matched with 22 first and 22 second transplants. Operative times and length of stay were equivalent between the subgroups. Surgical complication rates were similar in all groups (22.7% in 1(st) and 2(nd) transplants, and 27.2% in 3(rd) /4(th) transplants). There was no significant difference in patient or graft survival over 5 years. Graft function was similar between transplant groups at 1, 3 and 5 years. Third and fourth kidney transplants can be performed safely with similar outcomes to 1(st) and 2(nd) transplants. Kidney retransplantation from antibody incompatible donors may be appropriate for highly sensitised patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  2. Rapid onset mediastinal hematoma due to vertebral fracture and review of relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Vaner; Coskun, Selcuk; Coskun, Pinar Koksal

    2015-12-01

    Patients with vertebral fractures are frequently encountered and those with thoracic and lumbar spine fractures are likely to have associated injuries. Detection of a widened mediastinum after trauma is very nonspecific and most of the time it is related to aortic injury or mediastinal hematoma. Vertebral or sternal fractures can also be the cause of mediastinal hematoma with or without aortic injury. This report reviews an unusual case of rapid onset mediastinal hematoma due to vertebral fracture after a fall. In the case, there was a mediastinal hematoma adjacent to a burst fracture of the T8 vertebral body. There was a rapid increase in identified hematoma during the emergency follow up and urgent erythrocyte transfusion was carried out. We would like to raise awareness of this infrequent presentation of mediastinal hematoma, as it is insidious and possibly fatal. In the evaluation of mediastinal hematoma, the detection of osseous injuries is a requirement.

  3. Vertebral hemangioma coincident with metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grażyna; Stasiów, Bartłomiej; Krzan, Aleksandra; Wierzycka, Beata; Kopycka, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on colon cancer metastasis to the L-3 vertebra, which had been previously found to be involved by an asymptomatic hemangioma. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted after onset of lumbar axial pain and weakness of the right quadriceps muscle. Her medical history included colon cancer that had been diagnosed 3 years earlier and was treated via a right hemicolectomy followed by chemotherapy. Presurgical imaging revealed an asymptomatic hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body. Computed tomography and MRI of the spine were performed after admission and revealed a hemangioma in the L-3 vertebral body as well as a soft-tissue mass protruding from the L-3 vertebral body to the spinal canal. Treatment consisted of vertebroplasty of the hemangioma, left L-3 hemilaminectomy, and removal of the pathological mass from the spinal canal and the L-3 vertebral body. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of colon cancer metastasis and a hemangioma in the same vertebra.

  4. Can vertebral density changes be explained by intervertebral disc degeneration?

    PubMed

    Homminga, Jasper; Aquarius, Rene; Bulsink, Vera E; Jansen, Christiaan T J; Verdonschot, Nico

    2012-05-01

    One of the major problems facing the elderly spine is the occurrence of vertebral fractures due to low bone mass. Although typically attributed to osteoporosis, disc degeneration has also been suggested to play a role in vertebral fractures. Existing bone adaptation theories and simulations may explain the biomechanical pathway from a degenerated disc to an increased fracture risk. A finite element model of a lumbar segment was created and calibrated. Subsequently the disc properties were varied to represent either a healthy or degenerated disc and the resulting bone adaptation was simulated. Disc degeneration resulted in a shift of load from the nucleus to the annulus. The resulting bone adaptation led to a dramatically reduced density of the trabecular core and to an increased density in the vertebral walls. Degeneration of just the nucleus, and in particular the dehydration of the nucleus, resulted in most of this bone density change. Additional annulus degeneration had much less of an effect on the density values. The density decrease in the trabecular core as seen in this study matches clinical observations. Therefore, bone remodeling theories can assists in explaining the potential synergistic effects of disc degeneration and osteoporotis in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traumatic spondyloptosis of the lumbar spine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Amesiya, Robert; Orwotho, Norbert; Nyati, Mallon; Mugarura, Rodney; Mwaka, Erisa Sabakaki

    2014-12-21

    Spondyloptosis is the most severe of translation spine injuries. It results in complete disruption of the structural elements of the vertebral column and the adjacent paravertebral soft tissues, culminating in severe biomechanical instability. Although several cases of lumbosacral spondyloptosis have been documented, not many cases of traumatic lumbar spondyloptosis have been published in the literature. We present a case of a 34-year-old man of Nilo-Hamitic ethnicity who presented to our unit with paraplegia following injury from the collapse of a concrete wall. Radiographic images showed spondyloptosis at the fourth lumbar vertebral level. He underwent surgery where decompression, reduction, posterior instrumentation and bone grafting through a posterior approach were done. He started regaining motor power 48 hours postoperatively. He is currently undergoing rehabilitation and is steadily improving, 2 months postoperatively. In limited-resource settings there is a tendency of "skilful neglect" of complex injuries. Where resources allow, surgical reconstruction of spondyloptosis should be attempted irrespective of the severity of the initial neurological deficit because there are chances of neurological improvement.

  6. Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Pivonello, Rosario; Di Somma, Carolina; Rossi, Riccardo; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Camera, Luigi; Klain, Michele; Salvatore, Marco; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2006-05-01

    The effects of endogenous cortisol (F) excess on bone mass and vertebral fractures have still not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to investigate factors influencing bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in different conditions of F excess, i.e. Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion. The groups had similar age. At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs. When comparing the groups with different etiology of F excess, the patients with ectopic ACTH secretion had higher F and lower BMD values than the other subgroups. Morning F (P = 0.03) and testosterone levels (P = 0.04) correlated with lumbar BMD. Vertebral fractures were found in 61 (76%) of the patients, were multiple in 52 (85%) of the cases, and clinically evident in 32 (52%). Only multiple fractures were more frequent in patients with ectopic ACTH hypersecretion (P < 0.05). Lumbar spine BMD was the best predictor of vertebral fractures (P < 0.01). Surprisingly, amenorrheic and eumenorrheic women had similar BMD values and fracture prevalence. A high prevalence (76%) of vertebral fracture was revealed, regardless of the etiology of the patients' hypercortisolism. The harmful effects of F excess at the spine were partly counterbalanced by the increased androgen production but were not affected by gonadal status in women.

  7. [Enlargement in managment of lumbar spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Steib, J P; Averous, C; Brinckert, D; Lang, G

    1996-05-01

    Lumbar stenosis has been well discussed recently, especially at the 64th French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT: July 1989). The results of different surgical treatments were considered as good, but the indications for surgical treatment were not clear cut. Laminectomy is not the only treatment of spinal stenosis. Laminectomy is an approach with its own rate of complications (dural tear, fibrosis, instability... ).Eight years ago, J. Sénégas described what he called the "recalibrage" (enlargement). His feeling was that, in the spinal canal, we can find two different AP diameters. The first one is a fixed constitutional AP diameter (FCAPD) at the cephalic part of the lamina. The second one is a mobile constitutional AP diameter (MCAPD) marked by the disc and the ligamentum flavum. This diameter is maximal in flexion, minimal in extension. The nerve root proceeds through the lateral part of the canal: first above, between the disc and the superior articular process, then below, in the lateral recess bordered by the pedicle, the vertebral body and the posterior articulation. With the degenerative change the disc space becomes shorter, the superior articular process is worn out with osteophytes. These degenerative events are complicated by inter vertebral instability increasing the stenosis. The idea of the "recalibrage" is to remove only the upper part of the lamina with the ligamentum flavum and to cut the hypertrophied anterior part of the articular process from inside. If needed the disc and other osteophytes are removed. The surgery is finished with a ligamentoplasty reducing the flexion and preventing the extension by a posterior wedge.Our experience in spine surgery especially in scoliosis surgery, showed us that it was possible to cure a radicular compression without opening the canal. The compression is then lifted by the 3D reduction and restoration of an anatomy as normal as possible. Lumbar stenosis is the consequence of a degenerative process. Indeed, hip

  8. The nerve supply of the lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Edgar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The anatomical studies, basic to our understanding of lumbar spine innervation through the sinu-vertebral nerves, are reviewed. Research in the 1980s suggested that pain sensation was conducted in part via the sympathetic system. These sensory pathways have now been clarified using sophisticated experimental and histochemical techniques confirming a dual pattern. One route enters the adjacent dorsal root segmentally, whereas the other supply is non-segmental ascending through the paravertebral sympathetic chain with re-entry through the thoracolumbar white rami communicantes. Sensory nerve endings in the degenerative lumbar disc penetrate deep into the disrupted nucleus pulposus, insensitive in the normal lumbar spine. Complex as well as free nerve endings would appear to contribute to pain transmission. The nature and mechanism of discogenic pain is still speculative but there is growing evidence to support a 'visceral pain' hypothesis, unique in the muscloskeletal system. This mechanism is open to 'peripheral sensitisation' and possibly 'central sensitisation' as a potential cause of chronic back pain.

  9. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult. This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection. Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications. The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis.

  10. Computed tomography of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures that have been treated with Harrington instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Golimbu, C.; Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Engler, G.; Delman, A.

    1984-06-01

    Twenty patients with fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine underwent computed tomography (CT) following Harrington distraction instrumentation and a spinal fusion. CT was done to search for a cause of persistent cord or nerve root compression in those patients who failed to improve and completely recover their partial neurologic deficit (14 cases). The most common abnormality was the presence of residual bone fragments originating in the burst fracture of a vertebral body displaced posteriorly, into the spinal canal. In patients with complications in the late recovery period, CT found exuberant callus indenting the canal or lack of fusion of the bone grafts placed in the anterolateral aspect of the vertebral bodies. This experience indicates that CT is the modality of choice for spinal canal evaluation in those patients who fail to have an optimal clinical course following fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine treated with Harrington rods.

  11. Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M J

    1985-03-01

    One of the areas of the body which is very often injured by athletes is the lower lack, or the lumbar area of the spine. This problem is of some concern to physical educators, athletic therapists, coaches, athletes, and physicians. The type of injury which occurs in the lumbar spine is dependent on the direction, magnitude, and the point of application of the forces to the spine. This part of the body is susceptible to injury due to the large forces which must be supported, which include the body weight and any external weights, as well as the forces due to very high accelerations of the body parts. Since the lumbar spine is the only connecting column between the upper and lower parts of the body, all the forces must be transmitted via these structures. There are two general techniques of calculating the forces on the lumbar spinal structures, a static approach and a dynamic approach. The static approach may be useful to calculate compression and shear forces on the spine in stationary positions as may be seen in weightlifting. However, the dynamics approach should be used to calculate the effects of the various weights and inertial forces on spinal structures. The most common types of lower back injuries found in athletes were: muscle strains, ligament sprains, lumbar vertebral fractures, disc injuries, and neural arch fractures. The most common serious athletic injury to the lower back was found to be neural arch fractures at the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus between the superior and inferior articular processes. These fractures are known as spondylolysis, or defect in the pars interarticularis of one side of the vertebrae; and spondylolisthesis, a bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis, often accompanied by forward displacement of the vertebral body. The sports in which lower back injuries commonly occurred were also examined, and it was determined that gymnastics, weightlifting and football were the sports in which the lower back is at greatest

  12. Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Improving 4th Year Student Teachers' Teaching Skills and Preparing 1st Year Student Teachers for Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Ahmet Zeki; Saka, Arzu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new approach to help both 4th year students and 1st year students to get the utmost benefit from application activities. This new approach will provide 4th year students with an experience of teaching practice and also preparation of 1st student teachers to teaching practice process before they start their…

  13. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Adolescents and Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of vertebral fracture (VF) for young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not well understood. We sought to determine the rates of asymptomatic VF in patients suffering from AN, hypothesizing that VF rates would be higher in subjects with low BMD Z-scores. We recruited young women with AN (n=80) for participation in a longitudinal trial. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the lateral thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained for vertebral fracture assessment at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Thirteen subjects (16%) had a low spinal BMD at baseline (BMD Z-score ≤ –2 SD). Using the Genant semiquantitative technique, 2/80 subjects at baseline (2.5%) had evidence of a single, Genant grade 1 deformity. One subject had a Genant Grade 2 deformity. Over the 18-month trial, 10 incident vertebral fractures occurred in 9 subjects (12.5%). Using quantitative techniques, only two subjects had a >15% loss in vertebral height. Neither anthropometric data nor markers of disease severity were associated with fracture. In conclusion, ill young women with AN were at low risk for asymptomatic VF in our cohort. Vertebral fractures were not predicted by duration of illness, severity of malnutrition, or traditional measures of aBMD at the lumbar spine. PMID:23562364

  14. [Myelomalacia caused by embolism of the substantia gelatinosa in the vertebral column and spinal cord arteries].

    PubMed

    Barz, H; Majerowitsch, B

    1986-01-01

    A 56 year old woman developed a transverse lumbar paraplegia within two hours following a jump from an 80 centimeter high window. The patient died 13 days later from a pulmonary embolus. At autopsy an intervertebral disc tissue embolus was found in the arteries to the 12th thoracic vertebral body and the spinal cord. The embolus originated in a Schmorl nodule in the 12th thoracic vertebral body. The findings and the clinical course suggest that dislodged nucleus pulposus tissue was expressed into the vascular system over some time as a result of tears in small vessels. The implications for treatment of patients with similar spinal cord symptoms are considered.

  15. The vertebral column of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Madelaine, Stéphane; Maureille, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    The Regourdou 1 partial skeleton was found in 1957 in level IV of the eponymous site located in Montignac-sur-Vézère (Dordogne, France) and until now it has been only partially published. The ongoing revision of the faunal remains from the site has yielded additional fossils that pertain to this skeleton. Here we study the vertebral column of this individual, providing for the first time detailed descriptions for all of the fossils and reassessing the anatomical position of all of the fragments. The vertebral column of Regourdou 1 is one of the most complete in the Neandertal fossil record with at least 20 pre-sacral vertebrae (seven cervicals, nine thoracic and four lumbars), a partial sacrum and a fragmentary first coccygeal vertebra. When compared with modern humans, the vertebrae of Regourdou 1 display significant metric differences, and fit well within the range of Neandertal variability. A preliminary analysis of the most complete thoracic vertebrae of this individual indicates that Neandertals displayed significant differences from modern humans in the thoracic spine, which adds to the differences already observed in the cervical and lumbar regions. Finally, we have also observed mild signs of osteoarthrosis, albeit to a lower degree of that present in other Neandertals such as La Chapelle-aux-Saints, La Ferrassie 1 or Shanidar 3. This is consistent with the younger adult age for Regourdou 1.

  16. Staphylococcal endogenous endophthalmitis in association with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Steeples, L R; Jones, N P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis as a rare infection associated with endogenous endophthalmitis.METHODS A retrospective review of three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis and sepsis due to underlying Staphylococcal vertebral osteomyelitis presenting during a 21-month time period. The ophthalmic and systemic features and management and outcomes are presented.RESULTS One patient developed unilateral endophthalmitis with cervical spine osteomyelitis, Staphylococcus aureus being isolated from blood cultures. The second presented with bilateral endophthalmitis with disseminated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection, with thoracic and lumbar discitis and para-spinal abscesses. MRSA was cultured from vitreous, blood, and synovial fluid. Both patients received prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics. Intravitreal antibiotic therapy was used in the second patient. Excellent visual and systemic outcomes were achieved in both cases with no ocular complications. The third patient developed lumbar osteomyelitis following spinal surgery and presented with disseminated S. aureus sepsis including unilateral endogenous endophthalmitis. Despite systemic antibiotics and intensive care the patient died.CONCLUSIONS Endogenous endophthalmitis should be suspected in septic patients developing eye symptoms. Endogenous endophthalmitis with staphylococcal bone infection is a rare but serious condition. Osteomyelitis should be considered as an infective source in any such patient reporting bone pain or reduced spinal mobility. Prompt investigation and treatment can achieve favourable visual and systemic outcomes.

  17. Vertebral sarcoidosis: demonstration of bone involvement by computerized axial tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dinerstein, S.L.; Kovarsky, J.

    1984-08-01

    A report is given of a rare case of vertebral sarcoidosis with negative conventional spinal x-ray films, yet with typical cystic lesions of the spine found incidentally during abdominal computerized axial tomography (CAT). The patient was a 28-year-old black man, who was admitted for evaluation of a 1 1/2-year history of diffuse myalgias, intermittent fever to 102 F orally, bilateral hilar adenopathy, and leukopenia. A technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed diffuse areas of increased uptake over the sternum, entire vertebral column, and pelvis. Conventional x-ray films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and an AP view of the pelvis were all normal. Chest x-ray film revealed only bilateral hilar adenopathy. During the course of an extensive negative evaluation for infection, an abdominal CAT scan was done, showing multiple, small, sclerotic-rimmed cysts at multiple levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Bone marrow biopsy revealed only changes consistent with anemia of chronic disease. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. A tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, and treatment with prednisone, isoniazid and rifampin was begun. Within two weeks of initiation of prednisone therapy, the patient was symptom-free. A repeat technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed only a small residual area of mildly increased uptake over the upper thoracic vertebrae.

  18. Pig Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Imaging Guided Lateral Lumbar Puncture: A New Large Animal Model for Intrathecal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pleticha, Josef; Maus, Timothy P.; Jeng-Singh, Christian; Marsh, Michael P.; Al-Saiegh, Fadi; Christner, Jodie A.; Lee, Kendall H.; Beutler, Andreas S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrathecal (IT) administration is an important route of drug delivery. Its modeling in a large animal species is a critical step. Although domestic swine is presently a preferred species in preclinical pharmacology, no proven minimally invasive method has been established to deliver agents into the pig IT space. While a “blind” lumbar puncture (LP) can sample cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it is unreliable for drug delivery in pigs. Using computed tomography (CT) we determined the underlying anatomical reasons. The pig spinal cord was visualized terminating at the S2-S3 level. The lumbar region contained only small amounts of CSF visualized in the lateral recesses. Additional anatomical constraints identified were ossification of the midline ligaments; overlapping lamina with small interlaminar spaces; and a large bulk of epidural adipose tissue. Accommodating the pig CT anatomy, we developed an injection technique termed lateral LP (LLP) that employs advance planning of the needle path and monitoring of the IT injection progress. Key features of the LLP procedure were choosing a vertebral level without overlapping lamina or spinal ligament ossification; a needle trajectory crossing the midline; and entering the IT space in its lateral recess. Effective IT delivery was validated by injection of contrast media thereby obtaining a CT myelogram. LLP represents a safe and reliable method to deliver agents to the lumbar pig IT space, which can be implemented in a straightforward way by any laboratory with access to CT equipment and is therefore an attractive large animal model for preclinical studies of IT therapies. PMID:23518340

  19. Vertebral body recollapse without trauma after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, Andrea; De Giorgi, Giuseppe; Solarino, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, immobilization and external bracing has been recommended for patients with type A traumatic and non-osteoporotic fractures that do not present neurological deficits or significant instability. Nevertheless, several authors have recently suggested the possibility to treat thoraco-lumbar and lumbar vertebral compression post-traumatic fractures using standalone balloon kyphoplasty with osteoconductive filler materials, such as calcium phosphate (CPC). Maestretti and Huang have demonstrated the advantages of this technique showing an almost immediate return to daily activities without the inconvenience of wearing a brace, pain reduction, minimal operative risks and maintenance of stability, therefore proposing this as a first-choice technique in young patient needing rapid spine stability. The authors present a case of vertebral body recollapse after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in a 47-year-old man with an A1.2 post-traumatic L1 compression fracture.

  20. Nucleus pulposus cells derived IGF-1 and MCP-1 enhance osteoclastogenesis and vertebrae disruption in lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhongjiao; Huang, Peng; Chong, Yanxue; George, Suraj K; Wen, Bingtao; Han, Na; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kang, Lixin; Lin, Nie

    2014-01-01

    vertebral erosions. Hence, this study suggests that targeting osteoclastogenesis related cytokines has potential clinical significance in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation patients. PMID:25674216

  1. Foraminal and paraspinal extraforaminal attachments of the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves in large breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Breit, S; Giebels, F; Kneissl, S

    2013-09-01

    Fresh cadaveric lumbar spines of 20 adult large breed dogs were used to study the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves along their course through their respective intervertebral foramen. The relationship between the periosteum lining the vertebral canal (endorhachis; peridural membrane) and the vessels inside the vertebral canal, and the relationship between the nerves and the wall of the intervertebral foramen and the extraspinal suspensory apparatus were investigated. Each intervertebral foramen contained a fibrous septum that divided it into two sub-compartments by connecting the fibrous capsule of the facet joints with the intervertebral disc and the adjoining vertebral body. The lumbar nerves and the main artery passed through the cranial sub-compartment and the main vein passed through the caudal sub-compartment. In all cases, there was a circumneural sleeve that connected the ventral branches of the lumbar nerves extraspinally with the fibrous capsule of the facet joints dorsally, the fibrous septum caudally, and the caudal vertebral notch and accessory process cranioventrally. The deep layer of the circumneural sleeve was formed by the periosteum lining the vertebral canal pouching laterally through the intervertebral foramen; the superficial (lateral) layer was formed by the deep sheet of the thoracolumbar fascia. The deep sheet of the thoracolumbar fascia continued cranially and caudally to the circumneural sleeve to attach it to the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. Regional and individual differences were noted in the composition and length of the circumneural sleeve. The potential biomechanical and clinical roles of these variations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomical evaluation of lumbar nerves using diffusion tensor imaging and implications of lateral decubitus for lateral transpsoas approach.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Yawara; Watanabe, Atsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Koda, Masao; Furuya, Takeo; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Aoki, Yasuchika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-04-07

    Recently, lateral interbody fusion (LIF) has become more prevalent, and evaluation of lumbar nerves has taken on new importance. We report on the assessment of anatomical relationships between lumbar nerves and vertebral bodies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty patients with degenerative lumbar disease and ten healthy subjects underwent DTI. In patients with lumbar degenerative disease, we studied nerve courses with patients in the supine positions and with hips flexed. In healthy subjects, we evaluated nerve courses in three different positions: supine with hips flexed (the standard position for MRI); supine with hips extended; and the right lateral decubitus position with hips flexed. In conjunction with tractography from L3 to L5 using T2-weighted sagittal imaging, the vertebral body anteroposterior span was divided into four equally wide zones, with six total zones defined, including an anterior and a posterior zone (zone A, zones 1-4, zone P). We used this to characterize nerve courses at disc levels L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1. In patients with degenerative lumbar disease, in the supine position with hips flexed, all lumbar nerve roots were located posterior to the vertebral body centers in L3/4 and L4/5. In healthy individuals, the L3/4 nerve courses were displaced forward in hips extended compared with the standard position, whereas in the lateral decubitus position, the L4/5 and L5/S nerve courses were displaced posteriorly compared with the standard position. The L3/4 and L4/5 nerve roots are located posterior to the vertebral body center. These were found to be offset to the rear when the hip is flexed or the lateral decubitus position is assumed. The present study is the first to elucidate changes in the course of the lumbar nerves as this varies by position. The lateral decubitus position or the position supine with hips flexed may be useful for avoiding nerve damage in a direct lateral transpsoas approach. Preoperative DTI seems to be useful in

  3. Effect of irradiation on bone remodelling and the structural integrity of the vertebral column. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic levels of radiation on the axial properties of the primate vertebral column were studied. Seven male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were irradiated with a single does of 1300 cGy to the specific lumbar vertebrae of L2, L3, and L4. Three additional animals served as controls. Radiographs were taken before the radiation treatment and just prior to sacrifice to determine density changes in the bone. The animal subjects were sacrificed 105 days following the radiation exposure. Biomechanical testing was completed on lumbar levels 2 and 3 to identify changes in strength characteristics following radiation treatment. Histomorphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae level 4 was completed to identify volume and surface density changes as well as cellular changes. Tetracycline, dicarbomethylaminomethyl fluorescein (DCAF), and xylenol orange were used as bone labeling agents to aid in the histomorphometry and to obtain dynamic parameter changes.

  4. Thoracolumbar fascia does not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Pickar, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    The thoracolumbar fascia attaches to the lumbar spinous processes and encloses the paraspinal muscles to form a muscle compartment. Because muscle spindles can respond to transverse forces applied at a muscle’s surface, we were interested in the mechanical effects this fascia may have on proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles during vertebral movement. The discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles at rest and in response to muscle history were investigated in the presence and absence of the thoracolumbar fascia in anesthetized cats. Muscle-history was induced by positioning the L6 vertebra in conditioning directions that lengthened and shortened the paraspinal muscles. The vertebra was then returned to an intermediate position for testing the spindles. Neither resting discharge (P= 0.49) nor the effects of muscle history (P>0.30) was significantly different with the fascia intact vs. removed. Our data showed that the thoracolumbar fascia did not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles spindles during small passive vertebral movements in cats. In addition, comparison of the transverse threshold pressures needed to stimulate our sample of muscle spindles in the cat with the thoracolumbar fascia compartmental pressures measured in humans during previous studies suggests that the thoracolumbar fascia likely does not affect proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in humans. PMID:19627391

  5. What's new in vertebral cementoplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Giurazza, Francesco; Manfrè, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral cementoplasty is a well-known mini-invasive treatment to obtain pain relief in patients affected by vertebral porotic fractures, primary or secondary spine lesions and spine trauma through intrametameric cement injection. Two major categories of treatment are included within the term vertebral cementoplasty: the first is vertebroplasty in which a simple cement injection in the vertebral body is performed; the second is assisted technique in which a device is positioned inside the metamer before the cement injection to restore vertebral height and allow a better cement distribution, reducing the kyphotic deformity of the spine, trying to obtain an almost normal spine biomechanics. We will describe the most advanced techniques and indications of vertebral cementoplasty, having recently expanded the field of applications to not only patients with porotic fractures but also spine tumours and trauma. PMID:26728798

  6. Extensive Erosion of Vertebral Bodies Due to a Chronic Contained Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Alecio Fernando; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; da Rocha Fernandes, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of chronically ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm contained within the lumbar vertebral bodies that presented with dull abdominal pain. Sudden, massive hemorrhage is an uncommon, yet well-known complication of an untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm. In addition, misleading clinical and radiological findings present difficult diagnostic challenges in such cases. This report emphasizes the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography and delineates the differentiation of this condition from similar pathologies. PMID:27200153

  7. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el ejercicio es la intervención con mayor grado de evidencia de eficacia para el tratamiento del dolor crónico de la espalda baja, con beneficio superior en términos de dolor y funcionalidad, en comparación con cualquiera otra intervención. Existe una amplia variedad de ejercicios diseñados; sin embargo, actualmente los llamados ejercicios de estabilización lumbar adquiririeron una popularidad creciente entre los clínicos que están en contacto con enfermedades de la columna. Sin embargo, existe controversia en cuanto a la prescripción adecuada de los mismos y los múltiples protocolos publicados. Objetivo: analizar la bibliografía científica acerca del uso y prescripción de estos ejercicios para favorecer la mejor toma de decisiones enlos clínicos y diseñar, con base a la evidencia, el programa más adecuado para cada paciente. Conclusión: se encontró que este programa es una herramienta esencial en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda baja, en la etapa terapéutica y en la preventiva.

  8. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Genevay, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is most commonly due to degenerative changes in older individuals. LSS is being more commonly diagnosed and may relate to better access to advanced imaging and to an aging population. This review focuses on radicular symptoms related to degenerative central and lateral stenosis and updates knowledge of LSS pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Since patients with anatomic LSS can range from asymptomatic to severely disabled, the clinical diagnosis focuses on symptoms and examination findings associated with LSS. Imaging findings are helpful for patients with persistent, bothersome symptoms in whom invasive treatments are being considered. There is limited information from high quality studies about the relative benefits and harms of commonly used treatments. Interpreting and comparing results of available research is limited by a lack of consensus about the definition of LSS. Nevertheless, evidence supports decompressive laminectomy for patients with persistent and bothersome symptoms. Recommendations favor a shared decision making approach due to important trade-offs between alternative therapies and differences among patients in their preferences and values. PMID:20227646

  9. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  10. Osteolytic lumbar discal cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Marushima, Aiki; Uemura, Kazuya; Sato, Naoaki; Maruno, Toru; Matsumura, Akira

    2008-08-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with left lumboischialgia refractory to medical treatment. Neurological examination revealed L5 and S1 radiculopathy which rapidly worsened over a short period. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated disk bulging with a discal cyst at the L4-5 intervertebral space and disk herniation at the L5-S1 intervertebral space. Computed tomography showed osteolytic change of the L5 vertebral body adjacent to the cyst. Resection of the cyst and removal of the herniated disk were performed following fenestration of the L4-5 and L5-S1 interlaminar spaces. Bloody serous fluid followed by clear serous fluid was recognized during the aspiration and partial resection of the cyst at the L4-5 level. Histological examination demonstrated a cyst wall consisting of fibrous connective tissue without a single-layer lining of cells, and fibrin deposits. The patient's symptoms disappeared immediately after the operation. This osteolytic lumbar discal cyst possibly occurred subsequent to hemorrhage from the epidural venous plexus following intervertebral disk injury, hematoma encapsulation by connective fibrous tissue, and cyst wall formation in reaction to the disk injury and hemorrhage. The cyst may have enlarged due to the inflow of the serous fluid from the water-containing degenerated disk.

  11. Lumbar spine visualisation based on kinematic analysis from videofluoroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Nixon, M S; Allen, R

    2003-04-01

    Low back pain is a significant problem and its cost is enormous to society. However, diagnosis of the underlying causes remains problematic despite extensive study. Reasons for this arise from the deep-rooted situation of the spine and also from its structural complexity. Clinicians have to mentally convert 2-D image information into a 3-D form to gain a better understanding of structural integrity. Therefore, visualisation and animation may be helpful for understanding, diagnosis and for guiding therapy. Some low back pain originates from mechanical disorders, and study of the spine kinematics may provide an insight into the source of the problem. Digital videofluoroscopy was used in this study to provide 2-D image sequences of the spine in motion, but the images often suffer due to noise, exacerbated by the very low radiation dosage. Thus determining vertebrae position within the image sequence presents a considerable challenge. This paper describes a combination of spine kinematic measurements with a solid model of the human lumbar spine for visualisation of spine motion. Since determination of the spine kinematics provides the foundation and vertebral extraction is at the core, this is discussed in detail. Edge detection is a key feature of segmentation and it is shown that phase congruency performs better than most established methods with the rather low-grade image sequences from fluoroscopy. The Hough transform is then applied to determine the positions of vertebrae in each frame of a motion sequence. In the Hough transform, Fourier descriptors are used to represent the vertebral shapes. The results show that the Hough transform is a very promising technique for vertebral extraction from videofluoroscopic images. A dynamic visualisation package has been developed in order to view the moving lumbar spine from any angle and viewpoint. Wire frame models of the vertebrae were built by using CT images from the Visible Human Project and these models are scaled to

  12. SerpinB1 regulates homeostatic expansion of IL-17+ γδ and CD4+ Th17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Picheng; Hou, Lifei; Farley, Kalamo; Sundrud, Mark S.; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    SerpinB1 is an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteases recognized for its anti-inflammatory and host-protective properties. Although loss of serpinB1 in mice does not result in gross immune deregulation, serpinb1a−/− mice display increased mortality and inflammation-associated morbidity upon challenge with influenza virus. Here, we show that IL-17A+ γδ and CD4+ Th17 cells are already expanded in the lungs of serpinb1a−/− mice at steady-state. Both γδ and αβ+ CD4+ CCR6+ T cells isolated from the lungs of naive serpinb1a−/− mice displayed a skewed transcriptional profile relative to WT cells, including increased Th17 signature transcripts [Il17a, l17f, and Rorc (RORγt)] and decreased Th1 signature transcripts [Ifng, Cxcr3, and Tbx21 (T-bet)] in γδ T cells. In addition to the lung, IL-17A+ γδ and CD4+ Th17 cells were increased in the spleen of naive serpinb1a−/− mice, despite normal αβ and γδ T cell development in the thymus. Within the γδ T cell compartment, loss of serpinb1a prompted selective expansion of Vγ4+ and Vγ6/Vδ1+ cells, which also displayed elevated expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and IL-17A. Given that serpinb1a is preferentially expressed in WT IL-17A+ γδ and CD4+ Th17 cell subsets vis-à-vis other T cell lineages, our findings reveal a novel function of serpinB1 in limiting untoward expansion of lymphocytes with a Th17 phenotype. PMID:24249741

  13. SerpinB1 regulates homeostatic expansion of IL-17+ γδ and CD4+ Th17 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Picheng; Hou, Lifei; Farley, Kalamo; Sundrud, Mark S; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2014-03-01

    SerpinB1 is an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteases recognized for its anti-inflammatory and host-protective properties. Although loss of serpinB1 in mice does not result in gross immune deregulation, serpinb1a(-/-) mice display increased mortality and inflammation-associated morbidity upon challenge with influenza virus. Here, we show that IL-17A(+) γδ and CD4(+) Th17 cells are already expanded in the lungs of serpinb1a(-/-) mice at steady-state. Both γδ and αβ(+) CD4(+) CCR6(+) T cells isolated from the lungs of naive serpinb1a(-/-) mice displayed a skewed transcriptional profile relative to WT cells, including increased Th17 signature transcripts [Il17a, l17f, and Rorc (RORγt)] and decreased Th1 signature transcripts [Ifng, Cxcr3, and Tbx21 (T-bet)] in γδ T cells. In addition to the lung, IL-17A(+) γδ and CD4(+) Th17 cells were increased in the spleen of naive serpinb1a(-/-) mice, despite normal αβ and γδ T cell development in the thymus. Within the γδ T cell compartment, loss of serpinb1a prompted selective expansion of Vγ4(+) and Vγ6/Vδ1(+) cells, which also displayed elevated expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and IL-17A. Given that serpinb1a is preferentially expressed in WT IL-17A(+) γδ and CD4(+) Th17 cell subsets vis-à-vis other T cell lineages, our findings reveal a novel function of serpinB1 in limiting untoward expansion of lymphocytes with a Th17 phenotype.

  14. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in new york state school districts.

    PubMed

    Frndak, Seth E

    2014-12-02

    This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4(th) grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public healthThe prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at the school district level. Significant variation in

  15. Abdominal muscles dominate contributions to vertebral joint stiffness during the push-up.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Samuel J; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the relative contributions of each muscle group surrounding the spine to vertebral joint rotational stiffness (VJRS) during the push-up exercise. Upper-body kinematics, three-dimensional hand forces and lumbar spine postures, and 14 channels (bilaterally from rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and multifidus) of trunk electromyographic (EMG) activity were collected from 11 males and used as inputs to a biomechanical model that determined the individual contributions of 10 muscle groups surrounding the lumbar spine to VJRS at five lumbar vertebral joints (L1-L2 to L5-S1). On average, the abdominal muscles contributed 64.32 +/- 8.50%, 86.55 +/- 1.13%, and 83.84 +/- 1.95% to VJRS about the flexion/extension, lateral bend, and axial twist axes, respectively. Rectus abdominis contributed 43.16 +/- 3.44% to VJRS about the flexion/extension axis at each lumbar joint, and external oblique and internal oblique, respectively contributed 52.61 +/- 7.73% and 62.13 +/- 8.71% to VJRS about the lateral bend and axial twist axes, respectively, at all lumbar joints with the exception of L5-S1. Owing to changes in moment arm length, the external oblique and internal oblique, respectively contributed 55.89% and 50.01% to VJRS about the axial twist and lateral bend axes at L5-S1. Transversus abdominis, multifidus, and the spine extensors contributed minimally to VJRS during the push-up exercise. The push-up challenges the abdominal musculature to maintain VJRS. The orientation of the abdominal muscles suggests that each muscle primarily controls the rotational stiffness about a single axis.

  16. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Synapses as therapeutic targets for autism spectrum disorders: an international symposium held in pavia on july 4th, 2014.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Paolo; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Bozzi, Yuri; Catania, Maria Vincenza; D'Angelo, Egidio; Mapelli, Lisa; Oberman, Lindsay M; Rosenmund, Christian; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    New progresses into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been discussed in 1 day international symposium held in Pavia (Italy) on July 4th, 2014 entitled "synapses as therapeutic targets for autism spectrum disorders" (satellite of the FENS Forum for Neuroscience, Milan, 2014). In particular, world experts in the field have highlighted how animal models of ASDs have greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in synaptic dysfunction leading sometimes to "synaptic clinical trials" in children.

  18. 4th Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis: coadministered drugs stability, EMA/US FDA guidelines, 483s and carryover.

    PubMed

    Lowes, Steve; Jersey, Jim; Shoup, Ronald; Garofolo, Fabio; Needham, Shane; Couerbe, Philippe; Lansing, Tim; Bhatti, Masood; Sheldon, Curtis; Hayes, Roger; Islam, Rafiq; Lin, Zhongping; Garofolo, Wei; Moussallie, Marc; Teixeira, Leonardo de Souza; Rocha, Thais; Jardieu, Paula; Truog, James; Lin, Jenny; Lundberg, Richard; Breau, Alan; Dilger, Carmen; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Levesque, Ann; Gagnon-Carignan, Sofi; Jenkins, Rand; Nicholson, Robert; Lin, Ming Hung; Karnik, Shane; DeMaio, William; Smith, Kirk; Cojocaru, Laura; Allen, Mike; Fatmi, Saadya; Sayyarpour, Farhad; Malone, Michele; Fang, Xinping

    2012-04-01

    The Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) was formed in September 2010. Since then, the representatives of the member companies come together periodically to openly discuss bioanalysis and the regulatory challenges unique to the outsourcing industry. The 4th GCC Closed Forum brought together experts from bioanalytical CROs to share and discuss recent issues in regulated bioanalysis, such as the impact of coadministered drugs on stability, some differences between European Medicines Agency and US FDA bioanalytical guidance documents and lessons learned following recent Untitled Letters. Recent 483s and agency findings, as well as issues on method carryover, were also part of the topics discussed.

  19. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  20. On information process in living matter. Time and the 4th dimension. (exposé of a hypothesis).

    PubMed

    Arianova, L W

    1981-04-01

    The hypothesis concerns the nature of the biological information signal. It is envisaged as a unit existing in two different states -- dipole and monopole according to its location in the three-dimensional space, respectively in the 4th dimension. The reversible transformation dipole-monopole which marks the crucial phase of the information process in living organisms outlines a two-way functioning tunnel in the space. According to the hypothesis this two-way tunnel in the space fixes the fundamental difference between living and non-living matter.

  1. Synapses as Therapeutic Targets for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An International Symposium Held in Pavia on July 4th, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Curatolo, Paolo; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Bozzi, Yuri; Catania, Maria Vincenza; D’Angelo, Egidio; Mapelli, Lisa; Oberman, Lindsay M.; Rosenmund, Christian; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    New progresses into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been discussed in 1 day international symposium held in Pavia (Italy) on July 4th, 2014 entitled “synapses as therapeutic targets for autism spectrum disorders” (satellite of the FENS Forum for Neuroscience, Milan, 2014). In particular, world experts in the field have highlighted how animal models of ASDs have greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in synaptic dysfunction leading sometimes to “synaptic clinical trials” in children. PMID:25324723

  2. Report on the 4'th scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 2'nd - Nov. 4'th, 2012.

    PubMed

    Linker, Ralf A; Meuth, Sven G; Magnus, Tim; Korn, Thomas; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2012-11-22

    From November 2nd - 4th 2012, the 4th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Again more than 60 participants, predominantly at the doctoral student or postdoc level, gathered to share their latest findings in the fields of neurovascular research, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Like in the previous years, the symposium provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects in the stimulating surroundings of the Brandenburg outback. This year's keynote lecture on the pathophysiological relevance of neuronal networks was given by Christian Gerloff, Head of the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Hamburg-Eppendorf. Another highlight of the meeting was the awarding of the NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young scientists working in the field of experimental neurology. The award is donated by the Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany and is endowed with 20.000 Euro. This year the jury decided unanimously to adjudge the award to Michael Gliem from the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Düsseldorf (group of Sebastian Jander), Germany, for his outstanding work on different macrophage subsets in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke published in the Annals of Neurology in 2012.

  3. Spermatogenesis in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pudney, J

    1995-12-15

    Spermatogenesis appears to be a fairly conserved process throughout the vertebrate series. Thus, spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes that undergo meiosis to produce spermatids which enter spermiogenesis where they undergo a morphological transformation into spermatozoa. There is, however, variation amongst the vertebrates in how germ cell development and maturation is accomplished. This difference can be broadly divided into two distinct patterns, one present in anamniotes (fish, amphibia) and the other in amniotes (reptiles, birds, mammals). For anamniotes, spermatogenesis occurs in spermatocysts (cysts) which for most species develop within seminiferous lobules. Cysts are produced when a Sertoli cell becomes associated with a primary spermatogonium. Mitotic divisions of the primary spermatogonium produce a cohort of secondary spermatogonia that are enclosed by the Sertoli cell which forms the wall of the cyst. With spermatogenic progression a clone of isogeneic spermatozoa is produced which are released, by rupture of the cyst, into the lumen of the seminiferous lobule. Following spermiation, the Sertoli cell degenerates. For anamniotes, therefore, there is no permanent germinal epithelium since spermatocysts have to be replaced during successive breeding seasons. By contrast, spermatogenesis in amniotes does not occur in cysts but in seminiferous tubules that possess a permanent population of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia which act as a germ cell reservoir for succeeding bouts of spermatogenic activity. There is, in general, a greater variation in the organization of the testis and pattern of spermatogenesis in the anamniotes compared to amniotes. This is primarily due to the fact there is more reproductive diversity in anamniotes ranging from a relatively unspecialized condition where gametes are simply released into the aqueous environment to highly specialized strategies involving internal fertilization. These differences are obviously reflected in the

  4. Clinical utility of dual-energy vertebral assessment (DVA).

    PubMed

    Vokes, Tamara J; Dixon, Larry B; Favus, Murray J

    2003-11-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical utility of DVA, a system for imaging the lateral spine on the Lunar Prodigy densitometer. DVA images were obtained and bone density of the lumbar spine and proximal femur measured in 297 subjects (272 women), aged 64+/-13 years. The images were classified as: normal (N) if no fractures were detected and all vertebrae between T6 and L4 were visualized, fracture (F) if any vertebra had a fracture (defined as 25% or more reduction in the vertebral height) even if some of the other vertebrae could not be visualized, and un-interpretable (U) if at least one of the vertebra between T6 and L4 could not be classified and no fractures were detected in the visualized vertebrae. A subset of 66 patients also had standard radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Compared to radiographs, DVA had a 95% sensitivity to detect fractures and 82% specificity (to exclude them). Among all 297 subjects studied, DVAs were interpretable in 87%. They were classified as N in 204 (68%), F in 55 (19%) and U in 38 (13%). The reasons for un-interpretability were: scoliosis, scapular or rib shadow, severe arthritic changes and multiple vertebral compression fracture with severe spinal deformities. Only 11% of F subjects gave a history of a vertebral fracture, and only 56% of F subjects met the BMD criteria for osteoporosis (T score <-2.5). These results indicate that adding DVA, a low radiation and relatively low cost "point of service" procedure, to BMD measurement provides the clinician with a more comprehensive fracture risk assessment than that afforded by clinical evaluation and BMD measurement alone.

  5. Vertebral histomorphometry in a child with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Watanabe, Arata; Hirayama, Masashi; Senma, Seietsu; Ono, Iwao; Shimada, Yoichi

    2012-08-01

    Vertebral fractures are an under-recognized problem in children with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). They cause severe back pain and spinal column deformity with a decrease of quality of life. For evaluating the bone mass, bone mineral density measurements have been widely carried out using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. However, bone histomorphometric analyses of GIO in children are scarce. Bone histomorphometric analyses of vertebral bodies have not been reported. Our aim is to report the first bone histomorphometric data for vertebrae from an autopsied child with GIO. A 15-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus was started on a daily oral dose of 10 mg of prednisolone at 6 years of age. She presented with back pain from 12 years of age. Magnetic resonance imaging at 14 years of age showed a compression fracture of the first lumbar (L1) vertebral body. At 15 years of age, she died of heart failure owing to pulmonary hypertension. Collapsed (L1) and non-collapsed (seventh thoracic vertebrae; T7) vertebral bodies were autopsied for bone histomorphometry and compared. T7 showed severe osteoporosis (bone volume, 4.99%; trabecular thickness, 59 µm; trabecular separation, 1,134 µm). Compared with T7, L1 showed increased bone volume (33.9%) and trabecular thickness (77 µm), and decreased trabecular separation (156 µm) owing to the impact of the vertebral fracture. The bone formation and bone resorption parameters were comparable between the two vertebrae. These histological findings suggest that severe osteoporosis developed after long-term glucocorticoid administration, and that the remodeling activities were similar in the fractured and non-fractured vertebrae.

  6. Relationship between spinal osteoarthritis and vertebral fractures in men older than 50 years: data from the Camargo Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pariente, Emilio; Olmos, José M; Landeras, Rosa; Nan, Daniel; González-Macías, Jesús; Hernández, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Spinal osteoarthritis has been suggested as a risk factor for vertebral fractures. However, results are conflicting: most of the data are focused on the lumbar region, and referred to postmenopausal women, whereas data for men are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between spinal osteoarthritis and vertebral fractures in men over 50 years of age. We conducted a cross-sectional study, nested in a prospective population-based cohort, including 507 community-dwelling men, 93 of them with at least one vertebral fracture. Vertebral fractures, osteophytosis, and disc space narrowing (DSN) were assessed by lateral thoracic and lumbar radiographs. Anthropometric, clinical, and densitometric variables were also analyzed. A multiple logistic regression model was performed. Eighty-five percent of vertebral fractures were located at the thoracic spine. Osteophytosis and DSN showed a bimodal distribution, with major frequency peaks at mid- and distal lumbar spine. The three distributions overlapped around the T9 vertebra. We did not find any relationship between lumbar osteoarthritis and vertebral fractures. Nevertheless, thoracic osteophytosis (OR, 1.84; 95 % CI, 1.05-3.17; p = 0.03) and DSN (OR, 2.52; 95 % CI, 1.43-4.46; p = 0.001) were found to be independently associated with prevalent vertebral fractures, after adjusting for confounders. Our results suggest a positive relationship between radiologic osteoarthritic changes at the thoracic spine and prevalent vertebral fractures in men more than 50 years of age. Osteoarthritis may act as a local risk factor, in addition to other mechanical factors, resulting in a greater propensity to fracture, especially at the mid-thoracic region.

  7. [Neurogenic senile vertebral spondylopathy].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, A

    1993-01-01

    Neurogenic spinal arthropathy is quite frequent a finding in elderly patients. Peripheral neuropathy underlies this complication. As a matter of fact, impaired proprioception and sensitivity, which are often associated with lesions of the motor nerves, prevent the joint or bone segment submitted to repeated traumas from perceiving alarm sensations, especially pain. Thus, bone lesions follow, which present as bone erosions, fractures, and even more severe bone destruction. At first, tabetic neuropathy was held responsible for this condition. Then, neurogenic arthropathy was observed in diabetes, syringomyelia, and sometimes trauma. However, in the elderly patient, other conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy, which accounts for the high incidence of this disorder. The radiologic findings of the lumbar spine of 23 of 4,922 patients examined in our department 1989 to 1991 were suggestive of neurogenic spinal arthropathy. Clinical, laboratory and electromyographic findings confirmed the presence of neuropathy. Besides the neurogenic lesions described in 7 diabetic patients, these lesions are reported for the first time in 4 cases of multiple myeloma, in a case of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, in 2 cases of vincristine-treated lymphoma, and finally in an alcohol abuser. Analgesic abuse was observed in 2 patients. In the extant cases, the pathogenesis of neuropathy remained unknown, even though "elderly neuropathy" is known to exist and to be underlain by vascular or degenerative conditions.

  8. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14–46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  9. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Process of reviewing the scientific evidence and revising the recommendations.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Silvia; Armaroli, Paola; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Wiseman, Martin; Schüz, Joachim; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    The European Code Against Cancer is a set of recommendations to give advice on cancer prevention. Its 4th edition is an update of the 3rd edition, from 2003. Working Groups of independent experts from different fields of cancer prevention were appointed to review the recommendations, supported by a Literature Group to provide scientific and technical support in the assessment of the scientific evidence, through systematic reviews of the literature. Common procedures were developed to guide the experts in identifying, retrieving, assessing, interpreting and summarizing the scientific evidence in order to revise the recommendations. The Code strictly followed the concept of providing advice to European Union citizens based on the current best available science. The advice, if followed, would be expected to reduce cancer risk, referring both to avoiding or reducing exposure to carcinogenic agents or changing behaviour related to cancer risk and to participating in medical interventions able to avert specific cancers or their consequences. The information sources and procedures for the review of the scientific evidence are described here in detail. The 12 recommendations of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer were ultimately approved by a Scientific Committee of leading European cancer and public health experts. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismically induced liquefaction structures in La Magdalena archaeological site, the 4th century AD Roman Complutum (Madrid, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Silva, P. G.; Perucha, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Heras, C.; Bastida, A. B.; Carrasco, P.; Roquero, E.; Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Pérez-López, R.; Elez, J.

    2016-10-01

    The ancient Roman city of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), founded in the 1st century AD, was one of the most important cities of Hispania. The old Roman city was destroyed, abruptly abandoned, relocated close by and rebuilt during the late 4th century AD. Destruction of the city and its relocation has not yet been explained by archaeologists. In this paper, with our multidisciplinary approach, we identify and characterize earthquake archaeological effects (EAEs) affecting the archaeological site, the La Magdalena, an agricultural holding 4 km from the core of Complutum. The most important EAEs in the site are liquefactions (sand dikes and explosive sand-gravel craters) affecting Roman structures, such as water tanks (cisterns), houses and graves. Ground liquefaction generated significant ground cracks, explosive craters and folds in foundations of buildings. Several other Roman sites throughout the valley were also abandoned abruptly during the 4th century AD, in some cases with EAEs of similar origin. This suggests the occurrence of a 5.0-6.6 Mw seismic event in the zone, in accordance with the minimum empirical limit of seismically-induced liquefaction and the maximum surface rupture length of the Henares fault.

  11. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  12. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  13. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  14. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Lumbar and sacral radiofrequency neurotomy.

    PubMed

    Mazin, David A; Sullivan, Joseph P

    2010-11-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is an interventional procedure used to alleviate certain types of low back pain. RF energy is used to thermally coagulate the specific nerves that transmit pain signals. Recent evidence has shown that this procedure demonstrates significant efficacy in relieving low back pain in lumbar zygapophysial joints, and research is ongoing to determine if pain relief for the sacroiliac joint is also possible. This article provides an evidence-based background for performing RF neurotomy, discusses the relevant anatomy, and highlights the indications and technique for lumbar and sacral RF neurotomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical characterization of thoracolumbar and lumbar intervertebral disk extrusions in English Cocker Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Cardy, Thomas J A; Tzounos, Caitlin E; Volk, Holger A; De Decker, Steven

    2016-02-15

    To assess the anatomic distribution of thoracolumbar and lumbar intervertebral disk extrusions (IVDEs) in English Cocker Spaniels as compared with findings in Dachshunds and to characterize clinical findings in English Cocker Spaniels with thoracolumbar or lumbar IVDEs affecting various regions of the vertebral column. Retrospective observational study. 81 English Cocker Spaniels and 81 Dachshunds with IVDEs. Signalment, clinical signs, neurologic examination findings, and affected intervertebral disk spaces (IVDSs) were recorded for both breeds. Management methods and outcomes were recorded for English Cocker Spaniels. Lesions were categorized as thoracolumbar (IVDSs T9-10 through L1-2), midlumbar (L2-3 through L4-5), or caudal lumbar (L5-6 through L7-S1). Midlumbar and caudal lumbar IVDEs were significantly more common in English Cocker Spaniels than in Dachshunds. English Cocker Spaniels with caudal lumbar IVDEs had a longer median duration of clinical signs before evaluation and more commonly had unilateral pelvic limb lameness or spinal hyperesthesia as the predominant clinical sign than did those with IVDEs at other sites. Those with caudal lumbar IVDEs less commonly had neurologic deficits and had a higher median neurologic grade (indicating lesser severity), shorter mean postoperative hospitalization time, and faster mean time to ambulation after surgery than those with other sites affected. These variables did not differ between English Cocker Spaniels with thoracolumbar and midlumbar IVDEs. Caudal and midlumbar IVDEs were more common in English Cocker Spaniels than in Dachshunds. English Cocker Spaniels with caudal lumbar IVDE had clinical signs and posttreatment responses that differed from those in dogs with midlumbar or thoracolumbar IVDE.

  17. [Study on the morphology of sagittal of lumbar endplate in healthy adult].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shuchao; Lu, Shibao; Hai, Yong; Wang, Qingy; Kang, Nan; Wang, Yu; Kong, Chao; Sun, Wenzhi

    2015-03-01

    To provide a theoretical basis for designing of lumbar intervertebral disc prosthesis by collecting the data of the lumbar endplate morphology. A total of 100 healthy adults were measured about the following parameters: lumbar lordosis, the Cobb angle of each segment, the concavity depth (ECD) of the endplate, the location of concavity apex (ECA) of the endplate. And a correlation analysis on lumbar lordosis and ECD, ECA was made, respectively. In total, 100 volunteers were measured. The mean age of the volunteer was 40 years (range 20 - 50 years); the average depth of ECD was (2. 37 ± 1. 42) mm, the average location of ECA was (52. 21 ± 9. 70) %; the average depth of ECD of inferior endplate (IEP) was (2. 81 ± 1. 52) mm (0. 54 - 7. 60 mm), and the parameter of the superior endplate (SEP) was (1. 94 ± 1. 16)mm(0. 39 - 6. 10 mm). The average depth of ECD of the IEP was bigger than of the SEP for each lumbar vertebral body. Most of the location of ECA was at the back of the intervertebral body, the average location of ECA of IEP was (49. 60 ± 8. 78) % (22. 57% - 75. 58%), and the parameter of the SEP was (55. 03 ± 9. 90) % (16. 03% -75. 58%); the mean angle of lumbar lordosis was 39. 760 11. 25°(13. 8° - 72. 00°). There was no obvious correlation between the lumbar lordosis and the ECD (r -0. 193, P =0. 195), neither was the location of ECA(r =0. 080, P =0. 592). Most of the location of ECA is at the back of the intervertebral body, the average depth of ECD is 2. 37 mm, the average location of ECA is 52. 21%.

  18. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Plus Lumbar Mini-Open Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyon Su; Kim, Hak Sun; Ankur, Nanda; Kho, Phillip Anthony; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Jin Oh; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study are to describe the outcome of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated with Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) plus supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region for thoracic and lumbar deformity correction and fusion. Materials and Methods This is a case series of 13 patients treated with VATS plus lumbar mini-open surgery for AIS. A total of 13 patients requiring fusions of both the thoracic and lumbar regions were included in this study: 5 of these patients were classified as Lenke type 1A and 8 as Lenke type 5C. Fusion was performed using VATS up to T12 or L1 vertebral level. Lower levels were accessed via a small mini-incision in the lumbar area to gain access to the lumbar spine via the retroperitoneal space. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Results The average number of fused vertebrae was 7.1 levels. A significant correction in the Cobb angle was obtained at the final follow-up (p = 0.001). The instrumented segmental angle in the sagittal plane was relatively well-maintained following surgery, albeit with a slight increase. Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) scores were noted have significantly improved at the final follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusion Indications for the use of VATS may be extended from patients with localized thoracic scoliosis to those with thoracolumbar scoliosis. By utilizing a supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region, a satisfactory deformity correction may be accomplished with minimal post-operative scarring. PMID:21155045

  19. Spinal dural attachments to the vertebral column: An anatomic report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kimmell, Kristopher T; Dayoub, Hayan; Shakir, Hakeem; Sincoff, Eric H

    2011-01-01

    The spinal dura is anchored within the vertebral canal by connective tissue in the epidural space as well as the spinal roots. Inadvertent disruption of these dural attachments may lead to durotomy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. We observed well-developed connective tissue ligaments connecting the lumbar dura to the spinal column and examined these tissues microscopically. Intraoperative images were obtained during lumbar laminectomy procedures. They demonstrated connective tissue attachments, linking the lumbar dura to the spinal column in the dorsal midline and dorsolaterally. Tissue samples were obtained and examined microscopically. We then conducted a search of the literature to find references to dural attachments to the spinal column. Histological examination of the samples showed minimal cellular fibrous tissue. To date no references to these attachments have been made in neurosurgical literature. Previous studies, including live, cadaveric, and radiographic examinations, have demonstrated a dorsomedian fold of dura attached to the junction of the ligamentum flavum, and dorsolateral ligaments that divide the dorsal epidural space into an anterior and posterior compartment. Epidural fibrous connections or ligaments between the dura and the lumbar spinal column may be of clinical importance to the neurosurgeon. Care should be taken during lumbar procedures not to disrupt or tear these ligaments as this may cause dural tears and CSF leaks. Identifying these ligaments and cutting them sharply may prevent inadvertent durotomies.

  20. Moving back: The radiation dose received from lumbar spine quantitative fluoroscopy compared to lumbar spine radiographs with suggestions for dose reduction

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, F.E.; Thomas, P.; Breen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative fluoroscopy is an emerging technology for assessing continuous inter-vertebral motion in the lumbar spine, but information on radiation dose is not yet available. The purposes of this study were to compare the radiation dose from quantitative fluoroscopy of the lumbar spine with lumbar spine radiographs, and identify opportunities for dose reduction in quantitative fluoroscopy. Methods Internationally reported dose area product (DAP) and effective dose data for lumbar spine radiographs were compared with the same for quantitative fluoroscopy and with data from a local hospital for functional radiographs (weight bearing AP, lateral, and/or flexion and extension) (n = 27). The effects of procedure time, age, weight, height and body mass index on the fluoroscopy dose were determined by multiple linear regression using SPSS v19 software (IBM Corp., Armonck, NY, USA). Results and conclusion The effective dose (and therefore the estimated risk) for quantitative fluoroscopy is 0.561 mSv which is lower than in most published data for lumbar spine radiography. The dose area product (DAP) for sagittal (flexion + extension) quantitative fluoroscopy is 3.94 Gy cm2 which is lower than local data for two view (flexion and extension) functional radiographs (4.25 Gy cm2), and combined coronal and sagittal dose from quantitative fluoroscopy (6.13 Gy cm2) is lower than for four view functional radiography (7.34 Gy cm2). Conversely DAP for coronal and sagittal quantitative fluoroscopy combined (6.13 Gy cm2) is higher than that published for both lumbar AP or lateral radiographs, with the exception of Nordic countries combined data. Weight, procedure time and age were independently positively associated with total dose, and height (after adjusting for weight) was negatively associated, thus as height increased, the DAP decreased. PMID:26512196

  1. Multiparameter characterisation of vertebral osteoporosis with 3-T MR.

    PubMed

    Fanucci, E; Manenti, G; Masala, S; Laviani, F; Di Costanzo, G; Ludovici, A; Cozzolino, V; Floris, R; Simonetti, G

    2007-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) in vertebral osteoporosis. Thirty subjects (ten healthy controls, ten with osteoporosis but no fracture, ten with osteoporotic vertebral fractures) underwent MR of the lumbar spine. Turbo spin echo (TSE) T1-, T2- and T2- spectral selection attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) weighted imaging and spectroscopy for the selective evaluation of water and fat content were performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to create a map of the spatial arrangement of the tissue structures. Morphological imaging detected recent vertebral fractures. In osteoporotic patients, spectroscopic imaging demonstrated an increase in the saturated fats and a decrease in the ADC, whereas the data provided by DTI demonstrated a bone structure with medium-degree anisotropy. Osteoporosis is characterised by trabecular thinning, with an increase in the intertrabecular spaces, which are filled with fats. The anisotropic study and the subsequent assessment of colour and vector maps can provide a noninvasive tool for assessing the risk of fracture due to osteoporosis.

  2. Vertebral scalloping in neurofibromatosis type 1: a quantitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Edmund S.H.; Sawatzky, Bonita; Birch, Patricia; Friedman, Jan M.; Tredwell, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate quantitative differences in vertebral scalloping between children who have scoliosis with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Design A retrospective study. Setting A university-affiliated children’s hospital. Patients Twenty-seven children with scoliosis, 13 of whom had NF1 and 14 of whom did not. Method Existing radiographs of the lumbar vertebrae were used to measure and compare the degree of vertebral scalloping. Main outcome measures The distribution of posterior scalloping ratios in the 2 groups and the most extreme ratio in each subject in each group were compared. Results Scalloping ratios from the children with NF1 were not normally distributed: 31% had ratios greater than 1.20. Scalloping ratios from the non-NF1 children were normally distributed, with a mean ratio (and standard deviation) of 1.13 (0.03). The distribution between the 2 groups was significantly different (p < 0.05). Conclusions In children who have scoliosis but no NF1 there was a range of mild scalloping whereas those with NF1 has severe scalloping. Further studies are needed to determine the possible role of vertebral scalloping in scoliosis severity and progression in children who have NF1. PMID:12067169

  3. An observational study of the relationship between lumbar epidural space depth and body mass index in Michigan parturients.

    PubMed

    Clinkscales, C P; Greenfield, M L V H; Vanarase, M; Polley, L S

    2007-10-01

    Studies of urban parturient populations demonstrate increasing prevalence of obesity, which contributes to difficult epidural catheter placement. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between lumbar epidural space depth and body mass index in United States parturients from Michigan. We studied the records of 2009 parturients at or beyond 36 weeks' gestation. In addition to lumbar epidural space depth and body mass index, we recorded maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace of epidural placement. A multi-linear regression model was created with centimeter depth from skin to lumbar epidural space as the dependent variable and body mass index as the independent variable, adjusted for maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace. Lumbar epidural space depth was (mean +/- SD) 5.3 cm+/-1.21, with more than 96% of catheters placed at L2-3 or L3-4. Mean body mass index was 31.5+/-6.2 kg/m(2). Mean maternal age was 29.3+/-5.7 years while mean gestational age was 39.3+/-1.3 weeks. In a multi-linear regression model, body mass index and maternal age were significant predictors of centimeter depth. When adjusted for maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace of catheter placement, body mass index was associated with an increase in depth (P<0.0001, R(2)=0.3646). Maternal age, when adjusted for body mass index and vertebral interspace, was associated with a decreased depth (P=0.0014). When maternal age, gestational age and vertebral interspace are controlled for, increasing body mass index is associated with increasing depth, while increasing maternal age is associated with decreasing depth.

  4. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae. Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  5. Variability and constraint of vertebral formulae and proportions in colugos, tree shrews, and rodents, with special reference to vertebral modification by aerodynamic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Sato, Fumi

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study is to provide the first large data set on vertebral formulae and proportions, and examine their relationship with different locomotive modes in colugos (Dermoptera), tree shrews (Scandentia), and rodents (Rodentia), which have been considered less variable because they were thought to have a plesiomorphic number of 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae. The data included 33 colugos and 112 tree shrews, which are phylogenetically sister taxa, and 288 additional skeletons from 29 other mammalian species adapted to different locomotive modes, flying, gliding, arboreal, terrestrial, digging, and semi-aquatic habitats. The following results were obtained: (1) intra-/interspecies variability and geographical variation in thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar counts were present in two gliding colugo species and 12 terrestrial/arboreal tree shrew species; (2) in our examined mammals, some aerodynamic mammals, such as colugos, southern flying squirrels, scaly-tailed squirrels, and bats, showed exceptionally high amounts of intraspecific variation of thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar counts, and sugar gliders and some semi-aquatic rodents also showed some variation; (3) longer thoracic and shorter lumbar vertebrae were typically shared traits among the examined mammals, except for flying squirrels (Pteromyini) and scaly-tailed squirrels (Anomaluridae). Our study reveals that aerodynamic adaptation could potentially lead to strong selection and modification of vertebral formulae and/or proportions based on locomotive mode despite evolutionary and developmental constraints.

  6. Lumbar discography: an update.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    and then come back to reinject more contrast into the disk in question. As radiologists, we tend to focus on the technical aspects of a procedure and the anatomic/morphologic information it provides. However, it cannot be emphasized enough that when performing lumbar discography, the assessment of the patient's pain response during the injection is the most important component of the procedure, and requires not only technical skills, but an understanding of how best to avoid some of the pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate results.

  7. The effect of thoracic kyphosis and sagittal plane alignment on vertebral compressive loading

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Alexander G.; Anderson, Dennis E.; D’Agostino, John; Bouxsein, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the biomechanical mechanisms underlying the association between hyperkyphosis of the thoracic spine and risk of vertebral fracture and other degenerative spinal pathology, we used a previously validated musculoskeletal model of the spine to determine how thoracic kyphosis angle and spinal posture affect vertebral compressive loading. We simulated an age-related increase in thoracic kyphosis (T1-T12 Cobb angle 50° to 75°) during two different activities (relaxed standing and standing with 5 kg weights in the hands) and three different posture conditions: 1) an increase in thoracic kyphosis with no postural adjustment (uncompensated posture), 2) an increase in thoracic kyphosis with a concomitant increase in pelvic tilt that maintains a stable center of mass and horizontal eye gaze (compensated posture), and 3) an increase in thoracic kyphosis with a concomitant increase in lumbar lordosis that also maintains a stable center of mass and horizontal eye gaze (congruent posture). For all posture conditions, compressive loading increased with increasing thoracic kyphosis, with loading increasing more in the thoracolumbar and lumbar regions than in the mid-thoracic region. Loading increased the most for the uncompensated posture, followed by the compensated posture, with the congruent posture almost completely mitigating any increases in loading with increased thoracic kyphosis. These findings indicate that thoracic kyphosis and spinal posture both influence vertebral loading during daily activities, implying that thoracic kyphosis measurements alone are not sufficient to characterize the impact of spinal curvature on vertebral loading. PMID:22589006

  8. Range of Motion of the Intact Lumbar Segment: A Multivariate Study of 42 Lumbar Spines

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel J.; Yeager, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A thorough understanding of the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy human spine is critical in furthering the treatment of spinal pathology. The goal of this study was to investigate the motion of the intact lumbar spine segment as measured by range of motion (ROM), and to investigate the dependencies thereof on gender and intervertebral level. Materials and Methods Kinematic data was obtained for 42 human lumbar segments (L1-S1) in response to a pure-moment loading protocol in flexion extension (FE), lateral bending (LB) and axial torsion (AT). Data was obtained for 204 individual functional spinal units (91 female, 113 male). Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to detect differences between genders and intervertebral levels in each mode of loading. Correlations between ROM and donor demographics, including height, weight, and age, were conducted. Results ROM was significantly greater for females than for males in FE, LB and AT (p<0.001). ROM tended to increase down the vertebral column in FE. L3-4 FE ROM was significantly greater than L1-2 (p=0.024), and L4-5 and L5-S1 FE ROM were significantly greater than for every other level (p<0.003). LB ROM tended to be greater toward the center of the segment with L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 ROM being significantly greater than both L1-2 (p<0.001) and L5-S1 (p=0.006, p<0.001, p=0.043, respectively). A similar trend was found for AT, however only L1-2 was significantly less than all other levels (p=0.042, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.034 for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 respectively). Conclusion The significant differences in lumbar ROM between male and female spine segments and between the intervertebral levels must be taken into account in study design in order to prevent biases in outcomes. The significant differences in ROM between levels may also have critical implications in the design of spinal implants, particularly those designed to maintain or restore healthy motion. PMID:25785241

  9. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  10. Reforming the 4th-Year Curriculum as a Springboard to Graduate Medical Training: One School's Experiences and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2016-01-01

    Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional

  11. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bugg, William G; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G; Toms, Andoni P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9° (SD = 6.5°) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1° (SD = 6.4°) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8°, Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2° (SD = 10.16°) for controls and 136.4° (SD = 10.86°) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2° was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis.

  12. Measurement Performance of a Computer Assisted Vertebral Motion Analysis System.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reginald J; Lee, David C; Wade, Chip; Cheng, Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Segmental instability of the lumbar spine is a significant cost within the US health care system; however current thresholds for indication of radiographic instability are not well defined. To determine the performance measurements of sagittal lumbar intervertebral measurements using computerassisted measurements of the lumbar spine using motion sequences from a video-fluoroscopic technique. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, prevalence, and test-retest reliability evaluation of digitized manual versus computer-assisted measurements of the lumbar spine. A total of 2239 intervertebral levels from 509 symptomatic patients, and 287 intervertebral levels from 73 asymptomatic participants were retrospectively evaluated. Specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, and prevalence between the two measurement techniques; Measurements of Coefficient of repeatability (CR), limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; type 3,1), and standard error of measurement for both measurement techniques. Asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients were all evaluated using both the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA) system and fluoroscopic flexion extension static radiographs (FE). The analysis was compared to known thresholds of 15% intervertebral translation (IVT, equivalent to 5.3mm assuming a 35mm vertebral body depth) and 25° intervertebral rotation (IVR). The VMA measurements demonstrated greater specificity, % change in sensitivity, NPV, prevalence, and reliability compared with FE for radiographic evidence of instability. Specificity was 99.4% and 99.1% in the VMA compared to 98.3% and 98.2% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Sensitivity in this study was 41.2% and 44.6% greater in the VMA compared to the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. NPV was 91% and 88% in the VMA compared to 62% and 66% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Prevalence was 12.3% and 11.9% for the VMA compared to 6.1% and 5

  13. Measurement Performance of a Computer Assisted Vertebral Motion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Reginald J.; Lee, David C.; Cheng, Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Background Segmental instability of the lumbar spine is a significant cost within the US health care system; however current thresholds for indication of radiographic instability are not well defined. Purpose To determine the performance measurements of sagittal lumbar intervertebral measurements using computerassisted measurements of the lumbar spine using motion sequences from a video-fluoroscopic technique. Study design Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, prevalence, and test-retest reliability evaluation of digitized manual versus computer-assisted measurements of the lumbar spine. Patient sample A total of 2239 intervertebral levels from 509 symptomatic patients, and 287 intervertebral levels from 73 asymptomatic participants were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures Specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, and prevalence between the two measurement techniques; Measurements of Coefficient of repeatability (CR), limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; type 3,1), and standard error of measurement for both measurement techniques. Methods Asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients were all evaluated using both the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA) system and fluoroscopic flexion extension static radiographs (FE). The analysis was compared to known thresholds of 15% intervertebral translation (IVT, equivalent to 5.3mm assuming a 35mm vertebral body depth) and 25° intervertebral rotation (IVR). Results The VMA measurements demonstrated greater specificity, % change in sensitivity, NPV, prevalence, and reliability compared with FE for radiographic evidence of instability. Specificity was 99.4% and 99.1% in the VMA compared to 98.3% and 98.2% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Sensitivity in this study was 41.2% and 44.6% greater in the VMA compared to the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. NPV was 91% and 88% in the VMA compared to 62% and 66% in the FE for IVR and IVT

  14. Is sheep lumbar spine a suitable alternative model for human spinal researches? Morphometrical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Sheep are commonly used as a model for human spinal orthopaedic research due to their similarity in morphological and biomechanical features. This study aimed to document the volumes of vertebral bodies and compare the generated results as well as morphometry of the sheep lumbar spine to human published data. For this purpose, computed tomography scans were carried out on five adult Merino sheep under general anaesthesia. Transverse 5 mm thick images were acquired from L1 to L6 using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Volume measurements were performed with dedicated software. Four spinal indices and Pavlov's ratio were calculated. Thereafter, the generated data were compared to published literature on humans. The mean vertebral body volume showed an increase towards the caudal vertebrae, but there were no significant differences between the vertebral levels (P>0.05). Compared to humans, sheep vertebral body volumes were 48.6% smaller. The comparison of absolute values between both species revealed that sheep had smaller, longer and narrower vertebral bodies, thinner intervertebral discs, narrower spinal canal, longer transverse processes, shorter dorsal spinous processes and narrower, higher pedicles with more lateral angulations. The comparison of the spinal indices showed a good similarity to human in terms of the vertebral endplates and spinal canal. The results of this study may be helpful for using the sheep as a model for human orthopaedic spinal research if anatomical differences are taken into account. PMID:24396382

  15. Degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Comparison of the multiecho data image combination sequence with magnetization transfer saturation pulse versus lumbar myelography/postmyelographic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Dorenbeck, U; Schreyer, A G; Grunwald, I Q; Held, P; Feuerbach, S; Seitz, J

    2004-12-01

    To compare a T2* weighted 2D spoiled gradient echo multiecho sequence (MEDIC) with magnetization transfer saturation pulse versus lumbar myelography and postmyelographic computed tomography (pCT). 84 disk levels in 27 patients were examined. The vertebral bodies, intervertebral disks, neural foramina, cauda equina, ligamentum flavum, and narrowing of the spinal canal were investigated using an evaluation scale. In addition, the pCT and the MEDIC sequence were evaluated for assessing the narrowing of the neural foramina in a phantom study using a cadaver preparation of the lumbar spine. A total of 28 disk herniations, 11 cases of osteophytes narrowing the spinal canal or the neural foramina, and 7 spinal canal stenoses were detected. The pCT was significantly better in visualizing the cauda equina. The MEDIC sequence was significantly superior in visualizing the extension of the ligamentum flavum. No statistical differences between either image modality were found concerning assessment of the narrowing of the neural foramina and the spinal canal, nor regarding evaluation of the vertebral disk and the vertebral body. Measurements of the phantom study showed that the MEDIC sequence did not overestimate narrowing of the neural foramina. The T2* MEDIC sequence has proved to be as accurate as pCT in evaluating osteophytes and narrowing of the neural foramina. In doubtful standard magnetic resonance imaging findings, this means that an additional axial T2* MEDIC sequence may be of value in reaching the same accuracy as pCT.

  16. Early MR changes in vertebral bone marrow for patients following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Onu, M; Savu, M; Lungu-Solomonescu, C; Harabagiu, I; Pop, T

    2001-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the vertebral marrow changes in patients following radiotherapy (RT) by measuring the T2 relaxation times before and during RT. We were mostly interested in evaluating early MR marrow changes during RT. Fifteen patients treated by RT for cervical cancer were submitted to MR examination before and during RT (5-23 days of RT). T2 values were calculated for irradiated and non-irradiated tissues (lumbar and sacral vertebral bone marrow, symphysis pubis marrow, and regional muscle). Fourteen patients presented increased T2 values for irradiated vertebral bone marrow (VBM), and 3 patients showed increased T2 values even for non-irradiated VBM. We found T2 variations for VBM as early as in the fifth day of RT for an absorbed dose as small as 9 Gy. Calculated T2 values in irradiated and also in non-irradiated tissues prove very early tissue alterations.

  17. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Antony

    The Lead Proposal for this investigation originates from the University of Arizona, Steward Observatory under Principal Investigator Dr. Christopher K. Walker. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is pleased to submit this subsidiary proposal for engineering and scientific collaboration on the reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO-2). This proposal covers Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science as a result of the failure to launch due to weather in the 2015-2016 season. The Institutional Principal Investigator for the SAO effort is Antony A. Stark, and scientific Co-Investigators Gary Melnick, Volker Tolls, and Matthew Ashby. SAO will provide pre-flight engineering and flight monitoring support for the second Long Duration Flight (LDF) from McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. Subsequent to the flight, SAO Co-Is will contribute to data management and analysis, scientific interpretation, publication of results, and public distribution of data.

  18. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  19. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

  20. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  1. 4th Stage Transvaginal omental herniation during VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia: a unique presentation of uterine rupture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine rupture is a common complication in women attempting their first virginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) but the risk diminishes with subsequent VBACs. It occurs in rates of 0.5-9% and is influenced by various factors. Case presentation A unique case of uterine rupture in a Kenyan woman of African descent during a repeat VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia was discovered during the 4th stage of labour when omentum was noted protruding through the vagina. She had delivered 4 years earlier by caesarean section. Conclusion It is not common to experience uterine rupture among women attempting repeat VBAC. When it occurs, it may not always follow the known pattern intra-partum and is often associated with poor foetal outcome. PMID:23521920

  2. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period.

  3. Characterization of γ and γ' phases in 2nd and 4th generation single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietara, Maciej; Neumeier, Steffen; Göken, Mathias; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    A Ni based single crystal superalloy from the 2nd generation, PWA 1484, and one from the 4th generation, PWA 1497, were comparatively studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nanoindentation technique in an atomic force microscope (NI-AFM) after high temperature creep deformation. During primary creep of both generations of superalloys, γ' precipitates start to coalesce and grow directionally. Further creep deformation leads to the topological inversion and coarsening of the rafted microstructure. The NI-AFM technique was used for measurements of the hardness of the γ and γ' phases in as-received and creep deformed samples in various conditions. The g matrix of the PWA 1497 superalloy is on average 0.8 GPa harder than that of PWA 1484 that can be explained by higher content of Re and Ru, since they partition predominantly to the matrix phase.

  4. Trabecular Microstructure and Damage Affect Cement Leakage From the Basivertebral Foramen During Vertebral Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengyun; Wang, Chongyan; Shan, Zhi; Liu, Junhui; Yu, Tianming; Zhang, Xuyang; Fan, Shunwu; Christiansen, Blaine A; Ding, Wenyuan; Zhao, Fengdong

    2017-08-15

    A prospective study on cadaver specimens. To explore why cement leakage from basivertebral foramen (BF) easily occurs during vertebral augmentation procedures. Type B (through BF, basivertebral foramen) cement leakage is the most common type after vertebral augmentation, but the mechanism of this is still controversial. The contribution of vertebral trabecular bone orientation and trabecular damage during compression fracture to cement leakage is still unknown. In this study, 12 fresh-frozen human lumbar spines (T12-L5) were collected and divided into 24 three-segment units. Mechanical testing was performed to simulate a compression fracture. MicroCT were performed on all segments before and after mechanical testing, and trabecular microstructure of the superior, middle (containing BF), and inferior 1/3 of each vertebral body was analyzed. The diameter variation of intertrabecular space before and after compression fracture was used to quantify trabecular injury. After mechanical testing, vertebral augmentation, and imaging-based diagnosis were used to evaluate cement leakage. Trabecular bone microstructural parameters in middle region (containing BF) were lower than those of the superior or inferior regions (P < 0.01). After compressive failure, 3D-reconstruction of the vertebral body by MicroCT demonstrated that intertrabecular distance in the middle region was markedly increased. Type B cement leakage was the most common type after vertebral augmentation, as found previously in Wang et al. (Spine J 2014;14: 1551-1558). The presence of the BF and the relative sparsity of trabecular bone make the middle region of the vertebral body the mechanically weakest region. Trabecular bone in middle region suffered the most severe damage during compressive failure of the vertebral body, which resulted in the greatest intervertebral spacing, and subsequently the highest percentage of type B cement leakage. These data suggest specific mechanisms by which cement may leak

  5. Behavioral fever in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Fever is an evolutionary conserved defense mechanism which is present in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Ectotherms in response to infection can increase their body temperature by moving to warmer places. This process is known as behavioral fever. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of induction of fever in mammals. We further discuss the evolutionary conserved mechanisms existing between fever of mammals and behavioral fever of ectothermic vertebrates. Finally, the experimental evidences supporting an adaptive value of behavioral fever expressed by ectothermic vertebrates are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2016-01-04

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2015.

  7. Assessment of spontaneous correction of lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Mizusaki, Danilo; Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiographic response of the lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of Lenke type 1. Methods Forty-two patients with Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent operations via the posterior route with pedicle screws were prospectively evaluated. Clinical measurements (size of the hump and translation of the trunk in the coronal plane, by means of a plumb line) and radiographic measurements (Cobb angle, distal level of arthrodesis, translation of the lumbar apical vertebral and Risser) were made. The evaluations were performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and two years after surgery. Results The mean Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve was found to have been corrected by 68.9% and the lumbar curve by 57.1%. Eighty percent of the patients presented improved coronal trunk balance two years after surgery. In four patients, worsening of the plumb line measurements was observed, but there was no need for surgical intervention. Less satisfactory results were observed in patients with lumbar modifier B. Conclusions In Lenke 1 patients, fusion of the thoracic curve alone provided spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve and led to trunk balance. Less satisfactory results were observed in curves with lumbar modifier B, and this may be related to overcorrection of the main thoracic curve. PMID:26962505

  8. Comparative morphometric study of the australopithecine vertebral series Stw-H8/H41.

    PubMed

    Sanders, W J

    1998-03-01

    Lower spinal structure correlates well with positional behavior among mammals. Nonetheless, the functional morphology of the axial post-crania of australopithecines has received less attention than their appendicular skeletons. This paper presents a detailed description and comparative morphometric analysis of the australopithecine thoracolumbar vertebral series Stw-H8/H41, and examines spinal mechanics in early hominids. Stw-H8/H41 is an important specimen, as the australopithecine vertebral sample is small, and vertebral series are more useful than isolated elements for the interpretation of spinal function. Results of the study support the interpretation that australopithecine species are highly sexually dimorphic. The study also reveals a considerable amount of morphometric variation other than size among australopithecine vertebrae, though the sample is too small and incomplete to ascertain whether this indicates significant interspecific differences in spinal function. Most importantly, structural and metric observations confirm that the morphology of the lower spine in australopithecines has no modern analogue in its entirety. Aspects of zygapophyseal structure, numerical composition of the lumbar region, and centrum wedging suggest that the australopithecine vertebral column was adapted to human-like intrinsic lumbar lordosis and stable balance of the trunk over the pelvis in sustained bipedal locomotion. However, relative centrum size in australopithecines indicates that either they had a different mechanism for channeling vertical forces through the vertebral column than humans, or differed behaviorally from humans in ways that produced smaller increments of compression across their centra. These findings have important implications for hypotheses of australopithecine positional behavior, and demonstrate that larger samples and more complete vertebral series are needed to improve our understanding of australopithecine spinal function.

  9. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS).

    PubMed

    Clark, P; Cons-Molina, F; Deleze, M; Ragi, S; Haddock, L; Zanchetta, J R; Jaller, J J; Palermo, L; Talavera, J O; Messina, D O; Morales-Torres, J; Salmeron, J; Navarrete, A; Suarez, E; Pérez, C M; Cummings, S R

    2009-02-01

    In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries. These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those found in the USA using the same standardized methodology. We report the first study of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin America. An age-stratified random sample of 1,922 women aged 50 years and older from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico were included. In all cases a standardized questionnaire and lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine were obtained after informed consent. A standardized prevalence of 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) was found. The prevalence was similar in all five countries, increasing from 6.9% (95% CI 4.6-9.1) in women aged 50-59 years to 27.8% (95% CI 23.1-32.4) in those 80 years and older (p for trend < 0.001). Among different risk factors, self-reported height loss OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25), and previous history of fracture OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03) were significantly (p < 0.003 and p < 0.04 respectably) associated with the presence of radiographic vertebral fractures in the multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analyses HRT was associated with a 35% lower risk OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.93) and physical activity with a 27% lower risk of having a vertebral fracture OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.98), but were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses We conclude that radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures are common in Latin America. Health authorities in the region should be aware and consider implementing measures to prevent vertebral fractures.

  10. Skin movement errors in measurement of sagittal lumbar and hip angles in young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2008-02-01

    Errors in measurement of sagittal lumbar and hip angles due to skin movement on the pelvis and/or lateral thigh were measured in young (n = 21, age = 18.6 +/- 2.1 years) and older (n = 23, age = 70.9 +/- 6.4 years) age groups. Skin reference markers were attached over specific landmarks of healthy young and elderly subjects, who were videotaped in three static positions of hip flexion using the 2D PEAK Motus video analysis system. Sagittal lumbar and hip angles were calculated from skin reference markers and manually palpated landmarks. The elderly subjects demonstrated greater errors in lumbar angle due to skin movement on the pelvis only in the maximal hip flexion position. The traditional model (ASIS-PSIS-GT-LFE) underestimated sagittal hip angle and the revised model (ASIS-PSIS-2/3Th-1/4Th) provided more accurate measurement of sagittal hip angle throughout the full available range of hip flexion. Skin movement on the pelvis had a small counterbalancing effect on the larger errors from lateral thigh markers (GT-LFE), thereby decreasing hip angle error.

  11. New forensic anthropological approachment for the age determination of human fetal skeletons on the base of morphometry of vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Kósa, F; Castellana, C

    2005-01-17

    The anthropometrical study was carried out on 107 human fetal/newborn skeletons (54 male, 43 female, and 9 of unknown sex). The age of the individuals ranged from 4 to 10 lunar months. Each fetal or newborn vertebral region (cervical, thoracal and lumbar) has its own distinguishing features that are easily identifiable even in fragmentary bones. With our large sample size and extension of the age range studied, we are able to determine the fetal age with a considerable degree of accuracy from measurements defined in the vertebral ossification centers using regression equations. A simple rapid method for the identification and classification of fetal vertebral column bones has been contributed. The identification and classifications were carried out using discriminant functions. Knowledge of changes in vertebral column bones during fetal development is important in applied contexts of forensic and anthropology researches.

  12. Aplastic articular facets in a dog with intervertebral disk rupture of the 12th to 13th thoracic vertebral space.

    PubMed

    Werner, Thorsten; McNicholas, W Thomas; Kim, Jongmin; Baird, Debra K; Breur, Gert J

    2004-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female spayed Pomeranian was presented with acute hind-limb paraplegia with the presence of deep pain perception and urinary incontinence. Myelography showed a Hansen type I herniation of the12th to 13th thoracic intervertebral space (T(12-13)). Articular facets of the T(12-13) and T(13) to first lumbar vertebra (L(1)) were absent. The spinal cord was decompressed using a bilateral T(12-13) modified lateral hemilaminectomy (pediculectomy). The aplastic sites were associated with minimal instability of the vertebral column, and stabilization of the vertebral column was not required. Familiarity with this condition is important, because articular facet aplasia may cause vertebral instability and may require an adjusted surgical approach or vertebral reduction and fusion following decompression.

  13. The effect of posterior spinal fixation with acrylic cement on the vertebral growth plate and intervertebral disc in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moon, M S; Ok, I Y; Ha, K Y

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to clarify the serial histological changes in the growing spine of dogs following posterior fixation with acrylic cement. Twenty-four male mongrel dogs aged 8 weeks were used for the study. The lumbar spine from L.3 to L.5 was fixed posteriorly with acrylic cement. Three dogs were then sacrificed every four weeks up to 32 weeks, and the histological changes of the vertebral disc, growth plate and vertebral bodies were observed by light microscopy. Thinning of the growth plate and distortion of the cartilage columns has been demonstrated, but premature fusion of the growth plate did not result and vertebral body growth continued. Anterior wedging of the intervertebral disc was seen with some thinning of the bony trabeculae of the vertebral body. Degeneration of the nucleus pulposus resulted, with replacement by fibrous tissue. The normal horizontal arrangement of the fibres of the annulus fibrosus altered to a vertical configuration by 32 weeks.

  14. Lumbar Interspinous Process Fixation and Fusion with Stand-Alone Interlaminar Lumbar Instrumented Fusion Implant in Patients with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Undergoing Decompression for Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Postacchini, Franco; Menchetti, Pier Paolo Maria; Sessa, Pasquale; Paolino, Michela; Cinotti, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To assess the ability of a stand-alone lumbar interspinous implant (interspinous/interlaminar lumbar instrumented fusion, ILIF) associated with bone grafting to promote posterior spine fusion in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with vertebral instability. Overview of Literature A few studies, using bilateral laminotomy (BL) or bilateral decompression by unilateral laminotomy (BDUL), found satisfactory results in stenotic patients with decompression alone, but others reported increased olisthesis, or subsequent need for fusion in DS with or without dynamic instability. Methods Twenty-five patients with Grade I DS, leg pain and chronic low back pain underwent BL or BDUL and ILIF implant. Olisthesis was 13% to 21%. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 4 to 12 months up to 25 to 44 months (mean, 34.4). Outcome measures were numerical rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI) and short-form 36 health survey (SF-36) of body pain and function. Results Fusion occurred in 21 patients (84%). None had increased olisthesis or instability postoperatively. Four types of fusion were identified. In Type I, the posterior part of the spinous processes were fused. In Type II, fusion extended to the base of the processes. In Type III, bone was present also around the polyetheretherketone plate of ILIF. In Type IV, even the facet joints were fused. The mean NRS score for back and leg pain decreased by 64% and 80%, respectively. The mean ODI score was decreased by 52%. SF-36 bodily pain and physical function mean scores increased by 53% and 58%, respectively. Computed tomography revealed failed fusion in four patients, all of whom still had vertebral instability postoperatively. Conclusions Stand-alone ILIF with interspinous bone grafting promotes vertebral fusion in most patients with lumbar stenosis and unstable Grade I DS undergoing BL or BDUL. PMID:26949455

  15. Evolution of the vertebrate epididymis.

    PubMed

    Jones, R C

    1998-01-01

    This review examines the structure and function of the extratesticular sperm ducts of vertebrates in terms of their evolutionary development and adaptive significance. The primitive extratesticular duct system of Chondrichthyes is described as an example of the vertebrate archetype. Adaptations of the duct system in higher vertebrates have involved a loss of some structures and specialization of others. The duct system probably evolved as a homeostatic mechanism to facilitate fertilization and some embryological development under conditions protected from the external environment. However, it is argued that the ducts also play an important role in the competition between males to achieve paternity. In vertebrates that practise internal fertilization the ducts are involved in post-testicular maturation and storage of spermatozoa. The biological significance of post-testicular sperm maturation has not been resolved. By contrast, sperm storage is essential in most male vertebrates because of the slow rate of spermatogenesis, particularly in ectotherms. Sperm storage is also important in the competition between males for paternity as it enables a male to mate a 'partner' a number of times during an oestrus in order to reduce the prospect of being cuckolded by another male. The extent of sperm maturation and storage in the epididymis of particular vertebrates depends on the relative roles of the testis and its extragonadal ducts in the competition between males for paternity. These roles depend on a number of factors, including allometric limitations to testis size, metabolic rate and the development of endothermy, and the reproductive strategy of females of the species.

  16. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to