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Sample records for 4th red-cockaded woodpecker

  1. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  2. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  3. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  4. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels.

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, Thomas S; Loeb, Susan C

    2004-12-31

    Risch, Thomas S., and Susan C. Loeb. 2004. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 504-505. Abstract: Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a significant negative impact on red-cockades woodpeckers (Picoides borealsi) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels directly usurp red-cockaded woodpecker s from cavities, or simply occupy cavities previously abandoned by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Ridley et al. (1997) observed the displacement of a red-cockaded woodpecker by a southern flying squirrel that was released after being captured. Observations of nocturnal displacements of red-cockaded woodpeckers by flying squirrels, however, are lacking. Due to the difficulty of observing interspecific interactions, determining the mechanisims by which flying squirrels impact red-cockaded woodpeckers is problematic.

  5. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  6. A mobile aviary to enhance translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Mari, Yvett; Smathers, Webb

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W., Yvette Mari, and Webb Smathers. 2004. A mobile aviary to enhance translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 335-336. Abstract: Because translocations of male red-cockaded woodpeckers have been less successful (Costa and Kennedy 1994) and because translocations of females are dependent on the availability of established males, a technique to increase the success of translocations would be an important contribution to conservation efforts. Researchers from the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station hypothesized that by maintaining red-cockaded woodpeckers in an aviary prior to release the birds would develop an affinity for, and possibly imprint (Scott and Carpenter 1987) on their surroundings, and that this would increase their likelyhood of remaining in the cluster upon their release.

  7. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Nancy E. Koerth

    2007-01-01

    We studied Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to examine the effect of status and gender on foraging behavior. Foraging behavior of breeding pairs extended beyond separation by foraging height to include zones (bole, trunk in crown, primary limb, secondary limb) of the tree used and foraging methods (scaling, probing, excavating). Helper...

  8. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  9. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan C; Ruth, Deanna L

    2004-12-31

    Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 501-502. Abstract: Southern flying squirrels can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of effective and efficient protocols for southern flying squirrel control requires an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of southern flying squirrel cavity use. Most studies of southern flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities have been conducted during spring (e.g., Harlow and Lennartz 1983, Rudolph et al. 1990a, Loeb 1993) and no studies have examined the effects of long term flying squirrel control on subsequent cavity use. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities varies with season or cavity type, and (2) the long term effect of continuous squirrel removal.

  10. Constructing Artifical Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities

    Treesearch

    David H. Allen

    1991-01-01

    A complete guide is provided for excavating red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities. A hole 4 inches wide by 10 inches high by 6 inches deep is cut from a live pine(Pinusspp.) tree with a chainsaw, and a prefabricated cavity is inserted. Cavities can be excavated in pines of any age, but the diameter of the tree at the height of insertion must be greater...

  11. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  12. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.

  13. Forest Stands Selected by Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Richard F. Harlow

    1986-01-01

    Selection of forest stands by 18 clans of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers was studied in their year-round home ranges. The foraging use of 276 stands relative to their availability within the home ranges was compared to several stand characteristics. Selection among stands with similar characteristics was highly vairable and red-cockadeds foraged in stands with a...

  14. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Research at ERDC/CERL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    program placed on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis ) in the period from 1994 through 2000. The studies included here fall into three categories: noise, maneuver, and fog oil effects.

  15. Are pileated woodpeckers attracted to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees?

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; James R. McCormick

    2002-01-01

    Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) cause damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in the form of cavity enlargement or other excavations on the surface of the pine tree. However, it is not known whether Pileated Woodpeckers excavate more frequently on Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees than on...

  16. Pileated woodpecker damage to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; D. Craig Rudolph

    1998-01-01

    The authors surveyed all known red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees (n = 514) in the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas for pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) damage. They compared the frequency of pileated woodpecker damage to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat to damage in loblolly (P....

  17. Diet of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers at three locations

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Donald Lipscomb; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Susan C. Loeb

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a 2-yr study of the nestling diet of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at three locations to determine how it varied among sites. We photographed 5939 nest visits by adult woodpeckers delivering food items for nestlings. In 1994, we located cameras near three nest cavities on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina and near...

  18. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  19. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  20. Species using red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1997-01-01

    Because of its ability to excavate cavities in living pines, the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a keystone species in the tire-disclimax, pine ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Many species representing multiple taxonomic classes are dependent on this woodpecker species for the cavities it creates. We examined the...

  1. Large-scale translocation strategies for reintroducing red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Ralph Costa

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of wild birds is a potential conservation strategy for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We developed and tested 8 large-scale translocation strategy models for a regional red-cockaded woodpecker reintroduction program. The purpose of the reintroduction program is to increase the number of red-cockaded...

  2. Delayed reproduction of translocated red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Brent Burt

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pairs of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers were translocated to the Angelina National Forest from 21 October 1998 to 17 December 1998. Five breeding pairs (consisting of at least one trnnslocated bird) produced eggs/nestlings within the first breeding season after translocation. Clutch initiation dates for all five pairs were later than those of resident breeders. The...

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker recovery: An integrated strategy

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2004-01-01

    Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have experienced massive declines since European colonization of North America. This is due to extensive habitat loss and alteration. Logging of old-growth pine forests and alteration of the fire regime throughout the historic range of the species were the primary causes of population decline. Listing of...

  4. Silvicultural systems and red-cockaded woodpecker management: another perspective

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Hedrick; Robert G. Hooper; Dennis L. Krusac; Joseph M. Dabney

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 Rudolph and Conner maintained that a modified even-aged silvicultural system using irregular shelterwood as the method of regenerating new stands provides greater benefits for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) than uneven-aged systems. Their argument was confined to loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. ecbinata) pine forest types and emphasized...

  5. Causes of mortality of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; David L. Kulhavy; Ann E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over a 13-year period we examined the mortality of cavity trees (n = 453) used by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on national forests in eastern Texas. Bark beetles (53%), wind snap (30%), and fire (7%) were the major causes of cavity tree mortality. Bark beetles were the major cause of mortality in loblolly (Pinus taeda...

  6. Evidence of Red-cockaded Woodpecker nestling displacement by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) are unique among woodpeckers in that they excavate their roost and nest cavities entirely within living pines (Ligon 1970). A number of secondary cavity nesters and other vertebrates are dependent on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers for the cavities they create (Rudolph et al. 1990, Loeb 1993, LaBranche and...

  7. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Deanna L. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus, exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of...

  8. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1998-01-01

    While examining red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity contents in eastern Texas, the authors observed cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans). The tree surface around an active red-cockaded woodpecker cavity is coated with sticky resin which flows from resin wells created by the woodpecker. The southern flying squirrel...

  9. Competition for red-cockaded woodpecker roost and nest cavities: effects of resin age and entrance diameter

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Janet Turner

    1990-01-01

    Competition for roost and nest cavities was investigated in a Texas population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat. Twenty-two percent of all examined cavities were occupied by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, and 46% were occupied by other species. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers did not roost in the open or...

  10. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Peter A; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  11. Status of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker in Texas, 1985-1987

    Treesearch

    Brent Ortego; Richard N. Conner; Craig Rudolph

    1988-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was once a common species across the Southeastern United States. The species is specialized to live in old growth, open, park-like stands of pine. As the virgin pine forests in Texas were harvested, Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations declined (Hooper et al. 1980).

  12. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2010-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinusspp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in...

  13. Composition of mixed-species foraging flocks associated with red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis are known to be regular members of mixed species foraging flocks. We censused avian species associated with foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat and in mixed loblolly pine (P. taeda)-shortleaf pine (P. echinata...

  14. Red-cockaded woodpecker nutritional status in relation to habitat: Evidence from ptilochronology and body mass

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Sexual divergence in foraging behavior exhibited by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) should reduce intersexual competition for foraging sites. Males tend to forage at greater heights and on smaller stem diameters than females. It is well known that red-cockaded woodpeckers have an aversion to a well-developed stratum of midstory...

  15. Red-cockaded woodpecker nesting success, forest structure, and southern flying squirrels in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying...

  16. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior in relation to midstory vegetation

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) nest and forage in pine-dominated forests. Research indicates that substantial hardwood midstory encroachment is detrimental to Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations, although the exact mechanisms are unknown. We examined foraging behavior in relation to midstory between August 1989 and February 1990. Red...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker use of seed-tree/shelterwood cuts in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Ann E. Snow; Kathleen A. O' Halloran

    1991-01-01

    Establishment or maintenance of suitable habitat for any wildlife species is an important aspect of its management, especially for endangered species such as the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker are declining over much of the bird's current range, most likely because of the lack of...

  18. Red-cockaded woodpeckers vs rat snakes: the effectiveness of the resin barrier

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Howard Kyle; Richard N. Conner

    1990-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) excavate resin wells in the immediate vicinity of roost and nest cavity entrances. Resin wells are worked regularly, resulting in a copious and persistent resin flow that coats the tree trunk, especially below cavity entrances. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers also scale loose bark from cavity trees and closely adjacent trees....

  19. A Mobile Aviary to Enhance Translocation Success of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Charles A. Dachelet; Webb M. Smathers

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker is a federally endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States. The Federal Red-cockaded Woodpecker Recovery Plan emphasized restoration ofpopulations within physiographic provinces throughout their range to provide for region-wide, long-term survival. Restoration efforts included habitat enhancement and...

  20. Cavity tree selection by red-cockaded woodpeckers in relation to tree age

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    We aged over 1350 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees and a comparable number of randomly selected trees. Resulting data strongly support the hypothesis that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers preferentially select older trees. Ages of recently initiated cavity trees in the Texas study areas generally were similar to those of cavity trees...

  1. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Treesearch

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  2. A forest model relevant to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides Borealis)

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; C.C. Rewerts; N.J. Hess

    2005-01-01

    Most forest models are created with timber production as the implied primacy. For many land managers, timber production is less important than production of habitat for wildlife. Red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) are one of the priorites for management of the forests at Ft. Benning army installation. To aid management, a model that integrates a red-cockaded woodpecker...

  3. Do Red-cockaded Woodpeckers Select Cavity Trees Based on Chemical Composition of Pine Resin?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Robert H. Johnson; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2003-01-01

    We examined resin chemistry of loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines selected as cavity trees by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas. We sampled resin from (1) pines selected by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that contained naturally excavated active cavities, (2) pines...

  4. Avian community response to southern pine ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) management on nontarget birds is not widely known. Intensive managentcnt for pine specialists such as the Red-cockaded Woodpecker may negatively impact both Nearctic-Neotropical and Temperate Zone migrants associated with hardwood vegetation. To evaluate possible positive and...

  5. Effects of cavity-entrance restrictors on red-cockaded woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raulston, B.E.; James, D.A.; Johnson, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service has installed restrictors on cavity entrances of red-cockaded woodpeckers to limit access by larger cavity-dwelling competitors. This study tested the hypothesis that restrictors have no adverse effects on red-cockaded woodpeckers. Entrance restrictors were placed on openings to 20 cavities used by roosting red-cockaded woodpeckers, and 20 were left nonrestricted in the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. No difference was found between treatments in subsequent cavity use by red-cockaded woodpeckers. We examined possible effects on bill wear of birds using cavities with the metal restrictors. We recorded evidence of damage to bills and measured bill lengths of 14 birds captured from cavities with restrictor plates compared to 20 birds from cavities without restrictors. No significant difference was found. These data indicate restrictors do not negatively affect red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  6. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  7. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  8. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Habitat and Timber Management Production Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Roise; Joosang Chung; Richard Lancia; Mike Lennartz

    1990-02-01

    In order to mitigate the impact of longer rotations for the red-cockaded woodpecker on timber production, a multi-objective linear programming model was used. Various streams of habitat in relation to timber management were examined. Large areas immediately set aside for habitat may, in fact, lead to long term declines as a result of poor initial stand conditions. Timber production, harvesting and various silvicultural activities will have a short term impact but lead to long-term sustainable habitat condition for this species.

  9. An Exploration of the Effects of Genetic Drift on the Endangered Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    David L. (1995). Improved installation of artificial cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers. The Wildlife Society Bulletin, 23(1). Baker, James B...cavities for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 18(3). Copeyon, C. K., J. R. Walters, J. H. Carter III. (1991). Induction...Woodpecker nest cavities. Journal of Field Ornithology 68(2). Franklin, Ian Robert. Evolutionary change in small populations. (1980). In M. E. Soule

  10. The red-cockaded woodpecker: interactions with fire, snags, fungi, rat snakes and pileated woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) adaptation to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has involved several important interactions: (1) the reduction of hardwood frequency in the pine ecosystem because of frequent tires, (2) the softening of pine heartwood by red heart fungus (Phellinus pini) that hastens cavity...

  11. The response of adult red-cockaded woodpeckers to a fallen nestling

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    The response of adult Red-cockaded Woodpeckers to a fallen nestling- On 31 May 1990, while watching a pair of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) feeding two 20- day-old nestlings, we observed the following behavior. At 6:30 DST, the adult male flew to the entrance of the nest cavity with prey. He did not immediately offer the prey to the...

  12. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  13. Heartwood, sapwood, and fungal decay associated with red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    Provision of suitable sites for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picotdes borealis) cavity excavation is essential for successful management of the woodpecker. To evaluate internal characteristics of pines used by the woodpecker, we increment-cored longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) to determine heartwood diameter, sapwood thickness, and...

  14. Effects of midstory reduction and thinning in red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree clusters

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker's (Picoides borealis) preference for open pine forest is well known (U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. 1985). Encroachment of hardwood midstory within redcockaded woodpecker clusters (colonies, aggregations of cavity trees used by groups of woodpeckers, see Walters et al. 1988) is believed to cause cluster abandonment (Hopkins and Lynn 1971,...

  15. Influence of artificial cavity age on red-cockaded woodpecker translocation success

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Dawn K. Carrie; M. Stephen Best

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) translocations have been used to bolster woodpecker populations and to fill breeding vacancies. Artificial, insert cavities have been used to offset cavity shortages in woodpecker clusters and are the primary cavity type used in recruitment clusters in Texas and Arkansas, but inserts may lose their...

  16. Group size and nest success in red-cockaded woodpeckers in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: helpers make a difference

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) group size and nest productivity. Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size was positively correlated with fledging success. Although the relationships between woodpecker group size and nest productivity measures were nor statistically significant, a pattern of...

  17. Does red-cockaded woodpecker excavation of resin wells increase risk of bark beetle infestation of cavity trees?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy; Robert N. Coulson

    2001-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is unique among North American woodpeckers in that it nests and roosts almost exclusively in living pines (Pinus spp.) The red-cockaded woodpecker makes daily excavations at small wounds, termed "resin wells," around the cavity entrance and on the bole of the cavity tree...

  18. An unusually large number of eggs laid by a breeding red-cockaded woodpecker female

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; James R. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species that typically uses a single cavity for nesting (Ligon 1970, Walters et al. 1988). A single tree, or aggregation of cavity trees, termed the cluster, is inhabited by a group of woodpeckers that includes a single breeding pair and up to several helpers, which are...

  19. Use of external nesting boxes by roosting red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    William E. Taylor; Robert G. Hooper

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) roost year-round in cavities they excavate in living pine trees. Cavity excavation is a lengthy process (Conner and Rudolph 1995a) and sometimes a member of a family group does not have an available cavity for roosting within its resident cluster of cavity trees. Woodpeckers without a cavity either roost...

  20. Rainfall, El Niño, and reproduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) reproduction and rainfall during May when group members are provisioning nestlings with food. Patterns of variation over a 4-year period of approximately 30 woodpecker groups suggested that the mean number of hatchling deaths was positively related to...

  1. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Treesearch

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  2. Influence of habitat and number of nestlings on partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (

  3. Long-distance dispersal of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species indigenous to the mature pine forests of the Southeastern United States. Continued loss and fragmentation of the mature forests of the South have increased the isolation of extant woodpecker groups throughout the range of this endangered species. The authors discuss long-distance...

  4. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  5. Extent of Phellinus pini decay in loblolly pines and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas.

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Phellinus pini decay in loblolly pines and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 89: 315-321, 2004. To determine the prevalence of Phellinus pini in pines generally and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees specifically, we dissected 24 loblolly pines (...

  6. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  7. Success of intensive management of a critically imperiled population of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1997-01-01

    By late 1985, the population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoider borealis) at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, had declined to a low of four individuals. Because of extensive timber harvesting prior to thr 1950s,the older live pine trees that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers require for cavity construction were limited. We monitored the response of the population to...

  8. Red-cockaded woodpecker population trends and management on Texas national forests

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1994-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population trends and concurrent management on four national forests in eastern Texas were evaluated from 1983 through 1993. Following years of decline, populations stabilized and began to increase after intensive management efforts were initiated. Management activities included control of hardwood midstory and understory,...

  9. Forest fragmentation and Red-cockaded Woodpecker population: an analysis at intermediate scale

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1994-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker population on the Sam Houston National Forest in Texas was surveyed during 1988. The 128 active clusters present make this population one of the largest in existence. Pine stand ages varied considerably across the forest. Correlation analysis indicated that stand area in excess of 60 yr of age is positively correlated with measures of...

  10. Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in red-cockaded woodpeckers?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Rates of cavity excavation by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were examined from 1983 to 1999 on the Angelina National Forest in east Texas. We compared the rare of natural cavity excavation between 1983 and 1990 (before artificial cavities were available) with the rate of cavity excavation between 1992 and 1993, a period when...

  11. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Thomas S. Risch; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a signif- icant negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels...

  12. Report of the American Ornithologists' Union Committee for the Conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    J. David Ligon; Peter B. Stacey; Richard N. Conner; Carl E. Bock; Curtis S. Adkisson

    1986-01-01

    The American Ornithologists' Union's Committee for the Conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker was formed in late 1983 by Dr. Thomas R. Howell, then president of the A.O.U., at the request of Warren B. King of the United States Section of the International Council for Bird Preservation. The Committee's charge was to review the status of the federally...

  13. A Review of: The Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Surviving in a Fire-Maintained Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2002-01-01

    This is a comprehensive treatise on an endangered species that covers both the species' biology and its conservation and recovery. Organized in textbook fashion, the volume includes a review of the most important aspects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) ecology and conservation. The 12 chapters cover this species' taxonomy,...

  14. The conservation crisis: the Red-cockaded Woodpecker: on the road to oblivion?

    Treesearch

    J. David Ligon; Wilson W. Baker; Richard N. Conner; Jerome A. Jackson; Frances C. James; D. Craig Rudolph; Peter B. Stacey; Jeffrey R. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Our purpose is to consider the case of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis), another continental species that appears to be on a trajectory toward extinction. Although this species has been on the endangered species list and thus legally protected by the Endangered Species Act since 1973, its situation has steadily worsened. The Red-...

  15. Factors that influence translocation success in the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    To restore a population that had declined to 4 individuals by late 1985, 54 red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1986 and 1995. Translocation success was evaluated by sex, age, and distance between the capture and release site. For moves involving females, the presence of...

  16. Factors that Influence Translocation Succcess on the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    To restore a population that had declined to 4 individuals by late 1985, 54 Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1986 and 1995. Translocation success was evaluated by sex, age, and distance between the capture and release site. For moves involving females, the presence of...

  17. Effectiveness of flying squirrel excluder devices on red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb

    1996-01-01

    The author tested the effectiveness of squirrel excluder devices (SQED?s) in deterring southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from using artificial red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities by placing them on approximately one-half of the cavities in 14 inactive recruitment clusters on the Savannah River Site, SC. SQED?s consisted of 2 pieces of 35.5-...

  18. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  19. Red-cockaded woodpecker status and management: West Gulf Coastal Plain and Interior Highlands

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Dawn K. Carrie; N. Ross Carrie; Ricky W. Maxey; Warren G. Montague; Joe Neal; Kenneth Moore; John Skeen; Jeffrey A. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker populations declined precipitously following European settlement and expansion and cutting of the original pine forests across the southeastern United States. By 1990 most residual populations lacked demographic viability, existed in degraded habitat, and were isolated from other populations. The primary causes of this situation were harvest of...

  20. Relationships among red-cockaded woodpecker group density, nestling provisioning rates, and habitat

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Clifford E. Shackelford

    1999-01-01

    We examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) food provisioning rates of nestlings during the 1992 and 1993 breeding seasons on the Vernon Ranger District of the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. Provisioning rates were monitored at nest trees in moderate (9.8 groups/2 km radius, n=10) and low (5.9 groups/2 km radius, n=10) density...

  1. Initial and long-term use of inserts by red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    Artificial cavities have become a standard management technique for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). Seventy cavity inserts were installed in our study sites on the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas from 1990 to 1995. Eighty-two percent of the inserts were used for at least one year. It is still too early to make a direct...

  2. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2004-01-01

    Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations...

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  4. The red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree: A very special pine

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Robert H. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The adaptation of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has included the development of behaviors that permit the species to use living pines for their cavity trees. Their adaptation to pine ecosystems has also involved a major adjustment in the species' breeding system to cooperative breeding,...

  5. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success

    Treesearch

    James E. Garabedian; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils Peterson; John C. Kilgo

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides...

  6. An experimental test of interspecific competition for red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Robert G. Hooper

    1997-01-01

    To test whether the presence of nest boxes near red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis) cavity trees reduced cavity use by other species and improved RCW reproductive success on the Francis Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina, the authors placed 3 nest bows in each of 62 experimenta1 boxes clusters and designated 61 clusters as controls....

  7. Insert Modifications Improve Access to Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Next Cavities

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Ernest E. Stevens; Charles A. Dachelet

    1997-01-01

    A designfor a modified, artificial Red-cockaded Woodpecker(Picoides borealis) cavity insert is presented. This modification allowed eggs and young to be inspected easily, removed, and replaced throughout the nesting period. Modifications to cavity inserts are best done before installation, but can be easily retrofitted in existing artificial cavities...

  8. Losses of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees to southern pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Over an 1 l-year period (1983-1993), we examined the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation rate of single Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees on the Angelina National Forest in Texas. Southern pine beetles infested and killed 38 cavity trees during this period. Typically, within each cavity tree cluster, beetles infested only...

  9. Arthropod prey of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1995-01-01

    Four nest cavities of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were monitored with automatic cameras to determine the prey selected to feed nestlings. Twelve adults were photographed making nearly 3000 nest visits. Prey in 28 arthropod taxa were recognizable in 65% of the photographic slides. Wood roaches in the genus (Parcoblutta...

  10. Longleaf pine characteristics associated with arthropods available for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Kathleen E. Franzreb; William D Pepper

    2000-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of living pine trees for a variety of arthropods. To assess the availability of prey under differing stand conditions, the authors sampled arthropods that crawled up the boles of 300 living longleaf pine trees (Pinus palustris) ranging in age from 20 to 100 years with...

  11. Texas ratsnake predation on southern flying squirrels in red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Josh B. Pierce; Dan Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2009-01-01

    Elaphe spp. (ratsnakes) are frequent predators on cavity-nesting birds and other vertebrates, including Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels). They are known predators of Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers), especially during the nestling phase. Picoides borealis cavities are frequently occupied by Southern Flying Squirrels, often several squirrels per...

  12. Heart Rot and Cavity Tree Selection by Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Michael R. Lennartz; H. David Muse

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies implied that decayed heartwood was important to cavity tree selection by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealfs), but the results were inconclusive because they either lacked a control or were limited to 1 age class of trees. We compared the incidence of heart rot in loblolly and longleaf pines (Pinus taeda...

  13. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have resulted in mixed success as many translocated birds either disappeared...

  14. Influence of ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers on breeding bird and small mammal communities

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Masters; Christopher W. Wilson; Douglas S. Cram; George A. Bukenhofer; Robert L. Lochmiller

    2002-01-01

    Shortleaf pine-bluestem (Pinus echinata Mill.- Andropogon spp.) restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) has been underway for more than 2 decades on the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. Restoration efforts consist of modifying stand structure to basal areas similar to presettlement times...

  15. Habitat Characteristics of Active and Abandoned Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colonies

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; William D. Pepper; Arlene T. Doyle

    1992-01-01

    Active red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in the Piedmont of Georgia are mature pine stands (mean age = 87 ± 1 yr old) with relatively sparse midstories (mean basal area = 31 ± 3 ft2/ac). Active and abandoned colony sites have similar overstory characteristics, but midstories are significantly denser in...

  16. A red-cockaded woodpecker group with two simultaneous nest trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James M. McCormick; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    During a study of red cockaded woodpecker (P icoides borealis) nesting in eastern Texas, we discovered a single breeding pair of woodpeckers with two simultaneous nests in nest trees that were 24 m apart. Incubation of eggs in each nest tree was at least 13 d and may have been as long as 16 d. The breeding male incubated and fed a nestling in one...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker colony status and trends on the Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sabine national forests

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.

  18. Survey and host fitness effects of red-cockaded woodpecker blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods.

    PubMed

    Pung, O J; Carlile, L D; Whitlock, J; Vives, S P; Durden, L A; Spadgenske, E

    2000-06-01

    Blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods associated with the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were surveyed and the impact of blood-feeding arthropods on woodpecker fitness traits was assessed. Five woodpeckers (8%) were infected with unidentified microfilariae, and 1 woodpecker (2%) was infected with 2 species of haemoproteid (Haemoproteus velans and Haemoproteus borgesi). This is the first record of haemoproteids in this species and the first observation of H. borgesi in North America. We collected representatives of at least 6 families of mites and 12 families of primarily commensal insects from woodpecker cavities. Only a few specimens of blood-feeding insects were recovered. The mite Androlaelaps casalis was the most common hematophagous arthropod (prevalence = 76%, mean density = 51+/-7 mites/cavity). The number of A. casalis mites increased with cavity age but there was no association between the number of mites and the number of woodpecker eggs laid or the number of hatchlings or fledglings. In conclusion, the prevalence of blood parasites in the red-cockaded woodpecker is low, woodpecker cavities are not heavily infested with blood-feeding insects, and there is no evidence that A. casalis mites affect woodpecker fitness.

  19. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  20. A System Dynamics Investigation of Genetic Drift and Translocation in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Metapopulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/03-22 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base...the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air...cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis ) is classified under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as an endangered species. As such, the red-cockaded

  1. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    I conducted a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined...

  2. Injection of 2,4-D to remove hardwood midstory within red-cockaded woodpecker colony areas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner

    1989-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies on the Angelina National Forest were monitored from 1984 to 1986, after hardwoods on the site had been injected with the herbicide 2,4-D. The herbicide effectively reduced the hardwood midstory; however, possible toxicity to woodpeckers and cavity tree mortality are problems associated with the...

  3. Comparison of arthropod prey of red-cockaded woodpeckers on the boles of long-leaf and loblolly pines

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of most southern pines. Woodpeckers may select trees based on arthropod availability, yet no published studies have evaluated differences in arthropod abundance on different species of pines. We used knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf (Pinus palustris...

  4. Arthropod assemblages on longleaf pines: A possible link between the red-cockaded woodpecker and groundcover vegetation.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T., Brandon

    2003-02-26

    Taylor, T.B. 2003. Arthropod assemblages on longleaf pines: A possible link between the red-cockaded woodpecker and groundcover vegetation. MS Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. 99pp. Arthropod communities on the boles of longleaf pine originate on the forest floor. A research study was done to determine if there is evidence to support a link between red-cockaded woodpecker breeding success and groundcover composition of the forest floor. Results confirmed that arthropod biomass was positively correlated to the percent coverage of herbaceous and graminoid vegetation and negatively correlated to the percent coverage of woody vegetation.

  5. Two species in one ecosystem: management of northern bobwhite and red-cockaded woodpecker in the Red Hills

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; William E. Palmer

    2005-01-01

    Sport hunting for Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) is the reason that approximately 300,000 acres of semi-wild lands still exist in the Red Hills region of north Florida and south Georgia. Use of fire for management and relatively large (400 to 4,000 ha), contiguous land ownerships permitted populations of bobwhite and Red-cockaded Woodpecker...

  6. Integration of long-term research into a GIS-based landscape habitat model for the red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; F. Thomas. Lloyd

    2000-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina has been the subject of intensive management and research activities designed to restore the population. By late 1985, the population was on the verge of being extirpated with only four individuals remaining. Older live pine trees that red...

  7. Forest landscapes: Their effect on the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Coulson; Maria D. Guzman; Karen Skordinski; Jeffrey W. Fitzgerald; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Forrest L. Oliveria; Douglas F. Wunneburger; Paul E. Pulley

    1999-01-01

    The nature of the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker was investidgated using spatially explicit information on the structure of a forest landscape mosiac and knowledge of the behavior of the two organisms. This interaction is the basis for defind functional heterogeneity - how an organism perceives and responds to the elements forming...

  8. A bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner

    1999-01-01

    We developed a bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) trees as an aesthetically pleasing, more cost-effective, and safer alternative to other snake excluder devices. We used a drawknife to carefully shave the bark around the circumference of 4 treatment trees in a l-m-wide band to...

  9. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    office space and high speed computers necessary for the intense modeling used in this study. Special thanks to Stephanie Kramer- Schadt, Sandro Puetz...dispersal in Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers. Condor 102: 482-491. deGroot, R.S., J. van der Perk , A. Chiesura, S. Marguliew. 2000. Ecological functions and

  10. Red-cockaded woodpeckers and silvicultural practice: is uneven-aged silviculture preferable to even-aged?

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has become a high-profile management issue in the southeastern United States. Suitable habitat consists of mature to old pine, or mixed pine-hardwood forest, with minimal hardwood midstory vegetation. Loss of habitat, detrimental silvicultural practices, and changes in the fire regime have...

  11. Is a "hands-off" approach appropriate for red-cockaded woodpecker conservation in twenty-first-century landscapes?

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; R. Todd Engstrom

    2001-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is well adapted to fire-maintained pine ecosystems of the Southeastern United States. Management practices vary greatly among land ownerships. In some wilderness areas and state parks, a "no management" policy has eliminated use of prescribed fire, artificial cavities, and...

  12. Stand conditions and tree characteristics affect quality of longleaf pine for red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    W.G. Ross; D.L. Kulhavy; R.N. Conner

    1997-01-01

    We measured resin flow of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) pines in red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) clusters in the Angelina National Forest in Texas, and the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida. Sample trees were categorized as active cavity trees, inactive cavity trees and control trees. Sample trees were further...

  13. Effect of time elapsed after prescribed burning in longleaf pine stands on potential prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kirsten C. New; James L. Hanula

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dormant and growing season prescribed burns on the potential arthropod prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were studied in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Sampling was conducted 0, 1, 2, or 3 years post burn. Stands were burned once during the winters of 1991, 1992, 1993, and...

  14. Forest policy impact assessment in the Ouachita National Forest and the valuation of conserving red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Difei Zhang; Michael M. Huebschmann; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The Ouachita National Forest received approval in 1996 for an amendment to its Forest Plan that would allocate 10% of the Forest to long-rotation silviculture. The purpose of the new management area is to restore pre-European settlement forest conditions and recreate habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Approach: This study explored...

  15. Implications of home-range estimation in the management of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2006-01-01

    I undertook a behavioral study to determine red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. In this location, because much of the timber was harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 45 years old), not generally...

  16. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  17. Unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Santangelo, Richard G; Carpenter, Shannon; Webster, Francis X; Kiemle, David J; Gemeno, Cesar; Leal, Walter S; Schal, Coby

    2012-02-21

    Wood cockroaches in the genus Parcoblatta, comprising 12 species endemic to North America, are highly abundant in southeastern pine forests and represent an important prey of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis. The broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata, is among the largest and most abundant of the wood cockroaches, constituting >50% of the biomass of the woodpecker's diet. Because reproduction in red-cockaded woodpeckers is affected dramatically by seasonal and spatial changes in arthropod availability, monitoring P. lata populations could serve as a useful index of habitat suitability for woodpecker conservation and forest management efforts. Female P. lata emit a volatile, long-distance sex pheromone, which, once identified and synthesized, could be deployed for monitoring cockroach populations. We describe here the identification, synthesis, and confirmation of the chemical structure of this pheromone as (4Z,11Z)-oxacyclotrideca-4,11-dien-2-one [= (3Z,10Z)-dodecadienolide; herein referred to as "parcoblattalactone"]. This macrocyclic lactone is a previously unidentified natural product and a previously unknown pheromonal structure for cockroaches, highlighting the great chemical diversity that characterizes olfactory communication in cockroaches: Each long-range sex pheromone identified to date from different genera belongs to a different chemical class. Parcoblattalactone was biologically active in electrophysiological assays and attracted not only P. lata but also several other Parcoblatta species in pine forests, underscoring its utility in monitoring several endemic wood cockroach species in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats.

  18. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, K.F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  19. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program has progresses in two phases. The first phase (1985-1987) focused on stabilizing the declining RCW population at SRS. The second phase (1988-present) has focused on facilitating population expansion. In 1989 we have focused our efforts on development of techniques for excavating new RCW cavities, identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion, continued flying squirrel control, continued translocations of RCW's as needed, and monitoring clan composition and reproduction.

  20. Population differentiation in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of red-cockaded woodpeckers Picoides borealis.

    PubMed

    Haig, S M; Rhymer, J M; Heckel, D G

    1994-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) phenotypes generated by 13 primers were scored for 101 individuals in 14 populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis. Although no population-specific markers were found, the frequencies of several markers differed significantly among populations. Application of the recently developed AMOVA method (analysis of molecular variance; Excoffier, Smouse & Quattro 1992) showed that more than 90% of phenotypic variance occurred among individuals within populations; of the remaining variance, half was attributed among groups of geographically adjacent populations and half among populations within those groups. The statistical significance of these patterns was supported by Monte Carolo sampling simulations and permutation tests. Estimation of allele frequencies from phenotypes provided somewhat weaker evidence for population structure, although among-population variance in allele frequencies was detectable (Fst = 0.19; chi 2(169) = 509.3, P < 0.0001). UPGMA cluster analyses based on Rogers' (1972) genetic distance revealed grouping of some geographically proximate populations. A Mantel test indicated a positive (r = 0.16), although not significant, correlation between geographic and genetic distances. We compared a subset of our RAPD data with data from a previous study that used allozymes (Stangel, Lennartz & Smith 1992). RAPD (n = 75) and allozyme (n = 245) results based on samples from the same ten populations showed similar patterns. Our study indicates that RAPDs can be helpful in differentiating populations at the phenotypic level even when small sample sizes, estimation bias, and inability to test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium complicate the genotypic interpretation. Lack of large differences among populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers may allow flexibility in interpopulation translocations, provided factors such as habitat preference, latitudinal direction of translocation, and status of donor

  1. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Y ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (0 = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood?pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  2. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: Effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding-season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Ψ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (x̄ = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood–pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  3. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi.

    PubMed

    Jusino, Michelle A; Lindner, Daniel L; Banik, Mark T; Rose, Kevin R; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-30

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW,Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation.

  4. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Mark T.; Rose, Kevin R.; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation. PMID:27009222

  5. Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

  6. Comparison of Arthropod Prey of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers on the Boles of Longleaf and Loblolly Pines

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J.

    2002-01-01

    Use of knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf and loblolly pine to determine which harbored the greater abundance of potential prey. Alterations of longleaf pine bark surface to determine whether bark structure may affect arthropods residing on a tree's bole. Recovery revealed fewer arthropods from scraped trees. Results suggest the bark structure and not the chemical nature of the bark is responsible for differences in arthropod abundance and biomass. Retaining or restoring longleaf pine in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats should increase arthropod availability for this endangered bird and other back-foraging species.

  7. Integration of Long-Term Research into a GIS Based Landscape Habitat Model for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, K.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2000-10-01

    The red cockaded woodpecker has been intensively studied since 1985 when the population was on the verge of extinction. The population decline is primarily the result of timber harvesting prior to 1950 and restricted burning. Construction of artificial cavities, translocations, competitor control, and removal of hardwood mid-story has provided suitable habitat. Since 1985, the population has increased from 4 to 99 birds. A GIS model is being developed to simulate the development of habitat at SRS in relation to management and existing vegetation.

  8. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. We conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFSs on RCW reproductive success. During the 1994 and 1995 breeding seasons, SFSs were removed from 30 RCW clusters and 32 clusters served as controls. SFSs were the most frequently encountered occupants of RCW cavities and used 20-33% of RCW cavities in control and treatment clusters over both years. Treatment groups produced significantly more successful nests (??? 1 fledgling) than control groups in 1994. In 1995 however, there was no difference in the number of successful nests. In both years, RCW groups nesting in treatment clusters produced significantly more fledglings than groups in control clusters in each of four experimental areas, averaging approximately 0.7 additional fledglings per nesting group. Loss of entire clutches or broods, possibly as a result of predation or abandonment, was a major factor limiting reproduction in control groups in 1994. In contrast, differences in partial brood loss appeared to be the cause of differential fledging success in 1995 Usurpation of RCW roost cavities by SFSs may have placed greater energetic demands on RCWs for cavity defence or thermoregulation, thus reducing energy available for reproduction. Our results show that SFS use of RCW cavities during the breeding season has a significant impact on RCWs and that management of RCW populations should include activities that either minimize SFS populations in RCW clusters or limit access of SFSs to RCW cavities.

  9. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, James E.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  10. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod availability for red-cockaded woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2008-01-01

    This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging 1 birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  11. Evaluating some proposed matrices for scoring sub-optimal red-cockaded woodpecker foraging habitat in relation to the 2003 recovery plan

    Treesearch

    Donald J. Lipscomb; Thomas M. Williams

    2006-01-01

    We have used RCWFAT (an ARC-INFO program that evaluates RCW habitat) to examine the 2003 Red Cockaded Woodpecker (RCW) Recovery Plan, which will influence silvicultural activities on large tracts of southeastern forests. The new plan includes 11 specific characteristics of forest stands that constitute “Good Quality Foraging Habitat” (GQFH) and requires 120 to 200...

  12. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom

    2000-01-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  13. Sequentially Observed Periodic Surveys of Management Compartments to Monitor Red-cockaded Woodpecker Populations

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; H. David Muse

    1989-01-01

    Management of the red-cockaded woodpeckcer (Picoides borealis) requires knowledge of size and trend of individual poulations. Periodic entry into management compartments for thinning and regeneration of stands provides considerable information on individual cavity trees and colonies. The statistical rationale and formulas for using this information...

  14. A Modification of Copeyon's Drilling Technique for Making Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities

    Treesearch

    William E. Taylor; Robert G. Hooper

    1991-01-01

    A modification to Copeyon's drilling technique for making highly effective artificial cavities for red-cockaded wookpeckers is described.The changes virtually eliminate the possibility of making a mistake in constructing cavities and reduces the learning time to less than 2 weeks.The basic change is the use of a 3-inch access hole that allows the relative position...

  15. Empirical comparison of uniform and non-uniform probability sampling for estimating numbers of red-cockaded woodpecker colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Moyer, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Four sampling and estimation methods for estimating the number of red-cockaded woodpecker colonies on National Forests in the Southeast were compared, using samples chosen from simulated populations based on the observed sample. The methods included (1) simple random sampling without replacement using a mean per sampling unit estimator, (2) simple random sampling without replacement with a ratio per pine area estimator, (3) probability proportional to 'size' sampling with replacement, and (4) probability proportional to 'size' without replacement using Murthy's estimator. The survey sample of 274 National Forest compartments (1000 acres each) constituted a superpopulation from which simulated stratum populations were selected with probability inversely proportional to the original probability of selection. Compartments were originally sampled with probabilities proportional to the probabilities that the compartments contained woodpeckers ('size'). These probabilities were estimated with a discriminant analysis based on tree species and tree age. The ratio estimator would have been the best estimator for this survey based on the mean square error. However, if more accurate predictions of woodpecker presence had been available, Murthy's estimator would have been the best. A subroutine to calculate Murthy's estimates is included; it is computationally feasible to analyze up to 10 samples per stratum.

  16. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Plant: Progress report, 1985 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Lennartz, M.R.

    1988-12-06

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In early 1986 there were four RCW's on the SRP, including one pair in colony 19 and solitary males in colonies 5 and 16. Because of the decline in past years, it was deemed necessary to bring in birds from outside the plant to augment the local RCW population. In the next two years, translocations and local reproduction increased the population to 14 birds and the number of breeding clans from one to three. Although only two clans bred and fledged young in 1988, the population remains at 14 birds and has expanded to occupy five colony sites. Research and management activities implemented or continued over the past year include: translocations of birds within the SRP and from the Francis Marion National Forest (FMNF) to SRP, herbicide, burning and thinning for hardwood control and increased diameter growth of pines, the removal of flying squirrels from active colonies, and the installation of nest boxes, RCW artificial cavities and metal restrictors to reduce competition from other species.

  17. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1990-12-31

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). We managed to stabilize the population in the first couple of years through an intensive flying squirrel removal project as well as augmentation of female RCW`s to the SRS population. We are now in the expansion phase of the project. In 1990 we have focused our efforts on: (1) developing a cavity excavation method and excavating cavities in suitable habitat; (2) flying squirrel control; (3) translocation of RCW`s; (4) monitoring clan composition and reproduction; (5) identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion; and (6) surveying lands near SRS where RCW`s were thought to exist. This report summarizes activities for FY 1990 and plans for FY 1991.

  18. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, K.S.

    1992-09-11

    The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

  19. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  20. An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J., R.; Taylor, T., B.; Daniels, S., J.

    2003-05-29

    This report summarizes results of research on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) conducted by personnel from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) and the Duke Marine Laboratory at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, from September 29, 2000 through September 28, 2002. This period represents the first two years of a five-year Cooperative Agreement between Virginia Tech and the USDA Forest Service, Savannah River. This report serves as an Interim Project Report with respect to the Cooperative Agreement (No. OO-CA-ll 083600-010), and a Final Project Report for the initial award to Virginia Tech (FRS No.428911).

  1. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Treesearch

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  2. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers feeding at red-cockaded woodpecker resin wells

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer

    1991-01-01

    Yellowbellied Sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus varius) excavate rows of holes into the cambium of various tree species and feed on the exuded sap (Kilham 1956, Tate 1973). Several other species including Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis), Tufted Titmouse (Parus bicolor), and Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus...

  3. Should Habitat Trading Be Based on Mitigation Ratios Derived from Landscape Indices? A Model-Based Analysis of Compensatory Restoration Options for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J.; Jones, Michael L.

    2008-10-01

    Many species of conservation concern are spatially structured and require dispersal to be persistent. For such species, altering the distribution of suitable habitats on the landscape can affect population dynamics in ways that are difficult to predict from simple models. We argue that for such species, individual-based and spatially explicit population models (SEPMs) should be used to determine appropriate levels of off-site restoration to compensate for on-site loss of ecologic resources. Such approaches are necessary when interactions between biologic processes occur at different spatial scales (i.e., local [recruitment] and landscape [migration]). The sites of restoration and habitat loss may be linked to each other, but, more importantly, they may be linked to other resources in the landscape by regional biologic processes, primarily migration. The common management approach for determining appropriate levels of off-site restoration is to derive mitigation ratios based on best professional judgment or pre-existing data. Mitigation ratios assume that the ecologic benefits at the site of restoration are independent of the ecologic costs at the site of habitat loss. Using an SEPM for endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers, we show that the spatial configuration of habitat restoration can simultaneously influence both the rate of recruitment within breeding groups and the rate of migration among groups, implying that simple mitigation ratios may be inadequate.

  4. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  5. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  6. Fort Bragg and the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: A Content Analysis of Selected Local Newspapers’ Coverage of Fort Bragg’s Endangered Species Protection Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    woodpecker species? 3) How did the amount and tone of coverage differ between Fort Bragg’s command information newspaper, the Paraglide , and the civilian...to Fort * Bragg and its potential to offer a sample of local newspaper articles not inspired by a prepared media release. The Paraglide , a weekly...newspapers yielded 15 stories (241 paragraphs, 15 headlines) from the Fort Bragg Paraglide , 37 stories (666 paragraphs, 36 headlines) from the

  7. Installation Contracting Course (4th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-27

    increasingly having to cope with the presence of endangered species (e.g., the desert tortoise at Fort Irwin and the red cockaded woodpecker at Fort Bragg). 3...the ears." Robert Burton Anatomy of Melancholy "Democritus to the Reader" I. INTRODUCTION. A. References. 1. FAR SUBPART 33.2; DFARS 33.232; AFARS

  8. Burning and chopping for woodpeckers and wiregrass?

    Treesearch

    Joan L. Walker; Brian P. van Eerden; David Robinson; Mike Hausch

    2004-01-01

    To restore red-cockaded woodpecker habitat managers must reduce hardwoods while maintaining native ground cover. Fire, chemical, and mechanical methods are used alone or in combination to reduce oaks. Previous studies have reported selected single treatment effects (e.g., Outcalt and Lewis 1990, Robbins and Myers 1992, Glitzenstein et al. 1995, Provencher et al. 2001...

  9. Longleaf Pine Characterists Associated with Arthropods Available for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Franzreb, K.E.; Pepper, W.D.

    1999-01-25

    The authors sampled arthropods on 300 longleaf pine under varying stand conditions and ranging in age from 20 to 100 years. The most diverse orders were beetles, spiders, ants, wasps and bees. The most abundant were aphids and Hymenoptera with a large number of ants. Arthropod biomass per tree increased in age up to 65-70 years, but biomass was highest in the youngest stands. Arthropods were positively correlated to bark thickness and tree diameter, but negatively related to the stand basal area. No relationships were found between abundance and ground vegetation conditions.

  10. Evaluation of Military Range Berm Effectiveness in Protecting Red-cockaded Woodpecker Foraging and Nesting Habitat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    longleaf pine (P. palustris; Table 2). This contrasted with Fort Stewart, where the dominant tree species was longleaf pine , followed by loblolly...of all trees surveyed on Fort Benning, compared with only 6.4% to 16.2% across plots on Fort Stewart. In contrast, longleaf pine accounted for...surveyed on Fort Stewart (Tables 2–4). The dominant tree species identified for each installation (i.e., loblolly pine for Fort Benning and longleaf

  11. A density management diagram for longleaf pine stands with application to red-cockaded woodpecker habitat

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2007-01-01

    We developed a density management diagram (DMD) for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) using data from Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. Selection criteria were for purity, defined as longleaf pine basal area (BA) that is 90% or more of plot BA, and even-agedness, as defined by a ratio between two calculations of stand density index. The...

  12. Range-Wide Meta-Analysis of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Habitat Suitability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-31

    other native, fire-tolerant, fire-dependent herbs total 40 percent or more of ground and midstory plants and are dense enough to carry growing...for groundcover at least in part. Detailed studies of the variation in plant communities within sites and their response to fire and other management...J. M. Morales, T. Mclntosh, and R. C. Rosatte. 2008. Multiple movement modes by large carnivore at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Proceedings of

  13. Meeting of the southeast management working group (4th) abstracts. Held in Memphis, Tennessee on November 12-14, 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Contents: hurricane effects on neotropical migrants at a South Carolina bottomland hardwood site; point count results from 9 bottomland hardwood sites in South Carolina; bird banding at hilton pond: monitoring and managing for neotropical migrants in South Carolina's piedmont region; effects of forest management on population parameters and habitat use of wood thrushes; and influence of red-cockaded woodpecker habitat management on the abundance of neotropical migrant breeding birds in two loblolly pine forests of Mississippi: study design and preliminary results.

  14. Inbreeding and experience affect response to climate change by endangered woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Schiegg, Karin; Pasinelli, Gilberto; Walters, Jeffrey R; Daniels, Susan J

    2002-06-07

    In recent decades, female red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have laid eggs increasingly earlier in response to a changing climate, as has been observed in several other bird species breeding at north temperate latitudes. Within each year, females that lay earlier are more productive than females that lay later. However, inexperienced females, experienced females who change mates and inbred birds have not adjusted to the changing climate by laying earlier, and have suffered reproductive costs as a result. Failure to respond to global climate change may be a further example of the reduced ability of inbred animals to respond to environmental challenges.

  15. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Effects of Military Fog Oil Obscurant Smoke on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    grasses transfer and accumulate fog oil constituents to below-ground plant tissues (Cataldo et al. 1989). Although acute exposure to fog oil may...not appear to affect seed germination or soil nutrient levels (Cataldo et al. 1989). However, resi- dues on soils can have indirect effects on plant ...damage or parasitic infection. Habitat quality and quantity may be altered if some plant species are susceptible to fog oil aerosol dam- age

  16. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda...among site types based on productivity and the structure and composition of the canopy and ground layer vegetation protocol development on a range of...because protocol suitability is likely to vary among site types based on productivity and the structure and composition of the canopy and ground layer

  17. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    importance of control populations for the identification and management of genetic diversity. Genetica 110: 109-115. Bruggeman, D. J., M. L. Jones, F. Lupi ...Genetics and Tradable Permit Markets to Design Nature Reserves on Private Land. D. Bruggeman, F. Lupi , M. Jones, and K. Scribner. Ecological Society of...Bruggeman, M. Jones, F. Lupi , and K. Scribner. Estacion Biologica de Donana, Seville, Spain. May 26, 2006. (Invited) Reconciling Structural and

  18. Long-term efficacy of artificial cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers: Lessons learned from hurricane Hugo

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; William E. Taylor; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992 an extensive artificial cavity installation program was conducted on the Francis Marion National Forest (FMNF) in coastal South Carolina where Hurricane Hugo had caused vast devastation. Four artificial cavity types were installed: drilled starts, drilled cavities, modified drilled cavities, and inserts. In 1998, we examined 443 of the artificial...

  19. Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers in the Ouachita Mountains: Implications for other taxa

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Thill; D. Craig Rudolph; Nancy E. Koerth

    2004-01-01

    The more xeric south- and west-facing slopes of the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas once supported fire-maintained shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) forests with a well-developed herbaceous understory. Fire suppression following the original harvest of these forests resulted in forests with increasingly abundant woody vegetation in the...

  20. Co-occurence of Invasive Species on Priority TES Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    cockaded Woodpecker Florida Tasselflower Emilia fosbergii forb Clay Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Centipedegrass Eremochloa ophiuroides...Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Florida Tasselflower Emilia fosbergii forb Alachua Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Florida...Tasselflower Emilia fosbergii forb Putnam Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Lilac Tasselflower Emilia sonchifolia forb Alachua Camp

  1. Biological Assessment of the Effects of the Proposed Revision of the 1996 Management Guidelines for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    silty or loamy soils distinguish bottomland areas. Naturally regenerated forests and plantations of longleaf, slash, and lob- lolly pine dominate the...indigo snake T Gopherus polyphemus Gopher tortoise T Amphibians Ambystoma cingulatum Flatwoods Salamander T Insects Neonympha mitchellii

  2. Landscape Scale Assessment of Predominant Pine Canopy Height for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Habitat Assessment Using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-26

    tree height in a managed loblolly pine plantation . Forest Science. 49(3):457-466. McKerrow, A.J., T.R. Wentworth, and H.M. Cheshire. In prep...Nelson, R., W. Krabill, and J. Tonelli. 1988. Estimating forest biomass and volume using airborne laser data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 24:247-267

  3. Lewis's Woodpecker: Melanerpes lewis

    Treesearch

    Bret W. Tobalske; Kerri T. Vierling; Victoria A. Saab

    2013-01-01

    During the historic Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis wrote on 20 July 1805, "I saw a black woodpecker (or crow) today it is a distinct species of woodpecker; it has a long tail and flys a good deal like the jay bird" (sic, Thwaites 1905). Subsequent observations of flight and vocalization reminded him of the Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes...

  4. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  5. Techniques for monitoring pileated woodpeckers.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L Bull; Richard S. Holthausen; Marie G. Henjum

    1990-01-01

    Methods of locating pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) are described, including imitating pileated woodpecker vocalizations, identifying nest and roost trees, and finding foraging signs. Populations of pileated woodpeckers can be monitored by using (1) density of breeding pairs, (2) reproduction, and (3) presence or absence of birds. The...

  6. Do downy woodpeckers migrate?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal movement and migration of Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) are indicated in several sources in the literature. Analyses of 3784 recoveries of banded birds, with other data, indicate that the species is resident, and that movements of a few individuals may indicate dispersal.

  7. 77 FR 59959 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... within Texas: Bee Creek Cave harvestman (Texella reddelli) Black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) Bone... Dakota; interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis)...

  8. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  9. How woodpecker avoids brain injury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. W.; Zhu, Z. D.; Zhang, W.

    2015-07-01

    It has long been recognized that woodpecker is an excellent anti-shock organism, as its head and brain can bear high deceleration up to 1500 g under fast pecking. To investigate the mechanism of brain protection of woodpecker, we built a finite element model of a whole woodpecker using computed topography scanning technique and geometry modeling. Numerical results show that the periodical changing Young's modulus around the skull affects the stress wave propagation in head and makes the stress lowest at the position of the brain. Modal analysis reveals the application of pre-tension force to the hyoid bone can increase the natural frequency of woodpecker's head. The large gap between the natural and working frequencies enable the woodpecker to effectively protect its brain from the resonance injury. Energy analyses indicate the majority of the impact energy (99.7%) is stored in the bulk of body and is utilized in the next pecking. There is only a small fraction of it enters into the head (0.3%). The whole body of the woodpecker gets involved in the energy conversion and forms an efficient anti-shock protection system for the brain.

  10. 76 FR 13205 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Jones and Jasper Counties, GA; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... red-cockaded woodpecker and associated wildlife species of concern. Prescribed burning and timber thinning are used to ensure that quality pine habitat is maintained for red-cockaded woodpeckers... compatible wildlife-dependent public use opportunities. We will continue to monitor and manage the...

  11. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  12. Foraging ecology of Nuttall's Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    William M. Block

    1991-01-01

    I studied relative abundances, foraging behavior, and foraging habitats of Nuttall's Woodpeckers (Picoides nuttallii# at three California locations. Population sizes at two areas in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada were larger than the population in the Tehachapi Mountains. These differences were attributed to habitat and weather differences. The two areas in...

  13. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  14. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  15. Survivorship of Pileated Woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival of the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) is essential in managing viable populations of the species. In eight study areas in northeastern Oregon, survivorship of adult Pileated Woodpeckers was 0.60 after 6 mo, 0.47 after 12 me, and 0.35 after 18 mo. Of three juveniles radio-tagged in late summer or fall, two...

  16. Quantifying purported competition with individual- and population-level metrics.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric L; James, Frances C

    2010-12-01

    Competitive species interactions may contribute to population declines. Purportedly, Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), a common species, and Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), an endangered species, compete for roosting and nesting cavities in living pine trees. To determine whether behavioral interactions measured at the individual level manifest themselves at the population level, we conducted field experiments designed to test whether the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers resulted in a decrease in fitness to Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. As part of a 4-year study examining the nature of interspecific interactions in two populations of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (one stable, the Apalachicola Ranger District; one declining, the Wakulla Ranger District) in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, we conducted a set of Red-bellied Woodpecker removal experiments. Paradoxically, following the removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers, we observed decreases in Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size, proportion of nests that were successful, and proportion of individuals remaining on territories. Removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers may have exaggerated the immigration rate of Red-bellied Woodpeckers to Red-cockaded Woodpecker territories. The Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in the Apalachicola Ranger District likely can withstand pressure from immigrating Red-bellied Woodpeckers given that their population has remained relatively stable despite the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. A major factor of population persistence in the Wakulla Ranger District was the high turnover rate of adult female Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, a phenomenon that was exacerbated by removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. Relying solely on observations of apparently competitive interactions between individuals may not necessarily provide information about population-level outcomes. Paradoxically, removing species that appear to be competitors may harm species of concern.

  17. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  18. 166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH AVE. FROM BUILDING 44 SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 46, 48, 55, AND 50 (PART OF ENLISTED BARRACKS COMPLEX), AND BUILDINGS 17, 16, 484, 483, 374, AND 375 (IN THE WAREHOUSE COMPLEX). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  19. Peer Review Handbook 4th Edition, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 4th edition of EPA's Peer Review Handbook, 2015 is the most up to date version. It was prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Members of the Peer Review Advisory Group under the direction of EPA’s Science and Technology Policy Council

  20. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the 4th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. Much has changed since the first "Kids & Family Reading Report" was issued in 2006, but literacy remains the critical skill needed for school success. Today's children are growing up in a world full of…

  1. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  2. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  3. 4th Annual IRIS Workshop Held

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas

    About 200 scientists gathered at the 4th annual Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) workshop in Santa Fe, N. Mex., April 12-14 and discussed recent research results obtained with the new generation of seismological instruments. The meeting provided a forum for developing new initiatives and disseminating information on how to access the IRIS Data Management Center. Organizers of the scientific program were Douglas Wiens of Washington University in St. Louis and Terry Wallace of the University of Arizona.

  4. Acoustic sensor networks for woodpecker localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, C. E.; Ali, A.; Asgari, S.; Hudson, R. E.; Yao, K.; Estrin, D.; Taylor, C.

    2005-08-01

    Sensor network technology can revolutionize the study of animal ecology by providing a means of non-intrusive, simultaneous monitoring of interaction among multiple animals. In this paper, we investigate design, analysis, and testing of acoustic arrays for localizing acorn woodpeckers using their vocalizations. Each acoustic array consists of four microphones arranged in a square. All four audio channels within the same acoustic array are finely synchronized within a few micro seconds. We apply the approximate maximum likelihood (AML) method to synchronized audio channels of each acoustic array for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of woodpecker vocalizations. The woodpecker location is estimated by applying least square (LS) methods to DOA bearing crossings of multiple acoustic arrays. We have revealed the critical relation between microphone spacing of acoustic arrays and robustness of beamforming of woodpecker vocalizations. Woodpecker localization experiments using robust array element spacing in different types of environments are conducted and compared. Practical issues about calibration of acoustic array orientation are also discussed.

  5. Environmental Assessment for Employment of a Mobile Laser Evaluator System (LES-M) for the 20th Fighter Wing at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    mississippiensis) is also listed as threatened, due to its similarity of appearance to a threatened taxon, the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). However...These include four federally listed bird species: red-cockaded woodpecker, roseate tern (Sterna dougallii), bald eagle and piping plover ...Piping plover Charadrius melodus T T Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis E E Roseate tern Sterna dougallii E E Mammal Species Black bear

  6. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  7. Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown; Richard N. Conner

    2000-01-01

    This familiar, eastern U.S. woodpecker is an active and vocal species, with a preference for humid forests dominated by pines or hardwoods, or a mixture of both. It seldom excavates wood for insects; instead, depending on season, it forages opportunistically for a wide range of fruit, mast, seeds and arboreal arthropods. It is also known to take small or young...

  8. Looking out for the pileated woodpecker.

    Treesearch

    Noreen Parks

    2009-01-01

    The pileated woodpecker is a species of conservation concern and a keystone species in mature and old forests of the Pacific Northwest. In the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon, researchers from the PNW Research Station in La Grande, Oregon, studied the effects of natural and human-caused disturbance on pileated populations and their habitat over a period spanning...

  9. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  10. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  11. Decadal Drought Effects on Endangered Woodpecker Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Griffin, R. Daniel; Spond, Mark D.; Fye, Falko K.; Culpepper, R. Brian; Patton, David

    2006-03-01

    The critically endangered ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) apparently has been rediscovered in old-growth bald cypress (Taxodium distichum, Figure 1) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) forests of Bayou DeView, located seven kilometers northwest of Brinkley, Ark. [Fitzpatrick et al., 2005]. The evaluation of the impact of drought on forest history and wildlife population levels is critical to the conservation of the ivory billed woodpecker and other similarly endangered species. Tree ring chronologies have been developed from old-growth forests at Bayou DeView to aid in this assessment. This article also describes a conceptual model that has proven useful for the discovery of other noncommercial old-growth cypress-tupelo remnants in the Southeast. These relict cypress-tupelo stands may be candidates for conservation, restoration, and perhaps the eventual reintroduction of the ivory bill and other increasingly rare species native to this ecosystem.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hairy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Downy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the downy woodpecker (Picoides eubescens). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pileated woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use.with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Fall movements of Red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2013-01-01

    Fall migration of Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) can be erratic, with departure rates, directions, and distances varying among populations and individuals. We report fall migration departure dates, rates, and routes, and the size of fall home ranges of 62 radio-tagged Red-headed Woodpeckers in western South Carolina. Rates of fall migration...

  16. Foraging ecology of pileated woodpeckers in coastal forests of Washington.

    Treesearch

    C.M. Raley; K.B. Aubry

    2006-01-01

    Providing habitat for pileated woodpeckers in the Pacific Northwest has been a key component of forest management strategies for over 20 years. We investigated the diet of pileated woodpeckers, and selection by birds of both individual structure and site characteristics for foraging. Birds foraged amost exclusively in closed-canopy habitats and selected relatively tall...

  17. Coming home to roost: the pileated woodpecker as ecosystem engineer.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1994, the pileated woodpecker was a management indicator species (MIS) of mature and old-growth forest conditions on 16 of 19 national forests in the Pacific Northwest Region. This status required each of those national forests to establish pileated woodpecker habitat areas that included tracts of mature and old-growth forest with minimum densities of large,...

  18. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  19. Potential woodpecker nest trees through artificial inoculation of heart rots

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson; J. Howard Williamson

    1983-01-01

    We suggest that the fungus Spongipellis pachyodon might be used to artificially create suitable hardwood nest trees for woodpeckers in both young and older trees and when supplies of potential nest trees are limited. Sizes of trees suitable for inoculation, inoculation heights, and densities of snags are suggested for six species of woodpeckers.

  20. Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis): A technical conservation assessment

    Treesearch

    Stephen C. Abele; Victoria A. Saab; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) is a locally common but patchily distributed woodpecker species usually seen in open forests of western North America. The combination of its sporadic distribution, its diet of adult-stage free-living insects (primarily aerial), its preference to nest in burned landscapes, and its variable migratory behavior...

  1. Netguns: a technique for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Eric M. Seckinger; Thomas M. Juntti; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Effective capture techniques are essential for studying bird populations, but commonly used techniques have proven ineffective for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) during the nonbreeding period. As a result, little is known about the winter ecology of Black-backed Woodpeckers. We used two netguns, one powered with a 0.308 cartridge and another...

  2. Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Bernard; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity in three species of woodpeckers was estimated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of the summed electrical activity of auditory neurons. For all species, the ABR waveform showed at least two, and sometimes three prominent peaks occurring within 10 ms of stimulus onset. Also ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased as a function of increasing sound pressure levels. Results showed no significant differences in overall auditory abilities between the three species of woodpeckers. The average ABR audiogram showed that woodpeckers have lowest thresholds between 1.5 and 5.7 kHz. The shape of the average woodpecker ABR audiogram was similar to the shape of the ABR-measured audiograms of other small birds at most frequencies, but at the highest frequency data suggest that woodpecker thresholds may be lower than those of domesticated birds, while similar to those of wild birds.

  3. Effects of radio-transmitter methods on pileated woodpeckers: an improved technique for large woodpeckers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We captured and radio-marked 64 Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)in bottomland hardwood forests from February 2007 to June 2010. At least 12 (35.3%) of the first 34 birds radio-tagged died within 43 d of capture (x¯ = 8.2 d). Thus, we adjusted our radio-attachment techniques adaptively from a...

  4. Promoting Maternal and Infant Health in the 4th Trimester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbiest, Sarah B.; Tully, Kristin P.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    The "4th trimester" refers to the transition period after childbirth when infants are adjusting to life outside the womb and mothers are adjusting to new parenthood. This critical period is marked by significant biological, psychological, and social changes, which are currently insufficiently supported. The 4th trimester perspective…

  5. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  6. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  7. Woodpecker damage to STS-70 External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The power and persistence of Nature is demonstrated anew on man- made, space age technology. At Launch Pad 39B, Flicker Woodpeckers apparently decided to test the suitability of the Space Shuttle Discovery's external tank for a future home. Their 'survey' resulted in about 71 holes ranging in size from 1/2 to 4 inches (1.27-10 cm.) in diameter in the tank's thermal protection foam insulation. Managers are assessing the damage and will determine what repairs need to be made. Discovery was slated for a liftoff on June 8 on Mission STS-70.

  8. Woodpecker cavity aeration: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Ar, Amos; Barnea, Anat; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Mersten-Katz, Cynthia

    2004-12-15

    We studied characteristics of the Syrian woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus) cavities in the field and a laboratory model, and rates of gas exchange in the laboratory. Night temperature of occupied cavities is 4.3 degrees C higher than empty ones, representing energy savings of approximately 24%. Oxygen conductance (GNO2) of an empty cavity is 7.1 ml[STPD] (Torr h)(-1), and is affected by winds at velocities up to 0.8 m/s. Day and night body temperatures were 42.0 and 40.1 degrees C, respectively. Steady-state O2 consumption rates (MO2) were 3.49 +/- 0.49 and 2.53 +/- 0.26 ml[STPD] (g h)(-1) during day and night respectively -- higher than predicted by allometry. A mathematical model describing PO2 in a cavity, taking into consideration MO2, GNO2, heat convection and wind speed, from the moment birds inhabit it, was developed. It shows that on the average, one woodpecker staying in its cavity at night does not encounter hypoxic conditions. However, in nest cavities with below the average GNO2, with more inhabitants (e.g. during the breeding season), hypoxia may become a problem.

  9. Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America?

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science 2005, 308:1460–1462). Plumage patterns and wingbeat frequency of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker were said to be incompatible with the only possible confusion species native to the area, the Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus. Results New video analysis of Pileated Woodpeckers in escape flights comparable to that of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker filmed in Arkansas shows that Pileated Woodpeckers can display a wingbeat frequency equivalent to that of the Arkansas bird during escape flight. The critical frames from the Arkansas video that were used to identify the bird as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker are shown to be equally, or more, compatible with the Pileated Woodpecker. Conclusion The identification of the bird filmed in Arkansas in April 2004 as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker is best regarded as unsafe. The similarities between the Arkansas bird and known Pileated Woodpeckers suggest that it was most likely a Pileated Woodpecker. PMID:17362504

  10. Health Physics and Radiological Health, 4th Edition.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Health Physics and Radiological Health, 4th Edition. Johnson Thomas E., Birky Brian K., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Walter Kluwer business, Baltimore, Maryland, 2012, $205.99. ISBN: 9781609134198, 1288 pp. (hardcover). © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. The upside of the emerald ash borer catastrophe: a feast for woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    David Cappaert; Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland

    2005-01-01

    Under the most favorable conditions, woodpeckers reduce larval EAB density as effectively as the best pesticides. Woodpeckers work over the entire core region for free and are always more popular than spray trucks.

  12. Life History and Habitat Associations of the Broad Wood Cockroach, Purcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and Other Native Cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2002-01-01

    Wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae) are important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis Wilson (Piciformes: Picidae), an endangered species inhabiting pine (Pinus spp.) forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high...

  13. Longleaf Pine Ecosystem Restoration on Small and Mid-Sized Tracts

    Treesearch

    Joan L. Walker

    1999-01-01

    Speaking of restoring the longleaf pine ecosystem, conservationists may present images of open stands I trees, prescribed burning, grassy ground layers, and of providing habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers. Unfortunately, planting a longleaf pine forest, using fire, and recovering an endangered woodpecker all seem require lands larger than a backyard. To many,...

  14. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Soto, Gerardo E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Meneses, Luis O.; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox’s proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  15. 75 FR 41886 - Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis...-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This final recovery plan includes criteria and measures that... measures. Prior to European settlement, the ivory-billed woodpecker appeared to be ] widely...

  16. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo M; Soto, Gerardo E; Moreira-Arce, Darío; Rodewald, Amanda D; Meneses, Luis O; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  17. Common, but Commonly Overlooked: Red-bellied Woodpeckers as Songbird Nest Predators

    Treesearch

    Kirsten R. Hazler; Dawn E.W. Drumtra; Matthew R. Marshall; Robert J. Cooper; Paul B. Hamel

    2004-01-01

    Woodpeckers in North America are not widely recognized as nest predators. In this paper, we describe several eyewitness accounts of songbird nest predation by Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), document evidence that songbirds recognize woodpeckers as nest predators, and show that our observations are consistent with previously published...

  18. Density and abundance of black-backed woodpeckers in a Ponderosa pine ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are usually associated with forest disturbance resulting in recently killed trees. While black-backed woodpeckers are attracted to areas affected by these disturbances, in the Black Hills they exist during interim disturbance periods in largely undisturbed forests. In 2012, a petition for listing black-backed woodpeckers in...

  19. Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.

  20. Why Do Woodpeckers Resist Head Impact Injury: A Biomechanical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6–7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury. PMID:22046293

  1. Numerical study of the impact response of woodpecker's head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhao Dan; Ma, Guo Jun; Wu, Cheng Wei; Chen, Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Woodpecker can beat trees 20-25 times per second and lasts for several seconds, with a 1200 g deceleration, but it appears that they never get brain concussion. How does the stress wave propagate from the beak tip to brain and how does a woodpecker protect itself from brain damage? In this paper, we establish a finite element model of typical woodpecker head based on its X-ray tomography images and conduct the numerical analysis of the impact response of the woodpecker's head by using a viscoelasticity material model. Especially, the woodpecker head response to an impact speed of 7 m/s is investigated to explore the stress concentration zone and how the stress wave propagates in its head. The numerical results show that the stress wave in the head propagates from the upper beak to back skull and is reduced by the specific structure of hyoid and viscoelasticity of biomaterials. The maximum stresses in skull and brain are both below the safe level. The stress in skull almost disappears before the next impact. The stress in brain lasts for a little longer but shows smaller value with little variation. The stress is impossible to accumulate in the limited pecking time, so the brain damage can be avoided.

  2. 4(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop in Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Palacios Bustamante, Nadine; van Hall, Andre; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

    2006-01-01

    More than 70 interested colleagues attended the 4(th) Workshop of HUPO's Brain Proteome Project. The project was presented within nine talks mainly focusing on two running pilot studies as well as on data re-processing. A bioinformatics jamboree in Hinxton, UK, and the 5th Workshop taking place in Dublin next February were announced.

  3. Improving 4th Grade Primary School Students' Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out action research to investigate reading comprehension skills when using the SQ3R reading comprehension strategy. To that end, this strategy was used for improving the reading comprehension skills of 7 primary school 4th grade students who had problems with these skills. An action plan was prepared for 3hours a…

  4. ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    and to present best practice standards and innovation within a range of disciplines. A member of the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF...interest to the Technology Forecasting and Futures (TFF) Group of JOAD presented at the ACSPRI 4th International Social Science Methodology conference...the dynamics of manual vs automated data analysis. Research findings related to these themes are contextualised for the TFF S&T forecasting

  5. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  6. Summary of the 4th Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration. PMID:28382222

  7. How does a woodpecker work? An impact dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Yu, Tongxi; Tao, Jiawei; Cheng, Ze

    2015-04-01

    To understand how a woodpecker is able accelerate its head to such a high velocity in a short amount of time, a multi-rigid-segment model of a woodpecker's body is established in this study. Based on the skeletal specimen of the woodpecker and several videos of woodpeckers pecking, the parameters of a three-degree-of-freedom system are determined. The high velocity of the head is found to be the result of a whipping effect, which could be affected by muscle torque and tendon stiffness. The mechanism of whipping is analyzed by comparing the response of a hinged rod to that of a rigid rod. Depending on the parameters, the dynamic behavior of a hinged rod is classified into three response modes. Of these, a high free-end velocity could be achieved in mode II. The model is then generalized to a multihinge condition, and the free-end velocity is found to increase with hinge number, which explains the high free-end velocity resulting from whipping. Furthermore, the effects of some other factors, such as damping and mass distribution, on the velocity are also discussed.

  8. Exertional myopathy in pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Noel, Brandon L; Bednarz, James C; Keel, M Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe coagulative necrosis, consistent with capture myopathy.

  9. Search efforts for ivory-billed woodpecker in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Matthew Moskwik; Theresa Thom; Laurel M. Barnhill; Craig Watson; Jennifer Koches; John Kilgo; Bill Hulslander; Colette Degarady; Gary. Peters

    2013-01-01

    Following the reported rediscovery of Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker) in Arkansas, we initiated searches in South Carolina in February 2006, with additional searches in the winter and spring of 2006–2007 and 2007–2008, concentrating in the Congaree, Santee, and Pee Dee river basins. We accrued a cumulative total of 8893 survey hours...

  10. White-headed woodpecker nesting ecology after wildfire

    Treesearch

    Catherine S. Wightman; Victoria A. Saab; Chris Forristal; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Amy Markus

    2010-01-01

    Within forests susceptible to wildfire and insect infestations, land managers need to balance dead tree removal and habitat requirements for wildlife species associated with snags. We used Mahalanobis distance methods to develop predictive models of white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus) nesting habitat in postfire ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-dominated...

  11. Woodpecker woes: the right tree can be hard to find

    Treesearch

    Natasha Vizcarra; Teresa. Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Woodpeckers and other cavity-excavating birds worldwide are keystone species. These birds excavate their nests out of solid wood, and because their nests are often well protected against predators and the environment, other species use and compete for their old, vacant nests. The presence of cavity-excavating birds in forests has far-reaching effects on species...

  12. Strength loss in southern pine poles damaged by woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    R.W. Rumsey; G.E. Woodson

    1973-01-01

    Woodpecker damage caused extensive reductions in strength of 50-foot, class-2 utility poles, the amount depending on the cross-sectional area of wood removed and its distance from the apex. Two methods for estimating when damaged poles should be replaced proved to be conservative when applied to results of field tests. Such conservative predictions of falling loads...

  13. Strength loss in southern pine poles damaged by woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    R.L. Rumsey; George E. Woodson

    1973-01-01

    Woodpecker damage caused extensive reductions in strength of 50-foot, class-2 utility poles, the amount depending on the cross-sectional area of wood removed and its distance from the apex. Two methods for estimating when damaged poles should be replaced proved to be conservative when applied to results of field rests. Such conservative predictions of failing loads...

  14. Resource selection by black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis) in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Chadwick P. Lehman; Stanley H. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus, [BBWO]) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis, [ATTW]) are uncommon inhabitants of conifer forests and are sympatric in some areas, including the Black Hills. Both species exhibit genetic characteristics associated with isolated populations, are species of special management concern, and for which data...

  15. Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Robert C; Kirchman, Jeremy J; Dumbacher, John P; Bevier, Louis; Dove, Carla; Rotzel, Nancy C; Edwards, Scott V; Lammertink, Martjan; Miglia, Kathleen J; Moore, William S

    2006-09-22

    We used ancient DNA analysis of seven museum specimens of the endangered North American ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) and three specimens of the species from Cuba to document their degree of differentiation and their relationships to other Campephilus woodpeckers. Analysis of these mtDNA sequences reveals that the Cuban and North American ivory bills, along with the imperial woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) of Mexico, are a monophyletic group and are roughly equidistant genetically, suggesting each lineage may be a separate species. Application of both internal and external rate calibrations indicates that the three lineages split more than one million years ago, in the Mid-Pleistocene. We thus can exclude the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced North American ivory-billed woodpeckers to Cuba. Our sequences of all three woodpeckers also provide an important DNA barcoding resource for identification of non-invasive samples or remains of these critically endangered and charismatic woodpeckers.

  16. Mechanical Evaluation of the Skeletal Structure and Tissue of the Woodpecker and Its Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Juhachi; Sakamoto, Jiro; Sakano, Kenichi

    A woodpecker strikes its beak toward a tree repeatedly. But, the damage of brain or the brain concussion doesn’t occur by this action. Human cannot strike strongly the head without the damage of a brain. Therefore, it is predicted that the brain of a woodpecker is protected from the shock by some methods and that the woodpecker has the original mechanism to absorb a shock. In this study, the endoskeltal structure, especially head part structure of woodpecker is dissected and the impact-proof system is analyzed by FEM and model experiment. From the results, it is obvious that the woodpecker has the original impact-proof system as the unique states of hyoid bone, skull, tissue and brain. Moreover it is considered that woodpecker has the advanced impact-proof system relating with not only the head part but also with the whole body.

  17. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  18. Biomechanism of impact resistance in the woodpecker's head and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, LiZhen; Lu, Shan; Liu, XiaoYu; Niu, XuFeng; Wang, Chao; Ni, YiKun; Zhao, MeiYa; Feng, ChengLong; Zhang, Ming; Fan, YuBo

    2013-08-01

    The woodpecker does not suffer head/eye impact injuries while drumming on a tree trunk with high acceleration (more than 1000×g) and high frequency. The mechanism that protects the woodpecker's head has aroused the interest of ornithologists, biologists and scientists in the areas of mechanical engineering, material science and electronics engineering. This article reviews the literature on the biomechanisms and materials responsible for protecting the woodpecker from head impact injury and their applications in engineering and human protection.

  19. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  20. Report of the 4th European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Susana S; Distel, Martin; Linker, Claudia; Fior, Rita; Monteiro, Rui; Bianco, Isaac H; Portugues, Ruben; Strähle, Uwe; Saúde, Leonor

    2016-12-01

    The European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting (EZPM) is an ideal forum for group leaders using this fantastic animal model not only to discuss science but also to strengthen their interactions, to push forward technological advances, and to define guidelines for the use of this fish in research. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) was voted by the European group leaders to be the setting for the 4th EZPM, and the organizing committee, composed by Leonor Saúde (iMM Lisboa, PT), Susana Lopes (CEDOC, PT), Michael Orger (Champalimaud Foundation, PT), Rui Oliveira (ISPA, PT), and António Jacinto (CEDOC, PT), was very enthusiastic to organize a productive event. The 4th EZPM took place from March 15 to 19 at Pavilhão do Conhecimento, a Science Museum and Educational Center winner of The Great Prize FAD of Arquitecture 1999 and The Society for Environmental Graphic Design Award 2011. Over 5 days, 135 group leaders (89 men and 46 women) coming from 19 different European countries and also from the United States, Turkey, Israel, Chile, and Singapore presented and discussed their recent research achievements. In addition to the scientific oral and poster presentations, the group leaders gathered in very lively community sessions on morphants versus mutants (chaired by Didier Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, DE), funding issues (chaired by Uwe Strahle, KIT-ITG, DE), and gender equality (chaired by Corinne Houart, KCL, United Kingdom). One of the highlights of the 4th EZPM was the guided visit to Oceanário de Lisboa, an international award-winning place that celebrates life with a stunning display of living aquatic creatures.

  1. Haemoproteus bennetti sp. n. and a review of the haemoproteids from the Picidae (woodpeckers).

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Mandal, A K; Nandi, N C

    1977-08-01

    Haemoproteus velans Coatney and Roudabush 1937 and H. borgesi Tendeiro 1947 are redescribed and illustrated. Haemoproteus bennetti sp. n. is described. Haemoproteid records from woodpeckers are listed.

  2. Fine PM2.5 around July 4th

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data used in these analyses was obtained from publically-available sources, specifically the EPA's AirNow website (https://www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data). The dataset provided includes the subset of data from AirNow that was used in our analyses.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Dickerson, A., A. Benson, B. Buckley, and E. Chan. Concentrations of individual fine particulate matter components in the United States around July 4th. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. Springer Netherlands, NETHERLANDS, 1-10, (2016).

  3. 4TH Marine Division Operation Plan Number 49-44

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-26

    I / i i -4- A. o. o o o 3 4-’ 4TH MARINE DIVISION 54 OPERATION PLAN NO. 49-44 DECLASSIFIED IAW CLIASSIFICATION $4...INTO ENEMY HANDS. LUISrAR! UNCLASS0FIDo .-O UNCLASSIFIED ri LL!n .. I . 155 - - o.- sr Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...the remainder of O-1 within Z, repared or further OPN PLAN 49-44 - 1 - O1 :?’:¢ . ... ~·~:~ I I - I --" , I %,"_’,: A I 1-W_ , - I I ---. -

  4. Rate of Missing Socioeconomic Factors in the 4th KNHANES.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ah

    2012-11-01

    This study is to assess how missing values in socioeconomic status (SES) variables were handled in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine (KJFM) article using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data and to estimate the rate of missing SES variables from the 4th KNHANES. We searched all original articles published in the KJFM from 2007 to 2011 and identified those that used KNHANES as their primary source of data. None of the 11 articles which presented KNHANES SES variables took into account of omitions in the analysis. The estimated rate of missing data on education, household income, marital status, and occupation data of the 4th KNHANES was 0.3 (0.05)%, 2.7 (0.2)%, 0.5 (0.1)%, and 9.4 (0.9)%, respectively. When all four variables were used simultaneously, the rates increased to 11.8 (0.9)%. Respondents with missing household income tended to be older (P < 0.001), less educated (P < 0.001), and more likely to be unemployed (P < 0.001), and widowed (P < 0.001). A similar relationship was shown for missing occupation data. Omissions in SES variables in KNHANES were related to certain characteristics of study participants. Researchers using KNHANES data should keep in mind the possible bias which can be introduced by missing SES values.

  5. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  6. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  7. DOMELAND WILDERNESS, DOMELAND ADDITION, AND WOODPECKER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergquist, Joel R.; Spear, James M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Domeland Wilderness and the contiguous Domeland Addition and Woodpecker Roadless Areas delineated areas of substantiated and probable mineral-resource potential. The areas of substantiated resource potential are in the Woodpecker Roadless Area where alluvial gravel in Rockhouse Basin and on Upper Trout Creek contains small, irregular, low-grade deposits of placer gold. There is a probable resource potential for very small deposits of uranium in fractures in granitic rocks west of the South Fork of the Kern River in the Domeland Wilderness. Geochemical data indicate a probable potential for a porphyry-molybdenum deposit at the southern end of the Domeland Wilderness, and for very small deposits of tungsten, copper-lead-zinc, tin, silver, and molybdenum at several places in the wilderness and roadless areas. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuel resources.

  8. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  9. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [4th guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Jelcić, Jozo; Baretić, Maja; Korsié, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading public health problems in today's world. The situation is not significantly better in our country. The Republic of Croatia is among the countries with highest prevalence of obesity in the world. All attempts to stop the progression of obesity pandemic have not given satisfactory results up to date. On the other hand, the treatment of obesity is a long-term, exhausting and very complicated process with modest results. From 15th to 18th April 2010 the 4th Croatian Congress on Obesity with international participation was held in Umag with the aim of furthering knowledge about epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, complications and obesity treatment and to provide doctors who treat obesity with opportunity to share insights and experience. The Congress was attended by 200 doctors. At the Congress the Guidelines on Obesity Diagnostics and Treatment were adopted, which will provide practical help to doctors treating patients with obesity.

  11. Range expansion of pileated woodpecker in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural history writings from explorers such as M. Lewis, W. Clark, J. J. Audubon, S. F. Baird, and E. Coues failed to mention the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus ) in North Dakota throughout the 1800's. The first published reference to the species was in the early 1900's in the valley of the Red River of the North, part of the Agassiz Lake Plain of eastern North Dakota. Sightings increased in the Agassiz Lake Plain in the mid-1900's but remained rare west of the Agassiz Lake Plain until the late 1900's. Ornithologists suggest that the species has recently established small, permanent populations in the Turtle Mountains, Devils Lake area, and along the Sheyenne River, especially in the Sheyenne National Grassland. I present information that supports the idea that the pileated woodpecker is establishing populations in the aforementioned areas and is moving even farther west. I also document the presence of the pileated woodpecker along the James River and the first record for Stutsman County.

  12. Do woodpecker finches acquire tool-use by social learning?

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, S.; Taborsky, M.; Fessl, B.; Blomqvist, D.

    2001-01-01

    Tool-use is widespread among animals, but except in primates the development of this behaviour is poorly known. Here, we report on the first experimental study to our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of tool-use in a bird species. The woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida, endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is a famous textbook example of tool-use in animals. This species uses modified twigs or cactus spines to pry arthropods out of tree holes. Using nestlings and adult birds from the field, we tested experimentally whether woodpecker finches learn tool-use socially. We show that social learning is not essential for the development of tool-use: all juveniles developed tool-use regardless of whether or not they had a tool-using model. However, we found that not all adult woodpecker finches used tools in our experiments. These non-tool-using individuals also did not learn this task by observing tool-using conspecifics. Our results suggest that tool-use behaviour depends on a very specific learning disposition that involves trial-and-error learning during a sensitive phase early in ontogeny. PMID:11674865

  13. Woodpecker-inspired shock isolation by microgranular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Roh, Jin-Eep; Lyug Kim, Ki

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a woodpecker-inspired shock isolation (SI) using a microgranular bed to protect micromachined electronic devices (MEDs) for high-g military applications where mechanical excitations reach up to tens of thousands of gs and several hundreds of kHz. The shock isolating phenomenon in the microgranular bed within a metal housing, biomimetically inspired from a spongy bone within a skull of the woodpecker, controls unwanted high-frequency mechanical excitations so that their adverse effects on the embedded MEDs are kept within acceptable limit. The microgranular bed composed of close-packed microglass beads reduces the mechanical excitations transmitted to the MEDs through kinetic energy absorption. Two kinds of tests, a laboratory test and a 60 mm air-gun test, have been made. The laboratory test using a vibration exciter up to 25 kHz has demonstrated that the cut-off frequency (2.2-15.8 kHz) and roll-off steepness (-155.0 to -78.7 dB decade-1) are inversely proportional to the diameter of the close-packed microglass beads (68-875 µm), whereas the vibration absorptivity (0.23-0.87) is proportional. The 60 mm air-gun test under high-g environments of up to 60 000 g has verified that the woodpecker-inspired SI is superior in improving the shock survivability of the MEDs to the conventional one using hard resin.

  14. Factors affecting breeding season survival of red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    John C. Kilgo; Mark Vukovich

    2012-01-01

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006¨C2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in...

  15. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Treesearch

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  16. Detection probabilities of woodpecker nests in mixed conifer forests in Oregon

    Treesearch

    Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jay J. Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimates of Black-backed (Picoides arcticus) and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus) nests and nest survival rates in post-fire landscapes provide land managers with information on the relative importance of burned forests to nesting woodpeckers. We conducted multiple-observer surveys in burned and unburned mixed coniferous forests in Oregon to identify important...

  17. Foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forest burns of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

    2012-01-01

    We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used...

  18. Transferability of habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers associated with wildfire

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Vicki Saab; Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfire, forest managers are challenged with meeting both socioeconomic demands (e.g., salvage logging) and mandates requiring habitat conservation for disturbance-associated wildlife (e.g., woodpeckers). Habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers can be informative, but tests of model transferability are needed to understand how broadly...

  19. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Pierson; Fred W. Allendorf; Vicki Saab; Pierre Drapeau; Michael K. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define...

  20. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  1. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Predict Woodpecker Presence at the Landscape Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Vierling, L. A.; Vierling, K.; Hudak, A. T.; Strand, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    Biodiversity assessments are increasingly important components of effective ecosystem management plans. Woodpeckers are considered a keystone species whose presence has been shown to be indicative of overall forest bird diversity at the landscape scale. This relationship likely exists because woodpeckers can provide nesting and foraging resources for other avian species, where few or none would otherwise exist. However, different woodpecker species are sensitive to different forest structural conditions (e.g. minimum tree diameter, proportion of snags to live trees). Current methods to identify specific locations of woodpecker presence rely on field observations which are time and resource intensive, and typically limited to the forest stand scale. Therefore, systematic assessments of potential woodpecker presence and overall forest bird diversity at broad scales require the use of remote sensing data. We used small footprint airborne lidar, large footprint satellite lidar from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), and woodpecker field survey data to predict the presence of woodpeckers in a coniferous forest in northwestern Idaho. We conducted woodpecker surveys at 72 sites coincident with airborne and GLAS lidar footprints across six forest structural stages modeled using airborne lidar. Vertical (e.g. mean and maximum canopy height) and horizontal (e.g. canopy closure) forest structure were quantified from lidar derived metrics and used with published habitat preferences of six woodpecker species to predict their presence. Similar vegetation structural metrics derived from collocated airborne lidar were used to quantify the accuracy of GLAS lidar vegetation metrics. Results indicate that while six woodpecker species were present in four of six structural classes, there is strong evidence to suggest preference for forests characterized by young and mature multistory structure, as opposed to forests characterized by stand initiation or understory

  2. Relative hippocampal volume in relation to food-storing behavior in four species of woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Grubb, T C; Schuett, K C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those food-storing birds of the order Passeriformes that remember the locations of their caches have relatively larger hippocampal complexes than do non-storing passerines. Woodpeckers constitute a different avian order (Piciformes), which also includes some food-storing species. We compared hippocampal volume, relative to the volume of the rest of the telencephalon, across four species of woodpeckers with disparate caching behavior. Red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) are "scatter hoarders'. During the fall and winter they cache acorns or beechnuts in dispersed sites throughout a large territory. Red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) also store nuts but in central "larders' on their small territories which they fiercely defend. Caching is absent or much reduced in hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) and downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens), both of which forage on a variety of foods within large winter home ranges. The relative volume of the hippocampal complex in the scatter hoarder was larger than in the larder hoarder, suggesting that red-bellied woodpeckers, like passerine scatter hoarders, rely on memory to recover their caches. Surprisingly, the relative hippocampal volumes in the two non-storing Picoides woodpeckers were most similar to the scatter hoarder of the other genus. In passerine birds, hippocampal volume and telencephalon volume are highly correlated in storing species but not in non-storers. We found that the volumes of these two brain areas were highly correlated in both Melanerpes species, uncorrelated in the hairy woodpeckers, and more weakly correlated in the downy woodpeckers. The unexpectedly large hippocampal complexes in the Picoides species suggests they may engage in some behavior, other than food-storing, that selects for this trait. Conversely, our results concerning the relationship between hippocampal and telencephalon volumes may indicate that a weak correlation is

  3. PREFACE: The 4th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondorf, Jakob; Hagermann, Gudrun

    1983-01-01

    Nordic meetings on nuclear physics have been held regularly in the various Nordic countries. The 4th Nordic meeting took place in August 16th-20th, 1982, at Fuglsø, situated in the "Mols mountains" in Jylland. The scientific nuclear physics program includes a broad spectrum of topics of current interest to nuclear physicists. The present issue of Physica Scripta covers nearly all the talks presented at the conference. The order of invited talks and contributions follows the conference program closely. We are pleased to have the opportunity to collect some of the highlights of nuclear structure and heavy ion reactions in one volume. The meeting was sponsored by The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Danish Natural Science Research Council and The Niels Bohr Institute. The financial support from these sources is gratefully acknowledged. The practical organization of the conference was most professionally handled by Bitten Brøndum and Agnethe Elsving. We are indebted to J. Ross Sørensen and his staff at "Fuglsø Centret" for the excellent and comfortable conference and housing facilities. We thank all of our speakers for a smooth cooperation. Last, but not least, we express our gratitude to Nils Robert Nilsson for undertaking the responsibility in editing these proceedings.

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt.

  5. The 4th Concept Detector for the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzacane, A.

    2010-05-01

    The 4th Concept Detector is designed for high precision measurements of Physics processes accessible at ILC. It consists of four basic subsystems: a pixel vertex detector for high precision vertex definitions, impact parameter tagging and near-beam occupancy reduction; a cluster-counting low-mass drift chamber for robust pattern recognition with over 100 three-dimensional space-points each with about 55 μm resolution, 3.5% specific ionization measurement; a high precision dual-readout fiber calorimeter, complemented with an EM dual-readout crystal calorimeter, both with time-history readout, for the energy measurement of hadrons, jets, electrons, photons, missing momentum, and the tagging of muons; and, an iron-free dual-solenoid to return the flux and provide a second field region for the inverse direction bending of muons in a gas volume to achieve high acceptance and good muon momentum resolution. All four subsystems separately achieve the important scientific goal to be 2-to-10 times better than the already excellent LEP detectors, Aleph, Delphi, L3, and Opal. All four sub-detector will be described along with their performance and Physics capabilities obtained with full simulation studies.

  6. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products.

  7. Sharp-shinned hawks nesting in the Pineywoods of eastern Texas and western Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    While monitoring the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas and western Louisiana, the authors incidentally found nesting pairs of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus). All nesting pairs were located in similar stands with an overstory of either longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), or a mix of loblolly (P. tuedu) and shortleaf pine (P. echinatu...

  8. 75 FR 61513 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... bird species, four (4) listed reptile species, two (2) listed insect species, one (1) listed arachnid..., banding, translocating and installing artificial nesting cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers on the...-33469. The applicant requests renewal of authorization for trapping, banding, translocating and...

  9. How far could a squirrel travel in the treetops? A prehistory of the southern forest

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; Edward R. Buckner

    1998-01-01

    Conservation activities aimed at protecting old-growth forests; at maintaining populations of desired species groups, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), other game species or Neotropical migratory birds; and at increasing populations of endangered species, such as red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), Bachman's warblers (...

  10. Does Question Format Matter? Valuing an Endangered Species

    Treesearch

    Dixie Watts Reaves; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    A three-way treatment design is used to compare contingent valuation response formats. Respondents are asked to value an endangered species (the red-cockaded woodpecker) and the restoration of its habitat following a natural disaster. For three question formats (open-ended, payment card, and double-bounded dichotomous choice), differences in survey response rates,...

  11. Potential population-level effects of land-use change and climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and land-use change are poised to be two fo the largest drivers of biological changeover the next century. We explored the potential effects of these two forces on a population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at Fort Benning in Georgia, USA. We us...

  12. An Application of System Dynamics Analysis to Ecosystem Management at the Poinsett Weapons Range, Shaw AFB SC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    include deer , turkeys, fox squirrels, and flying squirrels. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Background. The RCW is a federally listed endangered species (since... overpopulation , the RCW population increases to fill the available cavities and then drops to a reasonable and stable population. Increasing the capture

  13. A Mobile Aviary Design to Allow the Soft Release of Cavity Nesting Birds

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1997-01-01

    Translocation of endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides boreal is) has been an important component in restoration efforts to establish new populations and enlarge small populations. These efforts-relying on a "hard release" approach whereby the bird is captured, moved, and immediately released at the new site-have met with mixed results. A mobile...

  14. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  15. Using existing growth models to predict RCW habitat development following site preparation: pitfalls of the process and potential growth response

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Land managers throughout the Southeast are interested in restoring the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem, due in part to its value as habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). In 2003, we established a study at Camp Lejeune, NC, to determine the effects of common site preparation...

  16. Training Restrictions on Army Lands Due to High Priority Endangered Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Requirements and Technology Assessments (AERTA) research is focused on seven of the highest priority TES. These species are: red-cockaded woodpecker...Picoides borealis ), black-capped vireo (Vireo atri- capillus), golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), gray bat (Myotis grisescens), Indiana bat...2 Mode of Technology Transfer

  17. Ecological forestry, old growth, and birds in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; Richard N. Conner

    2006-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the longleaf-pine ecosystem and a legal mandate to provide suitable habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have generated interest in alternative forms of silviculture in the southeastern United States. Of 110-120 species of birds that occur in longleaf pine woodlands, 26 species (including three that are federally...

  18. Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm

    Treesearch

    Jacqueline L. Haymond; William R. Harms; [Editors

    1996-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo was probably one of the most destructive hurricanes to assault the forests of the Eastern United States in recorded history. Four and one-half million acres were damaged in North Carolina and South Carolina, an estimated 21.4 billion board feet of timber were destroyed or damaged, and several federally listed endangered species (red-cockaded woodpecker,...

  19. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  20. Potential population-level effects of land-use change and climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and land-use change are poised to be two fo the largest drivers of biological changeover the next century. We explored the potential effects of these two forces on a population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at Fort Benning in Georgia, USA. We us...

  1. Pest Fact Sheet 2007: Southern Pine Beetle prevention initiative: Working for healthier forests

    Treesearch

    R-8 and Southern Research Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Protection

    2007-01-01

    From 1999 to 2003, southern pine beetle (SPB) caused unprecedented damage to pine forests in southern Appalachian mountains. These losses severely impacted the natural resource base that supports the South's tourism and wood-based manufacturing industries and also destroyed the habitat of threatened and endangered species, such as the red-cockaded woodpecker....

  2. Factors influencing loblolly pine stand health in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA

    Treesearch

    Soung Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Loblolly pine (LBP; Pinus taeda L.) stands provide two-thirds of the existing federally protected red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW; Picoides borealis) habitat in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. However, LBP in this area is suspected to face a forest decline issue, which may risk the sustainability of the RCW population. Land managers are attempting to convert LBP stands to...

  3. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Treesearch

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  4. Preface

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Kevin R. Russell; Christopher E. Moorman

    2002-01-01

    Fire has a long history of regional use in the United States for forest, range and game management. Except for a few high-profile threatened, endangered, and sensitive species such as the pine barrens treefrog (Hyla andersonii), the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis), and the Kirtland?s warbler (Dendroica...

  5. Longleaf pine plantations: Growth and yield modeling in an ecosystem restoration context

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of longleaf pine within its historical range is actively conducted by private individuals and public agencies due to the inherent beauty of the ecosystem and the suitability as habitat for red cockaded woodpeckers and other wildlife. Managers of land restored to longleaf pine desire models that will allow long-term projections to facilitate management...

  6. Wildlife diversity of restored shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Corinne S. Mann; Andrew R. Forbes

    2007-01-01

    Historic changes in land use have altered the plant composition and structure of shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks. As a result, the composition of wildlife communities in these landscapes has shifted to species that are more associated with closed canopy oak forests. For example, the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has...

  7. Arthropod density and biomass in longleaf pines: effects of pine age and hardwood midstory

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Toni Trees; Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    During a 2-year study we examined arthropod communities (density and biomass) on longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) in eastern Texas during spring, summer, and winter on trees in 3 age classes: 40-50, 60-70, and 130-1 50 years, as a potential food source for the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We also examined arthropod...

  8. Local calibration of the Forest Vegetation simulator (FVS) using custom inventory data

    Treesearch

    J. D. Shaw; G. Vacchiano; R. J. DeRose; A. Brough; A. Kusbach; J. N. Long

    2006-01-01

    Fort Bragg, North Carolina includes over 65,000 acres of longleaf pine forest, which is primary habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW). Effective management of the RCW depends on effective management of the longleaf pine forest. However, growth and yield models available in the geographic area that includes Fort Bragg over-predict stand growth and...

  9. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  10. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".

  11. Plasma-based studies on 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. W.; Baldis, H. A.; Cauble, R. C.; Landen, O. L.; Wark, J. S.; Ng, A.; Rose, S. J.; Lewis, C.; Riley, D.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Audebert, P.

    2001-08-01

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warm dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (Te), the density (ne), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, ne⩾1022cm-3 implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities end for plasmas with ne⩾1022 since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  12. Plasma-Based Studies on 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W; Baldis, H A; Cauble, R C; Landen, O L; Wark, J S; Ng, A; Rose, S J; Lewis, C; Riley, D; Gauthier, J-C; Audebert, P

    2000-11-28

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warn dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (T{sub e}), the density (n{sub e}), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, n{sub e}, {ge} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However. the possibilities end for plasmas with n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 22} since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  13. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (< 1%). Diets of Golden-fronted Woodpecker nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  14. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  15. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    PubMed

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  16. Urbanization Level and Woodland Size Are Major Drivers of Woodpecker Species Richness and Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Myczko, Łukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species. PMID:24740155

  17. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  18. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  19. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  20. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  1. Lethal Procyrnea infection in a black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) from California.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rodney B; Bond, Monica L; Wilkerson, Robert L; Barr, Bradd C; Gardiner, Chris H; Kinsella, John M

    2012-06-01

    The black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) is a species of management concern in California. As part of a study of black-backed woodpecker home range size and foraging ecology, nine birds in Lassen National Forest (Shasta and Lassen Counties, California) were radio-tracked during the 2011 breeding season. One of the marked birds was found dead after being tracked for a 10-wk period in which it successfully nested. A postmortem examination of the dead bird revealed that it was emaciated and autolyzed, with the presumptive cause being numerous spiruroid nematodes of the genus Procyrnea in the gizzard. This first observation of Procyrnea nematodes in a black-backed woodpecker is notable because the Procyrnea infection was considered lethal and because Procyrnea has been implicated in substantial die-offs in other bird species, including woodpeckers.

  2. Woodpecker abundance and habitat use in three forest types in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard N. Conner

    1997-01-01

    Woodpeckers were censused in 60 fixed-radius (300 m) circular plots (divided into eight 45B-arc pie-shaped sectors) in mature forests (60 to 80 years-old) of three forest types (20 plots per type) in eastern Texas: bottomland hardwood forest; longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savanna; and mixed pine-hardwood forest. A total of 2,242 individual woodpeckers of eight...

  3. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major).

    PubMed

    Dylewski, Łukasz; Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine.

  4. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major)

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine. PMID:28584699

  5. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  6. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  7. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... issued to establish a temporary restricted area in Lake Tahoe, in the vicinity of Jameson Beach at South...

  8. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...

  9. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  10. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  11. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks...

  12. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  13. Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

    2008-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees.

  14. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  15. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Treesearch

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  16. Nest success of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forests with mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2008-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are burned-forest specialists that rely on beetles (Coleoptera) for food. In the Black Hills, South Dakota, standing dead forests resulting from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks offer food resources for Black-backed Woodpeckers, in addition to providing habitat...

  17. Short-term effects of fuel reduction on pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon—a pilot study.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Abe A. Clark; Jay F. Shepherd

    2005-01-01

    To determine the short-term effects (1 to 3 years posttreatment) of fuel reduction on pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in northeastern Oregon, we compared measures of abundance of logs, snags, stumps, and of woodpecker foraging in mixed-conifer stands that had undergone the following treatments: prescribed burning after mechanical fuel...

  18. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA based phylogeny of the woodpecker genera Colaptes and Piculus, and implications for the history of woodpecker diversification in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, William S; Overton, Lowell C; Miglia, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    The woodpecker genus Colaptes (flickers) has its highest diversity in South America and the closely related genus Piculus is restricted to South and Central America. Two species of flickers occur in North America, and one species is endemic to Cuba. We conducted a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of three mitochondrial encoded genes (cyt b, COI, 12S rRNA) and confirmed that the two genera are paraphyletic. Three species historically classified as Piculus are actually flickers. We found that the Cuban endemic C. fernandinae is the most basal species within the flickers and that the Northern Flicker is the next most basal species within the Colaptes lineage. The South American clade is most derived. The age of the South American diversification is estimated to be 3.6MY, which is synchronous with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. The pattern of diversification of South American flickers is common among South American woodpeckers. Although woodpeckers have their greatest diversity in South America, we hypothesize that woodpeckers (Family Picidae) originated in Eurasia, dispersed to North America via the Bering land bridge, and multiple lineages entered South America as the Isthmus approached its final closing.

  20. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 97. VIEW NORTHWEST OF 4TH FLOOR OF BUILDING 112; NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW NORTHWEST OF 4TH FLOOR OF BUILDING 112; NOTE REMNANTS OF BEARING SUPPORTS FOR OVERHEAD BELT AND PULLEY POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  2. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  3. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  4. Qualification of the 4th stage propulsor of the Brazilian launcher. SLV: A new sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscov, Jayme; Toyama, Wilson Katsumi

    1989-06-01

    The development of the Satellite Launcher Vehicle (SLV) is presented. In particular, the attention is focused on the acquisition of the propulsion parameters of the 4th stage propulsor. The device feasibility analysis is considered. The system consists of a two staged sounding rocket. Its second stage contains the SVL, which can be launched by the 4th stage propulsor to a height range of about 50 to 60 km.

  5. State-Space Modeling, System Identification and Control of a 4th Order Rotational Mechanical System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF A 4th ORDER ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM by Jeremiah P. Anderson December 2009 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE State-space Modeling, System Identification and Control of a 4th Order Rotational Mechanical...Educational Control Products is modeled from first principles and represented in state-space form. Identification of the state-space parameters was

  6. Curricular reform of the 4th year of medical school: the colleges model.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Stuart J; Wilkes, Michael S; Usatine, Richard P; Hoffman, Jerome R

    2003-01-01

    The practice of medicine has changed dramatically over the last 3 decades. Medical education has struggled to keep up with these changes, with only limited success. The 4th year of medical school offers a tremendous opportunity for curricular innovation, but little change has occurred in the past 30 years. This article traces the history of the 4th year, from the Flexnerian era in which the classic preclinical-clinical model for medical education was developed, through the 1970s, when virtually every medical school adopted a largely elective 4th year, to the present. Although the classic 4th-year curriculum has a number of strengths such as flexibility and relative autonomy of scheduling for students, it also has significant weaknesses. A major educational initiative for the 4th year-the "College Phase"-has been implemented at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. It is designed to remedy many of the weaknesses of the 4th-year curriculum while preserving the benefits. Five colleges have been created: acute care, applied anatomy, medical science, primary care, and urban underserved. Students participate in a number of different college-specific activities that are hoped to produce a more engaging, rigorous, and enriching experience for students and faculty alike

  7. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations.

  8. Identification of Gifted Children: A Comparison of the Scores on Stanford-Binet 4th Edition and Form LM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluever, Raymond C.; Green, Kathy E.

    1990-01-01

    Composite scores for 51 gifted children (ages 3-12) on the Stanford-Binet LM were found to be significantly higher than scores on the Stanford-Binet 4th Edition. Correlations between the LM total and 4th Edition area scores were significant. Results suggest that the 4th Edition composite score cut-off value for assessing giftedness may require…

  9. Hopping and climbing gait of Japanese Pygmy Woodpeckers (Picoides kizuki).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki; Kawakami, Kazuto; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Single cycles of hopping and climbing were investigated in Japanese Pygmy Woodpeckers Picoides kizuki using motion analyses on video. Body movements on substrate angled from 0-90 degrees were compared for every 10 degrees. The body was inclined forward during stance phase for both small and large substrate angles, and the inclination amplitude increased when the substrate angle increased. The tail was bent ventrally almost simultaneously to this body inclination, and its amplitude was apparently high at large substrate angles. Most of the gait parameters changed when the stride length increased. The minimum body-tail angle and most of the parameters representing body movements during stance phase changed when the substrate angle increased, probably because gravity pulled the birds further backward when they were moving on a steeper slope. These parameters showed a clear difference between the data on substrate steeper than 40 degrees and lower than 30 degrees. The abrupt changes in these parameters most likely mean that the motor pattern changed from hopping to climbing between these angles.

  10. Natal dispersal in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, Walter D.; Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Haydock, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal data are inevitably biased toward short-distance events, often highly so. We illustrate this problem using our long-term study of Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in central coastal California. Estimating the proportion of birds disappearing from the study area and correcting for detectability within the maximum observable distance are the first steps toward achieving a realistic estimate of dispersal distributions. Unfortunately, there is generally no objective way to determine the fates of birds not accounted for by these procedures, much less estimating the distances they may have moved. Estimated mean and root-mean-square dispersal distances range from 0.22-2.90 km for males and 0.53-9.57 km for females depending on what assumptions and corrections are made. Three field methods used to help correct for bias beyond the limits of normal study areas include surveying alternative study sites, expanding the study site (super study sites), and radio-tracking dispersers within a population. All of these methods have their limitations or can only be used in special cases. New technologies may help alleviate this problem in the near future. Until then, we urge caution in interpreting observed dispersal data from all but the most isolated of avian populations.

  11. Consumption of Mullerian Bodies by Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) in Nicaragua's Highlands

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; L. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-olive Woodpecker is a generalist species found in a wide range of habitats, being particularly common in coffee plantations within Nicaraguan cloud forests. Observations of an individual feeding at the base of Cecropia leaves revealed it was consuming Mullerian bodies that the Cecropia produces to feed Azteca ants as part of a host-inhabitant mutualistic...

  12. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  13. Response of Woodpecker's Head during Pecking Process Simulated by Material Point Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Zhang, Xiong; Yu, T X

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of brain injury in woodpeckers under high deceleration during the pecking process has been an intriguing biomechanical problem for a long time. Several studies have provided different explanations, but the function of the hyoid bone, one of the more interesting skeletal features of a woodpecker, still has not been fully explored. This paper studies the relationship between a woodpecker head's response to impact and the hyoid bone. Based on micro-CT scanning images, the material point method (MPM) is employed to simulate woodpecker's pecking process. The maximum shear stress in the brainstem (SSS) is adopted as an indicator of brain injury. The motion and deformation of the first cervical vertebra is found to be the main reason of the shear stress of the brain. Our study found that the existence of the hyoid bone reduces the SSS level, enhances the rigidity of the head, and suppresses the oscillation of the endoskeleton after impact. The mechanism is explained by a brief mechanical analysis while the influence of the material properties of the muscle is also discussed.

  14. Exertional myopathy in a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe...

  15. Acorns and acorn woodpeckers: ups and downs in a long-term relationship

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Johannes M.H. Knops; William J. Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Acorn woodpeckers are one of the most conspicuous and abundant birds in California oak forests due to their unique dependence on acorns, a food resource eaten directly and stored in specialized structures on their territories for later use when acorns are no longer present on trees. Parallel long-term studies of the demography and behavior of this species and of...

  16. Mapping Potential Ivory Billed Woodpecker Habitat using Lidar and Hyperspectral Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatantran, A.; Dubayah, R.; Hofton, M.; Blair, J. B.; Handley, L.

    2008-12-01

    Multisensor fusion is a powerful approach towards characterizing forest structure for effective management of wildlife habitats. The rediscovery of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker in 2005 reinforced the need to map and conserve suitable habitat for the previously thought extinct bird. In this study we fused waveform lidar and hyperspectral data to map potential habitat for the woodpecker along the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas. Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data was processed to produce high-resolution forest structure maps. We used multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to map stressed and dead vegetation from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. LVIS and AVIRIS maps were fused to identify habitat hot-spots based on historical records of habitat preferences of the bird. Results indicate several small hotspots in the bottomland hardwood forests, but very few large and continuous patches qualify as potential woodpecker habitat. Results from this study are expected to aid search efforts for the woodpecker and also provide useful insights into lidar fusion for large scale habitat mapping.

  17. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  18. Quantification of Lewis's Woodpecker habitat using Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Treesearch

    Chris Witt

    2009-01-01

    The Utah Department of Natural Resources' Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) placed Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) on their Sensitive Species Tier II list due to declining populations and suspected local extirpations throughout the state. It is thought that the decline in burned coniferous forest has reduced the amount of suitable...

  19. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    Treesearch

    Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Vicki Saab; Richard W. Frenzel

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability...

  20. Space use by white-headed woodpeckers and selection for recent forest disturbances

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard; Martin G. Raphael

    2015-01-01

    White-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) are important cavity excavators that recently have become the focus of much research because of concerns over population declines. Past studies have focused on nest site selection and survival but information is needed on factors influencing their space use when away from the nest. We examined space...

  1. Hairy woodpecker winter ecology in ponderosa pine forests representing different ages since wildfire

    Treesearch

    Kristin A Covert-Bratland; William M. Block; Tad C. Theimer

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how changes in vegetation structure and prey resources following wildfire affected the winter ecology of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. Using point-counts, radiotelemetry, and focal bird observation, we assessed the relative abundance, home...

  2. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Treesearch

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  3. Home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers in burned forests of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab

    2007-01-01

    We examined home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) / Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following fire). Home range size for 4 adult males during the post-fledging period was 115....

  4. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  5. Biogeography and diversification dynamics of the African woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of species accumulation of African terrestrial vertebrates over time remains underexplored in comparison with those in the New World, despite Africa hosting about 25% of the world's avian diversity. This lack of knowledge hampers our understanding of the fundamental processes that drive biodiversity and the dynamics of speciation. To begin to address this gap, we reconstructed species-level phylogenies of two unrelated clades of African woodpeckers (12 species of Geocolaptes/Campethera and 13 species of Chloropicus/Mesopicos/Dendropicos/Ipophilus) that diverged from their closest Indo-Malayan relatives at similar times. Our results demonstrate that the current taxonomy is misleading: three (Campethera, Dendropicos and Mesopicos) out of four polytpic genera/subgenera are not monophyletic. Our results also show that current estimates of diversity at the species level are significantly understated, as up to 18 species for the 'Campethera clade' and 19 for the 'Dendropicos clade' could be recognized. The first splits within both clades involve species that are largely restricted to the Guineo-Congolian biogeographic regions, followed by later adaptations to particular habitats (forest versus savannah) and colonization of other regions (e.g. Southern Africa), each of which occurred multiple times in both clades. Assuming a conservative species delimitation scheme, our results indicate that diversification rates are decreasing through time for both clades. Applying a more extreme species recognition scheme (18 and 19 species for the Campethera and Dendropicos clades, respectively), our results support a decrease in diversification rates only for the Dendropicos clade and thus underline the importance of the number of species included in our diversification analyses. Greater ecological diversity of the Campethera clade where multiple species exhibit either an arboreal or terrestrial foraging strategy might explain the constant diversification rates through

  6. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  7. Parents in Partnership for Proficiency: For 3rd & 4th Graders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiner, Christine; And Others

    This document contains a series of learning materials for 3rd and 4th graders and their families. The materials are designed to augment classroom learning. Included are worksheets, games, and other skill building activities for writing, reading, math, citizenship, and science. These activities are meant to help children prepare for proficiency…

  8. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  9. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  10. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  11. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  12. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY. This safety zone is intended to...

  13. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for the launching of fireworks being sponsored by the City of Martinez...

  14. Improving the Attitudes of 4th Graders toward Older People through a Multidimensional Intergenerational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Patricia P.; Merola, Pamela R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intergenerational program on children's attitudes toward older people. Four 4th grade classes, one each during the years 2002 through 2005, participated in the study. The elders and school children engaged in meaningful activities over a 5 month period, including the performance of a play…

  15. 4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  17. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  19. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  20. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  1. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  2. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area...) in length, carrying persons for the purpose of viewing the fireworks, may take position in an...

  3. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  4. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Manipulation of walnuts to facilitate opening by the great spotted woodpecker (Picoides major): is it tool use?

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Steele, Michael A; Shen, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    True tool use has been documented in some bird species, but to our knowledge, it has not been shown in woodpeckers. Here, we investigated the ability of Picoides major to open nuts of Juglans mandshurica by consistently inserting walnuts between tree branches in a specific position that facilitated nut opening. As seen in these birds, we showed that woodpeckers removed 96% of the nuts of J. mandshurica from experimental seed trays and inserted each nut in a precise position that specifically allowed nut cracking. When we inserted nuts in an alternative position, woodpeckers manipulated and repositioned nuts to allow nut opening. In contrast, when we inserted the nuts in positions preferred for nut opening, woodpeckers did not alter their position and instead opened the nuts. We suggest that the origin of this behavior, as in other forms of tool use, likely requires a higher cognitive ability in these birds.

  6. A Generalized 4th-Order Runge-Kutta Method for the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We present the implementation of a method-of-lines approach for numerically approximating solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevksii equation in non-uniformly rotating reference frames. Implemented in parallel using a hybrid MPI + OpenMP framework, which will allow for scalable, high-resolution numerical simulations, we utilize an explicit, generalized 4th-order Runge-Kutta time-integration scheme with 2nd- and 4th-order central differences to approximate the spatial derivatives in the equation. The principal objective of this project is to model the effect(s) of inertial forces on quantized vortices within weakly-interacting dilute atomic gas Bose-Einstein condensates in the mean-field limit of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Here, we discuss our work-to-date and preliminary results.

  7. 4th European Seminars in Virology on Oncogenic and Oncolytic Viruses, in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy.

    PubMed

    Reale, Alberto; Messa, Lorenzo; Vitiello, Adriana; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    The 4th European Seminars in Virology (EuSeV), which was focused on oncogenic and oncolytic viruses, was held in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy, from June 10 to 12, 2016. This article summarizes the plenary lectures and aims to illustrate the main topics discussed at 4th EuSeV, which brought together knowledge and expertise in the field of oncogenic and oncolytic viruses from all over the world. The meeting was divided in two parts, "Mechanisms of Viral Oncogenesis" and "Viral Oncolysis and Immunotherapy," which were both focused on dissecting the complex and multi-factorial interplay between cancer and human viruses and on exploring new anti-cancer strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2641-2648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    PubMed Central

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  9. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  10. LESSONS LEARNED, HEADQUARTERS, 4TH BATTALION (AW)(SP), 60TH ARTILLERY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The 4th Battalion (AW)(SP) 60th Artillery with attached Battery E (MG), 41st Artillery, remained assigned to I Field Force Vietnam, attached to I ...Battalion (AW)(SP), 60th Artillery, with attached Battery E (MG), 41st Artillery, was detached from 41st Artillery Group and fully attached to I Field Force...States and Free World Military Assistance Forces throughout the II Corps Tactical Zone and the I Corps Tactical Zone.

  11. SPI Observations of Positron Annihilation Radiation from the 4th Galactic Quadrant: Sky Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenspointner, G.; Lonjou, V.; Knödlseder, J.; Jean, P.; Allain, M.; von Ballmoos, P.; Harris, M. J.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Guessoum, N.; Schönfelder, V.; Chapuis, C.; Durouchoux, Ph.; Cisana, E.; Valsesia, M.

    2004-10-01

    During its first year in orbit the INTEGRAL observatory performed deep exposures of the Galactic Center region and scanning observations of the Galactic plane. We report on the status of our analysis of the positron annihilation radiation from the 4th Galactic quadrant with the spectrometer SPI, focusing on the sky distribution of the 511 keV line emission. The analysis methods are described; current constraints and limits on the Galactic bulge emission and the bulge-to-disk ratio are presented.

  12. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-03-17

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  14. Final Environmental Assessment for Shared Use Paths (SUP), Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    red-cockaded woodpecker SHPO State Historic Preservation Officer SPOC Single Point of Contact SWPPP Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan SUP...Contact ( SPOC ) on May 18, 2011. The SPOC was also provided the FCMP Consistency Determination detailing the Proposed Action on May 18, 2011. See...Appendix A. On July 12, 2011 the SPOC concluded the review for consistency with the FCMP and other state agencies. No comments were received from the

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    rat snake, red-shouldered hawk, bobwhite, opossum, cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, cotton mouse , raccoon, striped skunk, bobcat, and white-tailed...kestrel, brown-headed nuthatch, pine warbler, red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW), Bachman’s sparrow, cotton rat, cotton mouse , wild hogs, raccoon, gray...coachwhip, ground dove, loggerhead shrike, yellow-rumped warbler, eastern towhee, Florida mouse , and spotted skunk. Scrub Scrub communities are dense to

  16. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    pine habitat for the red- cockaded woodpecker (RCW), a species protected by the Endangered Species Act. Although longleaf pine forests provide the...A-1 III List of Tables Table 1. Characteristics of RCW foraging guidelines established in the species recovery plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife...forested lands that might be considered for restoration have been converted to pine species with faster early growth and better apparent establishment

  17. Environmental Security: What is DoD’s Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-28

    CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form...installations will be sharing the common goals and standards of performance associated with the restoration program. DOD shields 189,000 acres of undeveloped... standards related to the endangered Red Cockaded Woodpecker. The environmental management effort there has been so successful that when the base

  18. Ground Combat Training Squadron Complex Final Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    road within the proposed Base Tango boundary. The vegetation in the area is longleaf pine /scrub oak except for a 15-acre cleared training area...this area is potentially home to gopher tortoises, eastern indigo snakes, and Florida pine snakes. One inactive red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) tree is...collecting forest products such as deer moss, palmetto, pine straw, and wood mulch. These activities require an Eglin Forest Products Permit. No

  19. Parasitic helminths of red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Walters, Eric L; Schrader, Mathew S; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-12-01

    Seventy-four red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest (30 degrees 10'N, 84 degrees 40'W) in northwest Florida were examined for helminths. The most prevalent parasites were the nematode Aproctella stoddardi (11%) and the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus centurorum (11%). New host records include Pseudaprocta samueli, A. stoddardi, Tridentocapillaria tridens, Diplotriaena americana, Dispharynx nasuta, Procyrnea pileata, Orthoskrjabinia rostellata, and Brachylaima fuscatum. The helminth fauna was characterized by low prevalences and intensities of infection and low numbers of species per bird (1.2). The frequency of prescribed burning and habitat understory flora composition did not influence the prevalences or intensities of helminths in red-bellied woodpeckers collected from 2 similar but differently managed sites within the forest.

  20. Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection.

    PubMed

    O'Daniels, Sean T; Kesler, Dylan C; Mihail, Jeanne D; Webb, Elisabeth B; Werner, Scott J

    2017-03-02

    Most diurnal birds are presumed visually sensitive to near ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, however, controlled behavioral studies investigating UV sensitivity remain few. Although woodpeckers are important as primary cavity excavators and nuisance animals, published work on their visual systems is limited. We developed a novel foraging-based behavioral assay designed to test UV sensitivity in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). We acclimated 21 wild-caught woodpeckers to foraging for frozen mealworms within 1.2m sections of peeled cedar (Thuja spp.) poles. We then tested the functional significance of UV cues by placing frozen mealworms behind UV-reflective covers, UV-absorptive covers, or decayed red pine substrates within the same 1.2m poles in independent experiments. Behavioral responses were greater toward both UV-reflective and UV-absorptive substrates in three experiments. Study subjects therefore reliably differentiated and attended to two distinct UV conditions of a foraging substrate. Cue-naïve subjects showed a preference for UV-absorptive substrates, suggesting that woodpeckers may be pre-disposed to foraging from such substrates. Behavioral responses were greater toward decayed pine substrates (UV-reflective) than sound pine substrates suggesting that decayed pine can be a useful foraging cue. The finding that cue-naïve subjects selected UV-absorbing foraging substrates has implications for ecological interactions of woodpeckers with fungi. Woodpeckers transport fungal spores, and communication methods analogous to those of plant-pollinator mutualisms (i.e. UV-absorbing patterns) may have evolved to support woodpecker-fungus mutualisms.

  1. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou; Niceville, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July 4th...

  2. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Crescent City, CA in support of the Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks on July 4, 2013. This safety...

  3. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... of Redwood City near Redwood City, CA in support of the Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show...

  4. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollenbeck, J.P.; Saab, V.A.; Frenzel, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability model (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) for nesting white-headed woodpeckers using remotely sensed data. Along with low elevation, high density of large trees, and low slope, our habitat suitability model suggested that interspersion-juxtaposition of low- and high-canopy cover ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) patches was important for nest-site suitability. Cross-validation suggested the model performed adequately for management planning at a scale >1 ha. Evaluation of mapped habitat suitability index (HSI) suggested that the maximum predictive gain (HSI=0.36), where the number of nest locations are maximized in the smallest proportion of the modeled landscape, provided an objective initial threshold for identification of suitable habitat. However, managers can choose the threshold HSI most appropriate for their purposes (e.g., locating regions of low-moderate suitability that have potential for habitat restoration). Consequently, our habitat suitability model may be useful for managing dry coniferous forests for white-headed woodpeckers in central Oregon; however, model validation is necessary before our model could be applied to other locations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Allendorf, Fred W; Saab, Victoria; Drapeau, Pierre; Schwartz, Michael K

    2010-05-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define population structure and movement patterns of both sexes among populations. Three genetic groups were identified, a large, genetically continuous population that spans from the Rocky Mountains to Quebec, a small isolated population in South Dakota and a separate population in the western portion of their distribution (Oregon). Patterns of genetic diversity suggest extensive gene flow mediated by both males and females within the continuous boreal forest. However, male-mediated gene flow is the main form of connectivity between the continuously distributed group and the smaller populations of South Dakota and Oregon that are separated by large areas of unforested habitat, which apparently serves as a barrier to movement of female woodpeckers.

  6. Structural analysis of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in a woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Young; Naleway, Steven E.; Yaraghi, Nicholas A.; Herrera, Steven; Sherman, Vincent R.; Bushong, Eric A.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kisailus, David; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Woodpeckers avoid brain injury while they peck at trees up to 20 Hz with speeds up to 7 m/s, undergoing decelerations up to 1200 g. Along with the head, beak and neck, the hyoid apparatus (tongue bone and associated soft tissues) is subjected to these high impact forces. The shape of the hyoid apparatus is unusual in woodpeckers and its structure and mechanical properties have not been reported in detail. High-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed and correlated with nanoindentation mapping. The hyoid apparatus has four distinct bone sections, with three joints between these sections. Nanoindentation results on cross-sectional regions of each bone reveal a previously unreported structure consisting of a stiff core and outer, more compliant shell with moduli of up to 27.4 GPa and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The bending resistance is low at the posterior section of the hyoid bones, indicating that this region has a high degree of flexibility to absorb impact. These new structural findings can be applied to further studies on the energy dissipation of the woodpecker during its drumming behavior, and may have implications for the design of engineered impact-absorbing structures. PMID:27000554

  7. Space-use and habitat associations of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) occupying recently disturbed forests in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Chadwick P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a disturbance-dependent species that occupy recently burned forest and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestations. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of disturbed forest may lead to habitat loss for Black-backed Woodpeckers, which have recently been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We...

  8. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  9. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  10. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  11. [Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Global Health. Information for change. 4th report of the Italian Observatory on Global Health. InformAzione (InformAction) is the title of the last OISG report (Italian observatory on Global Health), dedicated to information and education, the essential bases for a conscious action aimed at decreasing inequalities. Increasing the investments in information, education and interventions oriented to global health may broaden the number of aware and informed citizens, able to start a dialogue, to make pressures to increase the interventions in favor of those in need.

  12. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  13. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  14. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  15. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  16. 4TH Mediterranean Workshop and Tropical Meeting "Novel Optical Materials and Applications" NOMA 99.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-19

    ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 298-102 4th...point of view. We use a statistical approach for the nematic order including surface anisotropy in the frame of mean field theory. It gives a Boltzmann...500 pm thick. The crystals, which had damage thresholds > 400 GW/cm2 for 100 fsec pulses at 1600 nm were investigated with open and closed aperture

  17. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  18. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.; Kaller, M.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees ???50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  19. Beliefs about the causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Burke, Sara E; Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel; Morris, Megan; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    Physician knowledge of the complex contributors to obesity varies. We do not know whether today's medical students are graduating with deep understanding of the causes of obesity. Our objective was to assess beliefs about causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students. We randomly selected 2000 4th year students from a random sample of 50 U.S. medical schools and asked them to rate the importance of several factors as causes of obesity. Of those invited, 1244 (62%) responded. We conducted latent class analysis to identify groups with similar response patterns. Most students demonstrated knowledge that obesity has multiple contributors. Students fell into 1 of 4 classes: (1) more likely to endorse all contributors (28%), (2) more likely to endorse physiological contributors (27%), (3) more likely to endorse behavioral or social contributors (24%), and (4) unlikely to endorse contributors outside of overeating and physical activity (22%). Though students were generally aware of multiple causes, there were 4 distinct patterns of beliefs, with implications for patient care. Targeted interventions may help to improve depth of knowledge about the causes of obesity and lead to more effective care for obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  1. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  2. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  3. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Lutchmaya, S; Baron-Cohen, S; Raggatt, P; Knickmeyer, R; Manning, J T

    2004-04-01

    The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic (mean 2D:4D is lower in males than females) and is thought to be fixed early in development. 2D:4D has been reported to be related to fetal growth, hand preference, autism, Asperger's syndrome, sperm counts, family size, age at myocardial infarction in men and breast cancer in women. There is indirect evidence that 2D:4D is established in utero and is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estradiol. However, there are no studies which show direct relationships between fetal testosterone (FT), fetal estradiol (FE) and 2D:4D. To investigate the relationships between 2D:4D ratios and FT and FE from amniotic fluid. Cohort study. 33 children. Radioimmunoassays of FT and FE obtained from routine amniocentesis; 2D:4D ratios calculated from 2nd and 4th digit length of the right and left hands at age 2 years. A significant negative association between right 2D:4D ratio and FT/FE ratio, which was independent of sex. These preliminary findings lend support to an association between low 2D:4D and high levels of FT relative to FE, and high 2D:4D with low FT relative to FE.

  4. Improving the quality of adverse drug reaction reporting by 4th-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Rosebraugh, Curtis J; Tsong, Yi; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Min; Mackey, Ann Corken; Flowers, Charlene; Toyer, Denise; Flockhart, David A; Honig, Peter K

    2003-03-01

    Evaluate whether a 15-minute lecture intervention will improve adverse drug reaction reporting quality on standard MedWatch forms. Seventy-eight 4th-year medical students were randomized to intervention 'Group-A' or non-intervention 'Group-B' on the first day of a required five-day clinical pharmacology rotation. Group-A participants attended a 15-minute lecture on completing a MedWatch form with quality information considered by the Food and Drug Administration as critical to adequate adverse drug reaction reporting. Group-B participants did not attend this lecture. Both groups then watched a standardized patient interview of a recognizable adverse drug reaction and completed MedWatch forms. Four Safety Evaluators from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rated student responses in a blinded fashion for the primary efficacy variable of Overall Impression and six informational domins using a standardized data quality analysis form that was developed within the Office of Postmarketing Drug Risk Assessment of the FDA. Seventy-eight MedWatch forms were evaluated (Group-A = 40, Group B = 38). Overall MedWatch information quality scores for the intervention group were significantly higher than the non-intervention group (p < 0.004). As little as a 15-minute intervention can significantly improve the quality of adverse drug reaction reporting by 4th-year medical students. Academic medical centers should consider incorporating adverse drug reaction reporting curriculum into the clinical training of medical students.

  5. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  6. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-05-14

    Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. We used data from the 2004-2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression. 4th grade boys were

  7. Identification of 4th intercostal space using sternal notch to xiphoid length for accurate electrocardiogram lead placement.

    PubMed

    Day, Kevin; Oliva, Isabel; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Marcus, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Precordial ECG lead placement is difficult in obese patients with increased chest wall soft tissues due to inaccurate palpation of the intercostal spaces. We investigated whether the length of the sternum (distance between the sternal notch and xiphoid process) can accurately predict the location of the 4th intercostal space, which is the traditional location for V1 lead position. Fifty-five consecutive adult chest computed tomography examinations were reviewed for measurements. The sternal notch to right 4th intercostal space distance was 67% of the sternal notch to xiphoid process length with an overall correlation of r=0.600 (p<0.001). The above measurement may be utilized to locate the 4th intercostal space for accurate placement of the precordial electrodes in adults in whom the 4th intercostal space cannot be found by physical exam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  9. [Giant cell tumor of the 4th metacarpal bone of the left hand. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamel, E J; Pinto, J A; Potenza, L; Michelena, A; Perez Signini, F; Fuenmayor, A

    1983-01-01

    He is a 46 year old patient that consults on a tumor that deforms the back of his left hand. The X-ray examination shows a bone osteolytic tumor with complete dis appearance of the 4th metacarpal. Surgical removal of the tumor was practiced with immediate reconstruction of the 4th metacarpal by an oseo-iliac graft. Anatomopathological examination. It is an ovoid tumor 6.5 long and irregular surface.

  10. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  11. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science ASU Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher

    This is a Co-Investigator proposal for "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science" with Prof. Christopher K. Walker (University of Arizona) as PI. As a participant in the STO-2 mission, ASU will participate in instrument design and construction, mission I&T, flight operations and data analysis. ASU has unique capabilities in the field of direct metal micromachining, which it will bring to bear on the STO-2 cold optical assembly, flight mixers and LO hardware. In addition, our extensive experience with receiver integration and test will supplement the capabilities of the PI institution during the I&T phase at the University of Arizona, CSBF (Palestine, TX) and in Antarctica. Both the ASU PI and student will also participate in data analysis and publication after the flight.

  12. Giant viruses in the oceans: the 4th Algal Virus Workshop.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2005-06-20

    Giant double-stranded DNA viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 microm, genomes of 300 kbp to 1.200 kbp, and commensurate complex gene contents, constitute an evolutionary mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes optimally fitted to the smallest possible--filterable--package. Such giant viruses are now discovered in increasing numbers through the systematic sampling of ocean waters as well as freshwater aquatic environments, where they play a significant role in controlling phyto- and bacterio- plankton populations. The 4th Algal Virus Workshop showed that the study of these ecologically important viruses is now massively entering the genomic era, promising a better understanding of their diversity and, hopefully, some insights on their origin and the evolutionary forces that shaped their genomes.

  13. [Analysis of the 4th generation outer space bred Angelica dahurica by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-ying; Wu, Peng-le; Liu, Mei-yi; Wang, Zhi-zhou; Guo, Xi-hua; Guan, Ying

    2012-03-01

    The major components of the 4th generation outer space bred angelica and the ground group were determined and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectrum, considering the large mutation of the plants with space mutagenesis. The results show that the content of the coumarin (1741 cm(-1)), which is the main active components of the space angelica dahurica increased, and the content of the protein (1 459, 1 419 cm(-1)) and the fat (930 cm(-1)) increased slightly, whereas the content of the starch and the dietary fiber reduced drastically. There are obvious differences between the peak values of the second derivative spectra of the plants, revealing that the outer space angelica dahurica contained amine component at 1 279 cm(-1). Space mutation breeding is favor of breeding angelica with better idiosyncrasy.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2016-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).

  15. Cage Regional Energy Budgets from the GLAS 4TH Order Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Alexder, M. A.; Shubert, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The status and future plans of a study to (1) assess the accuracy of regional energy balance calculations obtained from the 4th-order model, (2) determine the impact of satellite data on the calculations, and (3) determine their utility for ocean energy transport studies are discussed. An equation is presented which models the vertically-integrated, time and areally-averaged total energy content of a region of the atmosphere extending from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. All of the terms of the equation were evaluated using early versions of the GLAS FGGE IIIb analysis, and analysis with satellite data deleted. Results show that the budget is dominated by the surface fluxes, net radiation, and horizontal atmospoheric divergence.

  16. 4th generation of the 1st level surface detector trigger in the Pierre Auger Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    The proposal of a new 4th generation of the Front-End with the advanced 1st level triggers for the Infill Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory and for the Auger North is described. Newest FPGA chips offer much higher capacity of logic registers and memories, as well as DSP blocks. The calibration channel, previously supported by an external dual-port RAM, has been fully implemented into FPGA chip, through a large internal memory. In turn DSP blocks allowed on implementation of much more sophisticated spectral trigger algorithms. A single chip simplified board design, newer architecture of FPGA reduced resouces utilization and power consumption. Higher sampling in the new Front- End in comparison with previous 40 MHz designs as well as free resources for new detection algotithms can be a good platform for CR radio detection technique at Auger enhancing a duty cycle for the detection of UHECR’s.

  17. The 4th Bologna Winter School: Hot Topics in Structural Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The 4th Bologna Winter School on Biotechnologies was held on 9–15 February 2003 at the University of Bologna, Italy, with the specific aim of discussing recent developments in bioinformatics. The school provided an opportunity for students and scientists to debate current problems in computational biology and possible solutions. The course, co-supported (as last year) by the European Science Foundation program on Functional Genomics, focused mainly on hot topics in structural genomics, including recent CASP and CAPRI results, recent and promising genomewide predictions, protein–protein and protein–DNA interaction predictions and genome functional annotation. The topics were organized into four main sections (http://www.biocomp.unibo.it). PMID:18629078

  18. Increased ratio of 2nd to 4th digit (2D:4D) in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Simon Lowes; Lim, Matthew; Chaw, Jia Hui; Verma, Swapna; Sim, Kang; Rapisarda, Attilio; Chong, Siow Ann

    2010-03-30

    Sex differences in the onset, epidemiology, clinical presentation and neuropathology of schizophrenia suggest that sexual dimorphism in brain development may be relevant to pathogenesis. Sex hormones, in particular testosterone, are considered to be crucial in brain development, but few investigations have examined the potential role of prenatal testosterone in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined a retrospective marker of prenatal testosterone release - 2D:4D finger length ratio (2D:4D), the relative length of 2nd to 4th digit, in 64 Asian patients with schizophrenia and 64 sex-matched controls. No significant difference in mean finger lengths was present, however 2D:4D ratio was significantly different between patients and controls. The effect was primarily seen in males consistent with a 'less masculinised' pattern and hypotheses suggesting that schizophrenia may be associated with an abnormality in prenatal circulating testosterone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond the genomics blueprint: the 4th Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Biennial Meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium was held at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 11-15 June 2012. The Human Variome Project, a nongovernmental organization and an official partner of UNESCO, enables the routine collection, curation, interpretation, and sharing of information on all human genetic variation. This meeting was attended by more than 180 delegates from 39 countries and continued the theme of addressing issues of implementation in this unique project. The meeting was structured around the four main themes of the Human Variome Project strategic plan, "Project Roadmap 2012-2016": setting normative function, behaving ethically, sharing knowledge, and building capacity. During the meeting, the members held extensive discussions to formulate an action plan in the key areas of the Human Variome Project. The actions agreed on were promulgated at the Project's two Advisory Council and Scientific Advisory Committee postconference meetings.

  20. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  1. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  2. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food.

  3. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events.

  5. 4th generation HIV screening in Massachusetts: a partnership between laboratory and program.

    PubMed

    Goodhue, Tammy; Kazianis, Arthur; Werner, Barbara G; Stiles, Tracy; Callis, Barry P; Dawn Fukuda, H; Cranston, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Office of HIV/AIDS (OHA) and Hinton State Laboratory Institute (HSLI) have offered HIV screening since 1985. Point-of-care screening and serum collection for laboratory-based testing is conducted at clinic and non-clinic-based sites across Massachusetts as part of an integrated communicable disease screening intervention. MDPH aimed to transition to a 4th generation HIV screening-based algorithm for testing all serum specimens collected at OHA-funded programs and submitted to the HSLI to detect acute HIV infections, detect and differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, eliminate indeterminate results, reduce cost and turnaround time, and link newly diagnosed HIV+ individuals to care. The HSLI and OHA created a joint project management team to plan and lead the transition. The laboratory transitioned successfully to a 4th generation screening assay as part of a revised diagnostic algorithm. In the 12 months since implementation, a total of 7984 serum specimens were tested with 258 (3.2%) positive for HIV-1 and one positive for HIV-2. Eight were reported as acute HIV-1 infections. These individuals were linked to medical care and partner services in a timely manner. Turnaround time was reduced and the laboratory realized an overall cost savings of approximately 15%. The identification of eight acute HIV infections in the first year underscores the importance of using the most sensitive screening tests available. A multi-disciplinary program and laboratory team was critical to the success of the transition, and the lessons learned may be useful for other jurisdictions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Hierarchical multiscale structure-property relationships of the red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) beak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nayeon; Horstemeyer, M F; Rhee, Hongjoo; Nabors, Ben; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha N

    2014-07-06

    We experimentally studied beaks of the red-bellied woodpecker to elucidate the hierarchical multiscale structure-property relationships. At the macroscale, the beak comprises three structural layers: an outer rhamphotheca layer (keratin sheath), a middle foam layer and an inner bony layer. The area fraction of each layer changes along the length of the beak giving rise to a varying constitutive behaviour similar to functionally graded materials. At the microscale, the rhamphotheca comprises keratin scales that are placed in an overlapping pattern; the middle foam layer has a porous structure; and the bony layer has a big centre cavity. At the nanoscale, a wavy gap between the keratin scales similar to a suture line was evidenced in the rhamphotheca; the middle foam layer joins two dissimilar materials; and mineralized collagen fibres were revealed in the inner bony layer. The nano- and micro-indentation tests revealed that the hardness (associated with the strength, modulus and stiffness) of the rhamphotheca layer (approx. 470 MPa for nano and approx. 320 MPa for micro) was two to three times less than that of the bony layer (approx. 1200 MPa for nano and approx. 630 MPa for micro). When compared to other birds (chicken, finch and toucan), the woodpecker's beak has more elongated keratin scales that can slide over each other thus admitting dissipation via shearing; has much less porosity in the bony layer thus strengthening the beak and focusing the stress wave; and has a wavy suture that admits local shearing at the nanoscale. The analysis of the woodpeckers' beaks provides some understanding of biological structural materials' mechanisms for energy absorption.

  7. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  8. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  9. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  10. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  11. Between-year breeding dispersal by White-headed Woodpeckers: A caution about using color bands to estimate survival

    Treesearch

    Teresa J Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Between-year breeding dispersal has not been previously documented in White-headed Woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus). Therefore, resightings of color-banded adults on previous years’ breeding territories have been considered a means of estimating annual adult survival. From 2013 to 2015, I observed 2 cases of between-year breeding dispersal by...

  12. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  13. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis ) in the northeastern U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    David E. Jennings; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan M. Schmude; Miles T. Wetherington; Paula M. Shrewsbury

    2015-01-01

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are important natural enemies attacking emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in North America. There can be considerable variation in predation levels within and between sites, and among different times of year; therefore, understanding what causes these differences is necessary for effectively predicting EAB...

  14. Multi-scale nest-site selection by black-backed woodpeckers in outbreaks of mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble

    2009-01-01

    Areas of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks in the Black Hills can provide habitat for black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a U.S. Forest Service, Region 2 Sensitive Species. These outbreaks are managed through removal of trees infested with mountain pine beetles to control mountain pine...

  15. Influence of postfire salvage logging on black-backed woodpecker nest-site selection and nest survival

    Treesearch

    Christopher David Forristal

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire timber harvest practices (i.e. post-fire salvage logging) on public lands are a highly contentious issue in the western United States. Harvest of burned trees impacts a number of species, particularly those specialized for using post-wildfire habitats. We assessed the effects of post-fire salvage logging on black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus...

  16. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  17. COMPLEX BIOGEOGRAPHIC SCENARIOS REVEALED IN THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE LARGEST WOODPECKER RADIATION IN THE NEW WORLD.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-04-12

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus + Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE + j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World.

  18. Concordant genetic structure in two species of woodpecker distributed across the primary West African biogeographic barriers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-07-01

    The lowland forests of western and central tropical Africa are separated by several potential biogeographic barriers to dispersal for forest adapted vertebrates. The two primary barriers are (1) the Dahomey Gap, a savanna corridor that reaches the coast of southern Ghana, Togo and Benin, and separates the West African rainforest into the Upper (Ghana west to Guinea) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria to Uganda and Angola) forest blocks, and (2) the Lower Niger River, a large delta that separates Western and Eastern Nigeria. Previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates (lizards, mammals and birds) have highlighted a genetic break in the Dahomey Gap/Lower Niger River area although the relative importance of each barrier has not been assessed due to limitations in geographic sampling. We compared the phylogeographic history of two co-distributed sister-species of woodpeckers (Campethera caroli and C. nivosa) using data from three loci representing all inheritance modes. Our analyses revealed that both the Dahomey Gap and possibly the Lower Niger River acted as strong biogeographic barriers for the two woodpecker species, with the Lower Niger River being the first barrier to have formed, leading to three distinct populations of C. nivosa. Our divergence time analyses revealed that both these biogeographic barriers formed during the Pleistocene, supporting the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis, with the Dahomey Gap likely appearing about 0.5 myr BP. No genetic structure was recovered among sampled populations in either the Upper or the Lower Guinea Forest Block for both species, despite the considerable geographic area covered.

  19. Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed 2995 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data (nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND2 genes), using parsimony and model-based approaches to infer phylogenetic relationships of the woodpeckers and allies, yielding novel hypotheses for several critical gaps in the knowledge of picid phylogeny. We tested the monophyly of sub-families within the Picidae, and sampled from widely distributed and diverse genera (Celeus, Colaptes, Dryocopus, Melanerpes, Picoides, Picumnus, Sasia, Piculus, and Picus). Relationships of three poorly known Southeast Asian genera (Dinopium, Reinwardtipicus, and Blythipicus) were also examined, revealing unexpected sister relationships. All phylogenetic approaches recovered largely congruent topologies, supporting a monophyletic Picinae and paraphyletic Picumninae, with the monotypic piculet, Nesoctites micromegas, as sister to the Picinae. We report paraphyly for Celeus and Piculus, whereas the broadly distributed genera Picumnus and Dryocopus were supported as monophyletic. Our phylogenetic results indicate a complex geographic history for the Picidae, with multiple disjunct sister lineages distributed between the New World and Asia. The relationships and geographic distribution of basal picid lineages indicates an Old World origin of the Picidae; however, the geographic origin of the Picinae remains equivocal, as the sister relationship between the Caribbean N. micromegas and the true woodpeckers presents the possibility of a New World origin for the Picinae.

  20. Relationship between jaw apparatus, feeding habit, and food source in oriental woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José; Höfling, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ana Luiza C

    2014-04-01

    Associations among feeding habit, beak type, and food source in birds have been widely studied and are well known to exist. The relationship between feeding habit and jaw apparatus in birds has not attracted attention from ornithologists, perhaps because of the complexity of the skeletal morphology of the feeding system of birds. The goal of this study was to compare the jaw apparatus and foraging strategies of various Oriental species of the Picidae (Meiglyptini and Picini tribes) using a morphofunctional analysis of the skeletal structure of the jaw apparatus. This study showed that there are at least three types of jaw apparatus in these woodpeckers, as follows: 1) robust, developed, and complex; 2) complexity and development intermediate, as observed in Meiglyptes tristis and Dinopium spp., whose main foraging method involves gleaning, probing, and tapping; and 3) poorly developed, as observed in Picus miniaceus and Hemicircus concretus. The success of woodpeckers as a natural group is due not only to their feeding diversity, but also their ability to explore a wide range of different resources, as appropriate to their jaw apparatus.

  1. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Walter D.; Walters, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. PMID:26400744

  2. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  3. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.

  4. The relationship between snack intake and its availability of 4th-6th graders in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the snack intake and snack availability of elementary school children. Data analyzed were from 722 4th to 6th graders' food availability and food intake questionnaires collected in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002. The snacks commonly eaten were divided into two groups. Healthy snacks included dairy products, 100% fruit juice and fresh fruits. Unhealthy snacks included high fat/sugar snacks, cookies, candy, carbonated/sugared beverages and fast food. Structural equating modeling was used to test the models that describe the availability and intake of two snack groups. Results indicated that parents' intake and children's preference were major predictors of children intake of both healthy and unhealthy snacks. Other than that, the intake of unhealthy snacks was positively associated with "purchase by children themselves" but not the intake of healthy snacks, which was influenced predominantly by "present in home". The results support the perception that a positive family food environment is important for improving children's diet quality. To build a healthy family food environment, parents have to not only provide healthy snacks but also limit the unhealthy snacks in home. In addition to that, the role modeling of parents as eating healthy snacks instead of unhealthy snacks themselves may help children to develop similar behaviors.

  5. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  6. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shane; Frantz, Cindy M.; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these “systems thinking” skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses “sociotechnical” feedback–information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention. PMID:28448586

  7. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  8. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  9. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds."

  11. Putting agent-based modeling to work: results of the 4th International Project Albert Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Gary E.; Bjorkman, Eileen A.; Colton, Trevor

    2002-07-01

    Project Albert is an initiative of the US Marine Corps which uses a series of new models and tools, multidisciplinary teams, and the scientific method to explore questions of interest to military planners. Project Albert attempts to address key areas that traditional modeling and simulation techniques often do not capture satisfactorily and uses two data management concepts, data farming and data mining, to assist in identifying areas of interest. The current suite of models used by Project Albert includes four agent-based models that allow agents to interact with each other and produce emergent behaviors. The 4th International Project Albert Workshop was held 6-9 August 2001 in Australia. Workshop participants split into five groups, each of which attempted to apply various combinations of the Project Albert models to answer a series of questions in five areas: Control Operations; Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Intelligence Force Mix; Precision Maneuver; Mission Area Analysis; and Peace Support Operations. This paper focuses on the methodology used during the workshop, the results of the workshop, and a summary of follow-on work since the workshop.

  12. A 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radio applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiwei, Wang; Xuegui, Chang; Xiao, Wang; Kefeng, Han; Xi, Tan; Na, Yan; Hao, Min

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radios. The design exploits an active-RC low pass filter (LPF) structure with digital assistant, which is flexible for tunability of filter characteristics, such as cut-off frequency, selectivity, type, noise, gain and power. A novel reconfigurable operational amplifier is proposed to realize the optimization of noise and scalability of power dissipation. The chip was fabricated in an SMIC 0.13 μm CMOS process. The main filter and frequency calibration circuit occupy 1.8 × 0.8 mm2 and 0.48 × 0.25 mm2 areas, respectively. The measurement results indicate that the filter provides Butterworth and Chebyshev responses with a wide frequency tuning range from 280 kHz to 15 MHz and a gain range from 0 to 18 dB. An IIP3 of 29 dBm is achieved under a 1.2 V power supply. The input inferred noise density varies from 41 to 133 according to a given standard, and the power consumptions are 5.46 mW for low band (from 280 kHz to 3 MHz) and 8.74 mW for high band (from 3 to 15 MHz) mode.

  13. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  14. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shane; Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cindy M; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these "systems thinking" skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses "sociotechnical" feedback-information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention.

  15. The 4th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Howard E; Balogh, Lajos P; Bawa, Raj; Bradbury, Michelle; Chang, Esther H; Chiu, Wah; Farokhzad, Omid; Foldvari, Marianna; Lanza, Gregory; Wang, Kuan

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Conference of the American Society for Nanomedicine is being held March 28-30, 2014 at the Universities at Shady Grove, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting's theme is on defining the role of nanomedicines for nervous system diagnostics and disease but balanced by broad and timely topics for nanotechnology. Nanoneuromedicine, as defined by the development of small drug formulations for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative, inflammatory, infectious, vascular, addictive, behavioral and metabolic disorders of the nervous system, will provide a focus for each of the scientific sessions. This research is interdisciplinary and it's in its infancy. The hurdles that preclude translation from bench to bedside would include its delivery across the blood brain barrier, limiting nervous system toxicities, and improving drug targeting to diseased brain subregions. These all pose challenges. Multidisciplinary works in neuroscience (neurobiology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neuroinflammation), bioimaging, and polymer chemistry to facilitate outcomes for formulation manufacture will be vigorously discussed. How drugs reach sites of action need include neural cell specific subcellular compartments. The ASNM meeting will showcase nanoneuromedicine research from leading investigators of divergent scientific backgrounds who define this new field. It will also serve as an incubator for developing investigators and broad new field discoveries. Welcome to the conference and enjoy!

  16. Water quality and occurrence of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Nkeng, George Elambo; Takem, Gloria Eyong Eneke

    2009-01-01

    The monthly occurrence and mean age distribution of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon (1995-2006) were studied and probable causes of diseases spread were established. Diseases of interest included gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera. Water-borne disease occurrence was observed to follow a seasonal pattern with peaks occurring between the months of January and May followed by drops between June and October and rose again from November. Children below 5 years were found to be more vulnerable to diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery while persons between 15-44 years were more vulnerable to typhoid and cholera. Physico-chemically, water samples had turbidities varying between 5.5-86 NTU, pH values between 4.2 and 7.1 and zero residual chlorine. Bacteriological analysis showed that the total coliform count was averagely 74/100 ml, the faecal colform count was 43/100 ml and the faecal streptococci count was 27/100 ml. Lack of access to potable water, absence of sanitation facilities and environmental factors could be advanced as the probable causes of water-borne disease spread.

  17. [Analysis of the 4th generation Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with space mutagenesis via FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-feng; Gao, Hua-na; Guo, Xi-hua; Wang, Zhi-zhou; Yang, La-huz; Guan, Ying; Shi, Jin-shan

    2009-05-01

    Determination and analysis for the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with space mutagenesis and the ground group were carried out with FTIR for the first time in order to fully understand the quality changes of the 4th generation of space mutagenesis of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and do further research. The result shows that for the FTIR spectra of the two samples the position and shape of main absorption peaks are approximately the same, indicating that the major components and the structures of space group remain intact, but the intensities of the absorption peaks are obviously different, with the intensities of the space group significantly enhanced compared to the ground group, especially for the flavonoid compounds (baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin and wogonoside etc), which are the main active components of the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, the absorption peak intensities at 3391, 1655 and 1069 cm(-1) are obviously stronger than those of the ground group, so the contents of flavonoid compounds and other components are higher, and the amorphous active components are optimized. Space mutation breeding is conducive to breeding new varieties of highly active components, and it is also one of the ways to innovate Chinese medicines germplasm resources efficiently.

  18. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  19. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior.

  1. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PREFACE: CYGNUS 2013: 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Tatsuhiro; Miuchi, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    It is a great pleasure to publish the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Directional Detection of Dark Matter held in Toyama, Japan on 10-12 June 2013 (CYGNUS 2013). These proceedings contain written versions of the presentations made at CYGNUS 2013 as scientific outputs of the directional detection of dark matter. The GYGNUS workshop started in 2007 at Boulby Underground Laboratory (UK), followed by CYGNUS 2009 (MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) and CYGNUS 2011 (AUSSOIS, France). CYGNUS 2013 was held by the combination of a two and a half days of scientific program and a half day visit to the underground laboratory (Kamioka Observatory) as a 'tradition' of CYGNUS workshops. The name 'CYGNUS' came from the fact that the 'dark matter wind' is expected to come from the direction of the constellation Cygnus due to the motion of the Solar system in the galaxy. A general aim of these CYGNUS workshops is to bring together the theoretical and experimental studies on the directional dark matter detection. Directional detection of dark matter is a promising approach to a 'clear detection' and also to 'further investigations' of galactic dark matter, or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Directional detection requires the simultaneous detection of the energy and track of low energy recoils. Among many technological challenges for the requirement above, three of them, namely size, background, and directionality (angular resolution and head-tail detection), are most important to demonstrate and improve the quality as a dark matter detector. In the workshop, up-to-date activities by the international reserchers are discussed. The workshop was a great success thanks to the oral contributions and fruitful discussions held throughout the workshop period. We hope that readers will remember and share the great enthusiasm shown during the CYGNUS 2013 workshop. The Editors Tatsuhiro Naka and Kentaro Miuchi

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions."

  5. Support for the 4th Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-25

    Intellectual Merit: Following the success of the first three Pan-American Congresses on Plants and BioEnergy held biennially, the 4th congress will be held at the University of Guelph, Canada June 4-7, 2014. We aim to continue a tradition of showcasing major advances in energy crop improvement yet keep in perspective the realities of the economic drivers and pressures that govern the translation of scientific success into a commercial success. The congress is endorsed by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Canadian Society of Plant Biologists. The program will cover a range of disciplines, including algal and plant systems for bioenergy, plant genetics and genomics, gene discovery for improvement of bioenergy production and quality, regulatory mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, strategies for 3rd generation biofuel production and the promise of synthetic biology in production of biofuels and bio-based products, cropping systems and productivity for biomass production, and mitigation of environmental impacts of bioenergy production. Broader Impacts: We are requesting support to generate stipends for domestic and permanent-resident students, post-doctorals, and pre-tenured faculty members to attend and benefit from the outstanding program. The stipends will be limited to registration and on-site lodging costs, with partial support for travel in instances of great need. So that as great a number can benefit as possible, airfare costs will be provided for only applicants with great need. ASPB has endorsed this meeting and will assist in advertising and promoting the meeting. ASPB has a long-standing commitment to increase participation and advance the careers in plant biology of women, minorities and underrepresented scientists, and they will assist us in identifying worthy candidates.

  6. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  7. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  8. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  9. Late-breaking news from the "4th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases" Capri, 2006.

    PubMed

    Latella, Giovanni; Fiocchi, Claudio; Caprilli, Renzo

    2007-08-01

    At the "4th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: on the Way to New Therapies," Capri, 2006, genetics, bacteria-host interactions, immunomodulation, and tissue response were discussed deeply in order to understand, rationalize, and develop novel therapies. About genetics, the importance of a better understanding of the nature of known loci and of the putative associations was stressed. It was confirmed that genotype-phenotype associations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have important clinical and therapeutic implications. The importance of the search for dominant bacterial antigens in chronic immune-mediated intestinal inflammation emerged, as well as knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms of bacterial-host interactions. It was discussed how innate and adaptive immunity signaling events can perpetuate chronic inflammation. Signal transduction pathways provide an intracellular mechanism by which cells respond and adapt to environmental stress. The identification of these signals have led to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD and pointed to potential therapeutic targets. It was shown that immune homeostasis is lost in IBD, resulting in a complex tissue response involving the action of immune and nonimmune cells. The nonimmune tissue response in IBD could be regarded as a new target for control of chronic intestinal inflammation. The changing role of biotherapy in IBD was widely discussed and in particular the anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibodies. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stem cells therapies were also discussed. The risk-to-benefit ratio of the novel therapies was analyzed in detail. Finally, future directions for basic science and the unmet needs for clinical practice were presented.

  10. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  12. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  13. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  14. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention... Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Recovery for the Iraq...

  15. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  16. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Weber... Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display on July 4, 2010, on the navigable waters of Weber Point, off of... temporary safety zone is established for the waters of Weber Point off of Stockton, CA. The fireworks launch...

  17. Analysis of Lexical Quality and Its Relation to Writing Quality for 4th Grade, Primary School Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Vera, Gabriela; Sotomayor, Carmen; Bedwell, Percy; Domínguez, Ana María; Jéldrez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have addressed vocabulary quality in developing writing skill in Spanish. Even less addressed it within the Chilean educational system. The specific objective of this study was to characterize, using a comprehensive set of indicators, the quality of the vocabulary produced by Chilean 4th grade students. Based on a national writing…

  18. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  19. 76 FR 33157 - Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones during Fourth of July fireworks events on the... displays are planned for the Fourth of July celebration throughout the Captain of the Port Miami Zone. The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays Within the...

  20. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  1. Comparative analysis of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year MD students' attitudes toward Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Riccard, Christopher P; Skelton, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background To identify and report the attitudes and beliefs of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year medical students toward complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods The previously validated and reliability tested CHBQ was administered to medical students attending the University of South Florida School of Medicine. Results Significant changes were found between both 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students. No significant difference was found between 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) year students. When comparing scores based on gender, a significant difference was present between males (41.2 ± 12.2) and females (46.1 ± 11.0). Conclusion CHBQ scores were significantly more positive in both 1st and 2nd year medical students in comparison with 4th year student's scores. These findings suggest that as student exposure to allopathic techniques and procedures increases during the last year of medical school, their attitudes toward CAM decrease. Females were also significantly more likely to have stronger positive attitudes toward CAM than males, though both genders represented an overall positive attitude toward CAM. PMID:18799010

  2. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing two temporary safety zones on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois. These...

  3. 75 FR 22330 - Safety Zone; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois. This...

  4. Effect of the SQ4R Technique on the Reading Comprehension of Elementary School 4th Grade Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…

  5. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, Michigan. This zone is...

  6. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  7. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  8. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  9. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  10. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  11. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) environmental Workshop (4th) Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 26-28 April 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Copy 0of 37 Copts$ | AD-A285 779 SIDA DOCUMENT D- 1537 I PROCEEDLNGS OF THE FOURTH ANNUAL MAJOR RANGE AND TEST FACILITY BASE (MRTFB...DEFENSE ANALYSES 񓜩 N. Beauregard Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1772 SIDA Log No. HU 94-45640 * III i DEFINITIONS IDA publishes the follewing...woodpecker. The RCW is a good indicator of ecosystem health in VIH -36 I I the longleaf pine ecosystem. This survey identified Eglin as having the fourth

  13. Outcomes following surgical repair using layered closure of unrepaired 4th degree perineal tear in rural western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goh, Judith T W; Tan, Stephanie B M; Natukunda, Harriet; Singasi, Isaac; Krause, Hannah G

    2016-11-01

    In many rural low-income countries, perineal tears at time of vaginal birth are not repaired at time of delivery. The aims of this study are to describe the surgical technique for management of the unrepaired 4th degree tear, performed without flaps, and short-term follow up on anal incontinence symptoms using a validated questionnaire. Women presenting to fistula camps in western Uganda with unrepaired 4th degree tears were interviewed using the Cleveland Clinic Continence Score. Interviews were undertaken pre-operatively, at 4-6 weeks post-operatively and 12 months following surgery. Repair of the 4th degree tear was performed in layers, with an overlapping anal sphincter repair and reconstruction of the perineal body, without flaps. All women were examined prior to discharge. 68 women completed pre-operative Cleveland Clinic Continence Scores. Prior to surgery, 59 % of women complained of daily incontinence to solid stools. Over 70 % of women complained of restriction to lifestyle due to the unrepaired 4th degree tear. About 50 % of the women are rejected by their husbands because of the condition. Only 1 woman had wound breakdown on Day 2. At 4 to 6 weeks follow-up, 61 women were contacted and all reported perfect continence. This study highlights the hidden problem of unrepaired 4th degree tears in rural areas of low-income countries where most deliveries are undertaken in the village without professional health care workers. These tears have significant impact on quality of life and anal incontinence. Short-term outcomes following surgical repair using a layered closure are promising.

  14. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  15. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  16. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  17. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  18. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history.

  19. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  20. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering