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Sample records for 4th year medical

  1. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  2. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for

  3. Medical Imaging Physics, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2002-05-01

    This comprehensive publication covers all aspects of image formation in modern medical imaging modalities, from radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography, to magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. It addresses the techniques and instrumentation used in the rapidly changing field of medical imaging. Now in its fourth edition, this text provides the reader with the tools necessary to be comfortable with the physical principles, equipment, and procedures used in diagnostic imaging, as well as appreciate the capabilities and limitations of the technologies.

  4. Private Donations to Colleges Rise for 4th Consecutive Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Backed by a strong economy and a growing stock market, American colleges and universities raised an estimated $29.8-billion in the 2007 fiscal year, the highest total ever recorded, according to a report released last week by the Council for Aid to Education. But the country's recent economic troubles have some fund-raising experts concerned that…

  5. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events. PMID:26390952

  6. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  7. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  8. Television in Postgraduate and Continuing Medical Education. 4th and 5th October, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, C. E., Ed.; Meyrick, R. Ll., Ed.

    The proceedings of a conference on television in postgraduate and continuing medical education for general practitioners are presented in this three-part report. Part One contains papers on medical broadcast television which examine the problems of informing the isolated doctor and groups of doctors of new developments; the usefulness and…

  9. Performance Plan: Progress Report 4th Quarter Fiscal Year 2000. Student Financial Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This is the final report on the fiscal year of Student Financial Assistance (SFA). It reports on progress toward three objectives: (1) customer satisfaction; (2) reducing the overall cost of delivering student aid; and (3) employee satisfaction. Of the planned projects, SFA completed all but three. One was postponed, one was dropped as not cost…

  10. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1982. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    Information on state-level financing of higher education and on institutional revenues and expenditures is presented for fiscal year (FY) 1982, with trend data back to FY 1978. In addition to a narrative analysis, nearly 200 tables show state rankings on 46 factors involved in higher education finance. The state rankings cover state and local…

  11. A study of personality factors and interaction in 4th-year dental students and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Watts, T L; Millard, L

    1997-02-01

    No previous investigation has considered dental student and teaching staff opinions on their relationship with each other. In a day when students are increasingly asked for feedback on the quality of teaching by staff, such investigations are of particular interest. This exploratory study was designed to compare the personality characteristics of a clinical year of dental students with those of the teaching staff they most frequently encountered, and to investigate these factors for possible associations with the quality of perceived teaching-learning interaction between the 2 groups. A complete 4th year of dental students (n = 87), and those teachers whom they met regularly (n = 80), were asked to participate. Subjects completed a form of the Myers-Briggs personality questionnaire simplified for use in education, and were asked to assess their relationship with persons in the other group. All the students and 75% of the staff, after follow-up, returned usable data. There was close similarity between staff and student personality profiles, and perception of working relationships by both groups was largely independent of personality factors and temperament. There were differences in staff perception of their relationship with extrovert and introvert students. Students showed minor differences in their perception of staff relationships with respect to two other personality factors. These findings indicate a substantial similarity between staff and students, and suggest a mature and stable relationship between people in the 2 groups. PMID:9567907

  12. Investigating factors influencing 4th-year physiotherapy students' opinions of cardiorespiratory physiotherapy as a career path.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Julie; Skinner, Margot; Lee, Annemarie; Wilson, Lisa; Alison, Jennifer A

    2012-07-01

    Recruitment and retention issues in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy (CRP) have led to concerns for the future of this specialist area of physiotherapy. This study evaluated the career choices of student physiotherapists and elicited factors that influenced their perceptions of CRP. A postal questionnaire to two schools of physiotherapy in New Zealand and two in Australia was administered. Final year students were randomly selected and invited to complete the questionnaire. Details of respondents' clinical experience, future career intentions, and perceptions of CRP as a specialism were ascertained. A response rate of 61% (n=149) was obtained. Although the majority of respondents had undertaken cardiorespiratory placements, only 3% of respondents reported being "extremely interested" in specializing in CRP. The variety and timing of clinical placements and educational and clinical supervision were key factors that had the potential to both positively and negatively influence students' opinions of CRP. An understanding of the role of CRP beyond that of inpatient care appeared limited. To promote uptake of CRP as a career option, clinicians, educators, and managers should strive to provide positive clinical placements and educational opportunities. The extensive scope of clinical practice of cardiorespiratory physiotherapists could be a greater focus within physiotherapy curricula. PMID:22007799

  13. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  14. Transcatheter Aortic Valve-in-Valve Replacement Instead of a 4th Sternotomy in a 21-Year-Old Woman with Aortic Homograft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Díez, José G.; Schechter, Michael; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Preventza, Ourania

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a well-established method for replacing native aortic valves; however, it was conceived for elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis, and the lack of data on long-term durability has led practitioners to restrict the use of TAVR to patients who have short life expectancies. Here, we describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who had undergone 3 previous open aortic valve replacements and who presented with symptoms of recurrent valvular failure. Transthoracic echocardiograms and computed tomographic angiograms revealed a degenerating aortic root homograft with substantial calcification, moderate-to-severe aortic valve stenosis, and severe aortic valve regurgitation. Open surgical valve replacement posed substantial risk to our patient, so we decided to perform valve-in-valve TAVR with use of the Edwards Sapien XT Transcatheter Heart Valve. The patient's pulmonary artery pressure, valvular regurgitation, and symptoms improved substantially thereafter. We found that valve-in-valve TAVR into a failing aortic root homograft was less invasive than repeat surgical valve replacement in this young patient who had congenital vascular anomalies and a complex surgical history. PMID:27547146

  15. YVUN Celebrates Its 4th Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonka, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of the Youth Visits the United Nations (YVUN) program. The program began in 2003 with funds provided by the Ursula Thrush Peace Seed Grant. Its purpose is to bring middle school students to New York to attend sessions of the United Nations, allowing these adolescents the opportunity to learn about global issues…

  16. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  17. Seventy Years of the Journal "Medical Archives".

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2016-02-01

    This year journal "Medical Archives" celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  18. Empathy in Chinese medical students: psychometric characteristics and differences by gender and year of medical education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years in China, the tense physician-patient relationship has been an outstanding problem. Empathy is one of the fundamental factors enhancing the therapeutic effects of physician-patient relationships and is significantly associated with clinical and academic performance among students. Methods This cross-sectional study used the JSPE-S (The Student Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy) to assess 902 medical students from 1st year to 4th year at China Medical University. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the construct validity of the JSPE-S. Group comparisons of empathy scores were conducted via the t-test and one-way ANOVA. Statistic analysis was performed by SPSS 13.0. Results The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.83. The three factors emerging in the factor analysis of the JSPE-S are “perspective taking”, “compassionate care” and “ability to stand in patients’ shoes”, which accounted for 48.00%. The mean empathy score was 109.60. The empathy score of medical students had significant differences between different genders (p < 0.05) and academic year level (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study provided support for the validity and reliability of the Chinese translated version of the JSPE-S for medical students. Early exposure to clinical training and a curriculum for professional competencies help to enhance the empathy of medical students. We suggest that the curriculum within Chinese medical schools include more teaching on empathy and communicational skills. PMID:24053330

  19. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  20. Final year medical education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, Christoph; Krautter, Markus; Celebi, Nora; Obertacke, Udo; Jünger, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Medical education in Germany has undergone significant changes. The current article attempts to give an overview of final year medical education in Germany and implications for further developments. Challenges in final year medical education mainly arise from the lack of clearly defined learning objectives, the provision of structure, independent patient management and professional guidance and supervision. The abolition of the one-and-a-half-year period of pre-registration medical training in 2004 and the changes in the structure of state examinations in line with the amendment of medical licensing regulations in 2002, meant pressure on the efficiency of final year medical education on the one hand, and additional burden on final year students on the other. In this article, a broad variety of innovative models that have been implemented at different medical faculties, and which address final year students' needs, will be reported. Further challenges, such as the integration of general medicine rotations, the abolishment of the second state examination in its present form, and the integration of final year students' individual career plans will be discussed. PMID:22480889

  1. [Time--the 4th dimision in medicine and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Time is presented as well in his historical meaning and as 4th dimension in its medical and psychotherapeutic context. In this medical and psychotherapeutic process it has an important function and is a variable of a process procedure. The difference between "kairos" = (the right point of time) and "chronos" = (the period of time) is historically meanful. The subjective experienced time is as well emphasized by the development of time in the relation to the development of the "self" as in the subjective experience of time in medical and psychotherapeutic situations. There are also changed conceptions and understandings of time running parallel to the development of nature sciences. The importance of time is explained for the medical practice and the meeting with the patient--especially for chronic diseases. The connection of confidence and time is particularly emphasized in the systemic approach. PMID:12764877

  2. Teaching with comics: a course for fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Though graphic narratives (or comics) now permeate popular culture, address every conceivable topic including illness and dying, and are used in educational settings from grade school through university, they have not typically been integrated into the medical school curriculum. This paper describes a popular and innovative course on comics and medicine for 4th-year medical students. In this course, students learn to critically read book length comics as well as create their own stories using the comics format. The rationale for the course, its general content and format, and methods for teaching are described. Finally, the author offers some reflections on why this medium resonates so powerfully with medical student learners. PMID:24014209

  3. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students. PMID:9456583

  4. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. PMID:25922152

  5. Seventy Years of the Journal “Medical Archives”

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    This year journal “Medical Archives” celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  6. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  7. [Cooperation among pharmaceutical, medical and nursing schools aimed at 6-year pharmaceutical education].

    PubMed

    Ono, Hideki; Kurono, Yukihisa

    2012-01-01

    Eleven universities which have pharmacy, medical or nursing school, have cooperated in an attempt to build the human and material systems for 6-year pharmacy education and to apply them to practical pharmacy educations. Members are Nagoya City University, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, University of Shizuoka, Aichi Gakuin University, Kinjo Gakuin University, Meijo University, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Mie University, Aichi Medical University and Fujita Health University. Tokai Cooperation Center for Clinical Pharmacy Education, the steering committee and 5 subcommittees established following projects; 1) WEB-based system for supplementary lesson of natural science (for freshmen), 2) FD (Faculty Development) activity (for teachers), 3) WEB-based data-base system of disease case for PBL (Problem-based Learning) and methods for practice of physical assessment (for 4th grade students), 4) WEB-based system for practical pharmacy training (for 5th grade students), 5) Matching and WEB system for graduation practice at university hospital (for 6th grade students). PMID:22214575

  8. Student Perceptions of the First Year of Veterinary Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…

  9. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A Text Size ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  10. The Influence of a "Gap Year" on Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson-Brown, Lucy; Paterson-Brown, Flora; Simon, Elizabeth; Loudon, Joanna; Henderson-Howat, Susanna; Robertson, Josephine; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the views of second year medical students from 6 Universities on the value or not of deferring entry to medical school in order to take a "Gap Year" obtained from an anonymous questionnaire. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test to produce a two tailed P value, with significance defined as p <0.05. A total of…

  11. Quantitative Literacy Provision in the First Year of Medical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of and motivation for the quantitative literacy (numeracy) intervention in the first year of medical studies at a South African university. This intervention is a response to the articulation gap between the quantitative literacy of many first-year medical students and the demands of their curriculum.…

  12. Educational climate perception by preclinical and clinical medical students in five Spanish medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Gual, Arcadi; Escaneroi, Jesus; Tomás, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Elorudy, Marta; Virumbrales, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Arce, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate student's perceptions of Educational Climate (EC) in Spanish medical schools, comparing various aspects of EC between the 2nd (preclinical) and the 4th (clinical) years to detect strengths and weaknesses in the on-going curricular reform. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional design and employed the Spanish version of the "Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure" (DREEM). The survey involved 894 2nd year students and 619 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools. Results The global average score of 2nd year students from the five medical schools was found to be significantly higher (116.2±24.9, 58.2% of maximum score) than that observed in 4th year students (104.8±29.5, 52.4% of maximum score). When the results in each medical school were analysed separately, the scores obtained in the 2nd year were almost always significantly higher than in the 4th year for all medical schools, in both the global scales and the different subscales. Conclusions The perception of the EC by 2nd and 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools is more positive than negative although it is significantly lower in the 4th  year. In both years, although more evident in the 4th year, students point out the existence of several important "problematic educational areas" associated with the persistence of traditional curricula and teaching methodologies. Our findings of this study should lead medical schools to make a serious reflection and drive the implementation of the necessary changes required to improve teaching, especially during the clinical period. PMID:26057355

  13. Student perceptions of the first year of veterinary medical school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Donald E

    2002-01-01

    Like other forms of post-baccalaureate study, veterinary medicine can be demanding and sometimes stressful. A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 US veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive about their first-year academic experience in veterinary school. PMID:12717641

  14. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  15. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006). Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals. PMID:19159472

  16. Cultural Literacy of Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of fourth-year students in obstetrics at one medical school confirmed the absence of a liberal undergraduate education and indicated their failure to acquire cultural knowledge during their premedical and medical education. Knowledge deficits extended beyond the humanities to nonmedical sciences and the history and philosophy of medicine.…

  17. Secondary preventive medication persistence and adherence 1 year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638

  18. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school

    PubMed Central

    Obrien, Bridget; Niehaus, Brian; Teherani, Arianne; Young, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize junior residents’ perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results Participants’ descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. Conclusions The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.

  19. Canadian medical education: 50 years of innovation and leadership.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, W D

    1993-05-01

    Over the past 50 years, many Canadian medical educators have pursued ideas and visions, as individuals in the 1950s and 1960s and later in partnership with various national bodies. Relations between universities and national medical organizations have been productive in dealing with issues of postgraduate education and clinical assessment, in particular. From 1970 to 1990, strong education offices and formally trained educators led to many successes in the areas of research in cognition, continuing medical education and clinical assessment. Canadian medical education has now achieved international recognition for its work in all aspects of the continuum of the physician's education through vision, initiative and cooperation. PMID:8477386

  20. [Bloodletting as medical therapy for 2500 years].

    PubMed

    Ulvik, R J

    1999-06-30

    Bloodletting has been part of the history of medicine for more than 2500 years. Up to the end of the Middle Ages, the rationale for bloodletting originated from the ancient greek humoral theory. The great scientific progress from the 16th century and onward, apparently did not weaken its position. Prominent physicians such as Andreas Vesalius (1514-64), William Harvey (1578-1657) and Thomas Sydenham (1624-89) defended bloodletting. In the beginning of the 19th century the use of leeches became the major technique of bloodletting in Europe. In Norway bloodletting was mentioned in royal decrees from the 13th century, and the method became popular in folk medicine. At the end of the 19th century bloodletting came at last to be regarded as ineffective for most of its traditional purposes, and its use declined rapidly. Today, however, bloodletting is being restored in modern medicine as the most effective method of treating the increasing frequent disorders caused by iron overload. PMID:10425902

  1. Predictive validity of the UK clinical aptitude test in the final years of medical school: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was designed to address issues identified with traditional methods of selection. This study aims to examine the predictive validity of the UKCAT and compare this to traditional selection methods in the senior years of medical school. This was a follow-up study of two cohorts of students from two medical schools who had previously taken part in a study examining the predictive validity of the UKCAT in first year. Methods The sample consisted of 4th and 5th Year students who commenced their studies at the University of Aberdeen or University of Dundee medical schools in 2007. Data collected were: demographics (gender and age group), UKCAT scores; Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) form scores; admission interview scores; Year 4 and 5 degree examination scores. Pearson’s correlations were used to examine the relationships between admissions variables, examination scores, gender and age group, and to select variables for multiple linear regression analysis to predict examination scores. Results Ninety-nine and 89 students at Aberdeen medical school from Years 4 and 5 respectively, and 51 Year 4 students in Dundee, were included in the analysis. Neither UCAS form nor interview scores were statistically significant predictors of examination performance. Conversely, the UKCAT yielded statistically significant validity coefficients between .24 and .36 in four of five assessments investigated. Multiple regression analysis showed the UKCAT made a statistically significant unique contribution to variance in examination performance in the senior years. Conclusions Results suggest the UKCAT appears to predict performance better in the later years of medical school compared to earlier years and provides modest supportive evidence for the UKCAT’s role in student selection within these institutions. Further research is needed to assess the predictive validity of the UKCAT against professional and behavioural

  2. [The years in pictures; medical milestones since 1970].

    PubMed

    Langeveld, C H Kees; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    The end of the year is always a perfect moment to look back. However, looking back over the past year alone is not enough if you want a complete picture of developments in medical science, which is why the Dutch Journal of Medicine (NTvG) has posted a timeline on its website charting medical milestones over the past 45 years. Some of these milestones are illustrated in the infographic in this number, and some interesting patterns can be observed. In this article we discuss various trends, from the increasing tendency to quantify to the rise of evidence-based medicine. PMID:26675654

  3. The Yale Plan of Medical Education: the early years.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the early years of the Yale Plan of Medical Education, which has come to be called the Yale System. It chronicles and analyzes the incremental development of the System and considers evaluations of the plan and modifications introduced over time. Also considered are external factors which influenced design and implementation. The paper covers the period of medical education at Yale from the 1920s to the early 1950s. PMID:3538682

  4. Year in Review: Medication Mishaps in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Peron, Emily P.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Boyce, Richard; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Handler, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews articles from the past year that examined medication mishaps (i.e., medication errors and adverse drug events [ADEs]) in the elderly. Methods The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language articles published in 2010 using a combination of search terms including: medication errors, medication adherence, medication compliance, suboptimal prescribing, monitoring, adverse drug events, adverse drug withdrawal events, therapeutic failures, and aged. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors’ article files, book chapters and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional publications. Five studies of note were selected for annotation and critique. From this literature search, this paper also provides a selected bibliography of manuscripts published in 2010 (excluding those previously published in the American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy or by one of the authors) that address various types of medication errors and ADEs in the elderly. RESULTS Three studies addressed types of medication errors. One study examined underuse (due to prescribing) as a type of medication error. This was a before-and-after study from the Netherlands reported that those who received comprehensive geriatric assessments had a reduction in the rate of under-treatment of chronic conditions over a third (from 32.9% to 22.3%, p < 0.05). A second study focused on reducing medication errors due to the prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications. This quasi-experimental study found that a computerized provider order entry clinical decision support system decreased the number of potentially inappropriate medications ordered for patient’s ≥ 65 years of age who were hospitalized (11.56 before to 9.94 orders per day after, p < 0.001). The third medication error study was a cross-sectional phone survey of managed-care elders. This study found that more blacks than whites had low

  5. Implementation of the interdisciplinary curriculum Teaching and Assessing Communicative Competence in the fourth academic year of medical studies (CoMeD)

    PubMed Central

    Mortsiefer, Achim; Rotthoff, Thomas; Schmelzer, Regine; Immecke, J.; Ortmanns, B.; in der Schmitten, J.; Altiner, A.; Karger, André

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of a longitudinal curriculum for training in advanced communications skills represents an unmet need in most German medical faculties, especially in the 4rth and 5th years of medical studies. The CoMeD project (communication in medical education Düsseldorf) attempted to establish an interdisciplinary program to teach and to assess communicative competence in the 4th academic year. In this paper, we describe the development of the project and report results of its evaluation by medical students. Methods: Teaching objectives and lesson formats were developed in a multistage process. A teaching program for simulated patients (SP) was built up and continuous lecturer trainings were estabilshed. Several clinical disciplines co-operated for the purpose of integrating the communication training into the pre-existing clinical teaching curriculum. The CoMeD project was evaluated using feedback-forms after each course. Results: Until now, six training units for especially challenging communication tasks like “dealing with aggression” or “breaking bad news” were implemented, each unit connected with a preliminary tutorial or e-learning course. An OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) with 4 stations was introduced. The students’ evaluation of the six CoMeD training units showed the top or second-best rating in more than 80% of the answers. Discussion: Introducing an interdisciplinary communication training and a corresponding OSCE into the 4th year medical curriculum is feasible. Embedding communication teaching in a clinical context and involvement of clinicians as lecturers seem to be important factors for ensuring practical relevance and achieving high acceptance by medical students. PMID:22403591

  6. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years. PMID:21506308

  7. The Question of Stress Among First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Robert E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Stress was investigated in two classes of first-year medical students with support groups, didactic sessions, and no-contact control conditions. Few differences in personality measures were found, and all group means were within the normal range. Results bring into question the reported extent of chronic stress in this group. (MSE)

  8. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families. PMID:25134666

  9. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  10. Information and informatics literacies of first-year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Bouquin, Daina R.; Tmanova, Lyubov L.; Wright, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study evaluated medical students' familiarity with information literacy and informatics during the health sciences library orientation. Methods A survey was fielded at the start of the 2013 school year. Results Seventy-two of 77 students (94%) completed the survey. Over one-half (57%) expected to use library research materials and services. About half (43%) expected to use library physical space. Students preferred accessing biomedical research on laptops and learning via online-asynchronous modes. Conclusions The library identified areas for service development and outreach to medical students and academic departments. PMID:26512221

  11. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  12. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  13. [Medical press in Poland in the years 1945-1949].

    PubMed

    Paciorek, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    In the article was presented a development of Polish medical press in the years 1945-1949. A special attention is drawn by time turning point, which was set up by the Author. A year 1945 is not only the time of the end of World War II and the beginning of consecutive stage of the history, but also is the moment of establishing new scientific institutions, among others--Scientific and Publishing Department at Ministry of Health, which was to protect the remaining scientific output and develop it. A final time turning point--a year 1949--is not only a period of slow elimination of relative democratic privileges, but also is the time of decadent publishing activity of several medical periodicals that were independent of health department. Finally, it is also the beginning of edition 'Słuzba Zdrowia' ['Health Service']--a popular medical weekly magazine, the limb of ZZPSZ, a journal, which was completely subordinated to dictatorship of contemporary political system. In the paper was included an analysis of 9 titles of popular medical periodicals that were issued in the above-mentioned period. A choice of them was intended, because in this kind of magazines the Author could find the answers for the following questions--to what extent in the columns of medical journals one could observe the liberty of authors' opinions and what views concerned the freedom, what one can say about the development of scientific section and the subject matter of discussed issues, how the problems were presented and what said about contacts and cooperation of Polish doctors with foreign countries. Therefore, in the article were discussed first projects and publishing programs prepared by Scientific and Publishing Department. There was also presented chronologically an origin, development and--often--decline of succeeding popular medical periodicals' titles. A special attention was paid to the social issues of medical circles that can turn out to be extremely interesting for the present

  14. Anxiety in first year medical students taking gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Cartmill, Matt; Reiter, Jerry; Spaulding, Jean; Haviland, James; Valea, Fidel; Thibodeau, Patricia L; McCorison, Stacey; Halperin, Edward C

    2014-09-01

    To study anxiety levels in first-year medical students taking gross anatomy. Thirty medical students per year, for 2 years, completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) 10 times during a 13-week gross anatomy course. In addition, behavioral observations were made by a psychiatrist during gross anatomy for demonstrations of assertive, destructive, neutral, or passive behavior. Additional qualitative outcome measures were group exit interviews with the faculty and students. The mean BAI for all 60 students per year, for 2 years, was 2.19 ± 3.76, 93% of the scores indicated minimal anxiety, and 89% of BAI values were less than five which confirmed a minimal level of anxiety. The low level of reported BAI contrasted sharply with verbal reports by the same students and face-to-face exit interviews with the psychiatrist. Symptoms of stress and anxiety emerged as a result of these conversations. The high levels of subjective stress and anxiety revealed by the interviews were unknown to the gross anatomy faculty. The low scores of students on the BAI's stand in sharp contrast to the BAI's reported for medical students in other published reports. Although it is possible that our students were truthfully devoid of anxiety, it is more likely that our students were denying even minimal anxiety levels. There have been reports that medical students feel that admitting stress, depression, or anxiety put their competitiveness for a residency at risk. We conclude that students may be in frank denial of experiencing anxiety and, if so, this behavior is not conducive to good mental health. PMID:24740887

  15. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years. PMID:25516923

  16. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  17. Bifrost: A 4th Generation Launch Architecture Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrschneider, R. R.; Young, D.; St.Germain, B.; Brown, N.; Crowley, J.; Maatsch, J.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A 4th generation launch architecture is studied for the purpose of drastically reducing launch costs and hence enabling new large mass missions such as space solar power and human exploration of other planets. The architecture consists of a magnetic levitation launch tube placed on the equator with the exit end elevated to approximately 20 km. Several modules exist for sending manned and unmanned payloads into Earth orbit. Analysis of the launch tube operations, launch trajectories, module aerodynamics, propulsion modules, and system costs are presented. Using the hybrid logistics module, it is possible to place payloads into low Earth orbit for just over 100 per lb.

  18. A wellness program for first year medical students.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Angele; Brennan, Julie; Lynch, Denis; Whearty, Kary

    2012-12-01

    Entering medical students experience distress symptoms due to the demands of the intensive curriculum, adjustment to new environments and increased responsibilities. The purpose of this controlled, randomized study was to determine the effects of a structured wellness program on measures of anxiety, depression and frequency of acute illness in 449 first year medical students. The effects of eight sessions of stress management were compared to a wait list control group. High risk students were identified based on scores on psychological inventories and number of recent life events (WLE). Results showed that depression, anxiety scores and frequency of acute illness were higher in women than in men, and were higher in students with multiple life events. Significant decreases were observed in depression in the intervention group students when WLE was the covariate (p = .045). Further, the high risk group showed consistently lower depression scores after the intervention compared to high risk wait list controls (p = .003), and these changes were maintained at the end of school year. There were no significant changes in anxiety or frequency of acute illness. Wellness programs can be implemented in medical school and may be particularly useful for entering students with elevated psychological distress. PMID:22699926

  19. A 95 GHz, 4th harmonic gyro-oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.; Scheitrum, G.P.; Bemis, T.; Higgins, L.

    1994-12-31

    There is currently an interest in medium power ({approximately}100 kW), compact 95 GHz amplifiers for future radar applications. Size, weight, and efficiency are critical for airborne applications. Litton has been investigating a 4th harmonic, 4-cavity gyro-amplifier. The key to success of the amplifier is the axis-encircling electron beam from a new type of electron gun, the advanced center post (ACP) gun. Gun simulations incorporating the actual magnetic field and thermal velocity spread in the emitted electrons show that axial velocity spreads of less than 2% are attainable, which is significantly better than other gun concepts. The amplifier utilizes coaxial-magnetron-type cavities operating in the {pi} mode. In this cavity, vanes extend nearly down to the electron beam`s outside diameter. The majority of the RF stored energy in the system is in the coaxial cavity, so that the resonant frequency and quality factor of each coaxial magnetron cavity may be adjusted by varying only the coaxial cavity. Several components are being tested individually. To test the cavity design, a 4th harmonic oscillator based on a coaxial magnetron cavity has been designed. Results of the oscillator testing will be presented.

  20. Psychologists in medical schools and academic medical centers: over 100 years of growth, influence, and partnership.

    PubMed

    Robiner, William N; Dixon, Kim E; Miner, Jacob L; Hong, Barry A

    2014-04-01

    Psychologists have served on the faculties of medical schools for over 100 years. Psychologists serve in a number of different roles and make substantive contributions to medical schools' tripartite mission of research, education, and clinical service. This article provides an overview of the history of psychologists' involvement in medical schools, including their growing presence in and integration with diverse departments over time. We also report findings from a survey of medical school psychologists that explored their efforts in nonclinical areas (i.e., research, education, administration) as well as clinical endeavors (i.e., assessment, psychotherapy, consultation). As understanding of the linkage between behavioral and psychological factors and health status and treatment outcomes increases, the roles of psychologists in health care are likely to expand beyond mental health. An increasing focus on accountability-related to treatment outcomes and interprofessional research, education, and models of care delivery-will likely provide additional opportunities for psychologists within health care and professional education. The well-established alignment of psychologists' expertise and skills with the mission and complex organizational needs of medical schools augurs a partnership on course to grow stronger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24588315

  1. Diagnostic computing: an elective for fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Bartold, S; Hannigan, G G

    1995-01-01

    The complex problems that patients pose require familiarity with the use and limitations of diagnostic computer systems. Independent of practice specialty, physicians may expect to encounter computer applications and digital image systems to provide information for diagnosis and management. This poster describes an elective for fourth-year medical students that introduces students to diagnostic computing through the use of decision-assist software and imaging processing systems. The poster includes photographs, examples of course exercises and readings, and a summary of course evaluation information. PMID:8591394

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Breastfeeding and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Key, Timothy J; Anderson, Annie S; Armaroli, Paola; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Schüz, Joachim; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, and incidence rates have been rising in European Union (EU) countries over recent decades due in part to a sharp decline in breastfeeding practices. Evidence for a protective association between breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer at all ages is convincing, and modest protective relationships between breastfeeding and the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers have been suggested. The reduction in breast cancer risk is estimated at 2% for an increase of 5 months of lifetime breastfeeding. The longer women breastfeed, the more they are protected against breast cancer. In addition, breastfeeding is associated with several health benefits for both the mother and the breastfed child. Taking all this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Breastfeeding reduces the mother's cancer risk. If you can, breastfeed your baby". PMID:26116994

  3. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  4. Empowering fourth-year medical students: the value of the senior year.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Ellen M; Ryan, Michael J; Wenrich, Marjorie D

    2014-04-01

    In this issue of Academic Medicine, Wolf et al explore the purposes and value of the senior year of medical school as viewed by graduating students at their institution. Using data from student focus groups and questionnaires, they report that students all found there to be significant value in but identified different purposes for the fourth year. The authors of this commentary believe that study adds to the discussion of fourth-year curriculum reform an important voice that has been lacking-that of students.Previous articles focusing on the perceived lack of clarity of educational purpose in the senior year curriculum have reflected a faculty perspective and have led some to call for increasing the structure of, decreasing the elective time in, or even completely eliminating the fourth year. In this commentary, the authors ask for a pause in this debate to consider the implications of the student perspective as well as important trends in the medical education continuum that affect the senior student (e.g., milestones that will set new expectations for first-year residents, increasing pressure associated with matching to a residency). They propose that providing students with time for career exploration and for focusing on areas of interest would allow them to individualize their preparation for residency and to be more sure of their career choices. They share the University of Washington School of Medicine's planned new fourth-year approach as an example of a flexible, individualized senior year curriculum. PMID:24556780

  5. Empowering Fourth-Year Medical Students: The Value of the Senior Year

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael J.; Wenrich, Marjorie D.

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Academic Medicine, Wolf et al explore the purposes and value of the senior year of medical school as viewed by graduating students at their institution. Using data from student focus groups and questionnaires, they report that students all found there to be significant value in but identified different purposes for the fourth year. The authors of this commentary believe that study adds to the discussion of fourth-year curriculum reform an important voice that has been lacking—that of students. Previous articles focusing on the perceived lack of clarity of educational purpose in the senior year curriculum have reflected a faculty perspective and have led some to call for increasing the structure of, decreasing the elective time in, or even completely eliminating the fourth year. In this commentary, the authors ask for a pause in this debate to consider the implications of the student perspective as well as important trends in the medical education continuum that affect the senior student (e.g., milestones that will set new expectations for first-year residents, increasing pressure associated with matching to a residency). They propose that providing students with time for career exploration and for focusing on areas of interest would allow them to individualize their preparation for residency and to be more sure of their career choices. They share the University of Washington School of Medicine’s planned new fourth-year approach as an example of a flexible, individualized senior year curriculum. PMID:24556780

  6. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  7. 77 FR 39172 - Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July... 4th of July Fireworks display. Persons desiring to transit within this safety zone must contact the... Inlet for the City of Skagway, Alaska, sponsored 4th of July fireworks display. A no-action...

  8. Peer assessment among first year medical students in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the use of a validated peer assessment tool in Gross Anatomy. Students in a first year medical school class evaluated three members of their dissection group using an online survey tool. The mid-course and end-of-course evaluation included open-ended comments, as well as a five-point scale that measured three work habits, two interpersonal attributes and one overall score. All 267 students completed the assignment. The overall score and four of the five other assessed categories showed significant improvement from the mid- to end-of-course evaluations. Quantitative and qualitative data also revealed significant improvement among the students who received the lowest mid-course assessments. Seventy-six percent of the class agreed with the statement: "Based on the feedback I received, I made a change in how I worked with or taught my peers." The use of this peer assessment tool used by students in anatomy was associated with improvements in work habits and interpersonal attributes, particularly by the cohort of students who received the lowest mid-course feedback. Peer assessment offers students an opportunity to improve their interpersonal skills and work habits. PMID:23959790

  9. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  10. Basic Training Program in Medical Pedagogy: a 1-year program for medical faculty.

    PubMed Central

    Des Marchais, J E; Jean, P; Delorme, P

    1990-01-01

    In 1979 université de Montréal developed the Basic Training Program in Medical Pedagogy; the program has since been offered at two other Canadian medical schools. The learning activities are spread over an academic year so that the teachers are able to continue their clinical or research duties. The program, which follows a model of systematic instruction, comprises 17 self-instructional modules on basic educational topics adapted to medical teaching. The topics are related to four components of an integrated system: student needs and learning objectives, instructional methods, student evaluation and program evaluation. The instructional format is aimed at three levels--understanding, analysis and application--to which assignments and assessments are related. In addition to the modules, the program offers 15 half-day sessions for small groups (five participants and one instructor) to discuss aspects of the program, especially home assignments and the application of personal educational projects. A minimum of 100 hours of personal time is requested. The program's main goal is that students be placed at the centre of the educational process. Of 215 participants since 1979, 171 (80%) have completed the program and reported high satisfaction. Issues related to any faculty development program are discussed. PMID:2317704

  11. FAST DISPLACEMENT PROBABILITY PROFILE APPROXIMATION FROM HARDI USING 4TH-ORDER TENSORS.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Forder, John R

    2008-05-14

    Cartesian tensor basis have been widely used to approximate spherical functions. In Medical Imaging, tensors of various orders have been used to model the diffusivity function in Diffusion-weighted MRI data sets. However, it is known that the peaks of the diffusivity do not correspond to orientations of the underlying fibers and hence the displacement probability profiles should be employed instead. In this paper, we present a novel representation of the probability profile by a 4(th) order tensor, which is a smooth spherical function that can approximate single-fibers as well as multiple-fiber structures. We also present a method for efficiently estimating the unknown tensor coefficients of the probability profile directly from a given high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted (HARDI) data set. The accuracy of our model is validated by experiments on synthetic and real HARDI datasets from a fixed rat spinal cord. PMID:20046536

  12. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products. PMID:24924596

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  14. Research on the Present Status of the Five-Year Medical Training Program in Chinese Medical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhe; Miao, Le; Ke, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The five-year program is the main path for undergraduate medical training in China. Studies have shown that during the past eleven years, the scale of medical student enrollment increased annually with a relatively simple entrance exam. The ideas, teaching contents and methods, assessment and evaluation should be updated and improved. In general,…

  15. Psychiatry in Medicine: Five Years of Experience with an Innovative Required Fourth-Year Medical School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The author reports on a required fourth-year course, Psychiatry in Medicine, which was started in 1999 at Stony Brook Medical School. The aim was to address two important concerns in medical education at Stony Brook and throughout the United States: 1) the failure to recognize psychiatric pathology in outpatient medical settings and 2)…

  16. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace". PMID:26272517

  17. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  18. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression

  19. Finance issue brief: HMO medical directors: year end report-2002.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rachel; MacEachern, Lillian

    2002-12-31

    Medical directors of managed care organizations have the ultimate responsibility of deciding the treatments for which a health plan will pay. Cognizant of consumer concerns over the power inherent in the position, states are seeking to inject more accountability into the decision-making process. Lawmakers have begun to grapple with whether medical directors should be required to hold a medical license from the state in which they work and, by extension, whether they should be under the jurisdiction of the state medical board. PMID:12886932

  20. Finance issue brief: HMO medical directors: year end report-2003.

    PubMed

    MacEachern, Lillian

    2003-12-31

    Medical directors of managed care organizations have the ultimate responsibility of deciding the treatments for which a health plan will pay. Cognizant of consumer concerns over the power inherent in the position, states are seeking to inject more accountability into the decision-making process. Lawmakers have begun to grapple with whether medical directors should be required to hold a medical license from the state in which they work and, by extension, whether they should be under the jurisdiction of the state medical board. PMID:14964232

  1. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  2. The Stresses of the Second-Year Generation Y Medical Student: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The second year of medical school is widely considered a difficult year. During the second year, the students may experience their first patient interaction as well as working with physicians directly in a hospital or in a clinic. In addition, during the second year of medical school, students may decide that they do not like working with patients…

  3. The American College of Medical Genetics, the first 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, David L

    2011-03-01

    The American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) celebrates its 20th anniversary this month, having been founded in March of 1991. The ACMG has firmly established itself as a major medical association representing the needs of the many patients with genetic disorders and the expanding number of genetic clinical and laboratory professionals that strive to diagnose, treat and prevent these disorders. Over the last two decades they have had major accomplishments related to their original mission: They have become members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates and the American Board of Medical Specialists, pushed through laboratory Current Procedural Terminology codes, developed a manual for billing and reimbursement, have been active in a number of national arenas including Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Disease Control, National Institutes of Health and with other professional organizations (College of American Pathologists, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Society of Clinical Oncology). They have secured grant funding, developed major educational programs (Board courses, MOC modules, CD-ROMS), a well respected medical journal, a successful and well attended annual meeting, major relationships with industry, and have been leaders in the legal arena, challenging patents for genetic testing, etc. In the future, the tools and knowledge of medical genetics will permeate all of medicine and the ACMG should embrace, encourage and assist all of those varying medical specialists, counselors, nurses and scientists who are involved in providing genetic services. PMID:21311339

  4. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  5. Four years' experience of an undergraduate medical nutrition course.

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Tuck, J; Summerbell, C; Holsgrove, G; Garrow, J S

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the medical colleges of The Royal London and St Bartholomew's hospitals launched a new curriculum in which basic medical sciences were to be integrated with early exposure to clinical medicine in the first phase. The curriculum was to be modular and integrative, combining clinical and medical-science-based teaching of body systems, rather than the traditional teaching by departmental discipline. We describe the inception, content and evaluation of a 7-day course on nutrition which was developed as part of this curriculum. It was rated highly by the students, whose feedback led to important modifications. The programme works well in practice, and could provide a useful guide for other schools about to set up nutrition courses for medical students. PMID:9068433

  6. [Fifty year's career of Chinese Journal of Medical History].

    PubMed

    Lu, Z

    1996-01-01

    The Journal of Medical History, the antecedent of the now Chinese Journal of Medical History, was inaugurated in March 1947. This paper divides the whole course of publication and compilation of this Journal into 3 stages, namely, Stage of Initiation and Growth (1947-1948), Stage of Tortuous Progressing (1951-1959), Stage of Flourishing and developing (1980-). Altogether 25 volumes, 95 issues have been published in 953 millon Chinese characters and 1684 original articles. Being a highly effective major journal of medical history, this Journal satisfies nearly 40% of the information in this subject and has been indexed by major medical cataloging tool books, both domestic and foreign. Experience and prospects are also mentioned here. PMID:11618794

  7. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  8. 76 FR 45826 - Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY... announcing the fee rates and payment procedures for medical device user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The... 30, 2010 Fees Fiscal year appropriated Fees collected Difference 2008 Actual $48,431,000...

  9. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  10. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  11. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  12. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law...

  13. 75 FR 34639 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA in the Federal Register (75 FR 26157). We received no comments on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's... the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic...

  14. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display... used in the fireworks display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the...

  15. 75 FR 26157 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's..., VA in support of the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict...

  16. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  17. Podiatric Medical Education: Revolution and Evolution over 18 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Podiatric Medical Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A presentation of the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine and the chief officers of the five U.S. colleges of podiatric medicine to HEW's Health Resources Administration is provided. Podiatric medical education; organization, structure, curriculum; podiatrist professional scope and responsibilities; accreditation, licensure,…

  18. Twenty Years of Medicating Youth: Are We Better off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    One would like to believe that advances in science have resulted in improved outcomes for troubled youth. Trends in treatment have changed dramatically in two decades. Technology to understand the brain and its functions are highly advanced. But the United States is now medicating youth more than any other country. There is growing concern about…

  19. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  20. Fifty-Year Fate and Impact of General Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Belbasis, Lazaros; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Background Influential medical journals shape medical science and practice and their prestige is usually appraised by citation impact metrics, such as the journal impact factor. However, how permanent are medical journals and how stable is their impact over time? Methods and Results We evaluated what happened to general medical journals that were publishing papers half a century ago, in 1959. Data were retrieved from ISI Web of Science for citations and PubMed (Journals function) for journal history. Of 27 eligible journals publishing in 1959, 4 have stopped circulation (including two of the most prestigious journals in 1959) and another 7 changed name between 1959 and 2009. Only 6 of these 27 journals have been published continuously with their initial name since they started circulation. The citation impact of papers published in 1959 gives a very different picture from the current journal impact factor; the correlation between the two is non-significant and very close to zero. Only 13 of the 5,223 papers published in 1959 received at least 5 citations in 2009. Conclusions Journals are more permanent entities than single papers, but they are also subject to major change and their relative prominence can change markedly over time. PMID:20824146

  1. [Medical risk and liability in stomatology in the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Penneau, M; Maillart-Rouge, C; Chouet, F; Pettenati, H B

    2000-06-01

    In the current context of scientific progress, the evolution of medical liability is directly related to the increasing potential danger of medical procedures, the widening field of medical intervention, the growing concern about becoming a victim, and the changing notions about responsibility. We present here recent changes in administrative and legal jurisprudence. As administrative instances have progressively acquired more and more freedom of action, they have successively accepted hypotheses of presumed misconduct, abandoned the prerequisite of major misconduct, and allowed cases of liability without misconduct. The attitudes of legal instances remained unchanged for a long period before developing the concept of lost opportunity, then the presumption of misconduct in the case of nosocomial infections, and more recently, the notions of prejudice resulting from lack of information and the obligation for safe outcome accessory to the obligation to use available means. The future remains quite uncertain. One can expect a convergence between administrative and judiciary judges. For many, this unification will lead to a desirable "block of competency". We are probably moving towards the notion of objective responsibility which would allow indemnities to be awarded for medical accidents, but leaving open the possibility of court action for misconduct. The question remains open concerning the modalities of implementation: legislation or jurisprudence with its inherent risks. PMID:10981294

  2. A selected review of abstracts from the 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO), San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-24 November 2013 The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO) was the largest neuro-oncology meeting that meets once every 4 years and brings together clinicians and scientists from all parts of the world whose focus is on new brain cancer clinical trials and research primarily pertaining to gliomas. The WFNO 2013 meeting included 1 education day, 2.5 days of presentation, 13 sunrise sessions, one town hall meeting, one mini-symposium, 130 oral presentations and 900 abstracts. This short meeting review highlights select adult clinical abstracts presented at WFNO 2013 that will only in part encompass the contents of a large and multifaceted meeting. PMID:25055016

  3. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  4. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; Capps, Shannon; Chaudhuri, Ayan; Chen, Junye; Chen, Linling; Colasacco-Thumm, Nicole; Escobar, Maria Gabriela; Ferguson, Craig R.; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Meng, Jesse; Molod, Andrea; Poli, Paul; Roundy, Joshua; Willett, Kate; Wollen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  5. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  6. State of Oregon 4th biennial energy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    State law directs the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) to prepare an energy plan every two years. This is the Fourth Biennial Energy Plan. The Plan is a policy blueprint for how to best meet Oregon's future energy needs. It identifies the key energy issues facing the state and sets forth policies and actions to achieve our energy goals of reliable, least-cost, and environmentally safe supply. This book presents: Oregon's demand and supply picture today. The progress Oregon has made toward energy efficiency. Oregon's energy demand and supply outlook for the next 20 years. Estimates of cost-effective conservation and other resources that could contribute to the state's energy supply. The major energy-related health, safety, and environmental issues facing the state. A strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent from 1988 levels by 2005. A two-year Action Plant that spells out ODOE's recommended actions for achieving Oregon's energy goals.

  7. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  8. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. PMID:26126928

  9. 75 FR 45641 - Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY... announcing the ] fee rates and payment procedures for medical device user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2011. The... Commissioner for Policy. BILLING CODE 4160-01-S...

  10. Pastimes: The Context of Contemporary Leisure. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ruth V.

    2009-01-01

    Originally published in 1996, "Pastimes" introduced an exciting new text that explored leisure and recreation philosophy and science, the various subfields, and the leisure services industry. This new edition is the result of what the author has learned from years of engagement with leisure theory, research, and personal and professional practice.…

  11. Mapping medical careers: Questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, KV; McManus, IC

    2004-01-01

    Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional) typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Methods Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry), in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032) or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973) and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437). Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL) on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Results Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. Conclusions There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic), Hospital Medicine (Investigative), Psychiatry (Artistic), Public Health (Social), Administrative Medicine (Enterprising), and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional). The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be used as the basis

  12. Substance use, medication adherence and outcome one year following a first episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Marco; Carra, Elena; Fraietta, Sara; Lally, John; Quattrone, Diego; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Mondelli, Valeria; Ajnakina, Olesya; Dazzan, Paola; Trotta, Antonella; Sideli, Lucia; Kolliakou, Anna; Gaughran, Fiona; Khondoker, Mizanur; David, Anthony S; Murray, Robin M; MacCabe, James H; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Both substance use and poor medication adherence are associated with poor outcome in psychosis. To clarify the contributions of substance use and poor medication adherence to poor outcome in the year following a first episode of psychosis, 205 patients were evaluated for use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and stimulants at their psychosis onset, and in a 1-year follow-up. Data on medication adherence and symptom remission were also collected. Patients had high rates of overall substance use before (37-65%) and after psychosis onset (45-66%). 44% showed poor medication adherence and 55% did not reach remission from psychosis. Nicotine dependence and cannabis use after psychosis onset significantly predicted both poor medication adherence and non-remission, and poor medication adherence mediated the effects of these substances on non-remission. In conclusion, medication adherence lies on the causal pathway between nicotine dependence and cannabis on the one hand and non-remission on the other. PMID:26718334

  13. Ten-Year Experience of Remote Medical Education in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kuriko; Antoku, Yasuaki; Hu, Min; Okamura, Koji; Nakashima, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Moving images are often essential in medical education, to learn new procedures and advanced skills, but, in the past, high-quality movie transmission was technically much more challenging than transmitting still pictures because of technological limitations and cost. Materials and Methods: We established a new system, taking advantage of two advanced technologies, the digital video transport system (DVTS) and the research and education network (REN), which enabled satisfactory telemedicine on a routine basis. Results: Between 2003 and 2013, we organized 360 programs connecting 221 hospitals or facilities in 34 countries in Asia and beyond. The two main areas were endoscopy and surgery, with 113 (31%) and 106 (29%) events, respectively. Teleconferences made up 76% of the total events, with the remaining 24% being live demonstrations. Multiple connections were more popular (63%) than one-to-one connections (37%). With continuous technological development, new high-definition H.323 and Vidyo® (Hackensack, NJ) systems were used in 47% and 39% of events in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The evaluation by questionnaires was favorable on image and sound quality as well as programs. Conclusions: Remote medical education with moving images was well accepted in Asia with changing needs and developing technologies. PMID:25272006

  14. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Infections and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villain, Patricia; Gonzalez, Paula; Almonte, Maribel; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Anttila, Ahti; Park, Jin Young; De Vuyst, Hugo; Herrero, Rolando

    2015-12-01

    Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be of major public health importance in several EU countries and increases cancer risk via HIV-induced immunosuppression. The fourth edition of the European Code Against Cancer presents recommendations on effective and safe preventive interventions in order to reduce the risk of infection-related cancers in EU citizens. Based on current available evidence, the fourth edition recommends that parents ensure the participation of their children in vaccination programs against HBV (for newborns) and HPV (for girls). In the 'Questions and Answers' (Q&As) section about vaccination and infections in the website for the European Code Against Cancer, individuals who are at risk of chronic HBV or HCV are advised to seek medical advice about testing and obtaining treatment when appropriate. Individuals most at risk of HIV are advised to consult their doctor or healthcare provider to access counselling and, if needed, testing and treatment without delay. Information about H. pylori testing and treatment is also provided as testing might currently be offered in some high-risk areas in Europe. The rationale and supporting evidence for the recommendations on vaccination in the European Code Against Cancer, and for the main recommendations on vaccination and infection in the Q&As, are explained in the present review. PMID:26589774

  15. A pivotal year for managing retiree medical benefit costs.

    PubMed

    Fontanetta, Ron

    2005-01-01

    With Medicare set to begin offering a prescription drug benefit in 2006, employers that provide medical coverage to retirees aged 65 and older have a unique opportunity to redefine their programs and financial commitments for the long term. The new Medicare Part D drug benefit poses a range of alternatives for employers to consider--from eliminating post-65 drug benefits altogether to maintaining or modifying their current programs to qualify for the 28% federal tax subsidy for eligible drug costs. In deciding on a course of action, companies need to consider a host of complex issues, including workforce needs and demographics, employee relations, plan design and administration--in addition to the long-term financial and accounting implications. This article reviews the alternatives available to employers with the advent of Medicare Part D and highlights some of the key factors employers should consider as part of this decision. PMID:16248227

  16. [Gender norms and the development of the medical habitus: in the years of medical schooling and residency].

    PubMed

    Castro, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This article documents the gender abuse that Mexican medical students face. The concept of medical socialization is analyzed, with emphasis on the problem of the mistreatment of medical students. The theoretical framework articulates ideas from Foucault and Goffman with the nodal points of Bourdieu using a gender focus. Numerous examples are employed to show that the formal program of study also contains a hidden curriculum which serves to reproduce gender hierarchies. Women face numerous types of socially induced discouragement in choosing and completing their course of study, particularly in certain specialties. Discrimination is present in affectivized as well as in authoritarian interactions. They face sexual harassment in the classroom and in their years of specialization, and are constantly constructed as subordinated subjects. The importance of these findings in the constitution of a medical habitus is discussed. PMID:25522103

  17. The expansion of 8-year medical training programs in China: a status report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Yin, Zhuo; Wei, Yong-bao; Liu, Long-fei; Yang, Jin-rui

    2015-01-01

    Instituted in major medical programs only within the past decade, the advent of an ‘expanded’ 8-year medical curriculum reflects a major reformation of how physicians are trained in China. Although much remains to be done, including the refinement of associated learning objectives, instructional models, and teaching pedagogies, movement toward a longer, more standardized training framework represents a marked transition for Chinese medical practice. This article highlights the current status and anticipated future of these emerging 8-year medical training programs in modern-day China. PMID:25661499

  18. The 1992 4th NASA SERC Symposium on VLSI Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the fourth annual NASA Symposium on VLSI Design, co-sponsored by the IEEE, are presented. Each year this symposium is organized by the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the University of Idaho and is held in conjunction with a quarterly meeting of the NASA Data System Technology Working Group (DSTWG). One task of the DSTWG is to develop new electronic technologies that will meet next generation electronic data system needs. The symposium provides insights into developments in VLSI and digital systems which can be used to increase data systems performance. The NASA SERC is proud to offer, at its fourth symposium on VLSI design, presentations by an outstanding set of individuals from national laboratories, the electronics industry, and universities. These speakers share insights into next generation advances that will serve as a basis for future VLSI design.

  19. The Jubilee of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina - 20 Years Anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Last two years, the health informatics profession celebrated five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: thirty years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, twenty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, fifteen years from the establishment of the Scientific and Professional Journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“, fifteen years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and five years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article are eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24133382

  20. 29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ABOVE. THESE ARE NEWER APPARATUS AND NOT ORIGINAL. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback to left and delivery stair bulkhead to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  3. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. [Medical nephropathies: what has changed in 20 years].

    PubMed

    Cusinato, S; Ragazzoni, E; Agliata, S; Airoldi, G; Fortina, F; Schweiger, K; Boschetti, M; Cavagnino, A

    1996-09-01

    The authors analyse the series of patients with medical nephropathy undergoing renal biopsy between 1973 and 1993 in order to make a diagnostic and prognostic comparison between the first (ID) and second (IID) decade. Clinical indications for biopsy, which became more precise during the second decade, led to the diagnosis of fewer patients with normal histology; the introduction of ME and IF allowed non-significant histological conditions to be reduced during IID; echo-guided biopsy has led to a reduced number of post-biopsy complications in IID compared to ID. Epidemiological analysis reveals the reduction of focal glomerulosclerosis in IID in favour of glomerulonephritis with IgA deposits in correlation with the use of IF; the increase in mebranous glomerulonephritis secondary to increased antigenic stimuli; reduced acute post-infective glomerulonephritis and membrane-proliferative glomerulonephritis owing to an improved prophylaxis of sources of infection. Among the patients undergoing renal biopsy and commencing dialysis an increase was observed in IID in the number of cases of membranous glomerulonephritis or caused by IgA deposits. There was an increased interval between biopsy and the start of dialysis in IID compared to ID, in spite of fewer patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. This was probably due to the increased number of pathologies with a slower evolution, thus justifying the postponement of the start of dialysis. PMID:8966649

  5. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  6. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  7. 78 FR 46970 - Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the fee rates and payment procedures for medical device user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Medical Device User Fee Amendments of 2012, which was signed by the President on July 9, 2012 (MDUFA III), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for certain medical device......

  8. [Surgical Medical Meetings in the Mexican Social Security Institute: 17 years of existence].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge; Franco-Bey, Rubén; Quiroz-Vasquez, Laura; Cruz-Flores, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The Surgical Medical Meetings Program aims to make highly specialized medical services to the marginalized rural population. Surgical Medical Encounters highlight the experience and results of an innovative strategy characterized by continuous improvement and the desire to continue transcending health for the most vulnerable populations. During 17 years of its inception, it is interesting to describe the evolution and achievements of the program. PMID:25393870

  9. The Cost of Postgraduate Medical Education and Continuing Medical Education: Re-Examining the Status Fifty Years Back

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  10. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  11. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... the cost of inpatient medical services furnished by military treatment facilities through...

  12. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  13. Substance Use by Fourth-Year Students at 13 U.S. Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, Scott; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study investigated drug use by fourth-year medical students in 13 schools and compared drug use patterns with those of an age- and sex-matched cohort. Medical students reported less use of marijuana, cocaine, cigarettes, LSD, barbiturates, and amphetamines, similar use of opiates, and slightly more use of tranquilizers and alcohol. (MSE)

  14. [Association of the Scientific Societies of Hungarian Medical Doctors (MORTESZ) was founded 80 years ago].

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Sótonyi, Péter

    2011-07-31

    After the First World War the professional medical societies in Hungary, which have already organized themselves nationwide, started to operate independently from each other. In that time came the idea to create another association above the others to gather them together while retaining their independent functioning. The Association of the Scientific Societies of Hungarian Medical Doctors (MORTESZ), established in 1931, became the nationwide forum for many medical associations. It also organized the first Hungarian Medical Grand-Week which became the annual meeting of the medical society. In the first year the cooperation only consisted of a common topic of two or three associations presented in the "Grand-Week". From year 1935, reports were appointed annually that each professional association could comment on. The proceedings of the "Grand-Week" were published yearly as appendices of the Hungarian Medical Journal. After the Second World War the activities of the independent associations were shut down by the authorities. The scientific and professional associations could continue their work as sections inside of the Doctors and Health Workers' Union. In 1966 the situation was solved thanks to the initiative of the Trade Union, the Department of Medicine and the Medical Section of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences which resulted in the foundation of the Association of the Hungarian Medical Societies (MOTESZ) which continues to gather together the collective work of many scientific associations and carries out tasks of general interest since then, similarly to the now 80-years-old MORTESZ. PMID:21788207

  15. Nuclear Medical Technology. Curriculum for a Two Year Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buatti, A.; Rich, D.

    Objectives of the project briefly described here were (1) to develop curriculum for a two-year nuclear medical technology program based on a working relationship between three institutions (community college, university health center, and hospital) and (2) to develop procedures for the operation of a medical imaging and radiation technology core…

  16. Exploratory Study of Factors Related to Educational Scores of First Preclinical Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarawut

    2014-01-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students.…

  17. The Boston Marathon Medical Care Team: A Ten-Year Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adner, Marvin M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The composition, ojbectives, and perceptions of the medical care team which has evolved over the last 10 years to provide acute care for injured persons at the finish line of the Boston Marathon are described, as well as as an ancillary group which maintains medical records and defines injury patterns. (Author/CB)

  18. Stability of Repeated Student Evaluations of Teaching in the Second Preclinical Year of a Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz-Girod, Catherine; Bonvin, Raphael; Lanares, Jacques; Cueanot, Seagoleine; Feihl, Francois; Bosman, Fred; Waeber, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The second preclinical year of the medical curriculum at the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland includes nine multidisciplinary organ-system-oriented modules consisting of lectures and problem-based-learning tutorials. This study reports the experience accumulated with the evaluation of lectures during the academic years…

  19. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  20. First-Year Residents' Caring, Medical Knowledge, and Clinical Judgment in Relation to Laboratory Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Paul R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 36 first-year Northwestern University (Illinois) medical residents found that students' medical knowledge was a predictor of increased laboratory test use, that clinical judgment was a predictor of decreased laboratory use, and that level of caring was statistically unrelated to amount of laboratory use. (Author/MSE)

  1. Predicting Performance during Clinical Years from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroline, Jan D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The results of a predictive validity study of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) using criteria from the clinical years of undergraduate medical education are discussed. The criteria included course grades and faculty ratings of clerks in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. (Author/MLW)

  2. Surgical Clinical Correlates in Anatomy: Design and Implementation of a First-Year Medical School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubert, Lisa M.; Jones, Kenneth; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Medical students state the need for a clinically oriented anatomy class so to maximize their learning experience. We hypothesize that the first-year medical students, who take the Surgical Clinical Correlates in Anatomy program, will perform better than their peers in their anatomy course, their surgical clerkships and ultimately choose surgical…

  3. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  4. Intelligence and Persisting with Medication for Two Years: Analysis in a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Stewart, Marlene C. W.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Murray, Gordon D.; Batty, G. David; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and…

  5. "Pioneers in Physiology": A Project by First-Year Medical Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucharita, S.; Avadhany, Sandhya T.

    2011-01-01

    The medical curriculum is vast, and students are expected to learn many subjects at the same time. Medical students are often stressed and find it difficult to cope with the curriculum. In addition, some first-year students find theory and practical classes to be monotonous. One of the difficulties faced by faculty members is, therefore, to…

  6. Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference (Lithuania, October 21-22, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 4th international conference "Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development" continues an eight-year old tradition. The conference is organized by Kaunas University of Technology Panevezys Institute and aims to bring scientists and researchers together for a general scientific discussion on new trends in sociolinguistic,…

  7. Maintenance of empathy levels among first and final year medical students: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Areeb Sohail

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of empathy amongst medical students in the first year and final year of the medical curriculum at a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study, comprising of participating students in their first year and final year of the medical curriculum at Ziauddin University Medical College, was carried out, using the Empathy Quotient (EQ) scale consisting of 60 questions through a self-administered questionnaire. The results were collected anonymously over a time period of six months from a sample of 171 participants. Results : According to our analysis, we found 82.67% of fifth year students and 80.21% of first years showing average or above average levels of empathy. Female mean scores were 42±9.60 while males were 38.7±9.358 (P=0.03). No association was found between empathy and age of the participants (p=0.77). Conclusion: We found no significant difference in the levels of empathy between the first and fifth year medical students. However, it was shown that females exhibited higher levels of empathy than males. PMID:24358858

  8. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  9. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations. PMID:27018206

  10. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  11. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  12. Open-mindedness of First Year Medical, Nursing, and Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy; Linn, Margaret W.

    1977-01-01

    Differences in degree of dogmatism between medical students and their peers in other "helping" disciplines on entrance to professional schools are examined. Changes in dogmatism after one year are then compared among the groups. (LBH)

  13. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  14. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive...

  15. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (75 FR 22330). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration... associated with the City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector...

  16. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Huron during the Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks... with the Mackinac Island 4th of July fireworks display. The fireworks display will occur between 9:45...

  17. 75 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks... the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display, July ] 4, 2010. This temporary safety zone is... with the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display. The fireworks display is planned to...

  18. Patients Aged 80 Years or Older are Encountered More Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ding, Ding; Pu, Shi-Yun; Liu, Qin-Hui; Li, Hong; Dong, Bi-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Yan; He, Jin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are prominent prescribing issues in elderly patients. This study was to investigate the different prevalence of PIM use in elderly inpatients between 65–79 years of age and 80 years or older, who were discharged from Geriatric Department in West China Hospital. Methods: A large-scale cohort of 1796 inpatients aged 65 years or over was recruited. Respectively, 618 patients were 65–79 years and 1178 patients were 80 years or older. Updated 2012 Beers Criteria by the American Geriatric Society was applied to assess the use of PIM among the investigated samples. Results: A review of the prescribed medications identified 686 patients aged 80 years or older consumed at least one PIM giving a rate of 58.2%. Conversely, 268 (43.4%) patients aged 65–79 years consumed at least one PIM (χ2 = 40.18, P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older had higher hospitalization expenses, length of stay, co-morbidities, medical prescription, and mortality than patients aged 65–79 years (all with P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older were prescribed with more benzodiazepines, drugs with strong anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin. In multiple regression analysis, PIM use was significantly associated with female gender, age, number of diagnostic disease, and number of prescribed medication. Conclusions: The finding from this study revealed that inpatients aged 80 years or older encountered more PIM use than those aged 65–79 years. Anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin are medications that often prescribed to inpatients aged 80 years or older. Doctors should carefully choose drugs for the elderly, especially the elderly aged 80 years or older. PMID:26712428

  19. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  20. A learning skills course for the 1st year medical students: an experience at a Saudi medical school

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran A; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Alsultan, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. PMID:25848332

  1. Psychological stress and burnout in medical students: a five-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, E; Black, D; Bagalkote, H; Shaw, C; Campbell, M; Creed, F

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess psychological morbidity and symptoms of burnout in medical students during their undergraduate training, and to identify baseline factors that predict psychological morbidity in students in the final year of the course. It was a 5-year prospective longitudinal cohort study. Students were assessed in years 1, 4 and 5 of their medical undergraduate training by means of the GHQ-12 and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 172 (84.3%), 157 (77.0%) and 155 (75.9%) students out of an original group of 204 completed assessments in years 1, 4 and 5, respectively. 18 students were above threshold on the GHQ-12 on all three occasions, 25 on two occasions and 43 on one occasion; 69 students were never a 'case'. Students who were cases on two or more occasions were more likely to find the medical course stressful during the first year, but not subsequent years. There was no significant difference between the percentages of men and women who scored as cases on the GHQ-12 in any of the years. The best predictor of psychological morbidity in the final year of the course was the GHQ-12 score in year 1. This study suggests that a small group of students repeatedly experience psychological distress during their medical training. PMID:9764076

  2. Three-Year Experience of an Academic Medical Center Ombuds Office

    PubMed Central

    Layde, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192

  3. Three-Year Experience of an Academic Medical Center Ombuds Office.

    PubMed

    Raymond, John R; Layde, Peter M

    2016-03-01

    An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192

  4. Modeling Processes of 4th-Year Middle-School Students and the Difficulties Encountered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali; Kant, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics teachers have recently begun to stress the need for teaching models and modeling approaches that encompass cognitive and meta-cognitive thought processes for every level of schooling, starting from primary school through to higher education. The objective of this study is to examine modeling processes with the help of modeling…

  5. Clinical differences between opioid abuse classes ameliorated after 1 year of buprenorphine-medication assisted treatment.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Joseph; Severt, Jamie; Kassed, Cheryl; Ruetsch, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the clinical and demographic profiles of three opioid-dependent user groups, and measured their response to 1 year of buprenorphine-medication assisted treatment. Opioid prescription, street, and combination (street + prescription) users completed the Addiction Severity Index multiple times over the course of one treatment year. Although groups differed on all measured demographics (P values <.05) and on six of seven Addiction Severity Index composite scores at induction (P values <.05), differences were ameliorated after 1 year. Findings highlight the disparities between the various opioid-dependent patient subpopulations and suggest that buprenorphine-medication assisted treatment is an effective treatment across user subtypes. PMID:22540432

  6. Assessing Medical Students' Perceptions of Mistreatment in Their Second and Third Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, David A.; Becker, Marilyn; Frank, Robert R.; Sokol, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Survey of Wayne State University (Michigan) 542 medical students found significantly more third-year than second-year students reporting personal experience of mistreatment or discrimination. Students specializing in family medicine reported the lowest rates of mistreatment, those in obstetrics/gynecology and surgery the highest. Perception also…

  7. Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

    1975-01-01

    A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

  8. A baccalaureate-MD program for students from medically underserved communities: 15-year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, William A; Ferry, Pamela; King, Jason; Wedig, Cindy Martinez; Villarreal, Graciela B

    2010-04-01

    Liaison Committee on Medical Education standard MS-8 requires medical schools to partner with other educational institutions or develop programs to make medical education more accessible to potential applicants from diverse backgrounds. From 1994 to the present, Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas-Pan American (UTPA) have partnered to offer a BS-MD program to increase access to medical education for students from South Texas, a predominantly Latino, largely medically underserved region. Since its inception in 1994, the Premedical Honors College (PHC) has produced 134 medical school matriculants (as of 2008), an average of 12 students per year since 1998, when the first program graduates matriculated to medical school. This represents a significant increase; only 10 students entered medical school from the region's five undergraduate institutions at baseline year 1994, including six from UTPA. Of those matriculating to medical school, through the PHC 110 (82%) are from underrepresented minority backgrounds, and 106 (79%) are Latino. In addition, the program has produced 65 MDs to date; 55 (85%) are Latino. Twenty PHC participants have already completed residency training and are practicing, 12 of those in or near South Texas. As of 2008, 44 were completing residencies or fellowships, 9 in South Texas, and several have expressed a desire to return to South Texas eventually to practice. Six PHC graduates are academic faculty members (four clinical instructors and two assistant professors), all of them Latino. These results suggest that pipeline strategies involving academic partnerships can have a meaningful impact on diversity in medical education. PMID:20354387

  9. Mental Well-Being in First Year Medical Students: A Comparison by Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Rachel R.; Przedworski, Julia M.; Burke, Sara E.; Burgess, Diana J.; Phelan, Sean M.; Dovidio, John F.; Nelson, Dave; Rockwood, Todd; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, authors sought to characterize race and gender disparities in mental health in a national sample of first year medical students early in their medical school experience. Method This study used cross-sectional baseline data of Medical Student CHANGES, a large national longitudinal study of a cohort of medical students surveyed in the winter of 2010. Authors ascertained respondents via the American Association of Medical Colleges questionnaire, a third-party vendor-compiled list, and referral sampling. Results A total of 4732 first year medical students completed the baseline survey; of these, 301 were African American and 2890 were White. Compared to White students and after adjusting for relevant covariates, African American students had a greater risk of being classified as having depressive (relative risk (RR)=1.59 [95 % confidence interval, 1.37–2.40]) and anxiety symptoms (RR=1.66 [1.08–2.71]). Women also had a greater risk of being classified as having depressive (RR=1.36 [1.07–1.63]) and anxiety symptoms (RR−1.95 [1.39–2.84]). Conclusions At the start of their first year of medical school, African American and female medical students were at a higher risk for depressive symptoms and anxiety than their White and male counterparts, respectively. The findings of this study have practical implications as poor mental and overall health inhibit learning and success in medical school, and physician distress negatively affects quality of clinical care. PMID:26413458

  10. Appraisal by Year Six French medical students of the teaching of forensic medicine and health law.

    PubMed

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Rougé, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Legal medicine is a cross-sectional specialty in which medico-legal situations very frequently combine with routine medical practice. A total of 132 students in the last year of the second cycle of medical studies (Year 6) replied anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire corresponding to the topics in the curriculum for the national ranking examination: law relating to death and the dying, examination of assault victims, medical malpractice liability rules, writing death certificates, respect of medical confidentiality and the principles of medical deontology. The most frequently cited activities of the forensic physician were autopsy (87.9%), writing certificates (75.8%) and consultations with victims of violence (60.6%). Students did not often come into contact with a medico-legal situation during Years 2-6 of medical studies. Assiduity in attending lectures was low. Students preferred the standard textbooks available in specialized bookshops. They were severe in their appraisal of their own competence at the end of the second cycle, and did not feel ready to examine a corpse (95.5%) or to examine victims of assault (92.4%). Knowledge of the law and of the risks of medical practice was felt to be inadequate by 60.5% of students, and of the writing of a medical certificate by 56.8%. Training medical students in this field is a major challenge in view of the limited number of teaching hours and the need to acquire increasingly specialized knowledge. Complementary initiatives appear to be necessary, such as partnership with other clinical specialties which are frequently confronted with medico-legal situations. PMID:21539288

  11. [Academy of medical sciences during the Great Patriotic War and first years after war].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2014-06-01

    In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia. PMID:25286578

  12. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  14. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  16. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for the launching of fireworks being sponsored by the City of...

  17. Improving Social Interaction among 4th Grade Students through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer

    This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…

  18. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  19. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  20. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  1. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  2. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  3. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation...

  4. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  5. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  6. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  7. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  8. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE IN THE BACKGROUND, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE TACKLE BOX. RAMP OF PIER EXTENSION IS VISIBLE ON RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  12. Exploring the underperformance of male and minority ethnic medical students in first year clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Haq, Inam; McManus, I Chris; Higham, Jenny; Dacre, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Evidence shows that medical students from Minority Ethnic (ME) backgrounds and male medical students underperform in undergraduate examinations. Our study confirmed these findings in first year clinical (year 3) medical students, and further explored this disparity in performance. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to measure the effects of sex and ethnic group on the written examination and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores of three groups of year 3 medical students at two London UK medical schools (n = 1,051; 46.0% male; 48.7% White). Male and ME students scored lower on written and OSCE assessments. Both assessments were statistically significantly correlated (mean r = 0.45) and therefore the effects of sex and ethnic group were measured on each exam after being adjusted for the effect of the other. Although sex and ethnic differences remained on the OSCE when adjusted for written performance, these differences disappeared on the written when it was adjusted for OSCE performance. These findings may reflect a relative deficit in practical clinical knowledge in male and ME year 3 students. Results were unlikely to be due to examiner bias, as the machine-marked unadjusted written exam results showed significant sex and ethnic differences. PMID:17487565

  13. Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Masika, Moses Muia; Omondi, Gregory Barnabas; Natembeya, Dennis Simiyu; Mugane, Ephraim Mwatha; Bosire, Kefa Ogonyo; Kibwage, Isaac Ongubo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS®. Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis. Results We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory. Conclusion Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education. PMID:26327964

  14. Using Simulation to Improve First-Year Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Medication Errors Involving the Top 100 Prescription Medications

    PubMed Central

    Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students’ ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students’ knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills. PMID:27402989

  15. Using Simulation to Improve First-Year Pharmacy Students' Ability to Identify Medication Errors Involving the Top 100 Prescription Medications.

    PubMed

    Atayee, Rabia S; Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students' ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students' knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills. PMID:27402989

  16. Students’ Perspectives on the Fourth Year of Medical School: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lockspeiser, Tai M.; Gong, Jennifer; Guiton, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the purpose and value of the fourth year of medical school from the perspective of medical students. In this study, the authors systematically explored the year’s purpose and value as determined by students. Method In April 2011, the authors conducted semistructured focus groups with graduating fourth-year students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine to understand their perspectives on the purpose of the fourth year. Using results of a thematic analysis of the focus group data, the authors developed and administered a 10-item questionnaire to all graduating fourth-year medical students in May 2011. Questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. Results A total of 17 students participated in two focus groups. Six themes related to the purpose of the fourth year emerged from the focus group data: career development and preparation, pursuing personal interests, career identification, exploration of diverse practice settings, influence of emotion, and flexibility and individualization. The questionnaire was completed by 134 of 148 students (91% response rate). Factor analysis of the questionnaire data identified five factors: strengthening one’s residency application, developing skills, pursuing personal interests, exploring diverse practice settings, and identifying a career. Conclusions Medical students uniformly identified the fourth year of medical school as having purpose and value, but their views on the fourth year’s purpose differed. This finding underscores the importance of the individualization of the fourth year. Students’ perspectives should inform any decisions made about modifying fourth-year curricula and structure. PMID:24556778

  17. Intelligence and persisting with medication for two years: Analysis in a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Stewart, Marlene C.W.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Murray, Gordon D.; Batty, G. David; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and 77 years with an ankle brachial index ≤ 0.95. The medication was 100 mg aspirin or placebo daily. The principal outcome measure was continuing with taking medication or stopping it due to having ‘changed one's mind’. Higher verbal intelligence was associated with a greater likelihood of continuing to take medication up to two years after randomisation. For a standard deviation increase in Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale score, risk of stopping medication in the first two years of the study was 0.75 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.87, p < 0.001). Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of IQ, the lowest IQ group's relative rate of stopping medication was 2.51 (95% CI 1.52 to 4.22). The effect was not attenuated after adjustment for sex, smoking, or level of deprivation. Verbal intelligence is associated with continuing, medium-to-long term engagement with health self-care, even in the face of uncertainty about whether active treatment is being received, whether the treatment is known to be effective in general, and whether it will be helpful to the individual taking it. Such persisting with potentially helpful health behaviours in the face of uncertainty might partly explain why people with higher intelligence live longer and suffer less morbidity from chronic diseases. PMID:19907664

  18. Intelligence and persisting with medication for two years: Analysis in a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Gale, Catharine R; Stewart, Marlene C W; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Murray, Gordon D; Batty, G David; Price, Jacqueline F

    2009-11-01

    The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and 77 years with an ankle brachial index medication was 100 mg aspirin or placebo daily.The principal outcome measure was continuing with taking medication or stopping it due to having 'changed one's mind'. Higher verbal intelligence was associated with a greater likelihood of continuing to take medication up to two years after randomisation. For a standard deviation increase in Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale score, risk of stopping medication in the first two years of the study was 0.75 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.87, p < 0.001). Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of IQ, the lowest IQ group's relative rate of stopping medication was 2.51 (95% CI 1.52 to 4.22). The effect was not attenuated after adjustment for sex, smoking, or level of deprivation. Verbal intelligence is associated with continuing, medium-to-long term engagement with health self-care, even in the face of uncertainty about whether active treatment is being received, whether the treatment is known to be effective in general, and whether it will be helpful to the individual taking it. Such persisting with potentially helpful health behaviours in the face of uncertainty might partly explain why people with higher intelligence live longer and suffer less morbidity from chronic diseases. PMID:19907664

  19. Effects of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme on Medical Service Utilization and Medical Expense Control of Inpatients: A 3-year Empirical Study of Hainan Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tao; Hu, Hong-Pu; Na, Xu; Li, Ya-Zi; Wan, Yan-Li; Xie, Li-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been further adjusted and optimized to reduce the financial burden of rural residents and to achieve universal coverage for them. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of NCMS on medical service utilization and medical expense of inpatients in recent years. Methods: The research data of Hainan Province were extracted from the Chinese NCMS platform from 2012 to 2014. Detailed information included total expenditure, average inpatients costs, average out-of-pocket payments, actual reimbursement rate, and average annual growth rate of the above indicators. Descriptive analysis was used to gauge the effects of NCMS. Results: In the utilization of medical services, NCMS inpatients in tertiary hospital decreased from 25.49% in 2012 to 20.39% in 2014, inpatients in county hospitals increased from 39.49% to 55.92%, simultaneously. The total expenditure in county hospitals rose steadily from 28.46% to 46.66%, meanwhile, the total expenditure in tertiary hospitals fell from 60.44% to 44.51%.The average out-of-pocket costs of rural inpatients remained stable over the years. Furthermore, the compensation fund of NCMS inpatients grew significantly. The actual inpatient reimbursement rate at township health centers increased from 76.93% to 84.04%. Meanwhile, the rate at county hospitals and tertiary hospitals increased slightly from 59.37% and 46.10% to 61.25% and 47.71%, respectively. Conclusions: With the improvement of the reimbursement ability, especially after the new health care reform in 2009, the NCMS have been playing a prominent role in alleviating the economic burden of farmers’ medical treatment. Meanwhile, more patients go to primary hospitals than tertiary hospitals, and the capability of primary hospitals has been greatly improved. PMID:27231163

  20. Medical Malpractice in Wuhan, China: A 10-Year Autopsy-Based Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    He, Fanggang; Li, Liliang; Bynum, Jennifer; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Ping; Li, Ling; Liu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Medical disputes in China are historically poorly documented. In particular, autopsy-based evaluation and its impact on medical malpractice claims remain largely unstudied. This study aims to document autopsy findings and medical malpractice in one of the largest cities of China, Wuhan, located in Hubei Province. A total of 519 autopsies were performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, over a 10-year period between 2004 and 2013. Of these cases, 190 (36.6%) were associated with medical malpractice claims. Joint evaluation by forensic pathologists and clinicians confirmed that 97 (51.1%) of the 190 claims were approved medical malpractice cases. The percentage of approved malpractice cases increased with patient age and varied according to medical setting, physician specialty, and organ system. The clinico-pathological diagnostic discrepancy was significantly different among various physician specialties (P = 0.031) and organ systems (P = 0.000). Of those cases involved in malpractice claims, aortic dissection, coronary heart disease, and acute respiratory infection were most common. Association between incorrect diagnosis and malpractice was significant (P = 0.001). This is the first report on China's medical malpractice and findings at autopsy which reflects the current state of health care services in one of the biggest cities in China. PMID:26559306

  1. Medical student career choice: a qualitative study of fourth-year medical students at Memorial University, Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Pianosi, Kiersten; Bethune, Cheri; Hurley, Katrina F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specialty career choice is a critical decision for medical students, and research has examined factors influencing particular specialties or assessed it from a demographic perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe influential factors in students' decision-making, irrespective of their particular specialty in a Canadian medical school. Methods: Study participants were recruited from fourth-year medical classes at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Sixteen focus groups (n = 70) were led by a nonfaculty facilitator to uncover factors affecting medical student career choice. The analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory methodology. The focus group transcripts were sequentially coded based on recurring topics and themes that arose in the students' discussions. A set of key themes emerged and representative quotations for each theme were tracked. Results: Twenty themes were identified from the focus group discussions: 7 major, 3 intermediate and 10 minor themes. The major themes were undergraduate experience, exposure, public perception and recruitment, teacher influence, family/outside influences, residency issues and personal philosophy. Intermediate themes included lifestyle, bad-mouthing/negative perceptions and context. Minor themes included critical incidents/experiences, information gaps, uncertainty, nature of the work, extracurricular programs, timing of decision-making, financial issues, prestige, fit with colleagues and gender issues. Interpretation: Exposure to specialties and the timing of this exposure appears to be crucial to career choice, as does the context (who, what, when, where) of any particular rotation. Given the influence of personal philosophy, future research examining students' level of self-assessment and self-reflection in their decision-making processes and level of certainty about their selected specialty would be useful. PMID:27398357

  2. THE FIRST LASING OF 193 NM SASE, 4TH HARMONIC HGHG AND ESASE AT THE NSLS SDL.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, X.J.; SHEN Y.; WATANABE, T.; MURPHY, J.B.; ROSE, J.; TSANG, T.

    2006-08-28

    The first lasing of three types of single-pass high-gain FELs, SASE at 193 nm, 4th harmonic HGHG at 199 nm and ESASE at the Source Development Lab (SDL) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is reported. The saturation of 4th harmonic HGHG and ESASE FELs was observed. We also observed the spectral broadening and instability of the 4th harmonic HGHG.

  3. The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 2.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    For the past two years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in the form of medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2012 were $513 million, half the amount paid out in 2011, indicating greater compliance with the MLR rule. Spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers continued to reduce their administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, without increasing profit margins, for a total reduction in overhead of $1.4 billion. In the first two years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to more than $3 billion. PMID:24881098

  4. The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 3.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    For the past three years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2013 were $325 million, less than one-third the amount paid out in 2011, indicating much greater compliance with the MLR rule. Insurers' spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers' administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, and profit margins have reduced slightly but remain fairly steady. In the first three years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to over $5 billion. This was achieved without a great exodus of insurers from the market. PMID:25890979

  5. A 12-year comparison of students’ perspectives on diversity at a Jesuit Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Imran; Sabatino, Matt; Mitchell, Stephen Ray; Walker, Benjamin; Weissinger, Peggy; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001); ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p=0.60), and sexual orientation (p=0.43); as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor’s delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001) across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001) from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69) and sexual orientation (p=0.58) only showed small decreases. Conclusions It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention. PMID:24581334

  6. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  7. The New MCAT and Its Relationship to Medical Student Performance--Year Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Frederick L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and the criterion of grades achieved in the freshman year for the entering class of 1978 was studied. From this analysis, a new index was created and used in screening the entering class of 1979 at the University of California, Irvine. (MLW)

  8. Communication Skills in Standardized-Patient Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…

  9. First-Year Medical Students' Knowledge of, Attitudes Toward, and Personal Histories of Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinane, Paula M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed 370 first-year medical students concerning family violence of which 38% reported a history of personal abuse; only one-third of these were well-informed about family violence. Women felt more strongly than men about need for violence education. Students reporting a history of violence more strongly favored violence education and advocacy…

  10. Personal and Behavioral Variables Related to Perceived Stress of Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Kent J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 555 second-year medical students from 7 schools found academic stress related to general satisfaction with life, gender, physical activity, alcohol use, sleep patterns, and recent losses and misfortunes. Personal stress was related to general satisfaction with life, gender, drug use, sensation-seeking sports, and recent losses and…

  11. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other…

  12. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  13. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura; Exline, Matthew; Leung, Cynthia G.; Way, David P.; Clinchot, Daniel; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period) was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%). The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively). Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement), but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001). Conclusion A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied. PMID:27222103

  14. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina. PMID:23322947

  15. Thinking about thinking: changes in first-year medical students’ metacognition and its relation to performance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei Han; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Sim, Joong Hiong

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. Aim This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. Methods The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students’ year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. Results A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students’ academic result was moderate. Conclusions The improvement in students’ metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program. PMID:26314338

  16. How well do final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills?

    PubMed Central

    Störmann, Sylvère; Stankiewicz, Melanie; Raes, Patricia; Berchtold, Christina; Kosanke, Yvonne; Illes, Gabrielle; Loose, Peter; Angstwurm, Matthias W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical examination and other practical clinical skills are fundamental to guide diagnosis and therapy. The teaching of such practical skills has gained significance through legislative changes and adjustments of the curricula of medical schools in Germany. We sought to find out how well final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills. Methods: We conducted a formative 4-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) focused on practical clinical skills during the final year of undergraduate medical education. Participation was voluntary. Besides the examination of heart, lungs, abdomen, vascular system, lymphatic system as well as the neurological, endocrinological or orthopaedic examination we assessed other basic clinical skills (e.g. interpretation of an ECG, reading a chest X-ray). Participants filled-out a questionnaire prior to the exam, inter alia to give an estimate of their performance. Results: 214 final year students participated in our study and achieved a mean score of 72.8% of the total score obtainable. 9.3% of participants (n=20) scored insufficiently (<60%). We found no influence of sex, prior training in healthcare or place of study on performance. Only one third of the students correctly estimated their performance (35.3%), whereas 30.0% and 18.8% over-estimated their performance by 10% and 20% respectively. Discussion: Final year undergraduate medical students demonstrate considerable deficits performing practical clinical skills in the context of a formative assessment. Half of the students over-estimate their own performance. We recommend an institutionalised and frequent assessment of practical clinical skills during undergraduate medical education, especially in the final year. PMID:27579358

  17. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  18. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  19. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  20. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years

    PubMed Central

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A.; Wali, Siraj O.; Merdad, Roah A.; Merdad, Leena A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep. PMID:26837401

  2. The evolution of an integrated ultrasound curriculum (iUSC) for medical students: 9-year experience.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Richard A; Rao, Victor V; Bell, Floyd; Poston, Mary Beth; Howe, Duncan B; Riffle, Shaun; Harris, Stephen; Riley, Ruth; McMahon, Carol; Wilson, L Britt; Blanck, Erika; Richeson, Nancy A; Thomas, Lynn K; Hartman, Celia; Neuffer, Francis H; Keisler, Brian D; Sims, Kerry M; Garber, Matthew D; Shuler, C Osborne; Blaivas, Michael; Chillag, Shawn A; Wagner, Michael; Barron, Keith; Davis, Danielle; Wells, James R; Kenney, Donald J; Hall, Jeffrey W; Bornemann, Paul H; Schrift, David; Hunt, Patrick S; Owens, William B; Smith, R Stephen; Jackson, Allison G; Hagon, Kelsey; Wilson, Steven P; Fowler, Stanley D; Catroppo, James F; Rizvi, Ali A; Powell, Caroline K; Cook, Thomas; Brown, Eric; Navarro, Fernando A; Thornhill, Joshua; Burgis, Judith; Jennings, William R; McCallum, James B; Nottingham, James M; Kreiner, James; Haddad, Robert; Augustine, James R; Pedigo, Norman W; Catalana, Paul V

    2015-12-01

    Interest in ultrasound education in medical schools has increased dramatically in recent years as reflected in a marked increase in publications on the topic and growing attendance at international meetings on ultrasound education. In 2006, the University of South Carolina School of Medicine introduced an integrated ultrasound curriculum (iUSC) across all years of medical school. That curriculum has evolved significantly over the 9 years. A review of the curriculum is presented, including curricular content, methods of delivery of the content, student assessment, and program assessment. Lessons learned in implementing and expanding an integrated ultrasound curriculum are also presented as are thoughts on future directions of undergraduate ultrasound education. Ultrasound has proven to be a valuable active learning tool that can serve as a platform for integrating the medical student curriculum across many disciplines and clinical settings. It is also well-suited for a competency-based model of medical education. Students learn ultrasound well and have embraced it as an important component of their education and future practice of medicine. An international consensus conference on ultrasound education is recommended to help define the essential elements of ultrasound education globally to ensure ultrasound is taught and ultimately practiced to its full potential. Ultrasound has the potential to fundamentally change how we teach and practice medicine to the benefit of learners and patients across the globe. PMID:26589313

  3. ‘Workshops in healing’ for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of ‘physician know thyself’ (Workshop 1) and ‘confronting suffering’ (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008–2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  4. 'Workshops in healing' for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  5. Differences between first and fourth year medical students’ interest in pursuing careers in academic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the differences in the attitudes of first and fourth-year medical students regarding careers in academics. We also sought to identify any factors associated with an increased interest in academic medicine. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2013 at the University of Louisville.  All first and fourth year medical students were invited to complete an online survey utilizing a survey instrument developed through literature review.  Demographic data and information about background experiences were collected in addition to participants' perceptions regarding careers in academia using a 5-point Likert scale. Participants were also queried about their current interest in a career in academics and the likelihood they would pursue academic medicine. Results Of the 330 potential participants, 140 (42.4%) agreed to participate. Overall, fourth-years reported a higher likelihood of pursuing an academic career than first-years. Research experience, publications, distinction track interest or involvement, and belief that a career in academics would reduce salary potential were positively correlated with reported likelihood of pursuing academic medicine. Conclusions Findings from this pilot study demonstrate differences in interest in academic medicine between junior and senior medical students. Additionally, several factors were associated with a high likelihood of self-reported interest in academic. Based on these findings, efforts to increase medical students’ interest in academic medicine careers could be supported by providing more research and teaching opportunities or distinction track options as a structured part of the medical school curriculum. PMID:27219295

  6. [A development of Byzantine Christian charities during the 4(th)-7(th) centuries and the birth of the hospital].

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and

  7. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers) were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Methods: Volunteer faculty (n=52), near-peers (n=57), and new entrants (n=148) admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]). Results: Many respondent faculty (27, 96%) and mentees (65, 88%) believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33%) to 34/74 (46%). Benefits resulted from mentors’ and near-peers’ demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees); 23 mentees (82%) wanted to become near-peers themselves. Conclusion: Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness. PMID:24980428

  8. Attitude of Medical and Dental First Year Students Towards Teaching Methods in a Medical College of Northern India.

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Singh, KD; Kumar, Avnish

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching in most Asian countries is still dominated by teacher-centered classrooms in which students passively receive information from the teacher. Studies have shown that students’ inactivity in traditional teacher-centered classes makes them bored that consequently decrease their concentration and learning. To counter these problems active learning methods are being promoted to enhance their interest in studying. This present study was done to explore effective teaching system from a student’s perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the attitude of medical and dental first year students towards teaching methods. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken at on 150 Medical and Dental first year students. The study was conducted using general questionnaires along with feedback form to know their opinion about different teaching methodology. Results: A 94.67% of the students were unsatisfied with traditional Lecture teaching. 89.33% favoured combination of traditional lectures and active learning techniques, 74.67% students find active learning methods to be interesting, 77.33% found them as attention seekers, 89.33% are motivated for in-depth study and 85.33% students are motivated for independents learning. 100% students agreed that active learning methods provide opportunities of student interaction while 86.67% students are happy with the teacher–student interaction it provides. Audio-visual aids are the most favoured (94.67%) and test questions are most criticized active teaching method. Conclusion: Our study disclosed that the majority of student’s positively believe in using different active learning techniques for classroom activities. PMID:25654017

  9. Medical aspects of drug misuse during one year in a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The medical work in a voluntary drug rehabilitation unit near Glasgow was examined. During one year 174 residents were admitted of whom 103 (59%) developed illnesses which required medical treatment. The need for drug misusers to receive general medical services during and after drug misuse was confirmed. Although withdrawal from barbiturate misuse required the prescription of controlled drugs, opiate and other withdrawals were satisfactorily managed with psychological support and general care; substances which could be abused were not prescribed. Blood testing of 129 residents showed that 114 (88%) had evidence of previous hepatitis B infection, while only two had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody. The low prevalence of HIV antibody compared with the high prevalence that has been reported in Edinburgh suggests that the opportunity exists at the moment to limit the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome among Glasgow drug misusers. PMID:3656269

  10. [Military physician Colonel Robert Yout. Twenty years as a paratrooper medical officer].

    PubMed

    Yout, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Robert Yout was born on June 15th, 1930. A rugby player and a member of the French Volleyball team, he was already an outstanding sportsman when he began his studies at the Health Services School in Lyons. His career as an army medical officer among the paratroopers was atypical. He spent many years among the most prestigious elite paratroopers of the French army: the 2nd REP, the 1st CHOC and the CINC (The Army Training School for Combat Swimmers) . When he retired, he was Head Doctor of the Paratroopers parent company: The Airborne School of Pau. For the army medical historian, Robert Yout is the perfect example of a man with an outstanding and remarkable career: A crack soldier, a brave army medical officer, a parachuting and diving pioneer and a sportsman of international class. PMID:24908785

  11. Empathy levels among first year Malaysian medical students: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Kadirvelu, Amudha; Olaussen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature indicates that medical practitioners experience declining empathy levels in clinical practice. This highlights the need to educate medical students about empathy as an attribute early in the academic curriculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate year one students’ self-reported empathy levels following a 2-hour empathy workshop at a large medical school in Malaysia. Methods Changes in empathy scores were examined using a paired repeated-measures t-test in this prospective before and after study. Results Analyzing the matched data, there was a statistically significant difference and moderate effect size between mean empathy scores before and 5 weeks after the workshop (112.08±10.67 versus 117.93±13.13, P<0.0001, d=0.48) using the Jefferson Scale Physician Empathy (Student Version). Conclusion The results of this observational study indicate improved mean self-reported empathy scores following an empathy workshop. PMID:24876799

  12. Doctor-patient interaction in Finnish primary health care as perceived by first year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Miettola, Juhani; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2005-01-01

    Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs) as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118) and 2004 (N = 130) were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the importance of role model

  13. [100 years of Draeger Medical Technology (1902 - 2002) -- working for the applicability of oxygen].

    PubMed

    Strätling, M; Schmucker, P

    2004-09-01

    This survey analyses the history of 100 years of Draeger Medical Technology. Between 1889 and 1902 a number of inventions on the field of pressure gas technology allowed to solve application problems, which until then proved major obstacles to the safe and efficient use of compressed gases such as oxygen, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide for medical and industrial purposes. A special significance is to be awarded here to pressure reducing valves, but also reliable manometers, nozzles and valves for pressure tanks were not generally available until then. These were first successfully and on a really significant scale introduced into international medical and non-medical pressure-gas technology by Draeger Inc. (Luebeck/Germany), and proved particularly successful in anaesthesia and rescue-devices (e. g. in the "Roth-Draeger Anaesthesia Apparatus" (1902). Consequently, starting in 1902, Draeger Inc. increasingly put an emphasis on developing medical and rescue technology and -- by doing so -- gained an important influence on the history of the implementation of modern oxygen therapy and of inhalative anaesthesia. A survey of the historically most important Draeger-Developments is provided. PMID:15490342

  14. Association of classroom participation and examination performance in a first-year medical school course.

    PubMed

    Millis, Richard M; Dyson, Sharon; Cannon, Dawn

    2009-09-01

    The advent of internet-based delivery of basic medical science lectures may unintentionally lead to decreased classroom attendance and participation, thereby creating a distance learning paradigm. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that classroom attendance/participation may be positively correlated with performance on a written examination for first-year medical school instruction. The study subjects consisted of 115 first-year medical students. The introductory respiratory structure-function instruction was designed to include one noncompulsory pretest, four short postinstruction noncompulsory self-evaluation tests that were unannounced as to date and time, and one compulsory comprehensive examination. The relationship between attendance/participation, measured by the number of noncompulsory tests taken, and performance on the comprehensive examination was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way ANOVA, and a chi(2)-test of significance. The average score on the pretest was 28%; for the same items on the comprehensive examination (posttest), the average score was 73%. For the 80 students who took the pretest, this translated to an overall score increase of 161%. Attendance/participation in four or five of the noncompulsory tests resulted in an 83.3% pass rate on the comprehensive exam compared with a rate of 52.9% for attendance/participation in three, two, one, or none of the five noncompulsory tests; the overall pass rate was 60.9%. There was a significant association between a high rate of classroom attendance/participation and a high score on the comprehensive examination (Pearson's chi(2) = 8.599, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that classroom attendance/participation may be a significant determinant of performance of medical students on comprehensive examinations in first-year basic medical science courses. It is concluded that a substantial number of first-year medical students in this study could be at risk for poor performance

  15. 76 FR 72003 - Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... BUDGET Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services rates referenced are effective upon publication...

  16. 78 FR 62709 - Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... BUDGET Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery rates referenced are effective upon publication of...

  17. Twenty-five years of progress in the medical treatment of pediatric and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    McNamara, D G

    1983-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been a many-fold increase in the prospect that with early recognition and modern treatment the newborn with critical congenital heart disease will reach adult life in a healthy condition, prepared to earn a living and to function as a spouse and as a parent. Advancements in the medical treatment of congenital heart disease may create less public acclaim than may surgical treatment but many purely medical developments provide the basis for achieving ultimate surgical success and, by judicious use of some forms of medical treatment, operation can be avoided altogether. The eight major contributions to patient care that are discussed in this review and the 35 that are simply listed are merely examples of the many developments that have occurred in the past 25 years. These include: 1) the organization of pediatric cardiology and the contribution of volunteer health organizations, 2) continuing medical education aimed at promoting early diagnosis of congenital heart disease and prompt referral to a cardiac center, 3) advances in the technology of cardiac catheterization, 4) Rashkind's balloon atrial septostomy and other catheter manipulative procedures, 5) pharmacologic manipulation of the ductus, 6) beta-adrenergic blockade for control of a variety of problems, including paroxysmal hypoxemic attacks, certain arrhythmias and relief of symptoms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 7) echocardiography, and 8) advances in arrhythmias, electrophysiologic studies and use of pacemakers. PMID:6131085

  18. Perceptions of epilepsy among first-year medical students at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Jeffrey; Berrett, Sawyer; Kimuli, Ivan; Katabira, Elly

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy is associated with stigma throughout the world, which leads to poor treatment of people with epilepsy (PWE). In Uganda, there are more than 75,000 PWE and a large treatment gap. This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding epilepsy among first-year medical students at Mulago Hospital. A 22-question survey was developed based on the previous studies of Birbeck et al.'s regarding the stigma of epilepsy in Zambia. This was administered to first-year medical students (96 respondents) at Mulago Hospital in Uganda. More than 80% said that they would not allow their children to marry PWE. Most respondents believed that epilepsy was a mental illness, and many believed that PWE cannot have normal intelligence. Students reported that there was a negative perception and negative treatment of PWE in the community. Some students believed that epilepsy was caused by supernatural causes and was contagious. These misperceptions must be identified and corrected among medical students and other healthcare providers to allow for fair treatment of PWE; this should be incorporated into medical school curriculums in Uganda. PMID:26253598

  19. Use of endocrinological and neurological medication among 5-year survivors of young onset brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Mirja Erika; Lähdesmäki, Tuire; Malila, Nea; Arola, Mikko; Grönroos, Marika; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lähteenmäki, Päivi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The burden of late-effects for young onset brain tumor (BT) survivors needs more careful evaluation. Our aim was to assess the need for endocrinological and neurological medication among this specific group. We identified 5-year survivors diagnosed at the age of 0-24 years between 1988 and 2004 from the Finnish Cancer Registry (N = 602). Data on endocrinological and neurological drug purchases were collected from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Five years after diagnosis the most commonly purchased drugs had been: antiepileptics (44.8 %), systemic hydrocortisone (18.3 %), female sex hormones (17.6 %), thyroid hormones (11.2 %), and growth hormone (10.0 %). The survivors showed an increased hazard ratio (HR) for a need for new types of drugs still 5 years after diagnosis. Thyroid hormones (HR 10.6, 95 % CI 5.1-21.4), estrogens (HR 8.0, 95 % CI 2.1-25.7), and antiepileptics (HR 6.3, 95 % CI 3.4-11.2) were bought with high frequencies. Irradiation increased the hazard for drug-purchases other than antiepileptics. Cumulative incidence of purchases of estrogens or androgens increased still 15 years after diagnosis. The cumulative incidence of purchasing thyroid hormones and antiepileptics showed continuous increase for the youngest group, whereas survivors diagnosed at 15-24 years of age reached stable level before 15 years from diagnosis. The need for new medication continued more than a decade after BT diagnosis. Especially the need for new thyroid or sex hormone medication among childhood BT survivors may emerge long after diagnosis. PMID:27115743

  20. Bridging the US and China together to conquer cancer: report of the 4th annual meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wancai; Guan, Lingjie

    2012-01-01

    A global collaborative effort is pivotal to conquer cancer. Themed “Emerging role of China in global clinical development of novel anti-cancer drugs”, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 4th annual meeting in Chicago on June 2, 2012, in conjunction with the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting to further bridge the US and China together to outsmart cancer. Although a young organization, USCACA has made significant contributions to this goal in the 3 years since its inception through extensive collaboration with academic organizations, the pharmaceutical industry, and governmental agencies. USCACA has engaged various stakeholders in developing translational and personalized medical strategies to facilitate new anti-cancer drug development and clinical trials in China. USCACA has initiated and implemented the USCACA-National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR) scholarship to encourage overseas returnees to continue cancer research in China. USCACA announced the Hengrui-USCACA scholarship to fund clinical trial staff from China to conduct the observation of early oncologic clinical trials in the US. During the annual meeting, distinguished panelists and the audience discussed the following critical topics: (1) oncologic translational research and early development capabilities in China; (2) novel chemical entity development and partnership with Chinese companies; and (3) Chinese participation in global anti-cancer drug development. USCACA will continue to promote collaborations among cancer researchers and clinicians in the US and China by engaging in more frequent communications and joint efforts across fields, disciplines, and countries, diligently working together toward curing and eliminating cancers. PMID:22739264

  1. Stress among First and Third Year Medical Students at University Kebangsaan Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdus; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Abdul Rahman, Amir; Abdullah, Norsyafiqah; Abd Harith, Aimi Aqilah; Shan, Chu Pei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the stress-prevalence and coping-strategies among University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) medical students. Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 234 UKM first and third year medical students. Standardized questionnaire on stress and coping strategies was used. Stress data was related to subjective experiences on some positive and negative adjectives such as tense, relaxed etc. Positive adjectives were measured by sign “++” and “+” scoring “1” while stress-negative adjectives were measured by sign “?” and “–“ scoring “0”. Forty-eight coping items under task, emotion and avoidance strategies were measured using 5-point Likert-scale. Results: Overall stress-prevalence was 49%. Female and Malay respondents were more stressed. Significant differences of stress-level was observed between Malays and non Malays in first year (p=0.04) and in third year (p=0.01). Most common strategies used to cope stress was task-oriented while emotion oriented was least. Conclusion: Stress-prevalence and stress-level in UKM medical students was high. Most of the respondents coped stress using task-oriented strategies. Stressor and its effective management must be ensured. Educational institutions should act as a creative designer of learning environment to get relieve from educational stressor. PMID:25878637

  2. The physician’s role and empathy – a qualitative study of third year medical students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is important in ensuring the quality of the patient-physician relationship. Several studies have concluded that empathy declines during medical training, especially during the third year. However, there is little empirical research on what may influence a medical student’s empathy. In addition, studies of empathy in medicine have generally been dominated by quantitative approaches, primarily self-assessment questionnaires. This is a paradox given the complexity and importance of empathy. In this paper we explore medical students’ opinions of what may foster or inhibit empathy during medical school, with a particular emphasis on how empathy is influenced by the initiation into the physician’s role. Methods We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with 11 third year medical students. Content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interviews. Results Five aspects of the the physician’s role and the students’ role acquisition emerged when the students were asked to describe what may influence their empathy: 1) Becoming and being a professional, 2) Rules concerning emotions and care, 3) Emotional control, 4) The primary importance of biomedical knowledge, and 5) Cynicism as a coping strategy. Conclusion This study suggest that the described inhibitors of empathy may originate in the hidden curriculum and reinforce each other, creating a greater distance between the physician and the patient, and possibly resulting in decreased empathy. Mastering biomedical knowledge is an important part of the students’ ideals of the physician’s role, and sometimes objective and distanced ideals may suppress empathy and the students’ own emotions. PMID:25108627

  3. What do final year medical students at the University of Papua New Guinea think of psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Muga, Florence; Hagali, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2004 to determine whether there was any difference between final year medical students who had rotated in psychiatry and those who had not, in terms of their preference for psychiatry as a career and their attitudes towards mental illness. A self-rated questionnaire was given to all the final year medical students at the University of Papua New Guinea. The results showed that the medical students in general had a negative attitude towards psychiatry as a career option and, although they were accepting of the mentally ill in a professional setting as colleagues or patients, they had a negative attitude towards close social contact with them as neighbours or as in-laws. Several students believed mental illness could be caused by sorcery or by spending much time with the mentally ill. Most students believed mental illness could be treated by prayer, one in five believed in the effectiveness of traditional healers and one in five did not believe modern medicine could treat mental illness. Apart from a reduction in stigma and in prejudice against a mentally ill neighbour, there was no significant difference in attitude between students who had rotated in psychiatry and those who had not. There was no significant difference in attitude between male and female respondents. There were, however, significant differences in attitude between students who had a positive family history of mental illness and those who did not. It was concluded that psychiatry was an unpopular choice for specialization and that students' attitudes towards mental illness were influenced more by their cultural beliefs and their family history of mental illness than by their rotation in psychiatry. These external variables that are independent of their medical training need to be considered during undergraduate medical training in order to optimize the provision of health care to the mentally ill in Papua New Guinea. PMID:18389970

  4. Evolution of an information literacy curriculum for third-year medical students.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Linda; Kerns, Stephanie C

    2011-01-01

    Information literacy curriculum for third-year medical students at Northwestern University has evolved over several years under the guidance of librarians at the Galter Health Sciences Library. Starting as a series of rotation-specific information resource overviews, initial evaluation and feedback led to the curriculum being developed to include more focused and interactive clinical information sessions with a quiz-based assessment. Future enhancements will include web-based self-directed learning using online tutorials, additional search exercises that mimic the on-the-go clinical environment, and better assessment of the curriculum's impact on students' information literacy and clinical search skills. PMID:21800980

  5. Instruction and Curriculum in Veterinary Medical Education: A 50-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of veterinary medicine has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. To keep pace with these changes and produce competent professionals ready to meet evolving societal needs, instruction within veterinary medical curricula has undergone a parallel evolution. The curriculum of 1966 has given way, shifting away from lecture-laboratory model with few visual aids to a program of active learning, significant increases in case- or problem-based activities, and applications of technology, including computers, that were unimaginable 50 years ago. Curricula in veterinary colleges no longer keep all students in lockstep or limit clinical experiences to the fourth year, and instead have moved towards core electives with clinical activities provided from year 1. Provided here are examples of change within veterinary medical education that, in the view of the authors, had positive impacts on the evolution of instruction and curriculum. These improvements in both how and what we teach are now being made at a more rapid pace than at any other time in history and are based on the work of many faculty and administrators over the past 50 years. PMID:26673214

  6. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  7. An online evidence based medicine exercise prompts reflection in third year medical students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reflective practice is a desirable trait in physicians, yet there is little information about how it is taught to or learned by medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an online Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) exercise with a face-to-face debriefing session would prompt third year medical students to reflect on their current skills and lead them to further reflection on clinical decision making in the future. Methods All third year medical students at the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine who completed their pediatrics clerkship between 7/1/09 and 2/11/11 were required to complete the EBM exercise. Following completion each student received a personal report (Learning Profile) of their responses and attended a one hour large group debriefing session. Student responses to a survey following the debriefing sessions were analyzed using a post-test survey design with a single experimental cohort. Results Ninety-five percent of students completing the debriefing survey indicated that the debriefing session helped them better understand their learning profiles; 68% stated that their profiles allowed them to evaluate themselves and their decisions. Sixty-three percent noted that participating in the exercise and the debrief would lead them to either learn more about EBM and use EBM more in the future or reflect more on their own decision making. Conclusions The EBM exercise was a successful way to introduce the concept of reflective practice to third year medical students, and the graphic Learning Profiles were effective instigators of discussion and reflection. PMID:25106435

  8. Diversity, trust, and patient care: affirmative action in medical education 25 years after Bakke.

    PubMed

    DeVille, Kenneth; Kopelman, Loretta M

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's seminal 1978 Bakke decision, now 25 years old, has an ambiguous and endangered legacy. Justice Lewis Powell's opinion provided a justification that allowed leaders in medical education to pursue some affirmative action policies while at the same time undermining many other potential defenses. Powell asserted that medical schools might have a "compelling interest" in the creation of a diverse student body. But Powell's compromise jeopardized affirmative action since it blocked many justifications for responding to increases in political opposition and legal challenges. The Bakke decision and its moral background and legal legacy are traced and analyzed. Despite recent legal setbacks, the framework sketched by Powell can be used to defend diversity in medical education both morally and legally as a "compelling state interest." Because trust is a central component of the physician-patient relationship and a prerequisite to the profession's ability to provide effective medical care, the state has a compelling interest in training physicians with whom patients can feel comfortable and safe if the population is (1) distrustful; (2) underserved; (3) faces significant discrimination in the allocation of benefits, goods and services and (4) affirmative action programs would be likely to promote their trust in the system. Similar narrowly-tailored arguments could be used in other professions and for other groups. Bakke is an important background for the pending Grutter case. PMID:14610693

  9. miR-155 Inhibition Sensitizes CD4+ Th Cells for TREG Mediated Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Werner; Labhart, Paul; Alexiadis, Vassili; Becker, Christian; Hafner, Mathias; Weith, Andreas; Lenter, Martin C.; Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Mennerich, Detlev

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans and mice naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling not only potentially autoreactive T cells but virtually all cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Recent work using Dicer-deficient mice irrevocably demonstrated the importance of miRNAs for nTreg cell-mediated tolerance. Principal Findings DNA-Microarray analyses of human as well as murine conventional CD4+ Th cells and nTregs revealed a strong up-regulation of mature miR-155 (microRNA-155) upon activation in both populations. Studying miR-155 expression in FoxP3-deficient scurfy mice and performing FoxP3 ChIP-Seq experiments using activated human T lymphocytes, we show that the expression and maturation of miR-155 seem to be not necessarily regulated by FoxP3. In order to address the functional relevance of elevated miR-155 levels, we transfected miR-155 inhibitors or mature miR-155 RNAs into freshly-isolated human and mouse primary CD4+ Th cells and nTregs and investigated the resulting phenotype in nTreg suppression assays. Whereas miR-155 inhibition in conventional CD4+ Th cells strengthened nTreg cell-mediated suppression, overexpression of mature miR-155 rendered these cells unresponsive to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. Conclusion Investigation of FoxP3 downstream targets, certainly of bound and regulated miRNAs revealed the associated function between the master regulator FoxP3 and miRNAs as regulators itself. miR-155 is shown to be crucially involved in nTreg cell mediated tolerance by regulating the susceptibility of conventional human as well as murine CD4+ Th cells to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. PMID:19777054

  10. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  11. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  12. Empathy as related to motivations for medicine in a sample of first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Trancas, Bruno; Loureiro, José; Papoila, Ana; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel

    2013-02-01

    Professionalism and empathy are crucial in clinical settings. An association would be expected between empathic attitudes and altruistic motivations for a medical education. However, data is scarce in first-year students, and a previous small-scale study did not fully confirm the hypothesis that person-oriented motives would have a strong relationship to empathy. The present study tested this association in a larger sample. 202 first-year medical students (M age = 19.0 yr., SD = 2.7; 67.3% women) were assessed cross-sectionally, using the Vaglum and colleagues' indexes on motives for choosing medicine (security/status, person-orientation, and interest in the natural sciences) and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for students. There was a weak association between empathy and person-orientation, but the evidence regarding links between empathy and the three motivation scores was low overall. In this Portuguese sample there was not a clear-cut association between empathy and motivations for medical school. PMID:23654028

  13. Exercise behaviour and attitudes among fourth-year medical students at the University of British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Kaila A.; Kokotilo, Kristen J.; Fitzgerald, Barbara E.; Frank, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical activity (PA) levels and counseling attitudes of Canadian undergraduate medical students. Design Online or paper survey. Setting The University of British Columbia (UBC). Participants Fourth-year medical students at UBC from 2007 to 2010. Main outcome measures Physical activity levels, relationship between exercise behaviour and attitudes toward counseling, and student perception of training in the area of exercise prescription. Results A total of 546 out of 883 students participated in the survey (62% response rate). Sixty-four percent of students met the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 2011 recommendations for PA. Attitudes toward healthy living were related to PA levels, but the rate of counseling patients about exercise was not; however, students who engaged in more strenuous PA were more likely to perceive exercise counseling as being highly relevant to future clinical practice (P = .018). Overall, 69% of students perceived exercise counseling to be highly relevant to clinical practice, but 86% thought that their training in this area was less than extensive. Conclusion Fourth-year UBC medical students engage in more strenuous PA than average age-matched Canadians, which affects their attitudes toward perceived future counseling practices. Encouraging more student participation in strenuous PA and encouraging academic training in the area of exercise counseling might be important next steps in preparing future physicians to effectively prescribe exercise to their patients. PMID:23341676

  14. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  15. [Norwegian front fighters 1940-1945, 50 years later. Experiences, strains, medical and social conditions].

    PubMed

    Stridsklev, I C

    1995-04-30

    The author describes a medical and social investigation of 181 Norwegian war veterans who served on the Eastern Front during World War II. To ensure representativity, special emphasis is placed on 76 Norwegians in 1st Company, Regiment Norge, as listed in January 1944. They have been interviewed about hardships during war service in the civil war in Spain and until spring 1945, during captivity in Russia, in other Allied forces' camps and in Norwegian camps and prisons after the war. Their medical and social status from 1940 until today has been studied. The "front fighters" are a heavily strained group. This is best illustrated by their death rates during the war and in the first years after the war. However, as a group, they have more resources than the general population, and have done comparatively well since the war, in spite of physical and social handicaps. PMID:7770837

  16. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    PubMed

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members. PMID:26673207

  17. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  18. Exploratory study of factors related to educational scores of first preclinical year medical students.

    PubMed

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarayut

    2014-03-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students. Questionnaires were sent out to all first preclinical year medical students, with 79.8% being returned (245/307 questionnaires). Positive correlations were revealed between the premedical year grade point average (pre-MD GPA) and anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry scores (R = 0.664, 0.521, and 0.653, respectively, P < 0.001 for all) by Pearson's method. Using multiple linear regression analysis, anatomy scores could be predicted by pre-MD GPA, student satisfaction with anatomy, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, reading after class and near exam time, and duration of sleeping periods near exam time (R = 0.773, R(2) = 0.598, P < 0.001). Physiology scores could be estimated by pre-MD GPA, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, and percentage of those who fell asleep during class and near exam time (R = 0.722, R(2) = 0.521, P < 0.001). Biochemistry scores could be calculated by pre-MD GPA, the percentage of expected reading, motivation to study medicine, student satisfaction with biochemistry, and exam performance expectations (R = 0.794, R(2) = 0.630, P < 0.001). In conclusion, pre-MD GPA and the percentage of expected reading are factors involved in producing good academic results in the first preclinical year. Anatomy and biochemistry, but not physiology, scores are influenced by satisfaction. PMID:24585466

  19. [Economical situation of public payer and financing of medical benefits during the years of 1999 - 2010].

    PubMed

    Tarhoni, Mariusz; Kuszewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The authors of the publication analyse financial effects which are the result of applying division algorithms concerning public payer organizational units during the years of 1999 - 2010. Unpublished financial data illustrating the division of financial resources in public health insurance in Poland in the years 1999 - 2009 and accepted plan for 2010 are presented. This data has been aggregated in such a way that the system of the 17 "Kasa Chorych" introduced on the 1st of January 1999, working until the 31st of March 2003 could be compared with the introduced on the 1st of April 2003 system of Voivodship Branches of NFZ (National Health Fund). Perpetual increase of expenses for benefits and medical services financed from public resources forces the necessity of rationalizing costs and financing system of these benefits. In 10 years perspective the changing tendencies of partition in the accepted algorithms of financial leveling can be seen. The obtained results allow drawing conclusions according to the rise of the level of medical benefits financing in each voivodship. There is no way of saying unmistakably whether substantial increase in financing of health care units is proportional to increased accessibility and quality of medical benefits. The changes of diversity of financial resources flow from voivodships which give away to those which take, frequent changes inside one and the same voivodship from giving away to taking can be helpful in the evaluation of rational level of financing of e.g. hospitals and helpful in forming rules of financial"sensitivity" (optimal and possible to finance) for the insured population in question. The result of the conducted analysis shows that flow of the amount of financial resources between the NFZ Voivod Branches resulting from leveling algorithms in the whole country is bigger than the planned lowering of income from premium in NFZ for the year 2010. PMID:20499670

  20. An innovative quality improvement curriculum for third-year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David Stern; Hauer, Karen E.; Poncelet, Ann; Mookherjee, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Background Competence in quality improvement (QI) is a priority for medical students. We describe a self-directed QI skills curriculum for medical students in a 1-year longitudinal integrated third-year clerkship: an ideal context to learn and practice QI. Methods Two groups of four students identified a quality gap, described existing efforts to address the gap, made quantifying measures, and proposed a QI intervention. The program was assessed with knowledge and attitude surveys and a validated tool for rating trainee QI proposals. Reaction to the curriculum was assessed by survey and focus group. Results Knowledge of QI concepts did not improve (mean knowledge score±SD): pre: 5.9±1.5 vs. post: 6.6±1.3, p=0.20. There were significant improvements in attitudes (mean topic attitude score±SD) toward the value of QI (pre: 9.9±1.8 vs. post: 12.6±1.9, p=0.03) and confidence in QI skills (pre: 13.4±2.8 vs. post: 16.1±3.0, p=0.05). Proposals lacked sufficient analysis of interventions and evaluation plans. Reaction was mixed, including appreciation for the experience and frustration with finding appropriate mentorship. Conclusion Clinical-year students were able to conduct a self-directed QI project. Lack of improvement in QI knowledge suggests that self-directed learning in this domain may be insufficient without targeted didactics. Higher order skills such as developing measurement plans would benefit from explicit instruction and mentorship. Lessons from this experience will allow educators to better target QI curricula to medical students in the clinical years. PMID:22611330

  1. A survey of interventional radiology awareness among final-year medical students in a European country.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sum; Keeling, Aoife N; Lee, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is a rapidly expanding specialty that is facing the challenges of turf wars and personnel shortages. Appropriate exposure of medical students to this field can be vital to recruitment of potential future trainees or referring physicians. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and views of final-year medical students in a single EU country regarding various aspects of IR. An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to all final-year medical students in a European country. The students were given a month to respond to the questionnaire. A total of 234 students of 675 (34.5%) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 35% had previously completed an attachment to the radiology department. The majority of students (63%) thought their knowledge in radiology in general was poor. The percentage of students who correctly identified procedures performed by interventional radiologists was 69% for Hickman line insertion, 79% for fibroid embolization, and 67.5% for lower limb angioplasty. Sixty percent, 30%, and 47% thought that interventional radiologists perform cardiac angioplasties, perform arterial bypasses, and create AV fistulas, respectively. Forty-nine percent felt that interventional radiologists are surgically trained. Eighty-three percent of students were first made aware of angioplasty by a cardiologist. Thirty-one percent thought that interventional radiologists do ward rounds, 24% thought that interventional radiologists have admitting rights, and 26% felt that interventional radiologists run an outpatient practice. A significant number of students (76%) thought that the job prospects in IR are good or excellent but only 40.5% were willing to consider a career in IR. In conclusion, this study indicates that IR remains a nascent but attractive specialty to the majority of medical students. Further development of the existing informal undergraduate curriculum to address shortcomings will ensure that IR continues to attract

  2. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011) and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779) in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p < 0.0001) compared to Irish and EU students combined. North American students had a higher dropout rate than Irish and EU students; RR = 2.68 (1.09 to 6.58;p = 0.027) but this was not significant when transfers were excluded (RR = 1.32(0.38, 4.62);p = 0.75). Male students were more likely to dropout than females (RR 1.70, .93 to 3.11) but this was not significant (p = 0.079). Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies). Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red

  3. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  4. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  5. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  6. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  7. Relationships between Drug Company Representatives and Medical Students: Medical School Policies and Attitudes of Student Affairs Deans and Third-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…

  8. Five year report on the medical follow up of Marshallese receiving special medical care related to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation (January 1992--1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaswani, A.N.; Howard, J.E.

    1999-06-01

    This is the 17th and final report of the Marshall Islands Medical Program as carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of these publications has been to provide information on the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to radiation fallout in 1954. The medical program fulfills a commitment to disclose unique medical information relevant to public health. Details of the Bravo thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published. A 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which described the acute medical effects on the population that required special medical care, remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Marshallese participation in this Congressionally mandated program is voluntary. Throughout the 44 years of the program, each participating individual`s relevant medical findings, laboratory data, disease morbidity, and mortality have been published in the BNL reports in a manner preserving patient confidentiality. In each report, there has been an attempt to interpret these findings and to infer the role of radiation exposure in their development. An equally important aspect of the reports has been the presentation of data that allows for analyses of the medical consequences of the Marshallese exposure.

  9. The Merits and Challenges of Three-Year Medical School Curricula: Time for an Evidence-Based Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, John R.; Kerschner, Joseph E.; Hueston, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The debate about three-year medical school curricula has resurfaced recently, driven by rising education debt burden and a predicted physician shortage. In this Perspective, the authors call for an evidence-based discussion of the merits and challenges of three-year curricula. They examine published evidence that suggests that three-year curricula are viable, including studies on three-year curricula in (1) U.S. medical schools in the 1970s and 1980s, (2) two Canadian medical schools with more than four decades of experience with such curricula, and (3) accelerated family medicine and internal medicine programs. They also briefly describe the new three-year programs that are being implemented at eight U.S. medical schools, including their own. Finally, they offer suggestions regarding how to enhance the discussion between the proponents of and those with concerns about three-year curricula. PMID:26266464

  10. Vertical integration of basic science in final year of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sudha Jasmine; Jacob, Tripti Meriel; Sathyendra, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of health professionals with ability to integrate, synthesize, and apply knowledge gained through medical college is greatly hampered by the system of delivery that is compartmentalized and piecemeal. There is a need to integrate basic sciences with clinical teaching to enable application in clinical care. Aim: To study the benefit and acceptance of vertical integration of basic science in final year MBBS undergraduate curriculum. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Ethics Clearance, neuroanatomy refresher classes with clinical application to neurological diseases were held as part of the final year posting in two medical units. Feedback was collected. Pre- and post-tests which tested application and synthesis were conducted. Summative assessment was compared with the control group of students who had standard teaching in other two medical units. In-depth interview was conducted on 2 willing participants and 2 teachers who did neurology bedside teaching. Results: Majority (>80%) found the classes useful and interesting. There was statistically significant improvement in the post-test scores. There was a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups' scores during summative assessment (76.2 vs. 61.8 P < 0.01). Students felt that it reinforced, motivated self-directed learning, enabled correlations, improved understanding, put things in perspective, gave confidence, aided application, and enabled them to follow discussions during clinical teaching. Conclusion: Vertical integration of basic science in final year was beneficial and resulted in knowledge gain and improved summative scores. The classes were found to be useful, interesting and thought to help in clinical care and application by majority of students. PMID:27563584

  11. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests. PMID:23358336

  12. Attitudes towards euthanasia among final-year Khartoum University medical students.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A M; Kheir, M M

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of final-year medical students at Khartoum University towards euthanasia an anonymous questionnaire was answered by 141 students. Most were familiar with the concept of euthanasia. The majority, 108 (76.6%) opposed euthanasia and their reasons included religious beliefs, belief that euthanasia was unethical and fear of misuse. The supporters of euthanasia (23.4%) stated reasons such as preventing the suffering of patients and respecting their autonomy and dignity. More students who described themselves as strongly religious were opponents of euthanasia (83/87, 95.4%) than those who were moderately religious (25/54, 46.3%). PMID:17037708

  13. Disconnective Hemispherotomy for Medically Intractable Status Epilepticus in an 8-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Lucas; Bahgat, Diaa; Sharp, Gregory; Willis, Erin; Ocal, Eylem; Albert, Gregory; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-10-01

    We report here the unusual case of an 8-year-old child with left hemispheric focal epilepsy secondary to a perinatal infarction who presented with new onset absence seizures and eventual nonconvulsive status epilepticus that was refractory to medical management. Following review at our multidisciplinary Epilepsy Surgery conference, the patient underwent disconnective surgical hemispherotomy with immediate cessation of his seizures; and has remained seizure-free at 4 months following surgery. In this context, we present here an overview of hemispherectomy and related procedures, including peri-insular disconnective hemispherotomy, and we discuss the efficacy of surgery for challenging hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:26552284

  14. Evaluation of a commercial electronic medical record (EMR) by primary care physicians 5 years after implementation.

    PubMed

    Kaelber, David; Greco, Peter; Cebul, Randall D

    2005-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are gaining increasing prominence in the delivery of healthcare, although the focus is primarily on deploying EMRs. Relatively little research has studied the post-implementation of commercial EMRs. Here we present the results of a web-based survey of all the primary care clinicians in our university affiliated, tertiary care health system. The survey evaluated primary care clinician demographics, usage, and ideas for enhancement of the EpicCare EMR, five year after its initial deployment throughout our healthcare system. PMID:16779289

  15. Evaluation of a Commercial Electronic Medical Record (EMR) by Primary Care Physicians 5 Years after Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Kaelber, David; Greco, Peter; Cebul, Randall D

    2005-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are gaining increasing prominence in the delivery of healthcare, although the focus is primarily on deploying EMRs. Relatively little research has studied the post-implementation of commercial EMRs. Here we present the results of a web-based survey of all the primary care clinicians in our university affiliated, tertiary care health system. The survey evaluated primary care clinician demographics, usage, and ideas for enhancement of the EpicCare EMR, five year after its initial deployment throughout our healthcare system. PMID:16779289

  16. Quality management of clinical-practical instruction for Practical Year medical students in Germany – Proposal for a catalogue of criteria from the German Society of Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Patricia; Angstwurm, Matthias; Berberat, Pascal; Kadmon, Martina; Rotgans, Jerome; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Fischer, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Amended in 2013, the current version of the German Medical Licensure Regulation contains structural specifications that are also required of non-university institutions involved in Practical Year clinical training. The criteria are worded in relatively general terms. Furthermore, not all of the structural specifications can be readily applied to every subject area. In order to ensure commensurability in Practical Year instruction in Germany, not least in light of recently introduced Practical Year mobility, it is necessary to define consistent quality criteria for Practical Year training. The authors therefore propose a catalogue of criteria for the quality management process in Practical Year instruction facilities. Methods: In January 2014, the board of directors of the German Society for Medical Education decided to establish a committee comprised of representatives from various German medical faculties. In a process similar to the Delphi methodology, the group developed criteria for structure, process and outcome quality in Practical Year training in Germany. Results: The criteria developed for structure, process and outcome quality apply to Practical Year training in academic teaching hospitals and university medical centres. Furthermore, modalities for review are proposed. Conclusions: The present catalogue of criteria is intended to contribute to the formation of a basis for the most consistent quality standards possible for Practical Year instruction in Germany. PMID:25489349

  17. Colon Ischemia After Weight-Loss Medication in a 36-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabin; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram

    2016-04-01

    Weight-loss medications have been associated with many conditions, including valvular heart disease, ischemic colitis, and pulmonary hypertension. There is a constant increase in the use of these drugs, especially new medications with better efficacy. Phentermine is one such drug, approved for short-term use to lose weight. We report a case of ischemic colitis in a female patient linked to inappropriate phentermine intake. The patient presented with symptoms of severe abdominal pain and repeated bowel movement associated with rectal bleeding for two weeks. Initial blood work was unremarkable for infectious and inflammatory causes. A CT scan was performed which revealed findings of ischemic colitis extending from transverse to descending colon. A biopsy study confirmed the same. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to taking 37.5 mg of phentermine for two years beyond her prescribed period of 12 weeks. Hence, we propose that inappropriate use of phentermine caused ischemic colitis. With the widespread use of these medications, there is a need for heightened awareness among clinicians regarding adverse effects of phentermine. PMID:27265924

  18. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. Aim: To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. Results: All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high. PMID:26236164

  19. An eight-year study of internet-based remote medical counselling.

    PubMed

    Labiris, G; Coertzen, I; Katsikas, A; Karydis, A; Petounis, A

    2002-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study of an Internet-based remote counselling service. A total of 15456 Internet users visited the Website over eight years. From these, 1500 users were randomly selected for analysis. Medical counselling had been granted to 901 of the people requesting it (60%). One hundred and sixty-four physicians formed project groups to process the requests and responded using email. The distribution of patients using the service was similar to the availability of the Internet: 78% were from the European Union, North America and Australia. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients lived in urban areas and the remainder were residents of remote rural areas with limited local medical coverage. Sixty-five per cent of the requests were about problems of internal medicine and 30% of the requests concerned surgical issues. The remaining 5% of the patients sought information about recent developments, such molecular medicine or aviation medicine. During the project, our portal became inaccessible five times, and counselling was not possible on 44 days. There was no hacking of the Website. Internet-based medical counselling is a helpful addition to conventional practice. PMID:12217105

  20. Medical student in the family health strategy on the first years of college: perception of graduates.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Maria Paula Ferreira; Marin, Maria José Sanches; Otani, Marcia Aparecida Padovan; Marin, Marina Sanches

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the effective value of the experience gained by medical students who participate in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF)) during the early stages of their medical training. This teaching strategy is based on learning by experiencing the problems that exist in real life. This study proposed to understand the value of this teaching strategy from the viewpoint of the students who had participated, after their graduation. The method adopted was a qualitative study conducted through interviews with students who graduated in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data analysis used the hermeneutic dialectic technique as its model. The graduates considered that this experience enabled them to understand the organization and functioning of the health service and the context of the daily life of the users. This experience facilitated the doctor patient relationship, the development of clinical reasoning and the bond with the user. However the students emphasized that a lack of maturity prevented them gaining a higher level of benefit from the experience. Therefore, although the structure of the course is permeated by advances and challenges, it was concluded that this experience contributed to the student's learning of certain essential elements of medical training. PMID:25830753

  1. One Year Medical Outcomes and ED Recidivism Following ED Observation for Cocaine-Associated Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen A.; Weber, Jim Edward; O'Broin, Samantha; Tripathi, Shanti P; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Chest pain is the most common complaint among cocaine users who present to the ED seeking care and many hospital resources are applied to stratify cocaine users in regard to future cardiac morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the longitudinal cardiac and non cardiac medical outcomes of cocaine users who have been stratified to an ED observation period following their ED visit. Objectives to examine one-year cardiac outcomes in a low-intermediate risk sample of patients with cocaine- associated chest pain in an urban ED, as well as to examine ED recidivism one year for cardiac and non-cardiac complaints. Methods Prospective consecutive cohort study of patients (18–60 years) who presented to an urban Level 1 ED with cocaine-associated chest pain and were risk stratified to low-intermediate cardiac risk. Exclusion criteria: EKG suggestive of AMI, elevated serum cardiac markers, history of AMI or CABG, hemodynamic instability, unstable angina. Baseline interviews using validated measures of health functioning, and substance use were conducted during CPOU stay, and 3, 6, and 12 months. ED utilization during the study year was abstracted from medical chart. Zero-Inflated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to predict recurrent ED visits. Results 219 participants (73% participation) were enrolled, 65% returned to the ED post index visit; 23% returned for chest pain, of these 66% had a positive cocaine urine screen. No patient had an AMI within the one year follow up period. Patients with continued cocaine use were more likely to have a recurrent ED visit (p<0.001) but these repeat visits were most often related to musculoskeletal pain (21%), and injury (30%) rather than potential cardiac complaints. Conclusions Patients with cocaine-associated chest pain who are low to intermediate cardiac risk and complete a CPOU protocol have less then 1% rate of MI in the subsequent 12-months. PMID:18824277

  2. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to

  3. The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Rebecca; Korenstein, Deborah; Fallar, Robert; Ripp, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and impaired personal accomplishment induced by repeated workplace stressors. Current research suggests that physician burnout may have its origins in medical school. The consequences of medical student burnout include both personal and professional distress, loss of empathy, and poor health. We hypothesized that burnout occurs prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical education. This was a cross-sectional survey administered to third-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) in New York, New York (a traditional-style medical school with a marked division between pre-clinical and clinical training occurring at the beginning of the third year). Survey included an instrument used to measure job burnout, a sleep deprivation screen, and questions related to demographic information, current rotation, psychiatric history, time spent working/studying, participation in extracurricular activities, social support network, autonomy and isolation. Of the 86 medical students who participated, 71% met criteria for burnout. Burnt out students were significantly more likely to suffer from sleep deprivation (p = 0.0359). They were also more likely to disagree with the following statements: "I have control over my daily schedule" (p = 0.0286) and "I am confident that I will have the knowledge and skills necessary to become an intern when I graduate" (p = 0.0263). Our findings show that burnout is present at the beginning of the third year of medical school, prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical training. Medical student burnout is quite common, and early efforts should be made to empower medical students to both build the knowledge and skills necessary to become capable physicians, as well as withstand the emotional, mental, and physical challenges inherent to medical school. PMID:21781020

  4. THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT AND MEDICAL LOSS RATIOS: NO IMPACT IN FIRST THREE YEARS.

    PubMed

    Day, Benjamin; Himmelstein, David U; Broder, Michael; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) set limits on insurers' overhead, mandating a medical loss ratio (MLR) of at least 80 percent in the individual and small-group markets and 85 percent in the large-group market starting in 2011. In implementing the law, the Obama administration introduced new rules that changed (and inflated) how insurers calculate MLRs, distorting time trends. We used insurers' filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to calculate the largest insurers' MLRs before and after the ACA regulations took effect, using a constant definition of MLR. MLRs averaged 83.04 percent in the three years before reform and 83.05 percent in the three years after reform. We conclude that the ACA had no impact on insurance industry overhead spending. PMID:26460451

  5. Medicine at the medical center then and now: one hundred years of progress.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M Robert; Stewart, David C; Kahl, Frederic R; Brown, W Mark; Cordell, A Robert

    2002-10-01

    The health and life expectancy of persons residing in the United States has improved dramatically during the 20th century. The average life span in the US has increased by more than 30 years since 1900. This significant gain is attributable to improvements in both public health and medical care. Tempering this notable achievement is the observation that the mortality rate per 1,000 population, although showing a significant decline in the era from 1920 to 1940, has now plateaued, and may be showing a slight increase. Our scientists and physicians have appropriately exploited the scientific discoveries of the 20th century and are poised as a medical tour de force for the 21st century. The decline in deaths from coronary artery disease and stroke has resulted from risk-factor modification and the innovations of surgeons and physicians who have dedicated themselves to early detection and better treatment of these cases. During the 1960s, patients admitted to our medical center with advanced Hodgkin's disease, hairy cell leukemia, and the acute leukemias had a life expectancy of < 1 year. Today, even advanced Hodgkin's disease and hairy cell leukemia are curable, and many patients with other acute leukemias respond to therapy and have very durable remissions. The rate of maternal mortality has shown a dramatic decline, and many childhood diseases have been eradicated or reduced to infrequent occurrences. Our public health scientists and physicians are joining forces to further diminish the morbidity and mortality rates for many of our common diseases. The achievements of our past afford us the vision for what we can become. PMID:12425493

  6. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  7. A two-year experience with premedical postbaccalaureate students admitted to medical school.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R

    1991-01-01

    To determine how well premedical postbaccalaureate students performed in and adjusted to medical school, the author examined the records for all 123 matriculants to the Brown University Program in Medicine in 1987-88 and 1988-89 and sent each student a questionnaire. More than one-third of the first-year students admitted to Brown were from premedical postbaccalaureate programs (that is, they had taken the traditional premedical course requirements after graduating from college). The postbaccalaureate students were older than the rest of their classmates, on average, and were more likely to have been non-science majors in college. Academic performances over the first two years were comparable in the two groups, and there was no significant difference between the groups in their self-reports of adequacy of preparation or involvement in extracurricular activities. The author concludes that, faced with a smaller applicant pool, medical schools may wish to consider premedical postbaccalaureate students as a valuable resource. PMID:1985680

  8. Readiness for Self-Directed learning among first year Saudi Medical students: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Mona; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study was to explore the readiness for Self Directed Learning (SDL) among first year Saudi Medical students enrolled at King Saud University (KSU) and Princess NourahBintAbdulrahman University (PNU) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: First year medical students were invited to participate in a descriptive cross sectional study design. Data were collected using a Self-Directed Learner Readiness Scale (SDLRS) which is a self- assessment tool aimed to assess three main components: self-management, desire for learning and self-control. The students responded to each item of the SDLRS on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS, mean, median and total scores were calculated and were compared among student’s groups. Results: The mean score for the desire of learning was the highest (4.08± 0.5) of all the three components of the SDLRS followed by self-control (3.9± 0.9), while the least mean score was for self-management (3.7±0.5). Overall, differences between student’s groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the overall SDL readiness of participants was good, students were highly motivated for self-learning and had the ability for self-control. However, they need assistance to improve their self-management skills. PMID:26430406

  9. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Amerine, Lindsey B.; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N.; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T.; Rodgers, Philip T.; Williams, Dennis M.; Pinelli, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Design. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Assessment. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Conclusion. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice. PMID:26839428

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Alcohol drinking and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Anderson, Annie S; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and mortality in Europe. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs provide strengthened evidence that the consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally associated with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and female breast, even for low and moderate alcohol intakes. The risk of cancer increases in a dose-dependent manner, and the higher the amount of alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer. Several biological mechanisms explain the carcinogenicity of alcohol; among them, ethanol and its genotoxic metabolite acetaldehyde play a major role. Taking all this evidence into account, a recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer (ECAC) is: "If you drink alcohol of any type, limit your intake. Not drinking alcohol is better for cancer prevention." PMID:26115567

  11. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  12. Quark masses and mixings in the RS1 model with a condensing 4th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Dib, Claudio O.; Neill, Nicolás A.; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.

    2012-02-01

    We study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings in a model based on a 5-dimensional spacetime with constant curvature of Randall-Sundrum type with two branes, where the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking is caused dynamically by the condensation of a 4th generation of quarks, due to underlying physics from the 5D bulk and the first KK gluons. We first study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings that can be obtained from purely adjusting the profile localizations, finding that realistic masses are not reproduced unless non trivial hierarchies of underlying 4-fermion interactions from the bulk are included. Then we study global U(1) symmetries that can be imposed in order to obtain non-symmetric modified Fritzsch-like textures in the mass matrices that reproduce reasonably well quark masses and CKM mixings.

  13. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  14. The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Lisbon: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Lisbon, 18–21 June 2003, had a record turnout of more than 8600 delegates and the abstract submissions increased to 2600. A heat wave and a somewhat substandard venue hampered some of the activities, notably the poster sessions. The scientific program was comprehensive and of a high class, and it was organized in 10–12 parallel sessions. The European League Against Rheumatism standing committees are expanding their activities and stimulating European cooperation (e.g. by creating databases and guidelines, and by starting research programs). The standing committees presented several areas where European cooperative work is in progress. Advances in drug therapy were a prominent theme and were well presented. Commercialism remains a problem for this meeting as for other similar large meetings, where satellite symposia surround the scientific program of the congress and often duplicate this. PMID:14979931

  15. Report on the 4th International IUPAP Women in Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Stellenbosch, South Africa was the site of the 4^th International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) International Conference on Women in Physics, which took place on April 5^th-8^th. This conference brought together the diverse contributions of 250 female physicist attendees from nearly 60 countries worldwide to dissect the challenges faced by female physicists worldwide and to propose strategies to attract and retain more girls and women to the field. Having served as a member of the U.S. Delegation, I will discuss the resolutions reached and highlight the most important results of Global Survey of Physicists, where nearly 15,000 physicists shine light on how gender affects their lives and careers.

  16. A Multivariate Analysis of Personality, Values and Expectations as Correlates of Career Aspirations of Final Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Searle, Judy; Creed, Peter A.; Ng, Shu-Kay

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the career intentions of 179 final year medical students who completed an online survey that included measures of personality, values, professional and lifestyle expectations, and well-being. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of preferred medical specialty, practice location and hours of work.…

  17. Relationship between Students' Reading Ability and Their Success in Medical Terminology at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Gene

    2011-01-01

    Health sciences faculty members at a two-year college were concerned about the poor pass rates in medical terminology, a gateway course for all students planning to major in health-related fields. Faculty suspected that students coming out of developmental reading might not have adequate reading skills to do well in medical terminology.…

  18. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military...

  19. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... furnished by military treatment facilities through the Department of Defense (DoD). The rates have...

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khubaib, Mohammad U; Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  1. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  2. Use of Medication Prescribed for Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties among Children Aged 6-17 Years in the United ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... months for emotional or behavioral difficulties varied by poverty level. Among children aged 6–17 years, a ... in families having income below 100% of the poverty level (9.2%) used prescribed medication for emotional ...

  3. Medical thoracoscopy: Analysis on diagnostic yield through 30 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Alberto; Arondi, Sabrina; Marchetti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical thoracoscopy (MT) or pleuroscopy is a procedure performed to diagnose and treat malignant and benign pleural diseases. Totally 2752 pleuroscopies executed in 1984–2013 in our center were considered in this study. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed. Observational time was divided into six series of 5 years. We calculated MT diagnostic yield and analyzed trends of main diseases diagnosed along the time. RESULTS: Along the 30 years population became progressively older. Number of pleuroscopies firstly increased, then stabilized and decreased in the last 5 years. The overall diagnostic yield of MT was 71%, increasing from 57% to 79%. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the presence of monolateral pleural effusion. Cancer represented more than half of diagnosis; tuberculosis was the most common nonneoplastic disease. The frequency of all cancers, mesothelioma, and lung cancer increased through the time; tuberculosis first decreased and then increased. All specimens resulted appropriate during the last 25 years. CONCLUSION: MT has a great diagnostic yield that can be improved by practice, permitting to achieve a specific histological diagnosis in about 80% of patients. Our experience demonstrates that the accurate selection of the patients undergoing to MT is very important to reach these results. PMID:27512506

  4. Anatomy as the backbone of an integrated first year medical curriculum: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Klement, Brenda J; Paulsen, Douglas F; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator, and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration. PMID:21538939

  5. The impacts of blended learning design in first year medical studies.

    PubMed

    Gillois, Pierre; Bosson, Jean Luc; Genty, Celine; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Romanet, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the first year of medical studies in France, students prepare for a highly selective entrance exam limited by numerus clausus into the second year. We have discontinued live lectures, made maximum use of new information and communication technologies and introduced tutorials in an attempt to make the first year more equitable and to personalise teaching. The reform is based on blended learning with flipped classroom organized into a four-week cycles of different activities. Each cycle corresponds to a learning module. The teachers' and students' opinions were analysed to evaluate the reforms and allow teaching methods to be adapted accordingly. The student profiles at registration and success in the exams following the reform are described. The tutorial's notes are correlated to the final scores at the entrance exam. The keys to success seem to be modified by the reform providing greater equality of opportunity between students. The factors associated to success are baccalaureate highest grades, high School Specialisation (maths, physics or earth and life sciences) and repeating the first year class. The use of blended learning allows us to face the increase of student enrolment, and to facilitate the acceptance of these pedagogical methods for both students and teachers. PMID:25991220

  6. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration. PMID:21538939

  7. Can Medical Students Teach? A Near-Peer-Led Teaching Program for "Year 1" Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, T. A.; Evans, D. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The General Medical Council states that United Kingdom graduates must function effectively as educators. There is a growing body of evidence showing that medical students can be included as teachers within a medical curriculum. Our aim was to design and implement a near-peer-led teaching program in an undergraduate medical curriculum and assess…

  8. OPEN PELVIC FRACTURES: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE MEDICAL CENTER AT KNOXVILLE EXPERIENCE OVER TEN YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Black, Emily Anne; Lawson, Christy M; Smith, Scott; Daley, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures of the pelvis remain a devastating injury with a high mortality and morbidity. Such injuries require an aggressive treatment plan and the coordination of trauma and orthopaedic surgeons to achieve the best outcomes. We report our experience at the University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville with open pelvic fractures over the last ten years. Methods After IRB and institutional approval, we reviewed patients admitted with a diagnosis of open fracture of the pelvis from 1999 to 2009. Demographic and admission data were recorded in the trauma registry (TRACS) of the Level I Trauma Center, serving the 1.2 million people living in the regions of east Tennessee, western North Carolina and southeastern Kentucky. Data on fractures were obtained from review of the medical records and radiographs within the chart Results There were 3053 pelvic fractures from January 1999 to December 2009. There were 231 deaths in this group (6%) and ages ranged from 18 to 89 years old and Injury Severity Scores ranged from 4 to 75, with a mean of 18.3. Seventy five percent of patients were able to be discharged home. Fifty-two fractures were open. There were 43 men and the mean age was 39 years old. Average ISS was 23 and ranged from 5 to 50. There were 10 deaths (19%) and eight patients underwent an-gioembolization for control of bleeding (3 deaths). Motorcycle crashes were the most frequent cause of an open fracture, with lateral compression injuries representing 71%. A defined algorithm for fracture management has been in place and employed to assure adequate resuscitation and fracture care and is presented. Discussion Open pelvic fractures are usually the result of a high energy transfer, and convey a high morbidity and mortality. A defined resuscitation and fixation strategy improves outcome from historical reports. Injuries from penetrating mechanisms are associated with less morbidity and lower mortality. PMID:22096441

  9. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  10. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  11. Humoral immunity and CD4+ Th1 cells are both necessary for a fully protective immune response upon secondary infection with Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; De Trez, Carl; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-04-15

    Brucella spp are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the most common zoonoses in the world. Given the serious medical consequences of this disease, a safe and effective human vaccine is urgently needed. Efforts to develop this vaccine have been hampered by our lack of understanding of what constitutes a protective memory response against Brucella. In this study, we characterize the cells and signaling pathways implicated in the generation of a protective immune memory response following priming by the injection of heat-killed or live Brucella melitensis 16M. Using a panel of gene-deficient mice, we demonstrated that during a secondary recall response, both the Brucella-specific humoral response and CD4+ Th1 cells must act together to confer protective immunity in the spleen to B. melitensis infection. Humoral protective immunity is induced by the inoculation of both heat-killed and live bacteria, and its development does not require T cells, MyD88/IL-12p35 signaling pathways, or an activation-induced deaminase-mediated isotype switch. In striking contrast, the presence of memory IFN-γ-producing CD4+ Th1 cells requires the administration of live bacteria and functional MyD88/IL-12p35 pathways. In summary, our work identifies several immune markers closely associated with protective immune memory and could help to define a rational strategy to obtain an effective human vaccine against brucellosis. PMID:24646742

  12. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4(+) Th cells that enhance CD8(+) CTL-mediated tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8(+) CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4(+) Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4(+) Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4(+) Th1-like cells with CD8(+) CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4(+) Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8(+) CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4(+) Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  13. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  14. Teaching first-year medical students in basic clinical and procedural skills − A novel course concept at a medical school in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Mileder, Lukas; Wegscheider, Thomas; Dimai, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Clerkships are still the main source for undergraduate medical students to acquire necessary skills. However, these educational experiences may not be sufficient, as there are significant deficiencies in the clinical experience and practical expertise of medical students. Project description: An innovative course teaching basic clinical and procedural skills to first-year medical students has been implemented at the Medical University of Graz, aiming at preparing students for clerkships and clinical electives. The course is based on several didactic elements: standardized and clinically relevant contents, dual (theoretical and virtual) pre-course preparation, student peer-teaching, small teaching groups, hands-on training, and the use of medical simulation. This is the first course of its kind at a medical school in Austria, and its conceptual design as well as the implementation process into the curriculum shall be described. Evaluation: Between November 2011 and January 2013, 418 students have successfully completed the course. Four online surveys among participating students have been performed, with 132 returned questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction with all four practical course parts was high, as well as the assessment of clinical relevance of contents. Most students (88.6%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had learned a lot throughout the course. Two thirds of the students were motivated by the course to train the acquired skills regularly at our skills laboratory. Narrative feedbacks revealed elements contributing most to course success. Conclusions: First-year medical students highly appreciate practical skills training. Hands-on practice, peer-teaching, clinically relevant contents, and the use of medical simulation are valued most. PMID:24575157

  15. Assessment of clinical psychiatric skills in final-year medical students: the use of videotape.

    PubMed

    Fenton, G W; O'Gorman, E C

    1984-09-01

    Sixty final-year medical students had their clinical performance in psychiatry assessed by the following three methods: a multiple choice questionnaire based on a series of short videotaped interviews with psychiatric patients; the examination of a traditional long 'case' with presentation of the history, mental state findings and formulation about diagnosis and management to a panel of three examiners; and a conventional oral examination about the principles and practice of psychiatry with a different trio of examiners. The total mark on the videotape session correlated significantly with the combined clinical and oral marks. There was also a significant positive correlation between the total video marks and the individual clinical marks, but none between the marks obtained during the video and oral components of the examination. However, the significant positive correlations between the video marks and those of the clinical examination were modest and only accounted for not more than 14% of the variance. Inspection of the distribution of correct answers to the videotape questions shows that students do best in identifying mental state symptoms and signs and in choosing the correct diagnosis. They do less well in the areas of aetiology and treatment. Indeed, optimal performance in the latter distinguishes those who do well in the clinical/oral examination from those whose performance is mediocre. The significance of these findings to the teaching and assessment of psychiatric skills in medical students is discussed. PMID:6472143

  16. [Two years experience of computerised medical records in a regional hospital].

    PubMed

    Vigal Brey, Guillermo; Trelles Martín, Angel

    2012-10-01

    The introduction of computerised medical records in public hospitals is, without a doubt, one of the biggest changes made in patient health care in the last few years. It is a gradual process and is not exempt from difficulties, but it will surely set a challenge in the way information is handled in health care. Taking this path, in November 2008, the computer program SELENE, from the multinational company Siemens, was purchased in the centre were we carry out our surgical activities. The introduction of this program was preceded by an intensive training course for all the workers in the hospital. At the start, it was decided that the computer application would come into operation throughout the entire hospital, replacing the handwritten records. There were difficult days during its gradual introduction, but the computerised medical record has been well accepted by the great majority of the workers at the centre. After the initial stage of becoming accustomed, design problems started to be seen in the application, as well as their possible solutions. Currently, the use of the SELENE program has led to fluid health care within the hospital, although there are problems which can be resolved with adequate funding. PMID:21955838

  17. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  18. Predictors of first-year GPA of medical students: a longitudinal study of 1285 matriculates in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although medical education has developed rapidly in the last decade, and the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) is used as the "gold standard" for admission to medical college in mainland China, there is a lack of literature regarding the influence of NCEE score and other factors on the academic performance of medical students. This study aimed to examine potential predictors of first-year grade point average (GPA) for medical students. Methods This study included 1,285 students who matriculated at a first-tier medical university in mainland China in 2011. The precollege motivational attitudes for each matriculate were investigated via questionnaire. A hierarchical linear model was fitted to regress first-year GPA on a 100-point scale on NCEE score and other student-level and major-level characteristics. Results NCEE score was a significant predictor of both within-major and between-major variation of first-year GPA for medical students. Majors with higher mean NCEE scores had higher mean GPAs, and higher GPAs were observed among those individuals with higher NCEE scores after controlling for major-level characteristics. First-year GPA differed by certain individual socio-demographic variables. Female students had a 2.44-higher GPA on average than did male students. NCEE repeaters had a 1.55-lower GPA than non-repeaters. First-year GPA was associated negatively with parental income but positively with academic self-concept. Conclusions NCEE score is an important predictor of the first-year GPA of medical students, but it is not the sole determinant. Individual socio-demographic characteristics and major-level characteristics should be taken into account to understand better and improve the first-year GPA of medical students. PMID:24755355

  19. 5 years of experience with a large-scale mentoring program for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Severin; Pander, Tanja; von der Borch, Philip; Fischer, Martin R.; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present our 5-year-experience with a large-scale mentoring program for undergraduate medical students at the Ludwig Maximilians-Universität Munich (LMU). We implemented a two-tiered program with a peer-mentoring concept for preclinical students and a 1:1-mentoring concept for clinical students aided by a fully automated online-based matching algorithm. Approximately 20-30% of each student cohort participates in our voluntary mentoring program. Defining ideal program evaluation strategies, recruiting mentors from beyond the academic environment and accounting for the mentoring network reality remain challenging. We conclude that a two-tiered program is well accepted by students and faculty. In addition the online-based matching seems to be effective for large-scale mentoring programs. PMID:25699108

  20. A five-year review of the medical outcome of heroin body stuffers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Matthew T; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E; Wahl, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The medical outcome of heroin body stuffers has rarely been described. This study was performed to illustrate the clinical course of heroin body stuffers. A retrospective chart analysis was performed on all cases of heroin body stuffers received by a metropolitan poison control center from 2000-2004. We identified 65 heroin body stuffers. Sixty-nine percent were men with a mean age of 35 years. The stated quantity of heroin containers ingested ranged from 1 to 30, with 65% reported as being wrapped in plastic. Six patients (9.2%) developed symptoms of opiate intoxication. All symptoms began within an hour after the ingestion. Three patients (4.6%) needed naloxone. The mean length of observation was 24 h. Opiate intoxication from heroin stuffing is uncommon. Those patients that developed symptoms did so early in their course. These data indicate a benign clinical course in most heroin body stuffers. PMID:18024071

  1. 5 years of experience with a large-scale mentoring program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Severin; Pander, Tanja; von der Borch, Philip; Fischer, Martin R; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present our 5-year-experience with a large-scale mentoring program for undergraduate medical students at the Ludwig Maximilians-Universität Munich (LMU). We implemented a two-tiered program with a peer-mentoring concept for preclinical students and a 1:1-mentoring concept for clinical students aided by a fully automated online-based matching algorithm. Approximately 20-30% of each student cohort participates in our voluntary mentoring program. Defining ideal program evaluation strategies, recruiting mentors from beyond the academic environment and accounting for the mentoring network reality remain challenging. We conclude that a two-tiered program is well accepted by students and faculty. In addition the online-based matching seems to be effective for large-scale mentoring programs. PMID:25699108

  2. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts. PMID:26496396

  3. Gender in medicine: the views of first and fifth year medical students.

    PubMed

    Field, D; Lennox, A

    1996-07-01

    This study of first and fifth year medical students found a general recognition among male and female students that gender affects future career choices and the ability to reach career goals. Females were seen as being disadvantaged both in terms of career choice and their ability to achieve career goals. These views are less abstract and more based upon the reality of personal experiences in clinical attachments among fifth year students. While both male and female students describe negative experiences of clinical training, female students were more likely to suffer discrimination because of their gender in certain specialties, such as surgery, and to be dissuaded from pursuing a career in that specialty. Despite the general awareness of the effects of gender in medicine this did not appear to have an effect upon personal career choice. However, some female students were considering career choices at an early stage in their career based on accommodating their future desire to have a family life. Over half of all male and female fifth year students reported that having time for their family was an important consideration in choosing a career. PMID:8949535

  4. Perceived stress at transition to workplace: a qualitative interview study exploring final-year medical students’ needs

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Tobias R; Bugaj, Till J; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to explore final-year medical students’ stressors and coping strategies at the transition to the clinical workplace. Methods In this qualitative study, semi-standardized interviews with eight final-year medical students (five male, three female; aged 25.9±1.4 years) were conducted during their internal medicine rotation. After verbatim transcription, a qualitative content analysis of students’ impressions of stress provoking and easing factors during final-year education was performed. Results Students’ statements regarding burdens and dealing with stress were classified into four main categories: A) perceived stressors and provoking factors, B) stress-induced consequences, C) personal and external resources for preventing and dealing with stress, and D) final-year students’ suggestions for workplace improvement. Conclusion Final-year medical students perceived different types of stress during their transition to medical wards, and reported both negative consequences and coping resources concerning perceived stress. As supervision, feedback, and coping strategies played an important role in the students’ perception of stress, final-year medical education curricula development should focus on these specifically. PMID:26834503

  5. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26632977

  6. Empathy in Undergraduate Medical Students of Bangladesh: Psychometric Analysis and Differences by Gender, Academic Year, and Specialty Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Rozina; Mostafa, Mohammad; Rana, Md. Mashud

    2014-01-01

    Empathy is considered to be associated with better patient compliance, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The aim of the study is to measure and examine empathy among a sample of undergraduate medical students of Bangladesh. It was a cross-sectional study and all the medical students of first through fifth year enrolled at Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College during the study period of 2014 were surveyed. Participants anonymously completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Medical Student version translated into Bengali language, a valid and reliable 20-item self-administered questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were calculated to check validity and reliability of the scale. ANOVA was used to examine the differences in empathy between gender, academic years, and specialty preferences. The mean empathy score was 110.41 ± 13.59. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.88. There were significant associations between gender and empathy scores. The level of empathy in medical students gradually increases after clinical training in medical college. A nonsignificant difference was found between empathy scores and specialty preferences. It is suggested that the medical curriculum in Bangladesh should include more extensive program to promote empathy and other humanistic values among the medical students. PMID:25006522

  7. A Prospective Cohort Study of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy: The First 147 Pregnancies and 100 One Year Old Babies

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Worsley, Roisin; Gilbert, Heather; Gavrilidis, Emorfia; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Wang, Wei; McCauley, Kay; Fitzgerald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Many women diagnosed with varying psychiatric disorders take antipsychotic medications during pregnancy. The safety of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy is largely unknown. Methods We established the National Register of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy in 2005. Women who are pregnant and taking an antipsychotic medication are interviewed every 6 weeks during pregnancy and then followed until their babies are one year old. The baby's progress is closely followed for the first year of life. Findings As of April 18 2012, 147 pregnancies had been followed through to completion. There were 142 live births and data is available for 100 one year old babies. 18% of babies were born preterm, with a higher dose of antipsychotic medication correlating to an increased likelihood of premature delivery; 43% of babies required special care nursery or intensive care after birth; 37% had any degree of respiratory distress and 15% of babies developed withdrawal symptoms. Congenital anomalies were seen in eight babies. Most pregnancies resulted in the birth of live, healthy babies. The use of mood stabilisers or higher doses of antipsychotics during pregnancy increased the likelihood of babies experiencing respiratory distress or admission to Special Care Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Conclusion There is a great need for safety and efficacy information about the use of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy. Live, healthy babies are the most common outcome following the use of antipsychotic medication in pregnancy, but clinicians should be particularly mindful of neonatal problems such as respiratory distress. PMID:24787688

  8. "I'm too used to it": a longitudinal qualitative study of third year female medical students' experiences of gendered encounters in medical education.

    PubMed

    Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Berg, David; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2012-04-01

    Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce. PMID:22341202

  9. Medical school curriculum characteristics associated with intentions and frequency of tobacco dependence treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Rashelle B.; Geller, Alan C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Jolicoeur, Denise; Churchill, Linda C.; Okuyemi, Kola; David, Sean P.; Adams, Michael; Waugh, Jonathan; Allen, Sharon S.; Leone, Frank T.; Fauver, Randy; Leung, Katherine; Liu, Qin; Ockene, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physicians play a critical role in addressing tobacco dependence, yet report limited training. Tobacco dependence treatment curricula for medical students could improve performance in this area. This study identified student and medical school tobacco treatment curricula characteristics associated with intentions and use of the 5As for tobacco treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students. Methods Third year medical students (N=1065, 49.3% male) from 10 U.S. medical schools completed a survey in 2009-2010 assessing student characteristics, including demographics, tobacco treatment knowledge, and self-efficacy. Tobacco curricula characteristics assessed included amount and type of classroom instruction, frequency of tobacco treatment observation, instruction, and perception of preceptors as role models. Results Greater tobacco treatment knowledge, self-efficacy, and curriculum-specific variables were associated with 5A intentions, while younger age, tobacco treatment self-efficacy, intentions, and each curriculum-specific variable was associated with greater 5A behaviors. When controlling for important student variables, greater frequency of receiving 5A instruction (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.12) and perception of preceptors as excellent role models in tobacco treatment (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.04-1.75) were significant curriculum predictors of 5A intentions. Greater 5A instruction (B = .06 (.03); p< .05) and observation of tobacco treatment (B= .35 (.02); p< .001) were significant curriculum predictors of greater 5A behaviors. Conclusions Greater exposure to tobacco treatment teaching during medical school is associated with both greater intentions to use and practice tobacco 5As. Clerkship preceptors, or those physicians who provide training to medical students, may be particularly influential when they personally model and instruct students in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:25572623

  10. Regression of Moral Reasoning during Medical Education: Combined Design Study to Evaluate the Effect of Clinical Study Years

    PubMed Central

    Hren, Darko; Marušić, Matko; Marušić, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral reasoning is important for developing medical professionalism but current evidence for the relationship between education and moral reasoning does not clearly apply to medical students. We used a combined study design to test the effect of clinical teaching on moral reasoning. Methods We used the Defining Issues Test-2 as a measure of moral judgment, with 3 general moral schemas: Personal Interest, Maintaining Norms, and Postconventional Schema. The test was applied to 3 consecutive cohorts of second year students in 2002 (n = 207), 2003 (n = 192), and 2004 (n = 139), and to 707 students of all 6 study years in 2004 cross-sectional study. We also tested 298 age-matched controls without university education. Results In the cross-sectional study, there was significant main effect of the study year for Postconventional (F(5,679) = 3.67, P = 0.003) and Personal Interest scores (F(5,679) = 3.38, P = 0.005). There was no effect of the study year for Maintaining Norms scores. 3rd year medical students scored higher on Postconventional schema score than all other study years (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences among 3 cohorts of 2nd year medical students, demonstrating the absence of cohort or point-of-measurement effects. Longitudinal study of 3 cohorts demonstrated that students regressed from Postconventional to Maintaining Norms schema-based reasoning after entering the clinical part of the curriculum. Interpretation Our study demonstrated direct causative relationship between the regression in moral reasoning development and clinical teaching during medical curriculum. The reasons may include hierarchical organization of clinical practice, specific nature of moral dilemmas faced by medical students, and hidden medical curriculum. PMID:21479204

  11. Continuum Kinetic Plasma Modeling Using a Conservative 4th-Order Method with AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogman, Genia; Colella, Phillip

    2012-10-01

    When the number of particles in a Debye sphere is large, a plasma can be accurately represented by a distribution function, which can be treated as a continuous incompressible fluid in phase space. In the most general case the evolution of such a distribution function is described by the 6D Boltzmann-Maxwell partial differential equation system. To address the challenges associated with solving a 6D hyperbolic governing equation, a simpler 3D Vlasov-Poisson system is considered. A 4th-order accurate Vlasov-Poisson model has been developed in one spatial and two velocity dimensions. The governing equation is cast in conservation law form and is solved with a finite volume representation. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to allow for efficient use of computational resources while maintaining desired levels of resolution. The model employs a flux limiter to remedy non-physical effects such as numerical dispersion. The model is tested on the two-stream, beam-plasma, and Dory-Guest-Harris instabilities. All results are compared with linear theory.

  12. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  13. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  14. Multiwavelength Analysis of a Moving Type-IV Radio Burst on 4th March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluchamy, V.; Chen, Y.; Feng, S.; Du, G.; Song, H.; Kong, X.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a multiwavelength analysis of a moving Type-IV radio burst on 4th march 2012. The Type-IV radio burst is observed between 10:39 - 11:00 UT in the frequency range of 300 - 20 MHz. From the radio heliographic observation, the radio source of the type-IV burst is traced and their sky plane speed is estimated as ~ 370 km/s. A plasmoid structure is ejected during the impulsive phase of the flare, at the same time of the type-IV burst and the structure is clearly observed at SDO/AIA 131 Å channel. From this, we find that the radio source moves with the plasmoid. The high brightness temperature profile in the range of 108 - 109 K and the moderate polarization between -50 - 30 % supports the plasma emission mechanism. Further the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis will be carried out and their results will be presented to provide more evidence of the emission mechanism.

  15. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." PMID:26096748

  16. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  17. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  18. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  19. Effects of Stimulant Medication on Growth Rates across 3 Years in the MTA Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hechtman, Lily; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pelham, William E.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Wells, Karen C.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; March, John S.; Conners, C. Keith; Caron, Mark; Volkow, Nora D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis of stimulant medication effect on physical growth in the follow-up phase of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. Method: Naturalistic subgroups were established based on patterns of treatment with stimulant medication at baseline, 14-, 24-, and 36-month assessments: not medicated (n = 65),…

  20. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  1. MSU Medical Colleges Blended Learning for First Year Science Courses: Uniting Pedagogy to Maximize Experience and Real World Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Kathryn; Vignare, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At Michigan State University the two medical schools, College of Human Medicine (CHM; M.D. degree) and College of Osteopathic Medicine (COM; D.O. degree), have offered the same science courses to first year students for many years. Science departments report to both colleges, and the same faculty can effectively teach the content required in the…

  2. Community of Learners: Charting Learning in First Year Graduate Entry Medical Students during Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul; Zvauya, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers social learning practices within and outside the overt curriculum. A thematic approach was used to analyse data from six focus group interviews with 11 graduate entry medical students from a UK university over a year of study. The results indicate that: (1) during their first year of study students form a community of learning…

  3. Exploring first-year undergraduate medical students' self-directed learning readiness to physiology.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Fisher, Murray; Kamath, Asha; Izzati, T Aizan; Nabila, Saidatul; Atikah, Nik Nur

    2011-12-01

    Medical students are expected to possess self-directed learning skills to pursue lifelong learning. Previous studies have reported that the readiness for self-directed learning depends on personal attributes as well as the curriculum followed in institutions. Melaka Manipal Medical College of Manipal University (Karnataka, India) offers a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) twinning program that is of 5 yr in duration. Keeping in mind the amount of time that the curriculum has devoted for self-directed learning, we explored the self-directed learning readiness of first-year MBBS students (n = 130) using a self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) and explored the correlation between SDLRS scores of high achievers, medium achievers, and low achievers with their academic performance in physiology examinations. Students were requested to respond to each item of the SDLRS on a Likert scale. Median scores of the three scales of the SDLRS were compared across the three groups of students using a Kruskall-Wallis test. SDLRS scores of the students (n = 130) were correlated with their marks in theory papers of first, second, and third block-end examinations using Spearmann's correlation coefficient. The mean item score for desire for learning was found to be higher followed by self-control and self-management. Data analyses showed significantly high (P < 0.03) median scores for self-control for high achievers compared with medium and low achievers. Between the groups, high achievers had a higher score for all the three scales of the SDLRS followed by low and medium achievers. SDLRS scores and academic performance of the three groups of students were found to exhibit a weak correlation. This study threw light on the fact that despite having a high desire for learning and ability of self-control, students need to be supported in their self-management skills. PMID:22139776

  4. Preparing for palliative medicine; evaluation of an education programme for fourth year medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Mason, S R; Ellershaw, J E

    2008-09-01

    Prompted by directives from the GMC, 'care of the dying' is identified as 'core curricula' for undergraduate medical education. However, there are many technical and interpersonal challenges faced in learning the practice of palliative medicine. Accordingly, the design and delivery of education programmes need to be both carefully considered and evaluated. Using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a driver, appropriate methodology for evaluating a novel education programme in palliative medicine was drafted. A pre- and post-survey of an education programme and palliative care placement for fourth year medical undergraduate students from Liverpool University (n = 216) was completed using a composite questionnaire containing; i) Self-efficacy in Palliative Care Scale (SEPC) and ii) Thanatophobia Scale. Both scales have shown reliability and validity within the sample population. Additionally, a randomly selected Focus Group was conducted to provide qualitative information on the students' experience. A total of 139 pre- and post-questionnaires (64%) were completed. Analysis identified significant improvements in perceived efficacy (SEPC Communication t = -16.41, P < 0.001; SEPC Patient Management t = -22.31, P < 0.001; SEPC Multidisciplinary Teamwork t = -15.56, P < 0.001). Significant improvements in thanatophobia were also recorded (z = -7.51, P < 0.001) although some interesting anomalies were noted. This study demonstrates that considered and appropriately structured clinical education has been shown to significantly improve students' belief in their ability to practice palliative medicine and to improve their attitude towards care. In accordance with the study's theoretical driver, it is reasonable to propose that the engaged active learning will have a positive effect on the future care of dying patients. PMID:18715966

  5. Perspective: successfully negotiating the clerkship years of medical school: a guide for medical students, implications for residents and faculty.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Larrie; Blatt, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Medical students face significant learning and cultural challenges during the transition from the classroom to the clinical setting. The authors recommend that students be proactive in preparing themselves for this difficult journey by understanding and applying principles of adult learning. To guide students in this preparation, the authors propose a model that incorporates adult learning principles into a cycle emphasizing reflective practice. This model, based on the Kolb learning cycle, consists of five sequential steps: (1) preparing for the clinical setting, (2) experiencing the clinical setting, (3) reflecting on experience, (4) conceptualizing new approaches, and (5) testing new approaches on return to the clinical setting. This fifth stage in the cycle completes the first iteration. The cycle never ends, however; experimentation leads to new reflection, which in turn leads to new approaches and new experience. PMID:20354392

  6. Breakfast patterns among low-income, ethnically-diverse 4th-6th grade children in an urban area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children’s breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children’s breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. Results On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). Conclusions When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. Clinical trial registration NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:24928474

  7. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  8. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  9. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  10. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  11. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  12. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  13. [The military-medical commission FSI "1586th Military Hospital", Russian Ministry of Defence--90 years].

    PubMed

    Andronenkov, I A; Rybakov, O A; Makhson, I P

    2012-02-01

    The military-medical commission FSI "1586th Military Hospital" of the Ministry of Defense undertakes a significant part of the activities of the entire military medical expertise in the Armed Forces. The commission covers the territory of the Central and Volga Federal Districs (19 subordinate entities of the Russian Federation). Currently, the committee consists of three functional departments: recruitment examination and acquisition of military schools, separation of military and military service examination, and examination of the medical department, flight and selection of specialists. A significant component in the military-medical commission is inspection of flight and flight-lift Air Force, for which the commission has a staff department of medical-flight examination, in which medical examination of pilots is carried out (annually--about 500 people). PMID:22558856

  14. Forty years of litigation involving medical students and their education: II. Issues of finance.

    PubMed

    Helms, L B; Helms, C M

    1991-02-01

    An analysis of reported state and federal adjudication from 1950 through 1989 was undertaken to identify trends in litigation involving medical students and undergraduate medical education. Of the 110 cited judicial decisions during that time, 59 (54%) involved disputes over financing medical education; 43 (73%) were litigated since 1985. This dramatic increase arises primarily from challenges to National Health Service Corps obligations and from attempts to discharge or reorganize debt under the Bankruptcy Code. Medical school graduates enjoyed very little success in these cases. Analysis of court decisions points to a need for informed counseling for medical students, particularly as to the consequences of timing in default on service obligations and of incurring loans under the Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program as opposed to other loan sources. The growing educational debt of today's medical students foreshadows continued litigation in this area. PMID:1993104

  15. Ten Years of Abstinence in Former Opiate Addicts: Medication-Free Non-Patients Compared to Methadone Maintenance Patients.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Domany, Yoav; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-five former opioid addicts who have been methadone maintained patients for 10 or more years and whose urine has tested negative for drugs for 2 or more years were compared to 99 former opioid addicts who have been medication-free for 10 or more years. Groups were comparable in age and education, but the medication-free subjects were younger when having started opioids with more severe addiction scores. Methadone maintained patients presented with a higher proportion of psychiatric comorbidity and chronic pain. Their scores of perceived sleep quality and cognitive state were poorer than the medication-free individuals. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed in this article. PMID:26284418

  16. A global health elective for US medical students: the 35 year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-04-01

    The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center has sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purpose of this elective is to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health delivery systems in low-income countries, provide medical service and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 388 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 low-income countries. The most popular sites include the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, India, Kenya and Thailand. Overall, interest in this elective has persisted throughout the course of time, sometimes temporarily increasing or decreasing with outside factors, such as the events of 11 September 2001 and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are almost universally high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to their travel overseas, including a review of individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system and assignment site. Downstate medical students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patient population in Brooklyn, and the diversity of local hospital staff and the medical school class. The Alumni Fund of

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a 50-year experience at Baylor University Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Kourlis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    During the past 5 decades, the recognition and management of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) have evolved. This article elucidates these changes and improvements in the diagnosis and management of TOS at Baylor University Medical Center. The most remarkable change over the past 50 years is the use of nerve conduction velocity to diagnose and monitor patients with nerve compression. Recognition that procedures such as breast implantation and median sternotomy may produce TOS has been revealing. Prompt thrombolysis followed by surgical venous decompression for Paget-Schroetter syndrome has markedly improved results compared with the conservative anticoagulation approach; thrombolysis and prompt first rib resection is the optimal treatment for most patients with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. Complete first rib extirpation at the initial procedure markedly reduces the incidence of recurrent neurologic symptoms or the need for a second procedure. Chest pain or pseudoangina can be caused by TOS. Dorsal sympathectomy is helpful for patients with sympathetic maintained pain syndrome or causalgia and patients with recurrent TOS symptoms who need a second procedure. PMID:17431445

  18. First-year medical students' naïve beliefs about respiratory physiology.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Silvia; Abrahams, Amaal; Bugarith, Kishor; Friedling, Jacqui; Gunston, Geney; Kelly-Laubscher, Roisin; Schmidt, Henk G

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the nature and frequency of physiology naïve beliefs by investigating novices' understanding of the respiratory system. Previous studies have shown considerable misconceptions related to physiology but focused mostly on specific physiological processes of normal respiration. Little is known about novices' broader understanding of breathing in a clinical context. Our study hypothesized that naïve beliefs could hamper participants' ability to understand the interrelatedness of respiratory structures and functions related to breathing during a clinical complication. The study entailed both quantitative and qualitative foci. A two-tier test was designed and administered to 211 first-year medical students. Participants were asked to choose the correct answer out of a set of four options and to substantiate their choices. Questions were purposefully left open to elicit a wide range of responses. Statistical analysis (SPSS) was done to evaluate the frequency of naïve beliefs. Thematic analysis was used to determine themes within the raw data. The majority of participants selected incorrect answers in the multiple-choice question part of the questionnaire. Results from the thematic analysis yielded a considerable range of naïve beliefs about gas exchange, foundational physics, airflow, anatomic structures, and breathing pathways. An awareness of the existence of such naive beliefs in respiratory physiology will allow educators to address them in their teaching and thereby prevent naïve beliefs transforming into misconceptions. PMID:27445283

  19. Citation Analysis of the Croatian Medical Journal: the First 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kovačić, Nataša; Huić, Mirjana; Ivaniš, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ) is a bimonthly scientific journal, publishing mostly original articles. It is indexed in the Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, and the Science Citation Index – expanded. Since the CMJ’s 15th anniversary in 2007, our aim has been to assess the importance of the journal through its impact factor (IF) and immediacy index, with a particular focus placed on the proportion of self-citations. According the Web of Knowledge database, the current official IF for CMJ is 0.825, ranking it at the 62nd place out of 103 journals within the Thomson Scientific category “Medicine – General and Internal.” The exclusion of self-citations resulted in a small decrease in the journal’s rank – to 66th place. According to the Web of Science database, the predicted CMJ IF in 2007 is between 1.024 and 1.125, showing a clear increase. The immediacy index of the CMJ is continuously low, with a high contribution of self-citations, implying that articles published in the CMJ require more time to be cited, and that their topics are of particular interest to the journal's readers and contributors. Self-citations contributed significantly to the IF in the first few years after the journal was established. The proportion of independent citations progressively increased, and of all the citations included in the IF in 2007, almost 70% were fully independent. Some of these citations were from articles published in journals with IF higher than 5. Taken together, our data suggest that CMJ has significantly improved its citation data during the last 15 years, confirming that a quality-oriented editorial policy in a small peripheral journal may result in a truly increased international visibility. PMID:18293451

  20. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou; Niceville, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July...

  1. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  2. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold public meetings on this proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks...

  3. 78 FR 39998 - Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand River; Grand Haven, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand... a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of...

  4. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th-10th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…

  5. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July...

  6. 75 FR 35294 - Safety Zone; Marquette 4th of July Fireworks, Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Marquette Harbor during the Marquette 4th of July Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a firework...

  7. 78 FR 39606 - Safety Zone; City of Menominee 4th of July Fireworks, Green Bay, Menominee, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Menominee 4th of July Fireworks... that may result in the expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by...

  8. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  9. 76 FR 38015 - Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within... under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law or impose a substantial direct cost of compliance on them....

  10. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  12. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  13. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  14. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  15. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  16. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  17. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  18. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention... Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Recovery for the Iraq...

  19. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  20. Characterization of HCV Specific CD4+Th17 Immunity in Recurrent Hepatitis C Induced Liver Allograft Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Basha, H. Ilias; Subramanian, Vijay; Seetharam, A.; Nath, D.S.; Ramachandran, S.; Anderson, C.D.; Shenoy, S.; Chapman, W.C.; Crippin, J.S.; Mohanakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) recurrence with accelerated fibrosis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a universal phenomenon. To evaluate mechanisms contributing to HCV induced allograft fibrosis/cirrhosis, we investigated HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells and their induction in OLT recipients with recurrence utilizing 51 HCV+ OLT recipients, 15 healthy controls and 9 HCV- OLT recipients. Frequency of HCV specific CD4+ Tcells secreting IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 was analyzed by ELISpot. Serum cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by LUMINEX. Recipients with recurrent HCV induced allograft inflammation and fibrosis/cirrhosis demonstrated a significant increase in frequency of HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1), decreased IFN-γ, and increased IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 levels were identified. OLT recipients with allograft inflammation and fibrosis/cirrhosis demonstrated increased frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibited HCV specific CD4+Th1 but not Th17 cells. This suggests that recurrent HCV infection in OLT recipients induces an inflammatory milieu characterized by increased IL-6, IL-1β and decreased IFN-γ which facilitates induction of HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells. These cells are resistant to suppression by Tregs and may mediate an inflammatory cascade leading to cirrhosis in OLT recipients following HCV recurrence. PMID:21446979

  1. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St....

  2. Perspective: PhD scientists completing medical school in two years: looking at the Miami PhD-to-MD program alumni twenty years later.

    PubMed

    Koniaris, Leonidas G; Cheung, Michael C; Garrison, Gwen; Awad, William M; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2010-04-01

    Producing and retaining physician-scientists remains a major challenge in advancing innovation, knowledge, and patient care across all medical disciplines. Various programs during medical school, including MD-PhD programs, have been instituted to address the need for continued production of physician-scientists. From 1971 through 1989, 508 students with a prior PhD in the sciences, mathematics, or engineering graduated in two years from an accelerated MD program at the University of Miami School of Medicine. The program, designed to address potential clinical physician shortages rather than physician-scientist shortages, quickly attracted many top-notch scientists to medicine. Many program graduates went to top-tier residencies, pursued research careers in academic medicine, and became academic leaders in their respective fields. A retrospective examination of graduates conducted in 2008-2009 demonstrated that approximately 59% took positions in academic university medical departments, 3% worked for governmental agencies, 5% entered industry as researchers or executives, and 33% opted for private practice. Graduates' positions included 85 full professors, 11 university directors or division heads, 14 academic chairs, 2 medical school deans, and 1 astronaut. Overall, 30% of graduates had obtained National Institutes of Health funding after completing the program. These results suggest that accelerated medical training for accomplished scientists can produce a large number of successful physician-scientists and other leaders in medicine. Furthermore, these results suggest that shortening the medical portion of combined MD-PhD programs might also be considered. PMID:20354390

  3. The Rural Physician Associate Program: The Value of Immersion Learning for Third-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Halaas, Gwen W.; Finstad, Deborah; Brooks, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Changes in health care and new theories of learning have prompted significant changes in medical education. Some US medical schools employ immersion learning in rural communities to increase the number of physicians who choose to practice in these areas. Founded in 1971, the rural physician associate program (RPAP) is a longitudinal…

  4. Evaluation of Information Literacy Skill Development in First Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sandra; Iredell, Helena; Newton-Smith, Carol; Clark, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Medical practitioners need the skills to find relevant information and evaluate its authenticity, validity, and reliability. The learning of information literacy has been embedded in the University of Western Australia (UWA) medical course since 2000. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the enhanced information literacy…

  5. Medical Student Health: Ten Years after the GSA/CMSH Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Hewson, J. Robert

    1980-01-01

    In 1969 a committee of the Association of American Medical Colleges made recommendations relating to the health care of medical students. A 1979 survey of 82 U.S. and Canadian schools showed little change from the methods being used in 1967. The implications of the survey are discussed and a prototype program is presented. (Author/JMD)

  6. Use of Student Self-Involvement to Enhance Nutrition Education for First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wayne K.

    1989-01-01

    The challenge for medical educators is to develop for their students a firm educational foundation in nutritional science. A nutrition "laboratory" experience was developed at the Medical College of Virginia. Students examine their own nutrient intakes in relation to class means, national norms, and dietary recommendations. (MLW)

  7. Exploring First-Year Undergraduate Medical Students' Self-Directed Learning Readiness to Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Fisher, Murray; Kamath, Asha; Izzati, T. Aizan; Nabila, Saidatul; Atikah, Nik Nur

    2011-01-01

    Medical students are expected to possess self-directed learning skills to pursue lifelong learning. Previous studies have reported that the readiness for self-directed learning depends on personal attributes as well as the curriculum followed in institutions. Melaka Manipal Medical College of Manipal University (Karnataka, India) offers a Bachelor…

  8. A Nine Year Follow-Up Survey of Medical Emergency Education in Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Morris S.; Fryer, George E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 51 dental schools found that 39% offered a separate course for medical emergency instruction, findings similar to those of a 1983 survey. Most schools provide at least 10 hours of instruction in medical emergencies, more than were found in the earlier study. Related policy is better delineated, but routine measurement of vital signs…

  9. Influence of a Freshman-Year Panel Presentation on Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallick, Mollie M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated changes in medical students' attitudes toward homosexuality following midyear freshman exposure to a panel presentation and after psychiatry clerkship. Group attitudes of three consecutive medical school classes were consistent, beginning and largely remaining in the "low-grade homophobic" category. An ongoing forum to explore…

  10. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1977-01-01

    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  11. Knowledge and attitude of final - year medical students in Germany towards palliative care - an interinstitutional questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum) conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33%) answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum. PMID:22112146

  12. The UNAM M. Sc. program in Medical Physics enters its teen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandan, María-Ester

    2010-12-01

    The M.Sc. (Medical Physics) program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico UNAM, created in 1997, has graduated a substantial number of medical physicists who constitute today about 30% of the medical physics clinical workforce in the country. Up to present date (May 2010) more than 60 students have graduated, 60% of them hold clinical jobs, 20% have completed or study a Ph.D., and 15% perform activities related to this specialization. In addition to strengthening the clinical practice of medical physics, the program has served as an incentive for medical physics research in UNAM and other centers. We report the circumstances of the program origin, the evolution of its curriculum, the main achievements, and the next challenges.

  13. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. Results A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R2 = 0.43). Conclusions Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students’ academic performance. PMID:23537129

  14. Eleven-year descriptive analysis of closed court verdicts on medical errors in Spain and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Priscila; Sato, Luke; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Comas, Mercè; Dwyer, Kathy; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and compare the characteristics of court verdicts on medical errors allegedly harming patients in Spain and Massachusetts from 2002 to 2012. Design, setting and participants We reviewed 1041 closed court verdicts obtained from data on litigation in the Thomson Reuters Aranzadi Westlaw databases in Spain (Europe), and 370 closed court verdicts obtained from the Controlled Risk and Risk Management Foundation of Harvard Medical Institutions (CRICO/RMF) in Massachusetts (USA). We included closed court verdicts on medical errors. The definition of medical errors was based on that of the Institute of Medicine (USA). We excluded any agreements between parties before a judgement. Results Medical errors were involved in 25.9% of court verdicts in Spain and in 74% of those in Massachusetts. The most frequent cause of medical errors was a diagnosis-related problem (25.1%; 95% CI 20.7% to 31.1% in Spain; 35%; 95% CI 29.4% to 40.7% in Massachusetts). The proportion of medical errors classified as high severity was 34% higher in Spain than in Massachusetts (p=0.001). The most frequent factors contributing to medical errors in Spain were surgical and medical treatment (p=0.001). In Spain, 98.5% of medical errors resulted in compensation awards compared with only 6.9% in Massachusetts. Conclusions This study reveals wide differences in litigation rates and the award of indemnity payments in Spain and Massachusetts; however, common features of both locations are the high rates of diagnosis-related problems and the long time interval until resolution. PMID:27577585

  15. Medical Injection Use Among Adults and Adolescents Aged 15 to 64 Years in Kenya: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Daniel; Kamau, Rachel; Ssempijja, Victor; Robinson, Katherine; Oluoch, Tom; Njeru, Mercy; Mwangi, Jane; Njogu, David; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe medical injections remain a potential route of HIV transmission in Kenya. We used data from a national survey in Kenya to study the magnitude of medical injection use, medication preference, and disposal of medical waste in the community. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a nationally representative population-based survey. Among participants aged 15–64 years, data were collected regarding medical injections received in the year preceding the interview; blood samples were collected from participants for HIV testing. Results Of the 13,673 participants who answered questions on medical injections, 35.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.5 to 37.3] reported receiving ≥1 injection in the past 12 months and 51.2% (95% CI: 49.7 to 52.8) preferred receiving an injection over a pill. Among those who received an injection from a health care provider, 95.9% (95% CI: 95.2 to 96.7) observed him/her open a new injection pack, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.4 to 8.4) had seen a used syringe or needle near their home or community in the past 12 months. Men who had received ≥1 injection in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 8.9) and women who had received an injection in the past 12 months, not for family planning purposes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5), were significantly more likely to be HIV infected compared with those who had not received medical injection in the past 12 months. Conclusions Injection preference may contribute to high rates of injections in Kenya. Exposure to unsafe medical waste in the community poses risks for injury and infection. We recommend that community- and facility-based injection safety strategies be integrated in disease prevention programs. PMID:24413041

  16. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  17. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27071498

  18. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  19. Feeding, Fussing and Play: Parent-Infant Interaction in the First Year as a Function of Early Medical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Susan; And Others

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship of stress arising from medical problems of newborns to parent-infant interaction through the infant's first year. Significant interactive differences between full term and premature infants were found in feeding situations during the neonatal period and in floor play at eight months. The sample…

  20. Preparing the Ground: Contributions of the Preclinical Years to Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David; Quill, Timothy; Hafferty, Frederic W.; Arnold, Robbert; Plumb, James; Bulger, Roger; Field, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on the Pre-Clinical Years of the 1997 National Consensus Conference on Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life identifies promising settings and suggests how they might be used for maximum benefit in end-of-life education. Basic-care competencies are in five domains: psychological/social/cultural/spiritual issues;…

  1. 77 FR 69504 - Calendar Year 2012 Cost of Outpatient Medical and Dental Services Furnished by Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Calendar Year 2012 Cost of Outpatient Medical and Dental Services Furnished by Department of... Persons AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. ACTION:...

  2. 76 FR 5811 - Adjusted Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) Rate for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...This notice provides the adjusted Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) rate for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) as required under Section 5001 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Section 5001 of the ARRA provides for temporary increases in the FMAP rates to provide fiscal relief to states and to protect and maintain state Medicaid and certain......

  3. Effects of a Metacognitive Intervention on Students' Approaches to Learning and Self-Efficacy in a First Year Medical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papinczak, Tracey; Young, Louise; Groves, Michele; Haynes, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the influence of metacognitive activities within the PBL tutorial environment on the development of deep learning approach, reduction in surface approach, and enhancement of individual learning self-efficacy. Method: Participants were first-year medical students (N = 213). A pre-test, post-test design was implemented with…

  4. Reactions of First-Year Medical Students to Their Initial Encounter with a Cadaver in the Dissecting Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, David J. de L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 100 first-year medical students found that, although they felt adequately prepared prior to exposure to a human cadaver, they wished greater preparation after the experience, especially through more discussion with anatomy staff. Results suggest a need for preparation for coping with dissection and followup for professional and…

  5. Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator with First-Year Medical Students to Facilitate Learning of Cardiovascular Function Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into…

  6. Teacher-Learner Relationships in Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Study of the Third-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarecke, Jodi Lynn Turner

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine third-year medical students' perceptions of their teacher-learner relationships in the clinical environment; and to explore how these relationships impact students' perceptions of teaching, learning, and their future roles as educators. To address this purpose, a sequential exploratory mixed methods…

  7. Cardiovascular Physiology for First-Year Medical Students: Teaching and Learning through Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Vanetia M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a card game designed to help medical students learn to manipulate concepts fundamental to the functions of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and to understand the interrelationships between different controlled variables in the system. (Author/MA)

  8. Analysis of 10-Year Training Results of Medical Students Using the Microvascular Research Center Training Program.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Satoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Narushi; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Matsumoto, Kumiko; Ota, Tomoyuki; Thuzar, Moe

    2016-06-01

    Background In this article, we reviewed the training results of medical students using the Microvascular Research Center Training Program (MRCP), and proposed an ideal microsurgical training program for all individuals by analyzing the training results of medical students who did not have any surgical experience. Methods As of 2015, a total of 29 medical students completed the MRCP. In the most recent 12 medical students, the number of trials performed for each training stage and the number of rats needed to complete the training were recorded. Additionally, we measured the operating time upon finishing stage 5 for the recent six medical students after it became a current program. Results The average operating time upon finishing stage 5 for the recent six medical students was 120 minutes ± 11 minutes (standard deviation [SD]). The average vascular anastomosis time (for the artery and vein) was 52 minutes ± 2 minutes (SD). For the most recent 12 medical students, there was a negative correlation between the number of trials performed in the non-rat stages (stages 1-3) and the number of rats used in the rat stages (stages 4-5). Conclusion Analysis of the training results of medical students suggests that performing microsurgery first on silicon tubes and chicken wings saves animals' lives later during the training program. We believe that any person can learn the technique of microsurgery by performing 7 to 8 hours of training per day over a period of 15 days within this program setting. PMID:26636888

  9. A Study of Psychological Distress in Two Cohorts of First-Year Medical Students that Underwent Different Admission Selection Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Rahim, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Esa, Ab Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%–50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by comparing 2 cohorts of first-year medical students; 1 group (cohort 1) was selected based purely on academic merit (2008/2009 cohort) and the other group (cohort 2) was selected based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance (2009/2010 cohort). Their distress levels were measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and scores higher than 3 were considered indicative of significant psychological distress. Results: The prevalence (P = 0.003) and levels (P = 0.001) of psychological distress were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 had 1.2–3.3 times higher risk of developing psychological distress compared to cohort 2 (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Cohort 2 had better psychological health than cohort 1 and was less likely to develop psychological distress. This study provided evidence of a potential benefit of multimodal student selection based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance. This selection process might identify medical students who will maintain better psychological health. PMID:23610547

  10. A comparison of outcome of medical and surgical treatment of migraine headache: In 1 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Mahmood; Abdali, Hossein; Ardakani, Mehdi Rasti; Talebianfar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of the medical treatment versus the surgical treatment approach to decompression of trigger point nerves in patients with migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to the medical treatment group (n = 25) or the surgical treatment group (n = 25) after examination by the team neurologist to ensure a diagnosis of migraine headache. All patients received botulinum toxin type A to confirm the trigger sites. The surgical treatment group underwent surgical deactivation of the trigger site(s). The medical treatment group underwent prophylactic pharmacologic interventions by the neurologist. Pretreatment and 12-month posttreatment migraine headache frequency, duration, and intensity were analyzed and compared to determine the success of the treatments. Results: Nineteen of the 25 patients (76%) in the surgical treatment group and 10 of the 25 patients (40%) in the medical treatment group experienced a successful outcome (at least a 50% decrease in migraine frequency, duration, or intensity) after 1 year from surgery. Surgical treatment had a significantly higher success rate than medical treatment (P < 0.001). Nine patients (36%) in the surgical treatment group and one patient (4%) in the medical treatment group experienced cessation of migraine headaches. The elimination rate was significantly higher in the surgical treatment group than in the medical treatment group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on the 1-year follow-up data, there is strong evidence that surgical manipulation of one or more migraine trigger sites can successfully eliminate or reduce the frequency, duration, and intensity of migraine headaches in a lasting manner. PMID:27563631

  11. Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education – a 4-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Rotthoff, Thomas; Ostapczuk, Martin S.; Kröncke, Klaus D.; Zimmerhofer, Alexander; Decking, Ulrich; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs) are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. Methods We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching) and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a) objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) on basic clinical skills (n=26), (b) OSCE on communication skills (n=21), and (c) peer feedback (n=18). The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Results Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively). Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p<0.01). The AC total score also showed a moderate correlation with the overall peer feedback score provided in Year 4 (r=0.38, p=0.06). In addition, communicative competency correlated strongly with the overall peer feedback (r=0.50, p=0.02). We found predominantly low and insignificant correlations between the AC and the OSCE on basic clinical skills (r=−0.33 to 0.30, all p's>0.05). Conclusion The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies. PMID:25219931

  12. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  13. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  14. Monitoring one-year compliance to antihypertension medication in the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Madeleine, George; Waeber, Bernard; Paccaud, Fred

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the compliance to medication among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients screened from the general population of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country. METHODS: Among the 1067 participants to a population-based survey for cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension was discovered in 50 (previously unaware of having hypertension and having blood pressure > or = 160/95 mmHg over 3 visits). These 50 patients were placed on a daily one-pill regimen of medication (bendrofluazide, atenolol, or a combination of hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol) and compliance to the regimen was assessed over 12 months using electronic pill containers. Satisfactory compliance was defined as taking the medication on 6 or 7 days a week on average (which corresponds to a mean compliance level of > or = 86%). FINDINGS: In the first month, fewer than half (46%) of the new hypertension patients achieved satisfactory compliance, and only about one-quarter (26%) achieved this level by the twelfth month. Compliance was better among the 23 participants who regularly attended medical follow-up, with nearly three-quarters of these patients (74%) achieving satisfactory compliance during the first month and over one-half (55%) by the twelfth month. There was a direct association between mean 12-month compliance level and having a highly skilled occupation; having good health awareness; and regularly attending medical appointments. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between mean compliance level and heavy drinking. CONCLUSION: The low proportion of people selected from the general population who were capable of sustaining satisfactory compliance to antihypertension medication may correspond to the maximum effectiveness of medication interventions based on a screening and treatment strategy in the general population. The results stress the need for both high-risk and population approaches to improve hypertension control. PMID:11884971

  15. Transfer of a CD4+ Th1 cell line to nude mice effects clearance of Rhodococcus equi from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, and intracellular respiratory pathogen, causes sever e granulomatous pneumonia in humans with AIDS and in young horses. Pulmonary clearance of R. equi requires functional CD4+ T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expression from bronchial lymph node cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether R. equi-specific CD4+ Th1 cells could effect clearance of R. equi from the lung. Adoptive transfer of a clearance of R. equi from the lungs. In contrast, mice transfused with a R. equi-specific CD4+ Th2 cell line expressed interleukin-4 but not IFN-gamma mRNA, failed to clear pulmonary infection, and developed granulomas in the lung. Control mice, which did not receive cells, did not produce IFN-gamma or interleukin-4 and developed small pulmonary granulomas. These results clearly show that a Th1 response is sufficient to effect pulmonary clearance of R. equi. PMID:8606068

  16. Imaging system QA of a medical accelerator, Novalis Tx, for IGRT per TG 142: our 1 year experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Bowsher, James; Cai, Jing; Yoo, Sua; Wang, Zhiheng; Adamson, Justus; Ren, Lei; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2012-01-01

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG) 142 has recently published a report to update recommendations of the AAPM TG 40 report and add new recommendations concerning medical accelerators in the era of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The recommendations of AAPM TG 142 on IGRT are timely. In our institute, we established a comprehensive imaging QA program on a medical accelerator based on AAPM TG 142 and implemented it successfully. In this paper, we share our one-year experience and performance evaluation of an OBI capable linear accelerator, Novalis Tx, per TG 142 guidelines. PMID:22766946

  17. Using SurveyMonkey® to teach safe social media strategies to medical students in their clinical years.

    PubMed

    Bramstedt, Katrina A; Ierna, Ben N; Woodcroft-Brown, Victoria K

    2014-01-01

    Social media is a valuable tool in the practice of medicine, but it can also be an area of 'treacherous waters' for medical students. Those in their upper years of study are off-site and scattered broadly, undertaking clinical rotations; thus, in-house (university lecture) sessions are impractical. Nonetheless, during these clinical years students are generally high users of social media technology, putting them at risk of harm if they lack appropriate ethical awareness. We created a compulsory session in social media ethics (Doctoring and Social Media) offered in two online modes (narrated PowerPoint file or YouTube video) to fourth- and fifth-year undergraduate medical students. The novelty of our work was the use of SurveyMonkey® to deliver the file links, as well as to take attendance and deliver a post-session performance assessment. All 167 students completed the course and provided feedback. Overall, 73% Agreed or Strongly Agreed the course session would aid their professionalism skills and behaviours, and 95% supported delivery of the curriculum online. The most frequent areas of learning occurred in the following topics: email correspondence with patients, medical photography, and awareness of medical apps. SurveyMonkey® is a valuable and efficient tool for curriculum delivery, attendance taking, and assessment activities. PMID:26596120

  18. Results-Based Financing in Mozambique’s Central Medical Store: A Review After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Cary; Morgan, Lindsay; Eichler, Rena; Rosen, James; Serumaga, Brian; Wang, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Public health commodity supply chains are typically weak in low-income countries, partly because they have many disparate yet interdependent functions and components. Approaches to strengthening supply chains in such settings have often fallen short—they address technical weaknesses, but not the incentives that motivate staff to perform better. Methods: We reviewed the first year of a results-based financing (RBF) program in Mozambique, which began in January 2013. The program aimed to improve the performance of the central medical store—Central de Medicamentos e Artigos Medicos (CMAM)—by realigning incentives. We completed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 key informants, including representatives from CMAM and donor agencies, and collected quantitative data on performance measures and use of funds. Implementation: The RBF agreement linked CMAM performance payments to quarterly results on 5 performance indicators related to supply planning, distribution planning, and warehouse management. RBF is predicated on the theory that a combination of carrot and stick—i.e., shared financial incentives, plus increased accountability for results—will spur changes in behavior. Important design elements: (1) indicators were measured against quarterly targets, and payments were made only for indicators that met those targets; (2) targets were set based on documented performance, at levels that could be reasonably attained, yet pushed for improvement; (3) payment was shared with and dependent on all staff, encouraging teamwork and collaboration; (4) results were validated by verifiable data sources; and (5) CMAM had discretion over how to use the funds. Findings: We found that CMAM’s performance continually improved over baseline and that CMAM achieved many of its performance targets, for example, timely submission of quarterly supply and distribution planning reports. Warehouse indicators, such as inventory management and

  19. Maternal Mortality at Federal Medical Centre Yola, Adamawa State: A Five-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Bukar, M; Kunmanda, V; Moruppa, JY; Ehalaiye, B; Takai, UI; Ndonya, DN

    2013-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern region of Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) in the world, and most of these deaths are preventable. Culture, religion and customs that prevent access to care contribute immensely to these deaths. Aim: To review and document the MMR. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all maternal deaths recorded at the Federal Medical Centre Yola (FMCY). The case notes of all cases of maternal deaths from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrieved and relevant data obtained and analyzed. The age, parity, literacy level, booking status, causes of maternal deaths, were analysed. Data were presented in tables and percentages, using SPSS version 16(Chicago, USA 2006). Results: There were 54 maternal deaths among the 8497 deliveries, giving an overall MMR of 636 per 100,000 deliveries. Thirty three folders (33) folders were retrieved and 28 had complete information for analysis. The mean (SD) age and parity were 28.2 (6.2) and 3.4 (2.0), respectively. Most deaths (9/28; 32.1%) were in the age group of 20-24 years. Multiparae (14/28; 50%) constituted the largest parity group. Majority (16/28; 57.1) were non-literates, 16/28 (57.1%) were of Hausa/Fulani extraction and 12/28 (42.9%) were unbooked. The leading causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia (9/28; 32.1%), obstetric hemorrhage (8/28; 28.6%) and severe anemia (3/28; 10.7%). All those who died of preeclampsia/eclampsia were Hausa/Fulani. Most (14/28; 50%) deaths occurred within 24 h of admission. Majority of the deaths were Muslims (χ2 = 15.108, P = <0.001). Ethnicity had no significant influence on maternal death (χ2 = 15.550, P = 0.21). Conclusion: In conclusion, the MMR in FMCY is higher than the national average. The fact that most deaths occurred within 24 h of admission suggests that many of the patients delayed reaching the referring center for a variety of reasons. Preventive measures should focus on this delay, which is

  20. The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, 5-9 April 2014, Florence, Italy: a summary of topics and trends.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2014-11-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5-9, 2014 and this year had as its emphasis, "Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research". Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  1. THE 4th SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 5–9 APRIL 2014, FLORENCE, ITALY: A summary of topics and trends

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5–9, 2014.and this year had as its emphasis, “Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  2. Summative assessment of 5th year medical students’ clinical reasoning by script concordance test: requirements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Script Concordance Test (SCT) has not been reported in summative assessment of students across the multiple domains of a medical curriculum. We report the steps used to build a test for summative assessment in a medical curriculum. Methods A 51 case, 158-question, multidisciplinary paper was constructed to assess clinical reasoning in 5th-year. 10–16 experts in each of 7 discipline-based reference panels answered questions on-line. A multidisciplinary group considered reference panel data and data from a volunteer group of 6th Years, who sat the same test, to determine the passing score for the 5th Years. Results The mean (SD) scores were 63.6 (7.6) and 68.6 (4.8) for the 6th Year (n = 23, alpha = 0.78) and and 5th Year (n = 132, alpha =0.62) groups (p < 0.05), respectively. The passing score was set at 4 SD from the expert mean. Four students failed. Conclusions The SCT may be a useful method to assess clinical reasoning in medical students in multidisciplinary summative assessments. Substantial investment in training of faculty and students and in the development of questions is required. PMID:22571351

  3. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  4. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  5. Development and evaluation of a community immersion program during preclinical medical studies: a 15-year experience at the University of Geneva Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Chastonay, P; Zesiger, V; Klohn, A; Soguel, L; Mpinga, E K; Vu, NV; Bernheim, L

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant changes in medical education have occurred in recent decades because of new challenges in the health sector and new learning theories and practices. This might have contributed to the decision of medical schools throughout the world to adopt community-based learning activities. The community-based learning approach has been promoted and supported by the World Health Organization and has emerged as an efficient learning strategy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the characteristics of a community immersion clerkship for third-year undergraduate medical students, its evolution over 15 years, and an evaluation of its outcomes. Methods A review of the literature and consensus meetings with a multidisciplinary group of health professionals were used to define learning objectives and an educational approach when developing the program. Evaluation of the program addressed students’ perception, achievement of learning objectives, interactions between students and the community, and educational innovations over the years. Results The program and the main learning objectives were defined by consensus meetings among teaching staff and community health workers, which strengthened the community immersion clerkship. Satisfaction, as monitored by a self-administered questionnaire in successive cohorts of students, showed a mean of 4.4 on a five-point scale. Students also mentioned community immersion clerkship as a unique community experience. The learning objectives were reached by a vast majority of students. Behavior evaluation was not assessed per se, but specific testimonies show that students have been marked by their community experience. The evaluation also assessed outcomes such as educational innovations (eg, students teaching other students), new developments in the curriculum (eg, partnership with the University of Applied Health Sciences), and interaction between students and the community (eg, student development of a website for

  6. Medicolegal issues in paediatric practice: proceedings of the 4th Northern Regional Paediatric Colloquium.

    PubMed

    Cousins, D A; Barrett, I; Kaplan, C A

    2004-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas frequently arise in paediatric practice. Given the nature of the speciality, these issues are pertinent to both the medical and legal professions. It is of potential benefit for the professions to meet and discuss such cases outwith the immediate clinical setting. A series of such meetings have been held in the Northern region. We report the proceedings of the fourth meeting. Four cases were presented and the issues arising were debated. The key points from each discussion are described. PMID:14984219

  7. Seventy years of the East African Medical Journal towards safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, S B

    1993-06-01

    Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PMID:8261963

  8. Attitudes, concerns, perceived impact and coping strategies for avian influenza among the first year medical students and interns in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Salamati, Payman; Emadi Koochak, Hamid; Dabiran, Soheila; Sadat Sabzevary, Masoumeh; Naderan, Morteza; Eghbali, Aliashraf

    2012-01-01

    To study and compare the attitudes, concerns, perceived impact and coping strategies for avian influenza (AI) among the first year medical students (FYMS) ‎and interns in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This was a cross sectional study carried out on FYMS (n=158) and interns (n=158) in 2008. The data collection tool was a questionnaire containing 37 questions in five parts. The three choices including "agree, disagree and unsure" were considered for all questions. We used Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for analysis. Most of FYMS and interns (78.2%) believed their health would be depended on the care of their selves. Most of them (95.3%) believed that if they knew avian flu better, they could be more prepared for it. The majority were concerned about risk to their health from their work (62.7%). Most (67.7%) accepted the risk and only 5 (1.6%) would consider stopping work. For non-work concerns, 70.9% were concerned about their spouses/sexual partners and 65.8% about their children. For perceived impact, most (66.5%) believed that they would feel stressed at work and the majority (74.4%) expected an increased workload. FYMS and interns have positive attitudes but major concerns about contracting AI and its relation to medical practice. PMID:23165816

  9. The debate about physician assistance in dying: 40 years of unrivalled progress in medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Some issues in medical ethics have been present throughout the history of medicine, and thus provide us with an opportunity to ascertain: (1) whether there is progress in medical ethics; and (2) what it means to do good medical ethics. One such perennial issue is physician assistance in dying (PAD). This paper provides an account of the PAD debate in this journal over the last 40 years. It concludes that there is some (but limited) progress in the debate. The distinctions, analogies and hypothetical examples have proliferated, as have empirical studies, but very little has changed in terms of the basic arguments. The paper further argues that many of the contributions to the debate fail to engage fully with the concerns people have about the legal introduction of PAD in the healthcare system, perhaps because many of the contributions sit on the borderline between academic analysis and social activism. PMID:25516932

  10. First- and fifth-year medical students' intention for emigration and practice abroad: a case study of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena M; Terzic-Supic, Zorica J; Matejic, Bojana R; Vasic, Vladimir; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2014-11-01

    Health worker migration is causing profound health, safety, social, economic and political challenges to countries without special policies for health professionals' mobility. This study describes the prevalence of migration intentions among medical undergraduates, identifies underlying factors related to migration intention and describes subsequent actions in Serbia. Data were captured by survey of 938 medical students from Belgrade University (94% response rate), representing two thirds of matching students in Serbia stated their intentions, reasons and obstacles regarding work abroad. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and a sequential multivariate logistic regression. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics we were able to predict the profile of first and fifth year medical students who intend or have plans to work abroad. This study contributes to our understanding of the causes and correlates of intent to migrate and could serve to raise awareness and point to the valuable policy options to manage migration. PMID:25458972

  11. [Activities of medical practitioners in nursery schools for children under 6 years-old: the expectations of the facilities' directors].

    PubMed

    Fanello, Serge; Dagorne, Carole; Perrier, Christophe; Parot, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to describe the activities of nurseries' medical practitioners and the expectations of the nurseries' supervisors. It is based on the analysis of 139 questionnaires received from nursery schools' managers from the Pays de Loire region in 2005. Ninety percent of the nurseries that accommodate children less than six years-old, do employ a medical practitioner. She or he is often a salaried paediatrician with a full-time job or clinical practice, who consults twice a month for two hours and forty minutes in each nursery which employs him/her. Her/his main activity consists of conducting standard medical examinations when children are admitted into the nursery and on-going follow-up of their adaptation and healthy early childhood development. She or he also ensures that hygienic preventive measures are respected in case of an epidemic or other potentially hazardous health situations. Moreover, two-thirds of the establishments offer prevention follow-up for the children, whereas health promotion programmes and interventions are only carried out in just over half of them. Emergency medical procedures are conducted in a quarter of them only. Most of the nursery directors are satisfied with the medical services provided, despite some criticism. They mainly wish that practitioners were more available and more regularly present on-site in order to supply further preventive care, to develop training programmes for other staff members, and to participate in thematic meetings. Encouraging improved synergy between the professionals working in the nurseries, placing child psychologists to work in the facilities and fostering better relationships with the independent medical practitioners would all help the process of development and the evolution of the operational function of the medical practitioners in these structures. PMID:17561738

  12. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR).

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Peer-reviewed journals remain important vehicles for knowledge transfer and dissemination in health informatics, yet, their format, processes and business models are changing only slowly. Up to the end of last century, it was common for individual researchers and scientific organizations to leave the business of knowledge transfer to professional publishers, signing away their rights to the works in the process, which in turn impeded wider dissemination. Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake of articles beyond the medical informatics community remain limited. In 1999, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR; http://www.jmir.org) was launched, featuring several innovations including 1) ownership and copyright retained by the authors, 2) electronic-only, "lean" non-for-profit publishing, 3) openly accessible articles with a reversed business model (author pays instead of reader pays), 4) technological innovations such as automatic XML tagging and reference checking, on-the-fly PDF generation from XML, etc., enabling wide distribution in various bibliographic and full-text databases. In the past 10 years, despite limited resources, the journal has emerged as a leading journal in health informatics, and is presently ranked the top journal in the medical informatics and health services research categories by impact factor. The paper summarizes some of the features of the Journal, and uses bibliometric and access data to compare the influence of the Journal on the discipline of medical informatics and other disciplines. While traditional medical informatics journals are primarily cited by other Medical Informatics journals (33%-46% of citations), JMIR papers are to a more often cited by "end-users" (policy, public health, clinical journals), which may be partly attributable to the "open access advantage". PMID:20841900

  13. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750. PMID:20029579

  14. Association of Classroom Participation and Examination Performance in a First-Year Medical School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Richard M.; Dyson, Sharon; Cannon, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The advent of internet-based delivery of basic medical science lectures may unintentionally lead to decreased classroom attendance and participation, thereby creating a distance learning paradigm. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that classroom attendance/participation may be positively correlated with performance on a written examination…

  15. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  16. What Is New in Medical Student and Resident Education?: Best Articles From the Past Year.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nathan S

    2016-07-01

    This month we focus on current research in medical student and resident education. Dr. Fox discusses four recent publications, which are concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in Box 1 on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts. PMID:27275809

  17. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  18. Masculinity, Femininity, and Psychosocial Adjustment in Medical Students: Two-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldow, Peter B.; And Others

    Although research on masculinity and femininity has increased over the past decade, longitudinal studies addressing predictive elements are lacking. The Rush Medical College Longitudinal Study examines the correlation between masculinity and femininity on the one hand and adjustment, interpersonal functioning, and impairment on the other. During…

  19. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS researchers that helps extend our overall medical knowledge. Jeremy M. Berg, Ph.D. NIGMS Director Photo courtesy of NIH/ NIGMS True or False One of the valuable aspects of basic research is the discovery of new, previously unimagined scientific connections. For example: ...

  20. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  1. A twenty-year follow-up survey of medical emergency education in U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Clark, Morris S; Wall, Benjamin E; Tholström, Tad C; Christensen, Edward H; Payne, Brandon C

    2006-12-01

    This article reports the results of a 2003 survey of medical emergency education taught in U.S. dental schools and compares the results to findings from surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. A questionnaire was sent to the deans of all U.S. dental schools, requesting completion of the survey by the faculty member responsible for medical emergency education. Forty-three of fifty-four U.S. dental schools responded, and the data were compared to similar surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. Special attention was given to changes in technology (pulse oximetry and automated external defibrillators), teaching methods (audiovisual, role-playing, and simulation), and subject matter (CPR, venipuncture, and endotracheal intubation) that affect medical emergency education. The study found a large disparity in number of hours dedicated to medical emergency training among dental schools. Surprisingly, CPR certification/recertification for both students and faculty was not provided at three of the reporting U.S. dental schools. Most schools included venipuncture and endotracheal intubation in their curriculum. Routine monitoring of vital signs remained fairly consistent over the past twenty years with a slight dip in the 1992 survey. A standardization of medical emergency education needs to take place to ensure an appropriate level of training for all dental students. PMID:17170322

  2. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding: A 15-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-07-01

    Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors.A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996-2000), T2 (2001-2005), and T3 (2006-2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate.Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality.Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were

  3. Medical Student–Reported Outcomes of a Radiation Oncologist–Led Preclinical Course in Oncology: A Five-Year Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ankit; Koottappillil, Brian; Shah, Bhartesh; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: There is a recognized need for more robust training in oncology for medical students. At our institution, we have offered a core dedicated oncology block, led by a radiation oncologist course director, during the second year of the medical school curriculum since the 2008-2009 academic year. Herein, we report the outcomes of the oncology block over the past 5 years through an analysis of student perceptions of the course, both immediately after completion of the block and in the third year. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 2 separate surveys. The first assessed student impressions of how well the course met each of the course's learning objectives through a survey that was administered to students immediately after the oncology block in 2012. The second was administered after students completed the oncology block during the required radiology clerkship in the third year. All questions used a 5-level Likert scale and were analyzed by use of a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Of the 169 students who took the oncology course in 2012, 127 (75.1%) completed the course feedback survey. Over 73% of students agreed or strongly agreed that the course met its 3 learning objectives. Of the 699 medical students who took the required radiology clerkship between 2010 and 2013, 538 participated in the second survey, for a total response rate of 77%. Of these students, 368 (68.4%) agreed or strongly agreed that the course was effective in contributing to their overall medical education. Conclusion: Student perceptions of the oncology block are favorable and have improved across multiple categories since the inception of the course. Students self-reported that a dedicated preclinical oncology block was effective in helping identify the basics of cancer therapy and laying the foundation for clinical electives in oncology, including radiation oncology.

  4. Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: a retrospective study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1. PMID:24827142

  5. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  6. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From Medical Student CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; Dovidio, John F.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; Phelan, Sean M.; Burke, Sara E.; Ruben, Mollie A.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Burgess, Diana J.; Nelson, David B.; Yeazel, Mark W.; Knudsen, John M.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as non-heterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. Method This study included 4,673 first-year students with self-reported sexual orientation data in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Results Of the 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] =1.59 [95% CI, 1.24–2.04]) anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08–2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15–2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% vs 12.7%, P < .001) and isolation (53.7% vs 42.8%, P = .001). Exposure to social stressors attenuated but did not eliminate the observed association between minority sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. Conclusions First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:25674912

  7. Coping style as a predictor of health and well-being across the first year of medical school.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Adler, Nancy E

    2003-11-01

    Medical students in their 1st year (N=71) were assessed prior to starting training and at year's end. Coping styles reported at baseline were strongly related to coping styles at the end of the year. Students' physical health and psychological well-being declined over the course of the year. The greater the students' use of both problem-focused coping and approach emotion-focused coping, the less their physical health deteriorated. Psychological well-being at year's end was more strongly related to baseline functioning, and coping style did not predict change. This study demonstrated the utility of measuring coping style and the predictive ability of coping on physical health in a healthy sample. PMID:14640860

  8. A review of medical airlifts by a search and rescue squadron on the east coast of England over 18 years.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M J

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the medical workload of a Royal Air Force Search and Rescue squadron on the East Coast of England over a period of 18 years and their association with the principal receiving hospitals in that area. It illustrates the effects of improvements in road networks on the workload of the squadron and contrasts the use of military helicopters with established U.K. civilian helicopter schemes. PMID:1888403

  9. Teaching community oriented primary care in a traditional medical school: a two year progress report.

    PubMed

    Klevens, J; Valderrama, C; Restrepo, O; Vargas, P; Casasbuenas, M; Avella, M M

    1992-08-01

    Efforts are being made to extend the practice of Community Oriented Primary Care by reorienting existing health services or restructuring medical education curricula. Nevertheless, changes in education must be simultaneous to changes in health services so that health professionals trained in COPC will find areas to practice COPC. The experience described in this article presents an effort in these two directions. A teaching program was introduced in a traditional medical school curriculum and was extended to six health services by training the directors of the health service as teaching instructors of COPC or closely coordinating actions with the director of the health service. The results of the program show fulfillment of learning objectives and student satisfaction with the program. Evaluations of the development of COPC in the health services involved show modifications in health programs to meet community needs and stronger community leadership and organization. PMID:1527244

  10. Anaphylaxis: a one-year survey on Medical Emergency Service in Liguria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, S; Furgani, A; Schiavetti, I; Ciprandi, G

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical ground. This study aimed at evaluating the records of phone calls and medical visits for anaphylaxis occurred in Region Liguria during 2013. The phone call is managed in each headquarter, and classified according to a level of care intensity and a presumed level of criticality, according to established criteria. Criticality is then re-evaluated (detected criticality) at the end of medical visit, following the same score adding the black code defining died patients. Most of the phone calls (553) to the MES were recorded in summer (37.4%). Anaphylaxis was confirmed in about half of patients. There was a fair agreement between presumed and detected criticality (k=0.322, p<0.001). In addition, 530 patients (95.8%) were transported to Emergency Room. In conclusion, the present study shows that anaphylaxis represents a serious and relevant medical problem in the general population at any age, and should always be carefully managed. PMID:25951146

  11. A patient safety and transitions of care curriculum for third-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sara M; Chang, Dennis; Fallar, Robert; Karani, Reena

    2015-01-01

    The elderly are the most vulnerable to adverse events during and after hospitalization. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a curriculum on patient safety and transitions of care for medical students during an Internal Medicine-Geriatrics Clerkship on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The curriculum included didactics on patient safety, health literacy, discharge planning and transitions of care, and postdischarge visits to patients. Analysis of pre- and postassessments showed afterwards students were significantly more comfortable assessing a patient's health literacy and confident performing a medication reconciliation, providing education regarding medications, and identifying barriers during transitions. More students were able to identify the most common source of adverse events after discharge (86% vs. 62% before), risk factors for low health literacy (28% vs. 14%), and ways to assess a patient's health literacy (14% vs. 2%). It was feasible to implement a postdischarge visit assignment in an urban tertiary care setting and only required on average of approximately an one and one half hours for students to complete. PMID:25288373

  12. The communication skills course for second year medical students at Hannover Medical School: An evaluation study based on students' self-assessments

    PubMed Central

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/10 academic year. Using questionnaires specific to the learning objectives, learning needs were assessed, pre-post comparisons of self-assessed competencies were performed and key teaching methods were evaluated (5-point Likert scales, “5”=fully agree). At T0 (start of the course) 267 students participated (response rate: 93.7%), of which 180 filled out the T1 questionnaire during the last session of the course (67.4%). Within-subject analyses of variance and paired t-tests were conducted. The highest learning needs were found for the “to show how”-items regarding history taking and disclosing diagnoses (M=4.4). The T1-T0 comparisons showed the greatest improvements for history taking (“to know how”: mean difference = +1.7, “to show how”: +1.8, p<.0001 as with all tests) and the “to know how”-item regarding the disclosure of diagnoses (+1.6), followed by the “to show how”-items on disclosing a diagnosis (+1.4), shared decision making (+1.2), self-assessing one’s own strengths/weaknesses (+1.0) and confidently approaching new patients (+0.7). Students with T0 values of 1 or 2 on the respective scales improved on average by 2.2 points across all items, students with the value of 3 by 1.1, and from 4 or 5 by 0.1. Methodically, the use of simulated patients was rated the most helpful (M=4.8, 87% with the scale value 5). This doctor-patient communication course is associated with substantial improvements regarding all key learning objectives. Regarding

  13. Anatomical knowledge retention in third-year medical students prior to obstetrics and gynecology and surgery rotations.

    PubMed

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F; Krapf, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an anatomical knowledge deficit are lacking, as are specifics as to what content should be reinforced. This study identifies baseline areas of strength and weakness in the surgical anatomy knowledge of medical students entering surgical rotations. Third-year medical students completed a 20-25-question test at the beginning of the General Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology rotations. Knowledge of inguinal anatomy (45.3%), orientation in abdominal cavity (38.8%), colon (27.7%), and esophageal varices (12.8%) was poor. The numbers in parentheses are the percentage of questions answered correctly per topic. In comparing those scores to matched test items from this cohort as first-year students in the anatomy course, the drop in retention overall was very significant (P = 0.009) from 86.9 to 51.5%. Students also scored lower in questions relating to pelvic organs (46.7%), urogenital development (54.0%), pulmonary development (17.8%), and pregnancy (17.8%). These data showed that indeed, knowledge of surgical anatomy is poor for medical students entering surgical clerkships. These data collected will be utilized to create interactive learning modules, aimed at improving clinically relevant anatomical knowledge retention. These modules, which will be available to students during their inpatient surgical rotations, connect basic anatomy principles to clinical cases, with the ultimate goal of closing the anatomical knowledge gap. PMID:24591485

  14. 4th international conference on tumor progression and therapeutic resistance: meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Varun V; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-01-01

    The fourth international conference on tumor progression and therapeutic resistance organized in association with GTCbio was held in Boston, MA from March 9 to 11, 2014. The meeting attracted a diverse group of experts in the field of cancer biology, therapeutics and medical oncology from academia and industry. The meeting addressed the current challenges in the treatment of cancer including tumor heterogeneity, therapy resistance and metastasis along with the need for improved biomarkers of tumor progression and clinical trial design. Keynote speakers included Clifton Leaf, Editor at Fortune Magazine, Dr. Mina Bissell from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Dr. Levi Garraway from the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. The meeting featured cutting edge tools, preclinical models and the latest basic, translational and clinical research findings in the field. PMID:25782066

  15. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  16. Perceptions and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students on a Modified Team-Based Learning (TBL) Strategy in Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Inuwa, Ibrahim M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although team-based learning (TBL) is widely used in medical education, its evaluation from the perspectives of the students exposed to it has been limited. This paper reports on a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of perceptions of first year medical students towards TBL. Methods: Lectures in an anatomy course were transformed into a series of TBL sessions for two cohorts of first-year medical students. Each session consisted of pre-class reading, in-class readiness assurance tests, and problem-solving of clinical cases by student teams. At the end of each course, students were surveyed using qualitative and quantitative instruments to assess their perceptions of the strategy. Internal consistency of questionnaire items was determined by a reliability analysis (Cronbach’s alpha). Principal component factor analysis and correspondence analysis were conducted on the quantitative data. Open-ended questions were explored by thematic analysis. Results: Students’ evaluations indicated that TBL is a welcome alternative to lecture-based teaching; as implemented in this study, it encouraged clinical problem solving and fruitful in-class discussion. Principal component factor analysis identified five factors (Cronbach’s alpha 0.602–0.875). However, the majority of students disapproved of mixed gender TBL teams. Most students agreed that the strategy facilitated consistency in their study, generated an increased awareness about self-directed learning, and had a positive impact on their learning attitudes. Conclusion: TBL is a welcome instructional strategy as reported by our first-year medical students. It was perceived to be a better approach compared to content-based lectures. The effect on actual student performance is currently being investigated. PMID:22912927

  17. Gender correlation of stress levels and sources of stress among first year students in a medical college.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Singhi, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Medical courses in India are very demanding for the students thus making career in medical education very stressful. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of stress levels in 100 first year medical students and to explore the sources of stress & it's relationship across the male and female students. Demographic information and Qualitative data from investigator tailored Medical Student Stress Questionnaire (MSSQ) by self rating under supervision of investigators were subjected to a thematic analysis. Stress perceived was more in males students (82.2%) as compared to females (61.8%) and their MSSQ index score was significantly different (U=985; P=0.02). Moderate to high academic stress was present among 79% of students more so in males with the academic domain score significantly different from that of females (U=883; P=0.007). Females perceived more stress in inter personal domain (12.7%) with the score significantly different from males (U=953.5; P=0.02). Group and Teaching stress was equally present in males and females. PMID:25509965

  18. Influence of Shared Medical Appointments on Patient Satisfaction: A Retrospective 3-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Leonie; Rozenblum, Ronen; Burgess, James F.; Baker, Errol; Meterko, Mark; Prescott, Debra; Neuwirth, Zeev; Simon, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are becoming popular, but little is known about their association with patient experience in primary care. We performed an exploratory analysis examining overall satisfaction and patient-centered care experiences across key domains of the patient-centered medical home among patients attending SMAs vs usual care appointments. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study using a mailed questionnaire measuring levels of patient satisfaction and other indicators of patient-centered care among 921 SMA and 921 usual care patients between 2008 and 2010. Propensity scores adjusted for potential case mix differences between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression assessed propensity-matched patients’ ratings of care. Generalized estimating equations accounted for physician-level clustering. RESULTS A total of 40% of SMA patients and 31% of usual care patients responded. In adjusted analyses, SMA patients were more likely to rate their overall satisfaction with care as “very good” when compared with usual care counterparts (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.52). In the analysis of patient-centered medical home elements, SMA patients rated their care as more accessible and more sensitive to their needs, whereas usual care patients reported greater satisfaction with physician communication and time spent during their appointment. CONCLUSIONS Overall, SMA patients appear more satisfied with their care relative to patients receiving usual care. SMAs may also improve access to care and deliver care that patients find to be sensitive to their needs. Further research should focus on enhancing patient-clinician communication within an SMA as this model of care becomes more widely adopted. PMID:25024240

  19. Deafness and liver disease in a 57-year-old man: a medical history of Beethoven.

    PubMed

    Hui, A C; Wong, S M

    2000-12-01

    Ludwig van Beethoven had a number of medical conditions, including deafness and chronic liver disease, for which there are contemporary descriptions. An autopsy was performed on the day after his death. Physicians and historians have tried to reinterpret original sources to determine the causes of his deafness and systemic illnesses. We have reviewed the differential diagnoses that have been proposed by otologists and physicians. Clinical and post-mortem findings point to renal papillary necrosis and liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology. In the absence of further histological examination, there is no definitive answer to the cause of his deafness and gastro-intestinal symptoms. PMID:11177170

  20. [Mitral valvuloplasty during the 4th month of pregnancy. Fetal protection with a lead mantle].

    PubMed

    Drobinski, G; Fraboulet, P; Montalescot, G; Moussallem, N; Coutte, R; Artigou, J Y; Grosgogeat, Y

    1991-02-01

    A 27 year old woman who had undergone closed heart surgical commissurotomy 10 years previously, underwent percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty during the fourth month of her pregnancy. Despite significant valvular thickening with calcification, the balloon dilatation led to an increase in valve surface area from 1.1 to 2 cm2 with no complications and with relief of the pulmonary hypertension. Foetal protection against ionising radiation was assured by a lead mantle completely surrounding the patient's abdomen. This protection reduced irradiation of the pelvic region to 0.5 milliSievert which corresponds to 1/100 of the permitted irradiation of pregnant women professionally exposed to ionising radiation. PMID:2021286

  1. Production of IL-16 correlates with CD4+ Th1 inflammation and phosphorylation of axonal cytoskeleton in multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Skundric, Dusanka S; Cai, Juan; Cruikshank, William W; Gveric, Djordje

    2006-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system-specific autoimmune, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Infiltration of lesions by autoaggressive, myelin-specific CD4+Th1 cells correlates with clinical manifestations of disease. The cytokine IL-16 is a CD4+ T cell-specific chemoattractant that is biased towards CD4+ Th1 cells. IL-16 precursor is constitutively expressed in lymphocytes and during CD4+ T cell activation; active caspase-3 cleaves and releases C-terminal bioactive IL-16. Previously, we used an animal model of MS to demonstrate an important role for IL-16 in regulation of autoimmune inflammation and subsequent axonal damage. This role of IL-16 in MS is largely unexplored. Here we examine the regulation of IL-16 in relation to CD4+ Th1 infiltration and inflammation-related changes of axonal cytoskeleton in MS lesions. Methods We measured relative levels of IL-16, active caspase-3, T-bet, Stat-1 (Tyr 701), and phosphorylated NF(M+H), in brain and spinal cord lesions from MS autopsies, using western blot analysis. We examined samples from 39 MS cases, which included acute, subacute and chronic lesions, as well as adjacent, normal-appearing white and grey matter. All samples were taken from patients with relapsing remitting clinical disease. We employed two-color immunostaining and confocal microscopy to identify phenotypes of IL-16-containing cells in frozen tissue sections from MS lesions. Results We found markedly increased levels of pro- and secreted IL-16 (80 kD and 22 kD, respectively) in MS lesions compared to controls. Levels of IL-16 peaked in acute, diminished in subacute, and were elevated again in chronic active lesions. Compared to lesions, lower but still appreciable IL-6 levels were measured in normal-appearing white matter adjacent to active lesions. Levels of IL-16 corresponded to increases in active-caspase-3, T-bet and phosphorylated Stat-1. In MS lesions, we readily observed IL-16 immunoreactivity confined to

  2. Knowledge Production: A Case Study about Values, Epistemology and Conflicts in a 4th Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Lopez Rodriguez, Ramon

    This paper reports on a case study that was part of a 3-year longitudinal study about classroom discourse during a learning sequence related to environmental values and concepts. The lesson was planned and enacted by students in a fourth grade classroom during a field study. Whole class and small group classroom conversations and a field trip to a…

  3. Tech Prep. South Dakota Career Activities for the Classroom, 4th Edition, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucker, Marsha, Comp.

    This document presents a sampling of projects and activities that have been implemented in Tech Prep training in South Dakota, or will be implemented during the upcoming school year. The projects and activities are categorized into 12 areas: career clusters; career units and activities; curriculum materials; employability skills; entrepreneurship;…

  4. Proportional Reasoning: How Do the 4th Graders Use Their Intuitive Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarto, Sylvana Novilia; van Galen, Frans; Zulkardi, H.; Darmawijoyo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Indonesia, proportion is being taught formally in Grade 5 (10-11 years old). However, the existing learning approach does not support the development of the students' proportional reasoning. The way to teach proportion by giving cross multiplication is not meaningful for the students. They just memorize the procedure without understanding how…

  5. Recommendations from the 4th International Conference on Environmental Education, Ahmedabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The first set of international recommendations to guide environmental education (EE) was developed in Tbilisi, Georgia, in 1977. Ten years later, in 1987, a conference in Moscow, Russia, reviewed progress and focused on institutional strategies and action plans to strengthen environmental education. A third international environmental education…

  6. The Functions of Talk within a 4th-Grade Writing Workshop: Insights into Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laman, Tasha Tropp

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, writing workshops have been implemented in classrooms around the world. Students are being asked to write across multiple contexts and genres and to use digital technologies. At the same time, high-stakes writing tests are increasing even though the time teachers spend teaching writing is decreasing. This study examines…

  7. 25th RCOphth Congress, President's Session paper: 25 years of progress in medical retina

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J M

    2014-01-01

    The quarter century since the foundation of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists has coincided with immense change in the subspecialty of medical retina, which has moved from being the province of a few dedicated enthusiasts to being an integral, core part of ophthalmology in every eye department. In age-related macular degeneration, there has been a move away from targeted, destructive laser therapy, dependent on fluorescein angiography to intravitreal injection therapy of anti-growth factor agents, largely guided by optical coherence tomography. As a result of these changes, ophthalmologists have witnessed a marked improvement in visual outcomes for their patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), while at the same time developing and enacting entirely novel ways of delivering care. In the field of diabetic retinopathy, this period also saw advances in laser technology and a move away from highly destructive laser photocoagulation treatment to gentler retinal laser treatments. The introduction of intravitreal therapies, both steroids and anti-growth factor agents, has further advanced the treatment of diabetic macular oedema. This era has also seen in the United Kingdom the introduction of a coordinated national diabetic retinopathy screening programme, which offers an increasing hope that the burden of blindness from diabetic eye disease can be lessened. Exciting future advances in retinal imaging, genetics, and pharmacology will allow us to further improve outcomes for our patients and for ophthalmologists specialising in medical retina, the future looks very exciting but increasingly busy. PMID:24993325

  8. Medical Lasers At The Crossroads: Directions For The Next Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Fritz A.

    1988-09-01

    Of course, much can be attributed to our relative youth - the sheer number and scope of the opportunities have distorted focus and strained resources. However, I believe that we have reached a point - a crossroads - where the topography is more clearly defined and where some discernible trends point to the direction this industry will take over the next five years. These will be important years - investors, especially, expect signs of maturity to replace unbounded youthful optimism. How many of us can look back on the business plans we wrote five years ago and not feel chastened (or depressed). Our excuse is that we got everything right except the timing. Well, the "timing" is the next five years! So my talk today will center upon my personal view of these next five years. I wish to emphasize the personal aspect of my discussion: this is my prescription for future happiness.

  9. Collaborative interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells and antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells exacerbate murine allergic airway diseases with prominent eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-04-15

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. PMID:25780046

  10. The impact of self-concept and college involvement on the first-year success of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-03-01

    Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college involvement with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college involvement components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework involvement positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success. PMID:24906461

  11. A 10-year analysis of "revenues," costs, staffing, and workload in an academic medical center clinical chemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benge, H; Csako, G; Parl, F F

    1993-09-01

    From 1980 to 1990 we found progressive increases in workload (number of billable tests; 12.1% per year), staffing [number of full-time equivalents (FTEs); 5.6% per year], "revenues" (gross billings; 25.8% per year), and direct cost (12.9% per year) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of a large tertiary-care university medical center. The increase in direct cost was mainly attributable to an increase in salary cost (23.7% per year), whereas the impact of increasing "consumable" cost was relatively small (5.3% per year). In fact, after adjustment for inflation, the consumable cost was virtually unchanged or decreased during the 10-year study period. Initially, consumables represented about 60% of the direct cost, and the remaining 40% was for salaries. After 1982/83, however, the relative contribution of consumables and salaries to direct cost gradually reversed. Because the workload grew at a higher rate than staffing, the workload per FTE increased from 1980 to 1990. This was paralleled by gradual increases in both "revenue" per FTE and salary per FTE in actual dollars, but by lesser increases to no increases in inflation-corrected dollars. After adjusting for inflation with different indices, the direct cost per test, the consumable cost per test, and the salary cost per test either remained unchanged or decreased in the 1980s. The findings are discussed in the context of technical advancements in laboratory testing, nationwide shortages of medical technologists, and implementation of prospective fixed-fee reimbursement practices during the study period. PMID:8375047

  12. Interventional Pain Management in Rheumatological Diseases - A Three Years Physiatric Experience in a Tertiary Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Suzon Al; Das, Gautam; Khan, Amin Uddin A

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventional pain management (IPM) is a branch of medical science that deals with management of painful medical conditions using specially equipped X-ray machines and anatomical landmarks. Interventional physiatry is a branch of physical medicine and rehabilitation that treats painful conditions through intervention in peripheral joints, the spine, and soft tissues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using three years of hospital records (2006 to 2008) from the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department at Chittagong Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh, with a view toward highlighting current interventional pain practice in a tertiary medical college hospital. Results The maximum amount of intervention was done in degenerative peripheral joint disorders (600, 46.0%), followed by inflammatory joint diseases (300, 23.0%), soft tissue rheumatism (300, 23.0%), and radicular or referred lower back conditions (100, 8.0%). Of the peripheral joints, the knee was the most common site of intervention. Motor stimulation-guided intralesional injection of methylprednisolone into the piriformis muscle was given in 10 cases of piriformis syndrome refractory to both oral medications and therapeutic exercises. Soft tissue rheumatism of unknown etiology was most common in the form of adhesive capsulitis (90, 64.3%), and is discussed separately. Epidural steroid injection was practiced for various causes of lumbar radiculopathy, with the exception of infective discitis. Conclusions All procedures were performed using anatomical landmarks, as there were no facilities for the C-arm/diagnostic ultrasound required for accurate and safe intervention. A dedicated IPM setup should be a requirement in all PMR departments, to provide better pain management and to reduce the burden on other specialties. PMID:22220242

  13. One-year adherence to oral antihyperglycemic medication and risk prediction of patient outcomes for adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Carola A.; Rapold, Roland; Brüngger, Beat; Reich, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medication adherence is essential in preventing adverse intermediate outcomes, but little is known on hard outcomes. The aims of this study were to determine the 1-year adherence to oral antihyperglycemic drugs (OADs) and to predict the risk of subsequent health outcomes among (non)adherent patients with diabetes. Using a large Swiss healthcare claims database from 2011 to 2014, we identified all patients aged ≥18 years with diabetes and treated with at least 1 OAD prescription. Adherence to OADs was measured as the proportion of days covered (PDC) over 1 year and subdivided into 2 categories: adherent (PDC ≥ 80%), nonadherent (PDC < 80%). We estimated the relative risk of hospitalization and mortality at follow-up using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Based on a sample of 26,713 patients, adherence to OADs was quite low: 42% of the patients achieved a PDC of ≥80% during the 1-year observation period. A 7% reduction in the hospitalization risk and a 10% reduction in the risk of mortality could be observed in adherent patients compared to nonadherent patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89–0.97]; HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82–0.99]). Subgroup analysis showed that an intensified diabetes therapy had no significant influence on the risk of both outcomes in adherent patients. Poor medication adherence increases the risk of subsequent hospitalizations and premature mortality in patient with diabetes, regardless of disease severity and comorbidities. This emphasizes the need for an earlier identification of patients with poor medication adherence. The awareness of physicians and patients regarding the importance of adherence in diabetes treatment should be increased. PMID:27368004

  14. Arctic sea-ice variability during the 4th IPY and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascard, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    For a third year in a row, the Arctic sea-ice is receding in 2009 far beyond previous recorded summer minimum sea-ice extents. During IPY (2007-2008) in addition to a dramatic sea-ice retreat in the Arctic, we observed a contrasted situation represented by a large drop in Multi Year Ice (MYI) from 2007 to 2008 of about 1 million km2 compensated by an equivalent amount of First Year Ice (FYI) that survived summer melt in 2008. This FYI remained inside the Arctic Ocean (mostly in the Eurasian basin) for the whole summer and surprisingly it did not escape the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait like it did usually in the past (in particular in 2005). Do we understand and are we able to explain this new situation which is a prerequisite for better prediction? Over the past 30 years, winters in the Arctic became milder and summers became longer. Number of cumulated freezing degree days decreased by more than 20% corresponding to a loss of 1m of sea-ice thickness. Largest sea surface temperatures (up to +10°C) were recorded during Falls delaying freeze up. Regarding the atmospheric circulation, we noticed a profound regime change from a multipolar Arctic Oscillation scheme responsible for most of the interannual sea-ice variability observed in a climatic sense during the past 20 to 30 years, to a new dipolar scheme characterized by a low pressure system installed over most of the Eurasian continent contrasting with a high pressure system extending all over the northern American continent. How this new atmospheric circulation regime was affecting sea-ice and why did it take place, are still unanswered questions. It seems like due to an intensification of meridional winds linked to the new dipolar atmospheric pattern, the transpolar sea-ice drift has accelerated. It is important to note that large scale and drastic thinning of Arctic sea-ice was reported during the mid 90s well before more recent dramatic sea ice retreat events were reported during IPY. It is quite clear

  15. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  16. An overview about the medical use of antifungals in Portugal in the last years.

    PubMed

    Manuel da S Azevedo, Maria; Cruz, Luisa; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Gonçalves-Rodrigues, Acácio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antifungal agents, the frequency of invasive and mucocutaneous fungal infections as well as resistance to antifungal drugs continues to increase. Over 300 million persons are infected annually with fungi. Resistance to antimicrobials is one of today's major health threats. Can the possible causes of fungal antimicrobial resistance be understood and prevented to minimize risks to public health. We provide an overview of antifungal drug use in European countries, particularly Portugal. We reviewed prescriptions for and over-the-counter sales (OTC) of azoles in Portuguese pharmacies and in alternative shops. We conclude that in Portugal, azole antifungal sales, as well as medical prescribed azoles are very high. The Portuguese population consumes more antifungal drugs per capita than others in Europe. PMID:26865319

  17. Evaluation of the medical diagnostic imaging support system based on 2 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Smith, D V; Smith, S; Bender, G N; Carter, J R; Kim, Y; Cawthon, M A; Leckie, R G; Weiser, J C; Romlein, J; Goeringer, F

    1995-05-01

    The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) system at Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) has been operational in a phased approach since March 1992. Since then, nearly all image acquisition has been digital with progressively increasing primary softcopy diagnosis used. More than 375,000 computed radiography (CR) images as well as other modality images have been archived. Considerable experience in installation and implementation phasing has been gained. The location and ergonomic aspects of equipment placement were refined with time. The original clinical scenario was insufficiently detailed and additions were made to facilitate smoother and more complete transition toward a filmless environment. The MDIS system effectiveness and performance have been good in terms of operational workload throughout, background operations, and reliability. The important areas regarding reliability are image acquisition, output, display, database operations, storage, and the local area network. Fail-safe strategies have been continually improved to maintain continuous clinical image availability during the times when the MDIS system or components malfunction. Many invaluable lessons have been learned for effective quality assurance in a hospital-wide picture archiving and communication system. These issues include training, operational quality control, practical aspects of CR image quality, and increased timeliness in the generation and distribution of radiographic reports. Clinical acceptability has been a continuous process as each phase has been implemented. Clinical physicians quickly used the workstations soon after the start of MDIS at MAMC. The major advantage for clinicians has been the amount of time saved when retrieving multimodality images for review. On the other hand, the radiologists have been slower in their acceptance of the workstation for routine use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612705

  18. The Learning Styles and the Preferred Teaching—Learning Strategies of First Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Poonam; Samanta, Prajna Paramita; Jindal, Manisha; Singh, Vishram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual’s consistent way of perceiving, processing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the related instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching techniques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teaching methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. Results: The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of information presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). Conclusion: One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educators’ awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students. PMID:23905110

  19. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, Till Johannes; Mücksch, Christine; Schmid, Carolin; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL) is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation. Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students) in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree). Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years). The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory) in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale). Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective. Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking. PMID:26958651

  20. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977-2014.

    PubMed

    Swengel, Scott R; Swengel, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977-2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991-2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0-23 during 1975-1990. During 1991-2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  1. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977–2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991–2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0–23 during 1975–1990. During 1991–2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  2. Community of learners: charting learning in first year graduate entry medical students during problem-based learning (PBL) study.

    PubMed

    Orsmond, Paul; Zvauya, R

    2015-05-01

    This study considers social learning practices within and outside the overt curriculum. A thematic approach was used to analyse data from six focus group interviews with 11 graduate entry medical students from a UK university over a year of study. The results indicate that: (1) during their first year of study students form a community of learning practice, (2) this community of practice influences learning inside and outside the overt curriculum, (3) there is a changing community profile over the year of practice, (4) the students' engagement in problem-based learning (PBL) as part of their overt curriculum strongly influences the development of a community of practice and hence learning both inside and outside the overt curriculum. Findings are discussed in terms of Wenger's community of practice framework, the role of distributed cognition and social learning. It is concluded that PBL is an effective approach for academics to enrich students' social learning practices. PMID:25118861

  3. The views of doctors in their first year of medical practice on the lasting impact of a preparation for house officer course they undertook as final year medical students

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UK General Medical Council recommends that medical students have the opportunity of shadowing the outgoing new doctor whose post they will soon undertake. At the University of Nottingham the two-week shadowing period was preceded by two weeks of lectures/seminars wherein students followed sessions on topics such as common medical/surgical emergencies, contracts, time management, surviving the first two years of clinical practice, careers advice and so on. The present study aimed to gain a better knowledge and understanding of the lasting impact of a four-week preparation course for new Foundation Year 1 doctors [F1 s - interns]. The objectives chosen to achieve this aim were: 1/ to determine the extent to which the lecture/seminar course and shadowing period achieved their stated aim of smoothing the transition from life as a medical student to work as a new doctor; 2/ to evaluate perceptions of the importance of various forms of knowledge in easing the transition between medical student and new doctor Method In the spring of 2007, 90 graduates from Nottingham were randomly selected and then emailed a link to a short, online survey of quantitative and qualitative questions. Of these 76 responded. Analysis of quantitative data was carried out using SPSS 16.0 and employed McNemar's test. Analysis of the qualitative data was carried out using the constant comparative method. Results Only 31% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that the lecture/seminar part of the course prepared them well for their first FY1 post; 14% agreed that during their first job they drew on the knowledge gained during the lecture/seminar course; 94% strongly agreed or agreed that the shadowing part of the course was more useful than the lecture/seminar part. Experiential knowledge gained in the shadowing was the most highly valued, followed by procedural knowledge with propositional knowledge coming far behind. Conclusions Our study shows that new doctors retrospectively

  4. The 4th Release of GOCE Gravity Field Models - Overview and Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Rummel, Reiner

    2013-04-01

    New GOCE gravity field models based on about 2 years of completely reprocessed gradiometer data have been recently released to the user community. They were obtained based on different processing strategies and reflect the state-of-the-art of GOCE gravity field models. With the improved gravity gradients resulting from a number of updates implemented in the level 1B processor and with the additional data set the performance of the resulting GOCE based models could be significantly improved as compared to the previous solutions. The paper provides an overview of the available GOCE models and presents the results of their validation by different means.

  5. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Sekelani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. Methods The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective competence: it was measured by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) by faculty using predetermined rating scales. Rank order correlation test was performed for self-perceived and objectively measured competence. Results Two thirds 36 (66.7%) of the participants perceived themselves as moderately competent, 15 (27.8%) rated themselves as highly competent while 3 (5.6%) had low self-perception. With objective competence, the majority 52 (92.8%) were barely competent while 4 (7.2%) were absolutely competent. When overall self-perception was compared to objectively measured competence, there was a discordance which was demonstrated by a negative correlation (Spearman rho -.123). Conclusions Significant numbers of students reported low self-competence in performing procedures such as endotracheal intubation, gastric lavage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation which most never performed during the clinical years of medical education. In addition, the negative correlation between self-perceived and objectively measured competence demonstrated the inability of students to assess and rate themselves objectively due to fear that others may know their weaknesses and realize that they are not as competent as expected at a specific level of training. PMID:27132255

  6. Getting the data in: three year experience with a pediatric electronic medical record system.

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, I. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Clinician's Workstation (CWS) has provided the full-functionality of an on-line electronic patient record for outpatient pediatric clinics over the past 3 years. The implementation of the CWS built upon a substantial effort in integration of data from various sources. This paper addresses the subsequent design issues which had to be resolved in order to enable both physician and transcriptionist-driven data entry and retrieval, notably selecting a feasible mixture of controlled vocabulary and free text. Some of the consequences of these design decisions on clinical care, clinical education, clinical and basic research are reviewed with examples from the last three years. PMID:7949969

  7. Twenty Years of Medically-Attended Pediatric Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wormsbecker, Anne E.; Wang, Jun; Rosella, Laura C.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Seo, Chi Yon; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if reductions in medically-attended pediatric varicella and herpes zoster occurred in Ontario, Canada, after publicly-funded varicella immunization was implemented in 2004. Methods For fiscal years (FY) 1992-2011, we examined data on varicella and herpes zoster physician office visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations (including for varicella-associated skin and soft tissue infections [SSTI]), and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, among those aged <18 years. The pre-vaccine, privately-available, and vaccine program eras were FY1992-1998, FY1999-2003, and FY2004-2011, respectively. We used Poisson regressionand Kruskal-Wallis tests (all at the p<0.05 level of significance), and compared rates using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Incidence of varicella office visits declined over the study period from a high of 25.1/1,000 in FY1994 to a low of 3.2/1,000 in FY2011. ED visits and hospitalizations followed similar patterns of decreasing rates later in the study period. IRRs comparing the vaccine program versus pre-vaccine eras were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.26-0.32) for office visits, 0.29 (95%CI: 0.21-0.40) for ED visits, and 0.41 (95%CI: 0.10-1.69) for hospitalizations. Annual declines in varicella office visits were 7.7%, 9.1%, 8.4%, and 8.4% per year among children aged <1 year, 1-4 years, 5-11 years, and ≥12 years, respectively (all p<0.001). Age-specific rates of varicella-associated SSTI declined significantly among children <12 years (p<0.001) and rates of ICU admissions decreased significantly for children <1 year (p = 0.02). (p<0.001) over the study period. For children aged 5-17 years, herpes zoster office visits decreased whereas ED visits increased (both p<0.001) and there was a small, non-significant (p = 0.07), decrease in hospitalizations. Conclusion Medically-attended varicella decreased during the study period, particularly since varicella vaccine was publicly-funded. Results

  8. Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

  9. A 37-year medical follow-up of Manhattan Project Pu workers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, G L; Grier, R S; Hempelmann, L H

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-six male subjects, who worked with Pu during World War II under extraordinarily crude conditions, have been given medical examinations periodically over the past 37 y to identify potential health effects. Inhalation was the primary mode of the Pu exposures. Current estimates of the systemic Pu depositions in these individuals range from 2 to 95 nCi with a mean of 26 nCi. Seven individuals have depositions of 40 nCi or more, often considered the lifetime maximum permissible body burden for workers. Two individuals have died compared to 6.6 expected deaths based on U.S. adjusted rates for white males. The causes of death were myocardial infarction and accidental trauma. Examinations completed in 1981-82 revealed no cases of cancer in the group except for a history of skin cancers in three individuals. The diseases and physical changes noted in these individuals are characteristic of a male population in their upper 50s or 60s. This study yields no evidence suggesting that adverse health effects have resulted from the 37 y of exposure to internally deposited Pu. PMID:3980212

  10. Evaluating the Cause of Death in Obese Individuals: A Ten-Year Medical Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Jad; Salvatore, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with increased morbidity and rate of death. Postmortem examination is imperative to determine the cause of death, to detect clinically unsuspected disease entities, and consequently to determine the actual impact of obesity on patient mortality. Methods. A total of 849 adult autopsies were retrospectively reviewed. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and nonobese patients were separately studied. The primary cause of death in each group was categorized into malignancy, infection, stroke, ischemic and nonischemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and primary nonneoplastic diseases of different organ systems. Results. Of 849 autopsies, 32.3% were obese. The leading causes of death in the obese population were malignancy (31.4%), infection (25.9%), ischemic heart disease (12.8%), and pulmonary embolism (6.2%). Obese individuals were statistically more likely to die from pulmonary embolism and liver disease and less likely to die from neurologic diseases and nonischemic heart disease. Conclusion. Autopsies on obese individuals constitute a third of all adult medical autopsies in our center. Increased death rates in the obese due to pulmonary embolism and liver disease should receive special clinical attention. Autopsy findings in the obese population should contribute to overall premortem disease detection, prevention, and management. PMID:25653872

  11. The Student Response System. A 5-year Mayo Medical School Experience.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, J; Mitchell, M M

    1977-09-01

    The Student Response System is a commercially available electronic communication system applicable to many teaching and testing situations. At rather short intervals during a programmed course, the instructor projects on a screen multiple-choice questions that the student should have learned to answer during one or two previous teaching steps. Correct and incorrect responses are indicated on a panel on the desk of the instructor. If students fail to give the correct answer, the teaching step is repeated. Recurrent incorrect answers indicate that explanations had been inappropriate or that test slides were poorly designed. Thus, the system allows the instructor to monitor his own performance. Students are kept alert and attention spans are prolonged; communication is increased and personal embarrassment is minimized. Only the instructor has access to the individual student's response. Most learning takes place in the classroom rather than during subsequent private study. This system is quite versatile and offers potential uses hitherto untested in medical education at all levels. PMID:70573

  12. Creating an academy of clinical excellence at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center: a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott M; Kravet, Steven; Christmas, Colleen; Burkhart, Kathleen; Durso, Samuel C

    2010-12-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are committed to the tripartite missions of research, education, and patient care. Promotion decisions at many AHCs focus predominantly on research accomplishments, and some members of the community remain concerned about how to reward clinicians who excel in, and spend a majority of their time, caring for patients. Many clinically excellent physicians contribute substantively to all aspects of the mission by collaborating with researchers (either through intellectual discourse or enrolling participants in trials), by serving as role models for trainees with respect to ideal caring and practice, and by attracting patients to the institution. Not giving fair and appreciative recognition to these clinically excellent faculty places AHCs at risk of losing them. The Center for Innovative Medicine at Johns Hopkins set out to address this concern by defining, measuring, and rewarding clinical excellence. Prior to this initiative, little attention was directed toward the "bright spots" of excellence in patient care at Johns Hopkins Bayview. Using a scholarly approach, the authors launched a new academy; this manuscript describes the history, creation, and ongoing activities of the Miller-Coulson Academy of Clinical Excellence at Johns Hopkins University Bayview Medical Center. While membership in the academy is honorific, the members of this working academy are committed to influencing institutional culture as they collaborate on advocacy, scholarship, and educational initiatives. PMID:20978424

  13. Effects of Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Medical Inpatients ≥65 Years With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Bo, Mario; Sciarrillo, Irene; Li Puma, Federica; Badinella Martini, Marco; Falcone, Yolanda; Iacovino, Marina; Grisoglio, Enrica; Menditto, Elena; Fonte, Gianfranco; Brunetti, Enrico; Maggiani, Guido; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-02-15

    In this retrospective cohort observational study, we investigated mortality, ischemic, and hemorrhagic events in patients ≥65 years with atrial fibrillation consecutively discharged from an Acute Geriatric Ward in the period 2010 to 2013. Stroke and bleeding risk were evaluated using CHA2DS2-VASC (congestive heart failure/left ventricular dysfunction, hypertension, aged ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack/systemic embolism, vascular disease, aged 65 to 74 years, gender category) and HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly) scores. Co-morbidity, cognitive status, and functional autonomy were evaluated using standardized scales. Independent associations among clinical variables, including use of vitamin K antagonist-based oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), all-cause mortality, and fatal and nonfatal ischemic and hemorrhagic events, were evaluated. Further clinical outcomes comparison between patients treated with OAT and those untreated was performed after adjustment for significant differences in patient baseline characteristics with propensity score matching. Of 980 patients discharged (mean age 83 years, 60% women, roughly 30% cognitively impaired or functionally dependent, mean CHA2DS2-VASC and HAS-BLED scores 4.8 and 2.1, respectively), 505 (51.5%) died during a mean follow-up period of 571 days; ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurred in 82 (12.3%) and 13 patients (1.3%), respectively, and major bleedings in 43 patients (4.4%). Vitamin K antagonists' use was independently associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.524) and with a nonsignificant reduction in incidence of ischemic stroke, without excess in bleeding risk. Similar findings were observed in the 2 propensity score-matched cohorts of patients. In conclusion, among vulnerable patients with atrial fibrillation ≥65 years with high

  14. Thirty-year risk of cardiovascular disease in senior medical students – based on the StudHeart study

    PubMed Central

    Morawiec, Robert; Janikowski, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Long-term risk functions highlight the need of prophylaxis in youth before the first symptoms of cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur. Aim On the basis of data obtained in the StudHeart study, the aim of this report was to evaluate the 30-year risk of CVD based on the risk scale developed by the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Material and methods Seven hundred and one students aged 22–27 (mean age: 24 ±1.42) from the 5th and 6th year of the medical faculties of the Medical University of Lodz were included in the study. The StudHeart study was based on an anonymous survey comprising 12 questions. Based on the answers the authors evaluated the 30-year risk of CVD in each respondent using an on-line calculator that allows one to evaluate: general CVD risk including coronary death, myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, angina, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, heart failure and hard CVD risk including coronary death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Results Elevated general 30-year CVD risk occurred in 23.18% of students, while hard CVD risk was elevated in 16.91% of respondents. In both cases elevated risk occurred more often in men (general CVD risk: 43.46% male vs. 8.93% female, p < 0.001 and hard CVD risk: 29.33% male vs. 8.19% female, p < 0.001). Elevation of the risk was mainly caused by overweight, obesity and smoking cigarettes. Conclusions Based on FHS 30-Year CVD risk, elevated risk occurred in almost one-fourth of students. Prophylactic actions should be performed, especially in men. PMID:27516798

  15. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

  16. Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-30

    This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

  17. VEGA 4th Stage Direct Re-Entry Survivability Analysis and Casualty Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battie, F.; Fossati, T.; Gallucci, S.

    2013-08-01

    A key task in launch vehicle (LV) system design process consists in the estimation of upper stage fragmentation during atmospheric re-entry once accomplished the launcher mission, and the related probability of making on-ground casualties. As a European launcher operating from French Guyana, VEGA has to abide by ESA debris mitigation rules, and by the French Law on Space Operations (LOS). The second flight of VEGA aims at demonstrating the versatility of the launcher by performing a multi-payload launch with different target orbits. From a safety point of view, the compliance of VEGA to the LOS will also be extended through the performance of the direct deorbiting of its upper stage, the AVUM, at the end of its mission. Indeed, during the qualification flight, VEGA had submitted to the safety authorities the derogation envisaged by the LOS: under certain conditions, it allows the indirect re-entry of the launcher's upper stage, provided it shall do so in less than 25 years.

  18. Celebrating 10 Years of Undergraduate Medical Education: A Student-Centered Evaluation of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre--Determinants of Community Health Year 2 Program.

    PubMed

    Fernando, E; Jusko-Friedman, A; Catton, P; Nyhof-Young, J

    2015-06-01

    Between 2000 and 2011, over 170 second-year medical students participated in a Determinants of Community Health (DOCH 2) project at Princess Margaret Hospital (PMH). Students undertook community-based research projects at the hospital or with PMH community partners involving activities such as producing a literature review, writing a research proposal, obtaining ethics approval, carrying out data collection and analysis, presenting their data to classmates and supervisors, and production of a final report. An electronic survey consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was developed to evaluate the PMH-DOCH 2 program and was distributed to 144 past students with known email addresses. Fifty-eight students responded, a response rate of 40.3%. Data analysis indicates that an increase in oncology knowledge, awareness of the impact of determinants of health on patients, and knowledge of research procedures increased participants' satisfaction and ability to conduct research following DOCH 2. Furthermore, the PMH-DOCH 2 program enhanced the development of CanMEDS competencies through career exploration and patient interaction as well as through shadowing physicians and other allied health professionals. In addition, some students felt their PMH-DOCH 2 projects played a beneficial role during their residency matching process. The PMH-DOCH 2 research program appeared to provide a positive experience for most participants and opportunities for medical students' professional growth and development outside the confines of traditional lecture-based courses. PMID:24906503

  19. Differential effects of two types of formative assessment in predicting performance of first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    Formative assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This study investigates how performance on two different modes of formative assessment relate to each other and to performance on summative assessments in an integrated, medical-school environment. Two types of formative assessment were administered to 146 first-year medical students each week over 8 weeks: a timed, closed-book component to assess factual recall and image recognition, and an un-timed, open-book component to assess higher order reasoning including the ability to identify and access appropriate resources and to integrate and apply knowledge. Analogous summative assessments were administered in the ninth week. Models relating formative and summative assessment performance were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. Two latent variables underlying achievement on formative and summative assessments could be identified; a "formative-assessment factor" and a "summative-assessment factor," with the former predicting the latter. A latent variable underlying achievement on open-book formative assessments was highly predictive of achievement on both open- and closed-book summative assessments, whereas a latent variable underlying closed-book assessments only predicted performance on the closed-book summative assessment. Formative assessments can be used as effective predictive tools of summative performance in medical school. Open-book, un-timed assessments of higher order processes appeared to be better predictors of overall summative performance than closed-book, timed assessments of factual recall and image recognition. PMID:16729243

  20. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases. PMID:25622483