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Sample records for 4v eli alloy

  1. Notch effects on high-cycle fatigue properties of Ti 6Al 4V ELI alloy at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.; Ogata, T.

    2006-01-01

    Notch effects on the high-cycle fatigue properties of the forged Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy at cryogenic temperatures were investigated. Also, the high-cycle fatigue data were compared with the rolled Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy. The one million cycles fatigue strength (FS) of the smooth specimen for the forged Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy increased with a decrease of test temperature. However, the FS of each notched specimen at 4 K were lower than those at 77 K. On the other hand, the FS of the smooth and the notched specimens for the forged Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy at 4 K were lower than those for the rolled Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy. This is considered to be the early initiation of the fatigue crack in the forged Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy compares with the forged Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI.

  2. High-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Notched Specimens for Ti-6Al-4V ELI Alloy at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.; Ogata, T.

    2006-03-31

    The notch effects on the high-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy have been investigated at cryogenic temperatures. Smooth and notched specimens with the Kt=1.5, Kt=2 and Kt=3 were prepared. High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out at 4, 77 and 293 K. One million cycles fatigue strength (FS) of smooth specimen was increased with a decrease of the test temperature. Although the FS of each notched specimen at 4 K were lower than those of 77 K. Fatigue crack initiation sites of the smooth, the Kt=1.5 and the Kt=2 notched specimens at 4 K were facets in the specimen interior (internal type fracture) and those of the Kt=3 notched specimens were at the notch root (surface type fracture). The size of individual facets comprising the internal fatigue crack initiation sites correspond to almost the {alpha}-grain size. Therefore, improvement of the fatigue strength of the notched specimens for Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy which show internal type fracture at cryogenic temperatures requires attaining a smaller area size by grain refining.

  3. High-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Notched Specimens for Ti-6Al-4V ELI Alloy at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.; Ogata, T.

    2006-03-01

    The notch effects on the high-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy have been investigated at cryogenic temperatures. Smooth and notched specimens with the Kt=1.5, Kt=2 and Kt=3 were prepared. High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out at 4, 77 and 293 K. One million cycles fatigue strength (FS) of smooth specimen was increased with a decrease of the test temperature. Although the FS of each notched specimen at 4 K were lower than those of 77 K. Fatigue crack initiation sites of the smooth, the Kt=1.5 and the Kt=2 notched specimens at 4 K were facets in the specimen interior (internal type fracture) and those of the Kt=3 notched specimens were at the notch root (surface type fracture). The size of individual facets comprising the internal fatigue crack initiation sites correspond to almost the α-grain size. Therefore, improvement of the fatigue strength of the notched specimens for Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy which show internal type fracture at cryogenic temperatures requires attaining a smaller area size by grain refining.

  4. Effect of Test Frequency on Fatigue Crack Growth Rates of Ti-6Al-4V ELI Alloy at Cryogenic Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.; Ogata, T.

    2006-03-31

    In order to clarify the effect of test frequency on the fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy have been investigated at cryogenic temperature. The fatigue crack growth tests were conducted using the test frequencies of 5 and 20 Hz, respectively. At 4 K, the effects of the test frequencies on the fatigue crack growth rates of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy were not clear or significant. The fatigue crack growth rates in the low propagation rate region at 4 K were smaller than those at 293 K. On the other hand, those in the high propagation rate region at 4 K were bigger than those at 293 K. The former is considered that the crack closure level was higher as compared to that at 293 K and the latter is due to the difference values of the fracture toughness at 4 and 293 K, respectively. The fracture surfaces of compact tension (CT) specimens in the high propagation rate regions at each test temperature revealed the striations, and furthermore accompanied with the flute fracture surface at 4 K. On the other hand, those of CT specimens in the low propagation rate region at 4 K were found facet-like fracture surfaces corresponding with almost the {alpha}-grain size.

  5. Effect of stress ratio on high-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy forging at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Ogata, Toshio; Matsuoka, Saburo; Sunakawa, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the stress ratio R (the ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress) on the high-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V extra-low interstitial (ELI) alloy forging was investigated at 293 and 77 K. At 293 K, the fatigue strength at 107 cycles exhibited deviations below the modified Goodman line in the R=0.01 and 0.5 tests. Moreover, at 77 K, larger deviations of the fatigue strength at 107 cycles below the modified Goodman line were confirmed in the same stress ratio conditions. The high-cycle fatigue strength of the present alloy forging exhibit an anomalous mean stress dependency at both temperatures and this dependency becomes remarkable at low temperature.

  6. Effects of heat treatments on microstructure and properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM)

    DOE PAGES

    Galarraga, Haize; Warren, Robert J.; Lados, Diana A.; ...

    2017-01-06

    Electron beam melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) technology that is used to fabricate three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts directly from computer models. Ti-6Al-4V is the most widely used and studied alloy for this technology and is the focus of this work in its ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) variation. The mechanisms of microstructure formation, evolution, and its subsequent influence on mechanical properties of the alloy in as-fabricated condition have been documented by various researchers. In the present work, the thermal history resulting in the formation of the as-fabricated microstructure was analyzed and studied by a thermal simulation.more » Subsequently different heat treatments were performed based on three approaches in order to study the effects of heat treatments on the singular and exclusive microstructure formed during the EBM fabrication process. In the first approach, the effect of cooling rate after the solutionizing process was studied. In the second approach, the variation of α lath thickness during annealing treatment and correlation with mechanical properties was established. In the last approach, several solutionizing and aging experiments were conducted.« less

  7. Evaluation of the stiffness and friction of Ti6Al4V ELI treated by glow discharge nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavera, J. R.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.; Estupiñán Duran, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an evaluation of the elastic-plastic surface hardening on Ti6Al4V ELI titanium nitride films obtained by glow discharge method was carried out by nanoindentation tests according to the standard ISO 14577. The nanotribological properties (metal-metal) were also evaluated using the pin-on-disc system Ti6Al4V surface deposition ELI with nitrogen, obtaining a correlation between the coefficient of friction of Ti6Al4V ELI treated by PVD and the Young's modulus of the respective substrate modified by PVD. To characterize the substrate for the characterization tests, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction and contact angle were carried out. The results demonstrated that the substrates nitrided improved mechanical and tribological properties, hardness, Young's modulus and coefficient of friction, making the alloy Ti6Al4V ELI support axial loads in tension and compression.

  8. Effects of the microstructure and porosity on properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Galarraga, Haize; Lados, Diana A.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Kirka, Michael M.; Nandwana, Peeyush

    2016-01-01

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology that makes possible the fabrication of three dimensional near-net-shaped parts directly from computer models. EBM technology has been in continuously updating, obtaining optimized properties of the processed alloys. Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is the most widely used and studied alloy for this technology and is the focus of this work. Several research works have been completed to study the mechanisms of microstructure formation as well as its influence on mechanical properties. However, the relationship is not completely understood, and more systematic research work is necessary in order to attain a better understanding of these features. In this work, samples fabricated at different locations, orientations, and distances from the build platform have been characterized, studying the relationship of these variables with the resulting material intrinsic characteristics and properties (surface topography, microstructure, porosity, micro-hardness and static mechanical properties). This study has revealed that porosity is the main factor controlling mechanical properties relative to the other studied variables. Therefore, in future process developments, decreasing of the porosity should be considered as the primary goal in order to improve mechanical properties.

  9. Effects of the microstructure and porosity on properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM)

    DOE PAGES

    Galarraga, Haize; Lados, Diana A.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology that makes possible the fabrication of three dimensional near-net-shaped parts directly from computer models. EBM technology has been in continuously updating, obtaining optimized properties of the processed alloys. Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is the most widely used and studied alloy for this technology and is the focus of this work. Several research works have been completed to study the mechanisms of microstructure formation as well as its influence on mechanical properties. However, the relationship is not completely understood, and more systematic research work is necessary in order tomore » attain a better understanding of these features. In this work, samples fabricated at different locations, orientations, and distances from the build platform have been characterized, studying the relationship of these variables with the resulting material intrinsic characteristics and properties (surface topography, microstructure, porosity, micro-hardness and static mechanical properties). This study has revealed that porosity is the main factor controlling mechanical properties relative to the other studied variables. Therefore, in future process developments, decreasing of the porosity should be considered as the primary goal in order to improve mechanical properties.« less

  10. The design and production of Ti-6Al-4V ELI customized dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, Gilbert; Koike, Mari; Okabe, Toru; Smith, Pauline; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2008-11-01

    This paper addresses the production of customized Ti-6Al-4V ELI dental implants via electron beam melting (EBM). The melting of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder produces implants with great biocompatibility, fi ne mechanical performance, and a high bone ingrowth potential. The EBM technology is used to produce one-component dental implants that mimic the exact shape of the patient’s tooth, replacing the traditional, three-component, “screw-like” standardized dental implants currently used. The new generation of implants provides the possibility of simplifying pre-insertion procedures leading to faster healing time, and the potential of better and stronger osseointegration, specifi cally through incorporating lattice structure design.

  11. Strain-based fatigue data for Ti-6Al-4V ELI under fully-reversed and mean strain loads.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Patricio E; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the experimental data supporting the study to obtain the mean strain/stress effects on the fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI. A series of strain-controlled fatigue experiments on Ti-6Al-4V ELI were performed at four strain ratios (-1, -0.5, 0, and 0.5). Two types of data are included for each specimen. These are the hysteresis stress-strain responses for the cycle in a log10 increment, and the maximum and minimum stress-strain responses for each cycle. Fatigue lives are also reported for all the experiments.

  12. Strain-based fatigue data for Ti–6Al–4V ELI under fully-reversed and mean strain loads

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Patricio E.; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the experimental data supporting the study to obtain the mean strain/stress effects on the fatigue behavior of Ti–6Al–4V ELI. A series of strain-controlled fatigue experiments on Ti–6Al–4V ELI were performed at four strain ratios (−1, −0.5, 0, and 0.5). Two types of data are included for each specimen. These are the hysteresis stress–strain responses for the cycle in a log10 increment, and the maximum and minimum stress–strain responses for each cycle. Fatigue lives are also reported for all the experiments. PMID:26952022

  13. Gene expression of human osteoblasts cells on chemically treated surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V-ELI.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D P; Palmieri, A; Carinci, F; Bolfarini, C

    2015-06-01

    Surface modifications of titanium alloys are useful methods to enhance the biological stability of intraosseous implants and to promote a well succeeded osseointegration in the early stages of implantation. This work aims to investigate the influence of chemically modified surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V-ELI (extra-low interstitial) on the gene expression of human osteoblastic (HOb) cells. The surface treatments by acid etching or acid etching plus alkaline treatment were carried out to modify the topography, effective area, contact angle and chemical composition of the samples. The surface morphology was investigated using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Roughness measurements and effective surface area were obtained using the CLSM. Surface composition was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The expression levels of some bone related genes (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analysed using real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time RT-PCR). The results showed that all the chemical modifications studied in this work influenced the surface morphology, wettability, roughness, effective area and gene expression of human osteoblasts. Acid phosphoric combined to alkaline treatment presented a more accelerated gene expression after 7days while the only phosphoric etching or chloride etching combined to alkaline treatment presented more effective responses after 15days.

  14. Fatigue strength of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerov, M. V.; Vladislavskaya, E. Yu.; Terent'ev, V. F.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Antonova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The fatigue properties and the fracture mechanisms of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) from a powder of an CL41TiELI titanium alloy have been studied. Cylindrical blanks were grown at angles of 90° and 45° to a platform. The best fatigue strength is observed in the samples the blanks of which were grown at an angle of 45°. It is found that the structure of the SLM material can contain portions with unmelted powder particles, which are the places of initiation of fatigue cracks.

  15. Laser Assisted Milling of Ti-6Al-4V ELI with the Analysis of Surface Integrity and its Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Gary K.; Shin, Yung C.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the experimental evaluation of laser assisted milling (LAML) of Ti-6AL-4V ELI (Ti-64), which is used in the orthopedic industry, by using localized preheating of the workpiece via laser irradiation. Improvements to the machinability of this material with LAML are assessed while considering the surface integrity. Suitable laser heating conditions as well as machining conditions are determined based on temperature prediction modeling. Machinability improvements are shown in terms of tool wear, material removal rates and cutting force reduction. Systematic characterization of samples is shown to demonstrate that the machined sub-surfaces are not adversely affected during LAML by precisely controlling laser heating, via hardness measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for residual stresses. An economic analysis shows that LAML provides the cost reduction over conventional machining.

  16. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.

    2011-01-17

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasive and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.

  17. Microcrack propagation in Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, J.A.; Peters, J.O.; Luetjering, G.

    1999-07-01

    In this study, microcrack propagation in Ti-6Al-4V was examined in regions just above and below the fatigue limit. Two different Ti-6Al-4V alloys with nominally similar chemical compositions were examined: the first alloy was thermo-mechanically treated in the laboratory to develop a bi-modal and a fully lamellar microstructure and the second alloy is from the High Cycle Fatigue MURI program (forging No. 197) containing a duplex microstructure. Microcracks were nucleated in smooth specimens of each microstructure in the LCF regime during tests conducted at R = {minus}1 (R = {sigma}{sub min}/{sigma}{sub max}) so that internal stresses could be minimized. These samples were then tested in the HCF regime to determine crack propagation rates for R values of {minus}1, 0.1, and 0.5. In addition, conventional fatigue crack propagation curves for macrocracks using CT-specimens were measured. Comparisons in microcrack growth behavior were evaluated and discussed for the bi-modal and fully lamellar microstructures, for bi-modal and forging No. 197 microstructures, and for forging No. 197 examining the influence of R = 0.1 and 0.5. Much of the observed behavior appeared to be explained by differences in crack front roughness.

  18. Investigation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy acoustic softening.

    PubMed

    Fartashvand, V; Abdullah, A; Sadough Vanini, S A

    2016-07-15

    High power ultrasonic vibration is widely used for improving manufacturing processes such as machining and metal forming. High frequency mechanical vibration affects material properties and friction forces in contacting surfaces. Flow stress reduction under superimposed ultrasonic vibration is called as acoustic softening. The amount of this parameter should be determined for ultrasonic assisted metal forming processes. For determination of this parameter for workhorse Ti-6Al-4V alloy, experimental setup was designed and fabricated. Then tensile test under longitudinal ultrasonic vibration was performed for different ultrasonic powers. Results show that ultrasonic vibration has considerable effect on plastic behavior of the alloy and decreases flow stress. Also, increasing ultrasonic power leads to higher acoustic softening. Yield stress reduction up to 9.52%, ultimate stress reduction up to 4.55% and elongation up to 13% were obtained at 340W ultrasonic power. After applying ultrasonic vibrations and its termination, hardness of specimens were measured in which increase up to 9% was observed.

  19. Ultrafine-grained structure formation in Ti-6Al-4V alloy via warm swaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimova, M.; Boeva, M.; Zherebtsov, S.; Salishchev, G.

    2014-08-01

    The influence of warm swaging on the structure and properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied. Warm swaging of the alloy in the interval 680-500°C with the total strain of ɛ=2.66 was found to be resulted in the formation of a homogeneous globular microstructure with a grain size of 0.4 μm in both longitudinal and transversal sections. Room temperature tensile strength and tensile elongation of the swaged alloy was 1315MPa and 10.5%, respectively. Ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by swaging exhibited good workability at 600-700 °C.

  20. Osteoblastic behavior to zirconium coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Kim, Hae-Jin; Xuan, Yun-Ze; Park, Yeong-Joon; Chung, Hyun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the surface characteristics and the biocompatibility of zirconium (Zr) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. MATERIALS AND METHODS The zirconium films were developed on Ti-6Al-4V discs using RF magnetron sputtering method. Surface profile, surface composition, surface roughness and surface energy were evaluated. Electrochemical test was performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression of mineralized matrix markers were measured. RESULTS SEM and EDS analysis showed that zirconium deposition was performed successfully on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate. Ti-6Al-4V group and Zr-coating group showed no significant difference in surface roughness (P>.05). Surface energy was significantly higher in Zr-coating group than in Ti-6Al-4V group (P<.05). No difference in cell morphology was observed between Ti-6Al-4V group and Zr-coating group. Cell proliferation was higher in Zr-coating group than Ti-6Al-4V group at 1, 3 and 5 days (P<.05). Zr-coating group showed higher ALP activity level than Ti-6Al-4V group (P<.05). The mRNA expressions of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) on Zr-coating group increased approximately 1.2-fold and 2.1-fold respectively, compared to that of Ti-6Al-4V group. CONCLUSION These results suggest that zirconium coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy could enhance the early osteoblast responses. This property could make non-toxic metal coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy suitable for orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:25551012

  1. Functionally graded Co-Cr-Mo coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy structures.

    PubMed

    Vamsi Krishna, B; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2008-05-01

    Functionally graded, hard and wear-resistant Co-Cr-Mo alloy was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a metallurgically sound interface using Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENS). The addition of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy onto the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy significantly increased the surface hardness without any intermetallic phases in the transition region. A 100% Co-Cr-Mo transition from Ti-6Al-4V was difficult to produce due to cracking. However, using optimized LENS processing parameters, crack-free coatings containing up to 86% Co-Cr-Mo were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with excellent reproducibility. Human osteoblast cells were cultured to test in vitro biocompatibility of the coatings. Based on in vitro biocompatibility, increasing the Co-Cr-Mo concentration in the coating reduced the live cell numbers after 14 days of culture on the coating compared with base Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, coated samples always showed better bone cell proliferation than 100% Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Producing near net shape components with graded compositions using LENS could potentially be a viable route for manufacturing unitized structures for metal-on-metal prosthetic devices to minimize the wear-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening that are significant problems in current implant design.

  2. Mechanical properties of cast Ti-6Al-4V-XCu alloys.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Okafor, I C I; Watanabe, I; Hattori, M; Oda, Y; Okabe, T

    2004-11-01

    The mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V-XCu (1, 4 and 10 wt% Cu) alloys were examined. The castings for each alloy were made in a centrifugal titanium casting machine. Two shapes of specimens were used: a dumbbell (20 mm gauge length x 2.8 mm diameter) for mechanical property studies, and a flat slab (2 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm) for metallography, microhardness determination and X-ray diffractometry. Tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation and microhardness were evaluated. After tensile testing, the fracture surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The tensile strengths of the quaternary alloys decreased from 1016 MPa for the 1% Cu alloy to 387 MPa for the 10% Cu alloy. Elongation decreased with an increase in the copper content. The 1% Cu alloy exhibited elongation similar to Ti-6Al-4V without copper (3.0%). The results also indicated that the copper additions increased the bulk hardness of the quaternary alloy. In particular, the 10% Cu alloy had the highest hardness and underwent the most brittle fracture. The mechanical properties of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy with 1 and 4% Cu were well within the values for existing dental casting non-precious alloys.

  3. Porous Ti6Al4V alloys with enhanced normalized fatigue strength for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuping; Li, Jinshan; Kou, Hongchao; Zhou, Lian

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, porous Ti6Al4V alloys for biomedical applications were fabricated by diffusion bonding of alloy meshes. The compression-compression fatigue behavior was studied. It results that porous Ti6Al4V alloys show enhanced normalized fatigue strength which is in the range of 0.5-0.55 at 10(6)cycles. The porosity has some effect on the absolute S-N curves but minor effect on the normalized S-N curves. The relationship between strain per cycle and number of cycles shows three distinct stages and the value of strain per cycle is constant in stage II. The reasons for the higher normalized fatigue strength of porous Ti6Al4V alloys are discussed based on the fatigue crack initiation and propagation.

  4. Corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with Cu.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marie; Cai, Zhuo; Oda, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Toru

    2005-05-01

    It has recently been found that alloying with copper improved the inherently poor grindability and wear resistance of titanium. This study characterized the corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. Alloys (0.9 or 3.5 mass % Cu) were cast with the use of a magnesia-based investment in a centrifugal casting machine. Three specimen surfaces were tested: ground, sandblasted, and as cast. Commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V served as controls. Open-circuit potential measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air + 10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium deaerated by N(2) + 10% CO(2). Polarization resistance (R(p)), Tafel slopes, and corrosion current density (I(corr)) were determined. A passive region occurred for the alloy specimens with ground and sandblasted surfaces, as for CP Ti. However, no passivation was observed on the as-cast alloys or on CP Ti. There were significant differences among all metals tested for R(p) and I(corr) and significantly higher R(p) and lower I(corr) values for CP Ti compared to Ti-6Al-4V or the alloys with Cu. Alloying up to 3.5 mass % Cu to Ti-6Al-4V did not change the corrosion behavior. Specimens with ground or sandblasted surfaces were superior to specimens with as-cast surfaces.

  5. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  6. Study of ultrasonic attenuation on aging precipitation in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreón, Héctor; Dueñas, Antonio; Ruiz, Alberto; Barrera, Gerardo

    2017-02-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different microstructures was investigated by means of ultrasonic attenuation measurements. Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures were obtaining by heat treating a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These two microstructures were over-aged at 545°C at different aging times. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in the ultrasonic attenuation, the heat treated samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. Based on the theory of ultrasonic attenuation in a solid media, the mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different microstructures were analyzed. It was found that in both cases with Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures, the ultrasonic attenuation increased with frequency. After aging, the ultrasonic attenuation was mainly attributed to the scattering loss which included the stochastic and the Rayleigh scattering due to the interaction between the ultrasonic wave and the material microstructure.

  7. Mixed-metal fretting corrosion of Ti6Al4V and wrought cobalt alloy.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, J S; Brown, S A; Payer, J H; Merritt, K

    1995-07-01

    Corrosion has been reported at the modular interfaces of total joint replacement implants, but with conflicting theories as to the cause of such damage. The modular design itself leaves the interface susceptible to galvanic, crevice, or fretting corrosion, or a combination of the three. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of material combination on fretting corrosion of orthopedic alloys. Each test specimen consisted of a two-hole plate with spherical countersinks and two cortical bone screws. The plates and screws were made of either Ti6Al4V or wrought cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CCM), and were tested in all mixed-metal and similar-alloy combinations. Fretting corrosion experiments were conducted for 14 days in 10% calf serum, according to ASTM F897. Corrosion damage was evaluated by weight-loss measurements, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The results indicated that Ti6Al4V suffered relatively severe damage when fretted against itself, as a result of adhesive galling. The extent of titanium damage was reduced considerably, however, when Ti6Al4V was fretted against wrought CCM. In contrast, there was essentially no difference in wrought CCM damage when the alloys was fretted against itself compared to fretting against Ti6Al4V. Finally, in similar-alloy combinations, Ti6Al4V suffered more severe damage than wrought CCM.

  8. Study on improved tribological properties by alloying copper to CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Ma, Zheng; Liao, Zhenhua; Song, Jian; Yang, Ke; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Copper alloying to titanium and its alloys is believed to show an antibacterial performance. However, the tribological properties of Cu alloyed titanium alloys were seldom studied. Ti-5Cu and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloys were fabricated in the present study in order to further study the friction and wear properties of titanium alloys with Cu additive. The microstructure, composition and hardness were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hardness tester. The tribological behaviors were tested with ZrO2 counterface in 25% bovine serum using a ball-on-disc tribo-tester. The results revealed that precipitations of Ti2Cu intermetallic compounds appeared in both Ti-5Cu and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloys. The tribological results showed an improvement in friction and wear resistance for both Ti-5Cu and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloys due to the precipitation of Ti2Cu. The results also indicated that both CP-Ti and Ti-5Cu behaved better wear resistance than Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu due to different wear mechanisms when articulated with hard zirconia. Both CP-Ti and Ti-5Cu revealed dominant adhesive wear with secondary abrasive wear mechanism while both Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu showed severe abrasive wear and cracks with secondary adhesive wear mechanism due to different surface hardness integrated by their microstructures and material types.

  9. The effect of surface treatments on the fretting behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Dalmiglio, Matteo; Schaaff, Petra; Holzwarth, Uwe; Chiesa, Roberto; Rondelli, Gianni

    2008-08-01

    Stem modularity in total hip replacement introduces an additional taper joint between Ti-6Al-4V stem components with the potential for fretting corrosion processes. One possible way to reduce the susceptibility of the Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-6Al-4V interface to fretting is the surface modification of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Among the tested, industrially available surface treatments, a combination of two deep anodic spark deposition treatments followed by barrel polishing resulted in a four times lower material release with respect to untreated, machined fretting pad surfaces. The fretting release has been quantified by means of radiotracers introduced in the alloy surface by proton irradiation. In a simple sphere on flat geometry, the semispherical fretting pads were pressed against flat, dog-bone shaped Ti-6Al-4V fatigue samples cyclically loaded at 4 Hz. In this way a cyclic displacement amplitude along the surfaces of 20 mum has been achieved. A further simplification consisted in the use of deionized water as lubricant. A comparison of the radiotracer results with an electrochemical material characterization after selected treatments by potentiostatic tests of modular stems in 0.9% NaCl at 40 degrees C for 10 days confirmed the benefit of deep anodic spark deposition and subsequent barrel polishing for improving the fretting behavior of Ti-6Al-4V.

  10. Response of human endothelial cells to oxidative stress on Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Roman; Kalbacova, Marie; Hempel, Ute; Scharnweber, Dieter; Unger, Ronald E; Dieter, Peter; Kirkpatrick, C James; Peters, Kirsten

    2007-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys are amongst the most frequently used materials in bone and dental implantology. The good biocompatibility of titanium(-alloys) is attributed to the formation of a titanium oxide layer on the implant surface. However, implant failures do occur and this appears to be due to titanium corrosion. Thus, cells participating in the wound healing processes around an implanted material, among them endothelial cells, might be subjected to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by electrochemical processes during titanium corrosion. Therefore, we studied the response of endothelial cells grown on Ti6Al4V alloy to H(2)O(2) and compared this with the response of endothelial cells grown on cell culture polystyrene (PS). We could show that although the cell number was the same on both surfaces, metabolic activity of endothelial cells grown on Ti6Al4V alloy was reduced compared to the cells on PS and further decreased following prototypic oxidative stress (H(2)O(2)-treatment). The analysis of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress showed a higher ROS formation in endothelial cells on Ti6Al4V than on PS. This correlated with the depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) in endothelial cells grown on Ti6Al4V surfaces and indicated permanent oxidative stress. Thus, endothelial cells in direct contact with Ti6Al4V showed signs of oxidative stress and higher impairment of cell vitality after an additional oxidative stress. However, the exact nature of the agent of oxidative stress generated from Ti6Al4V remains unclear and requires further investigation.

  11. Deformation behavior and effects of oxygen in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.

    1985-01-01

    A microstructural and microchemical investigation of ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., or ..cap alpha..'' phases in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy was performed using optical and analytical electron microscopy. Also, the mechanical properties were evaluated and dynamic Young's modulus and damping capacity was measured. The emphasis was on understanding the deformation behavior of the various phases under tensile, compressive and cyclic straining. The phase conditions were obtained through various solution- and aging heat treatment. An attempt was made to correlate variation of Young's modulus and damping with phase transformation and with oxygen concentration in the alloy. Specimens used in this work were mostly blended elemental sintered Ti-6Al-4V alloy which was shown to be over 99% of full density. The microstructure consisted of a combination of equiaxed and low aspect ratio lamellar ..cap alpha.. grains. Chemical homogeneity was achieved within individual ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. regions with slight compositional fluctuations between different grains.

  12. Shot peening for Ti-6Al-4V alloy compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, Gerald A.

    1987-01-01

    A text program was conducted to determine the effects of certain shot-peening parameters on the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V alloys as well as the effect of a demarcation line on a test specimen. This demarcation line, caused by an abrupt change from untreated surface to shot-peened surface, was thought to have caused the failure of several blades in a multistage compressor at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The demarcation line had no detrimental effect upon bending fatigue specimens tested at room temperature. Procedures for shot peening Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades are recommended for future applications.

  13. Microstructural Influence on Mechanical Properties in Plasma Microwelding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, M.; Bag, S.

    2016-11-01

    The complexity of joining Ti6Al4V alloy enhances with reduction in sheet thickness. The present work puts emphasis on microplasma arc welding (MPAW) of 500-μm-thick Ti6Al4V alloy in butt joint configuration. Using controlled and regulated arc current, the MPAW process is specifically designed to use in joining of thin sheet components over a wide range of process parameters. The weld quality is assessed by carefully controlling the process parameters and by reducing the formation of oxides. The combined effect of welding speed and current on the weld joint properties is evaluated for joining of Ti6Al4V alloy. The macro- and microstructural characterizations of the weldment by optical microscopy as well as the analysis of mechanical properties by microtensile and microhardness test have been performed. The weld joint quality is affected by specifically designed fixture that controls the oxidation of the joint and introduces high cooling rate. Hence, the solidified microstructure of welded specimen influences the mechanical properties of the joint. The butt joint of titanium alloy by MPAW at optimal process parameters is of very high quality, without any internal defects and with minimum residual distortion.

  14. Texture induced anisotropy in extruded Ti-6Al-4V-xB alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Boehlert, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The tensile properties of extruded Ti 6Al 4V xB alloys (wt.%) were evaluated in an orientation perpendicular to the extrusion direction at room-temperature and 455 C. The extrusion process preferentially oriented the basal plane of -Ti perpendicular to the extrusion axis. This strong - phase texture resulted in tensile anisotropy. The tensile strength in the transverse orientation was lower than that in the longitudinal orientation, but it remained greater than that for the ascast Ti 6Al 4V. The TiB phasewas aligned in the extrusion direction and increased B content was found to weaken the -phase texture, causing a weakening of tensile anisotropy. Debonding was not observed during the tensile tests in the transverse orientation, indicating a strong interface bond exists between the TiB phase and the two-phase ( + ) Ti 6Al 4V matrix.

  15. Effect of Thermodiffusion Nitriding on Cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohrelyuk, I. M.; Tkachuk, O. V.; Proskurnyak, R. V.; Boiko, N. M.; Kluchivska, O. Yu.; Stoika, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The nitrided layer was formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy by the thermodiffusion saturation in nitrogen at the atmospheric pressure. The study of the vitality of pseudonormal human embryo kidney cells of the HEK293T line showed that their cultivation in the presence of the untreated alloy sample is accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in the number of living cells compared with the control sample (untreated cells), whereas their cultivation in the presence of the nitrided alloy sample does not change the cell number considerably. In addition, it was shown that cell behavior in the presence of the nitrided sample differs only slightly from the control sample, whereas the growth of cells in the presence of the untreated alloy differed significantly from that in the control sample, demonstrating small groups of cells instead of their big clusters.

  16. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of gas nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloys.

    PubMed

    Mitelea, I; Dimian, E; Bordeaşu, I; Crăciunescu, C

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic cavitation erosion experiments were performed on Ti-6Al-4V alloys samples in annealed, nitrided and nitrided and subsequently heat treated state. The protective oxide layer formed as a result of annealing and heat treatment after nitriding is eliminated after less than 30 min cavitation time, while the nitride layer lasts up to 90 min cavitation time. Once the protective layer is removed, the cavitation process develops by grain boundary erosion, leading to the expulsion of grains from the surface. The gas nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloy, forming a TixN surface layer, proved to be a better solution to improve the cavitation erosion resistance, compared to the annealed and nitrided and heat treated state, respectively. The analysis of the mean depth of erosion rate at 165 min cavitation time showed an improvement of the cavitation erosion resistance of the nitrided samples of up to 77% higher compared to the one of the annealed samples.

  17. Nanometer-scale surface modification of Ti6Al4V alloy for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianhui; Luan, Ben Li

    2008-01-01

    This communication presents a novel technology to enhance the biocompatibility of bioinert Ti6Al4V alloy as implant materials for orthopaedic application. The surface of Ti6Al4V alloy was electrochemically activated in NaOH solution to create a porous structure with nanometer topographic features and an alkaline environment, thus promoting the formation of bone-like hydroxyapatite coating and enhancing the bonding strength of the coating. This innovative activation process was proved to be effective and essential. The activated surface was confirmed to be pure TiO2 and the formed coating was characterized of pure hydroxyapatite with a nanometer-scaled grain size structure by means of XPS, FESEM/SEM/EDX, XRD, and TEM techniques.

  18. Osteoblast response to thermally oxidized Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, L; Vilaboa, N; Vallés, G; González-Cabrero, J; Munuera, L

    2005-04-01

    We have recently reported that thermal oxidation treatments of Ti6Al4V at 500 degrees and 700 degrees C for 1 h result in the formation of an outer "ceramic" layer of rutile that do not decrease the high in vitro corrosion resistance of the alloy. In the present work, surface roughness was measured and found marginally increased as a consequence of oxidation of the alloy at 700 degrees C, but not at 500 degrees C. We have evaluated the biocompatibility of the oxidized surfaces, by assessing cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cultures of human osteoblastic cells. Compared with polished alloy, both thermal treatments increased osteoblast adhesion measured as cell attachment, beta1 integrin and FAK-Y397 expression, as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Compared with treatment at 500 degrees C, thermal oxidation at 700 degrees C enhanced cell adhesion. Treatment at 700 degrees C transiently impaired cell proliferation and viability, which were not altered in alloys oxidized at 500 degrees C. Several markers of osteoblastic differentiation such as procollagen I peptide, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and mineralized nodule formation were found either unaffected or differentially increased by alloys treated either at 500 degrees or 700 degrees C. In addition, thermal oxidation at 700 degrees C also increased osteoprotegerin secretion. Taken together, our results indicate that thermal oxidation treatments at 500 degrees or 700 degrees C for 1 h improve the in vitro biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V.

  19. Microstructure-Tensile Properties Correlation for the Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Zeng, Weidong; Sun, Yu; Han, Yuanfei; Zhao, Yongqing; Guo, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Finding the quantitative microstructure-tensile properties correlations is the key to achieve performance optimization for various materials. However, it is extremely difficult due to their non-linear and highly interactive interrelations. In the present investigation, the lamellar microstructure features-tensile properties correlations of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are studied using an error back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN-BP) model. Forty-eight thermomechanical treatments were conducted to prepare the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different lamellar microstructure features. In the proposed model, the input variables are microstructure features including the α platelet thickness, colony size, and β grain size, which were extracted using Image Pro Plus software. The output variables are the tensile properties, including ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area. Fourteen hidden-layer neurons which can make ANN-BP model present the most excellent performance were applied. The training results show that all the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values are within 6%, which means that the trained ANN-BP model is capable of providing precise prediction of the tensile properties for Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Based on the corresponding relations between the tensile properties predicted by ANN-BP model and the lamellar microstructure features, it can be found that the yield strength decreases with increasing α platelet thickness continuously. However, the α platelet thickness exerts influence on the elongation in a more complicated way. In addition, for a given α platelet thickness, the yield strength and the elongation both increase with decreasing β grain size and colony size. In general, the β grain size and colony size play a more important role in affecting the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the α platelet thickness.

  20. On the Young's moduli of Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhongyun . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, the authors will present an iterative approach to Young's modulus of multi-phase composites developed by Fan et al. The iterative approach will then be applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloys to predict their effective Young's moduli. It is hoped that the theoretical predictions will offer a quantitative explanation to the peculiar shape of the E[sup c][minus]f[sub [beta

  1. Microstructure Evolution and Abrasive Wear Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadke, Shreyash; Khatirkar, Rajesh K.; Shekhawat, Satish K.; Jain, Shreyans; Sapate, Sanjay G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of quenching and aging treatment on microstructure and abrasive wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The as-received alloy was solution treated at 1339 K, then oil quenched, followed by aging at 823 K for 4 h (14,400 s). The microstructures of as-received and quench-aged specimens were characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction techniques. The as-received specimen consisted of very fine α grains (average grain size 2 μm) with β phase uniformly dispersed throughout. The microstructure of the quench-aged specimen showed α plates (formed by the decomposition of α' during aging). The β phase precipitated out of α' martensite during aging and hence was dispersed uniformly in the α matrix. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was quench-aged to achieve maximum hardness with a view that the increased hardness would lead to an improvement in abrasive wear behavior. Two-body abrasive wear tests were carried out on the as-received and quench-aged specimens using pin-on-disk apparatus with SiC as abrasive media (150-grit size). The effect of sliding distance and normal load on the abrasive wear behavior was studied. The wear resistance of the as-received specimen was greater than that of quench-aged specimen, while hardness of the as-received specimen was lower than that of quench-aged specimen. The abrasive wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been explained based on morphology/microstructure of the alloy and the associated wear mechanism(s).

  2. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools.

  3. Dynamic fracture behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with various stabilities of [beta] phase

    SciTech Connect

    Akmoulin, I.A.; Niinomi, M.; Kobayashi, T. . Dept. of Production Systems Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The effect of stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) [beta] phase on the dynamic fracture behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at room temperature and 77 K has been studied. The presence of a highly unstable [beta] phase in the quenched alloy leads to a decrease in both the dynamic fracture toughness and the crack propagation energy, and this decrease becomes more pronounced when test temperature is reduced to 77 K. Somewhat improved fracture characteristics were obtained by applying anneal procedure to receive a fully stable [beta] phase. The highest fracture toughness as well as the greatest crack propagation resistance were observed in the air-cooled grade, where the lattice parameter of the bcc phase was intermediate between those pertaining to quenched and annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The effect is attributed to the vanadium content in the [beta] phase, which is sufficiently high to suppress deformation-induced transformation. On the other hand, the V content should be low enough to retard ductile-brittle transition, typical for the bcc metals at cryogenic temperatures. As a result, marked toughening can be achieved, so that the lowest application temperature of high-strength titanium alloys containing the bcc phase can be decreased significantly.

  4. Tool wear in cryogenic turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K. A.; Paul, S.; Chattopadhyay, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Though titanium alloys are being increasingly sought in a wide variety of engineering and biomedical applications, their manufacturability, especially machining and grinding imposes lot of constraints. Rapid tool wear encountered in machining of titanium alloys is a challenge that needs to be overcome. Cryogenic machining with liquid nitrogen as coolant is being investigated by researchers to reduce the cutting zone temperatures and enhance the tool life. The effects of cryogenic cooling have been studied on growth and nature tool wear in the present investigation while turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy bars with microcrystalline uncoated carbide inserts under dry, wet and cryogenic cooling environments in the cutting velocity range of 70-100 m/min. Cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen jets enabled substantial improvement in tool life through reduction in adhesion-dissolution-diffusion tool wear through control of machining temperature desirably at the cutting zone.

  5. In vitro corrosion behaviour and osteoblast response of thermally oxidised Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, M C; Saldaña, L; Vallés, G; González-Carrasco, J L; González-Cabrero, J; Martínez, M E; Gil-Garay, E; Munuera, L

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the influence of thermal oxidation treatments of Ti6Al4V at 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C for 1 h on the in vitro corrosion behaviour and osteoblast response is studied. The potential of these treatments, aimed to improve the wear surface performance as biomaterial, relies in the formation of an outer "ceramic" layer of rutile. The corrosion behaviour was evaluated in simulated human fluids by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarisation tests. The effect of these thermal oxidation treatments on osteoblastic behaviour was studied in primary cultures of human osteoblastic cells. Results show that thermal oxidation treatments do not decrease the high in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Osteoblast adhesion studies indicate that thermal oxidation treatments do not impair the material biocompatibility. Moreover, the thermal oxidation at 700 degrees C enhances the in vitro osteoblastic cell attachment compared to the thermal oxidation at 500 degrees C.

  6. Gas nitriding and subsequent oxidation of Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloys consisting of α-Ti grains and intergranular β-Ti islands were nitrided at 850°C for 1 to 12 h under a nitrogen pressure of 1 Pa. With increasing nitriding time, the Ti-N compound layer became thicker, and the α-Ti diffusion zone containing dissolved nitrogen became wider. In the Ti-N compound layer, the initially formed Ti2N became TiN as the nitriding progressed. The nitride layers were oxidized to rutile-TiO2 after oxidation at 700°C for 10 h in air. PMID:22221679

  7. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect

    Klimenov, V. A.; Kurgan, K. A.; Chumaevskii, A. V.; Gnyusov, S. F.

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  8. Structure-process-property relations in excimer laser surface processed Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jervis, T.R.; Zocco, T.G.; Steele, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Excimer laser processing results in very rapid solidification of metal surfaces. In addition to mixing or segregation processes, rapid heat treatment can result in phase transformations which yield beneficial surface properties. We have investigated the effect of pulsed excimer laser radiation on the microstructure and surface hardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This material undergoes a well defined martensite transformation during rapid quenching from temperatures in the {beta} phase field. The depth of the transformed layer is thus a marker for the temperature profile during processing. We find that the depth of the transformed layer agrees well with a simple 1-D calculation of heat flow following the laser pulse. As measured by the nanoindenter, we find that the surface martensite is softer than the as-rolled alloy. Multiple pulse processing at high fluences results in an increase in surface hardness, but at a depth much less than that of the martensite, suggesting an independent mechanism. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Effect of Tricalcium Magnesium Silicate Coating on the Electrochemical and Biological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mohammadreza; Nadernezhad, Ali; Aghaie, Ermia; Behnamian, Yashar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints. PMID:26383641

  10. Effect of Tricalcium Magnesium Silicate Coating on the Electrochemical and Biological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys.

    PubMed

    Maleki-Ghaleh, Hossein; Hafezi, Masoud; Hadipour, Mohammadreza; Nadernezhad, Ali; Aghaie, Ermia; Behnamian, Yashar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints.

  11. Surface nanocrystallization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy: microstructural and mechanical characterization.

    PubMed

    Pi, Y; Agoda-Tandjawa, G; Potiron, S; Demangel, C; Retraint, D; Benhayoune, H

    2012-06-01

    In this study, microstructural and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, before and after the SMA treatment (SMAT) as well as the duplex SMAT/Nitriding process at different treatment conditions, were investigated in order to deepen the knowledge of these properties for biomedical devices. For that purpose, tribological (wear resistance, coefficient of friction) and mechanical (Vickers microhardness) tests were performed. To carry out the microstructural and surface topographical characterization of the samples, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the 3D-SEM reconstruction from stereoscopic images have been used. By means of profiles deduced from the 3D images, the surface roughness has been calculated. The obtained results allowed to find an interesting SMAT condition which, followed by nitriding at low temperature, can greatly improve tribological and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. It was also shown from SEM characterization and the original method of 3D-SEM reconstruction, that SMAT can reduce the machined grooves and consequently the roughness of the samples decreases. Moreover, we demonstrated, for the first time, that instead of usual etching method, the ionic polishing allowed to reveal the grains, the grain boundaries and the twins as well as the surface nanocrystalline layer generated by SMAT. Thus, the thickness of the SMATed layer decreases with the nitriding temperature, whereas the surface grain size increases.

  12. Microstructure and erosive wear behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloy treated by plasma Ni alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. X.; Wu, H. R.; Shan, X. L.; Lin, N. M.; He, Z. Y.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Ni modified layers were prepared on the surface of Ti6Al4V substrate by the plasma surface alloying technique. The surface and cross-section morphology, element concentration and phase composition were investigated by thermal field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The cross-section nano-scale hardness of the Ni modified layer was measured by nanoindenter. The results showed that the Ni modified layers exhibited triple-layer structure and continuous gradient distribution of the concentration. From the surface to the matrix, they were 2 μm Ni deposition layer, 8 μm Ni-rich alloying layer including the phases of Ni3Ti, NiTi, Ti2Ni, AlNi3 and 24 μm Ni-poor alloying layer forming the solid solution of nickel. With increasing of the thickness of the Ni modified layer, the microhardness increased first, reached the climax, then gradient decreased. The erosion tests were performed on the surfaces of the untreated and treated Ti6Al4V samples using MSE (Micro-slurry-jet Erosion) method. The experiment results showed that the wear rate of every layer showed different values, and the Ni-rich alloying layer was the lowest. The strengthening mechanism of the Ni modified layer showed micro-cutting wearing.

  13. Problems Associated with Attaching Strain Gages to Titanium Alloy Ti-61-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Lemcoe, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Weldable strain gages have shown excellent high temperature characteristics for supersonic cruise aircraft application. The spotwelding attachment method, however, has resulted in serious reductions in the fatigue life of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) fatigue specimens. The reduction is so severe that the use of weldable strain gages on operational aircraft must be prohibited. The cause of the fatigue problem is thought to be a combination of the microstructure changes in the material caused by spotwelding and the presence of the flange of the stain gage. Brazing, plating, and plasma spraying were investigated as substitutes for spotwelding. The attachment of a flangeless gage by plasma spraying provided the most improvement in the fatigue life of the titanium.

  14. Grain Refinement of Freeform Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Beam/Arc Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitzner, Scott; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia S.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Grain refinement can significantly improve the mechanical properties of freeform-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, promoting increased strength and enhanced isotropy compared with coarser grained material. Large beta-grains can lead to a segregated microstructure, in regard to both alpha-phase morphology and alpha-lath orientation. Beam modulation, which has been used in conventional fusion welding to promote grain refinement, is explored in this study for use in additive manufacturing processes including electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) deposition to alter solidification behavior and produce a refined microstructure. The dynamic molten pool size induced by beam modulation causes rapid heat flow variance and results in a more competitive grain growth environment, reducing grain size. Consequently, improved isotropy and strength can be achieved with relatively small adjustments to deposition parameters.

  15. Effect of Microstructures on the Dynamic Deformation Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Shim, In-Ok; Hong, Soon-Hyung

    The effects of microstructures of Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the flow stresses and fracture behaviors at quasi-static and dynamic deformation conditions were investigated. Specimens of different sizes and fractions of α globules in equiaxed and bimodal structures were compressed at the strain rate of 2×10-3/s and 3×103/s using hydraulic testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar, respectively. The a globule size in equiaxed structure changed the level of flow stresses, but did not affect the strain hardening characteristics. Meanwhile, the volume fraction of α globule (or lamellar phase) in bimodal structures influenced both the flow stress and strain hardening exponent at quasi-static and dynamic deformation conditions. Bimodal structure of 50% lamellar fraction is considered to be more favorable in dynamic deformation condition at strain rate regime of 3×103/s than equiaxed or bimodal one having higher lamellar fraction.

  16. Viscoelastoplastic Deformation and Damage Response of Titanium Alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saleeb, Atef F.; Kasemer, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation and damage behavior can significantly affect the life of aerospace propulsion components. Consequently, one needs an accurate constitutive model that can represent both reversible and irreversible behavior under multiaxial loading conditions. This paper details the characterization and utilization of a multi-mechanism constitutive model of the GVIPS class (Generalized Viscoplastic with Potential Structure) that has been extended to describe the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Associated material constants were characterized at five elevated temperatures where viscoelastoplastic behavior was observed, and at three elevated temperatures where damage (of both the stiffness reduction and strength reduction type) was incurred. Experimental data from a wide variety of uniaxial load cases were used to correlate and validate the proposed GVIPS model. Presented are the optimized material parameters, and the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage responses at the various temperatures.

  17. Fatigue Performance of Medical Ti6Al4V Alloy after Mechanical Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Gibmeier, Jens; Kretzer, J. Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatments have a long history in traditional engineering disciplines, such as the automotive or aerospace industries. Today, they are widely applied to metal components to increase the mechanical performance of these. However, their application in the medical field is rather rare. The present study aims to compare the potential of relevant mechanical surface treatments on the high cycle fatigue (R = 0.1 for a maximum of 10 million cycles) performance of a Ti6Al4V standard alloy for orthopedic, spinal, dental and trauma surgical implants: shot peening, deep rolling, ultrasonic shot peening and laser shock peening. Hour-glass shaped Ti6Al4V specimens were treated and analyzed with regard to the material’s microstructure, microhardness, residual stress depth profiles and the mechanical behavior during fatigue testing. All treatments introduced substantial compressive residual stresses and exhibited considerable potential for increasing fatigue performance from 10% to 17.2% after laser shock peening compared to non-treated samples. It is assumed that final mechanical surface treatments may also increase fretting wear resistance in the modular connection of total hip and knee replacements. PMID:25823001

  18. Fatigue performance of medical Ti6Al4V alloy after mechanical surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Gibmeier, Jens; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatments have a long history in traditional engineering disciplines, such as the automotive or aerospace industries. Today, they are widely applied to metal components to increase the mechanical performance of these. However, their application in the medical field is rather rare. The present study aims to compare the potential of relevant mechanical surface treatments on the high cycle fatigue (R = 0.1 for a maximum of 10 million cycles) performance of a Ti6Al4V standard alloy for orthopedic, spinal, dental and trauma surgical implants: shot peening, deep rolling, ultrasonic shot peening and laser shock peening. Hour-glass shaped Ti6Al4V specimens were treated and analyzed with regard to the material's microstructure, microhardness, residual stress depth profiles and the mechanical behavior during fatigue testing. All treatments introduced substantial compressive residual stresses and exhibited considerable potential for increasing fatigue performance from 10% to 17.2% after laser shock peening compared to non-treated samples. It is assumed that final mechanical surface treatments may also increase fretting wear resistance in the modular connection of total hip and knee replacements.

  19. Effect of cryogenic treatment on the plastic property of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, K. X.; Wang, J. J.; Yuan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Li, Z. Q.; Zhao, B.

    2014-01-27

    The effect of cryogenic treatment on the plastic property of Ti-6Al-4V plate was studied in the present work. After cryogenic treatment, the low temperature temper at 180 ▭ was conducted in one of the groups and the results were compared with that of the untreated and cryotreated ones. The SLX series program controlled cryogenic equipment was used for the cryogenic treatment. The tensile tests were conducted by universal tensile testing machine and parameters of elongation and area reduction were used to evaluate plastic property. The scanning electron microscope was used to study the morphology of microstructure and fracture surface. The results show that after cryogenic treatment alone the elongation increased 10.6% and the area reduction increased 13.5% while the strength reduced to a small extent. Cryogenic treatment followed with low temperature temper increased the elongation and area reduction just by the extent of 4.7% and 9.5%. It means that the additional low temperature temper after cryogenic is not beneficial to the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The examination of microstructure by scanning electron microscopy revealed that cryogenic treatment reduced the content of β phase particles which is the main reason for the improvement in plasticity.

  20. Effect of cryogenic treatment on the plastic property of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, K. X.; Wang, J. J.; Yuan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Li, Z. Q.; Zhao, B.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cryogenic treatment on the plastic property of Ti-6Al-4V plate was studied in the present work. After cryogenic treatment, the low temperature temper at 180 ▭ was conducted in one of the groups and the results were compared with that of the untreated and cryotreated ones. The SLX series program controlled cryogenic equipment was used for the cryogenic treatment. The tensile tests were conducted by universal tensile testing machine and parameters of elongation and area reduction were used to evaluate plastic property. The scanning electron microscope was used to study the morphology of microstructure and fracture surface. The results show that after cryogenic treatment alone the elongation increased 10.6% and the area reduction increased 13.5% while the strength reduced to a small extent. Cryogenic treatment followed with low temperature temper increased the elongation and area reduction just by the extent of 4.7% and 9.5%. It means that the additional low temperature temper after cryogenic is not beneficial to the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The examination of microstructure by scanning electron microscopy revealed that cryogenic treatment reduced the content of β phase particles which is the main reason for the improvement in plasticity.

  1. Surface Integrity of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4 V in Ball end Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, M.-B.; Boujelbene, M.; Bayraktar, E.; Zghal, A.

    With the evolution of machine tools and the emergence of new cutting tools such as cermet, CBN; and in framework of the production of parts with complex geometry, the manufacturers were able to realize more and more parts of complex shape. The multi-axis machining is the main technique for achieving the free form; in fact the multi-axis milling with ball end tools attracts the interest of the aerospace industry and the mussel industry which continues to seek ways to improve the surface quality of finished parts. The titanium alloy is widely used in aerospace industry is the subject of this study in fact, the integrity of the surfaces of parts produced by multi-axis milling is an issue more relevant than ever for the aerospace industry. This paper aims to study the influence of the tool position and the parameters cutting precisely the speed feed Vf, the engagement of the tool on the roughness 3 D, micro-hardness and microstructure alteration created in sub-surface during the milling of concave surface of titanium alloy type Ti-6Al-4 V.

  2. Permanent mold casting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Sadayappan, M.; Sahoo, M.; Lavender, C.; paul.jablonski, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review indicated that data on the effect of various casting defects, such as inclusions and porosity, on the properties of titanium alloy castings were not readily available. This information is required to reduce the cost of fabricating titanium castings for potential automotive applications. To this end, a research project was initiated to develop data on the as-cast properties of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64). Step plate castings with 3.2, 6.3, 13, and 25 mm thick steps were produced in a high-density graphite mold following melting in an induction furnace with water-cooled copper hearth. The mechanical properties were determined in the as-cast condition and were found to be close to the values reported in standards. Few casting defects such as inclusions and porosity were observed, and the loss of strength due to these defects is not significant. It is shown that titanium castings with good mechanical properties can be produced in high-density graphite molds.

  3. Fracture analysis of cast pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy for dental use.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Choi, M Y; Kishi, T

    1997-01-01

    The fracture behavior of cast two types of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy was understood by acoustic emission (AE) analysis during a fracture toughness test. Specimens for test were cast by the lost wax method using a specially designed Ti casting machine of pressure-different method for dental use. A fatigue crack was inserted from the machined notch tip into the body of a specimen in the range of 0.45-0.55 a/W. Acoustic emission signals released during the fracture toughness test were detected by two sensors attached to both ends of the specimen. Then the signals were recorded and analysed by the PAC 3000/3104 system. From the early stage of the fracture toughness test, AE signals started to be released in all types of specimens tested. A reaction layer with the investment materials of about 50-100 microns was thought to be the result of the AE release from an early stage of the fracture toughness test. A microfracture behavior of the cast pure Ti and Ti alloys was proposed based on the results obtained from the AE releasing pattern and fracture surface findings.

  4. Wear behavior of the plasma and thermal oxidized Ti-15Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacisalioglu, I.; Yildiz, F.; Alsaran, A.; Purcek, G.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys widely used in load bearing applications. Titanium alloys are capable of providing lower elastic modulus and better corrosion resistance with alloying processes. In spite of the modified mechanical properties, the surface degradation is still the main critical defect. Ti-15Mo alloy is one of the alpa+beta titanium alloys with acceptable mechanical and chemical superiority. Recent researches in literature show that the wear performance of base Ti-15Mo is relatively low as compared to Ti-6Al-4V, using in high performance applications. Plasma oxidized surfaces increase the tribological and chemical performance of titanium alloys. In this study the Ti-15Mo alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were compared in terms of wear performance. To obtain alloys with similar microstructure they were solution treated at 800°C 1H and then air-cooled. The plasma and thermal oxidations were applied at 650°C for 1 hour. Wear performance of oxidized surfaces investigated in dry conditions. Oxidized surface characterized with XRD, SEM, 3D profilometer and hardness measurements. Wear volume calculated with 3D profilometer. Results show that oxidizing increased the surface roughness and improved the wear performance of Ti15Mo alloy. The plasma and thermal oxidized Ti-15Mo showed a remarkable increase in wear resistance.

  5. Characterization of disk-laser dissimilar welding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V to aluminum alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Corrado, Gaetano; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    Both technical and economic reasons suggest to join dissimilar metals, benefiting from the specific properties of each material in order to perform flexible design. Adhesive bonding and mechanical joining have been traditionally used although adhesives fail to be effective in high-temperature environments and mechanical joining are not adequate for leak-tight joints. Friction stir welding is a valid alternative, even being difficult to perform for specific joint geometries and thin plates. The attention has therefore been shifted to laser welding. Interest has been shown in welding titanium to aluminum, especially in the aviation industry, in order to benefit from both corrosive resistance and strength properties of the former, and low weight and cost of the latter. Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and aluminum alloy 2024 are considered in this work, being them among the most common ones in aerospace and automotive industries. Laser welding is thought to be particularly useful in reducing the heat affected zones and providing deep penetrative beads. Nevertheless, many challenges arise in welding dissimilar metals and the aim is further complicated considering the specific features of the alloys in exam, being them susceptible to oxidation on the upper surface and porosity formation in the fused zone. As many variables are involved, a systematic approach is used to perform the process and to characterize the beads referring to their shape and mechanical features, since a mixture of phases and structures is formed in the fused zone after recrystallization.

  6. High-cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy forging at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Ogata, Toshio; Demura, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Saburo; Sunakawa, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn Extra Low Interstitial (ELI) alloy forging were investigated at low temperatures. The high-cycle fatigue strength at low temperatures of this alloy was relatively low compared with that at ambient temperature. The crystallographic orientation of a facet formed at a fatigue crack initiation site was determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method in scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the fatigue crack initiation mechanism and discuss on the low fatigue strength at low temperature. Furthermore, in terms of the practical use of this alloy, the effect of the stress ratio (or mean stress) on the high-cycle fatigue properties was evaluated using the modified Goodman diagram.

  7. High-cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy forging at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Ogata, Toshio; Demura, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Saburo; Sunakawa, Hideo

    2014-01-27

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn Extra Low Interstitial (ELI) alloy forging were investigated at low temperatures. The high-cycle fatigue strength at low temperatures of this alloy was relatively low compared with that at ambient temperature. The crystallographic orientation of a facet formed at a fatigue crack initiation site was determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method in scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the fatigue crack initiation mechanism and discuss on the low fatigue strength at low temperature. Furthermore, in terms of the practical use of this alloy, the effect of the stress ratio (or mean stress) on the high-cycle fatigue properties was evaluated using the modified Goodman diagram.

  8. Surface hardening by anodizing and heat treatments of Ti6Al4V alloys for articular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Ginebra, M P; Planell, J A

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the surface hardening of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by electrochemical anodizing and by different heat treatments, in addition to studying the annealing of the martensitic structure. Results of the combination of both methods produce hardening over 1300 HV and an important improvement on the tribological behaviour. These values could improve wear resistance of this alloy in applications like articular prostheses.

  9. Surface carburizing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, A. F.; Abboud, J. H.; Benyounis, K. Y.

    2010-03-01

    Surface carburizing of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy using laser melting has been investigated experimentally, with the aim of increasing surface hardness and hence improving related properties such as wear and erosion resistance. The surface of the material was coated with graphite prior to laser irradiation. Carburizing was achieved by a laser alloying mechanism, which includes melting the substrate and dissolution of the graphite in the liquid state. Two different types of lasers were used: (i) a continuous wave CO 2 (CW CO 2) laser with a maximum power of 3 kW, and (ii) a pulsating Nd-YAG laser with a maximum power per pulse of 100 W. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EDS-analysis, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to analyze the microstructure and identify phases of the carburized layers. The results show that the carburized layers produced by CW CO 2 and Nd-YAG lasers are macroscopically homogeneous and have gradient features. The microstructures consisted of TiC crystals in the matrix of α'-Ti. The TiC crystals are either in the form of particles or dendrites. The depths to which these layers extend ranged from about 0.2-0.5 mm, depending on the treatment parameters. The volume fraction of the dendrites was found to decrease with increasing laser power or increasing traverse speed. Microhardness has been found to be directly related to the volume fraction and the size of the TiC phase. It increased to a value ranging from 500 to 800 Hv as compared to 350 Hv for the as-received substrate.

  10. Macroscopic and microscopic investigations on uniaxial ratchetting of two-phase Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Guozheng; Dong, Yawei; Liu, Yujie; Jiang, Han

    2014-06-01

    The uniaxial ratchetting of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with two phases (i.e., primary hexagonal close packed (HCP) α and secondary body-centered cubic (BCC) β phases) was investigated by macroscopic and microscopic experiments at room temperature. Firstly, the effects of cyclic softening/hardening feature, applied mean stress and stress amplitude on the uniaxial ratchetting of the alloy were discussed. The macroscopic investigation of Ti–6Al–4V alloy presents obvious strain-amplitude-dependent cyclic softening, as well as a three-staged evolution curve with regard to the ratchetting strain rate. The ratchetting depends greatly on the applied mean stress and stress amplitude while the ratchetting strain increases with the increasing applied mean stress and stress amplitude. Then, the evolution of dislocation patterns and deformation twinning during the uniaxial ratchetting of two-phase Ti–6Al–4V alloy were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopic observation shows that deformation twinning occurs in the primary α phase and its amount increases gradually during the uniaxial ratchetting. Simultaneously, the planar dislocation evolves from discrete lines to some dislocation nets and parallel lines with the increasing number of cycles. The deformation twinning in the primary α phase is one of main contributions to the uniaxial ratchetting of Ti–6Al–4V alloy, and should be considered in the construction of corresponding constitutive model. - Highlights: • A three-staged ratchetting occurs in the stress-controlled cyclic tests of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. • Dislocation patterns change from discrete lines to nets and parallel lines. • Deformation twinning occurs during the uniaxial ratchetting. • Both dislocation slipping and twinning are the causes of ratchetting.

  11. Friction Stir-Welded Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V: Microstructure, Mechanical and Fracture Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D. G.; Edwards, P.; Cantrell, A. M.; Gangwar, K.; Ramulu, M.

    2015-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been refined to create butt welds from two sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy to have an ultra-fine grain size. Weld specimen testing was completed for three different FSW process conditions: As welded, stress relieved, stress relieved and machined, and for the un-welded base material. The investigation includes macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, tensile property testing, notched bar impact testing, and fracture toughness evaluations. All experiments were conducted in accordance with industry standard testing specifications. The microstructure in the weld nugget was found to consist of refined and distorted grains of alpha in a matrix of transformed beta containing acicular alpha. The enhanced fracture toughness of the welds is a result of increased hardness, which is attributed to an increase in alpha phase, increase in transformed beta in acicular alpha, and grain refinement during the weld process. The noted general trend in mechanical properties from as welded, to stress relieved, to stress relieved and machined conditions exhibited a decrease in ultimate tensile strength, and yield strength with a small increase in ductility and a significant increase in fracture toughness.

  12. Effect of SiC interlayer between Ti6Al4V alloy and hydroxyapatite films.

    PubMed

    Azem, Funda Ak; Birlik, Isil; Braic, Viorel; Toparli, Mustafa; Celik, Erdal; Parau, Anca; Kiss, Adrian; Titorencu, Irina; Vladescu, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Bioactive coatings are frequently used to improve the osseointegration of the metallic implants used in dentistry or orthopaedics. Among different types of bioactive coatings, hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is one of the most extensively used due to its chemical similarities to the components of bones and teeth. In this article, production and characterization of hydroxyapatite films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy prepared by magnetron sputtering were reported. Besides, SiC was deposited on substrate surface to study the interlayer effect. Obtained coatings were annealed at 600 °C for 30 and 120 min in a mixed atmosphere of N2 + H2O vapours with the heating rate of 12 °C min(-1). The effects of SiC interlayer and heat treatment parameters on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. After heat treatment process, the crystalline hydroxyapatite was obtained. Additionally, cell viability tests were performed. The results show that the presence of the SiC interlayer contributes a decrease in surface roughness and improves the mechanical properties and corrosion performance of the hydroxyapatite coatings. Biological properties were not affected by the presence of the SiC interlayer.

  13. Are new TiNbZr alloys potential substitutes of the Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications? An electrochemical corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Roselino; Hammer, Peter; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Rocha, Luís Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the electrochemical behavior of new Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti35Nb10Zr alloys in artificial saliva at 37 °C to verify if they are indicated to be used as biomaterials in dentistry as alternatives to Ti6Al4V alloys in terms of corrosion protection efficiency of the material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were carried out for different periods of time (0.5-216 h) in a three-electrode cell, where the working electrode (Ti alloys) was exposed to artificial saliva at 37 °C. The near-surface region of the alloys was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All alloys exhibited an increase in corrosion potential with the immersion time, indicating the growth and stabilization of the passive film. Ti35Nb5Zr and Ti6Al4V alloys had their EIS results interpreted by a double-layer circuit, while the Ti35Nb10Zr alloy was modeled by a one-layer circuit. In general, the new TiNbZr alloys showed similar behavior to that observed for the Ti6Al4V. XPS results suggest, in the case of the TiNbZr alloys, the presence of a thicker passive layer containing a lower fraction of TiO2 phase than that of Ti6Al4V. After long-term immersion, all alloys develop a calcium phosphate phase on the surface. The new TiNbZr alloys appear as potential candidates to be used as a substitute to Ti6Al4V in the manufacturing of dental implant-abutment sets.

  14. Preliminary study on the corrosion resistance, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selective-laser-melted Ti6Al4V-xCu alloys.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sai; Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Liu, Lingling; He, Mengjiao; Zhao, Chaoqian; Gan, Yiliang; Lin, Junjie; Luo, Jiasi; Xu, Xiongcheng; Lin, Jinxin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a series of Cu-bearing Ti6Al4V-xCu (x=0, 2, 4, 6wt%) alloys (shorten by Ti6Al4V, 2C, 4C, and 6C, respectively.) with antibacterial function were successfully fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) technology with mixed spherical powders of Cu and Ti6Al4V for the first time. In order to systematically investigate the effects of Cu content on the microstructure, phase constitution, corrosion resistance, antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity of SLMed Ti6Al4V-xCu alloys, experiments including XRD, SEM-EDS, electrochemical measurements, antibacterial tests and cytotoxicity tests were conducted with comparison to SLMed Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti6Al4V). Microstructural observations revealed that Cu had completely fused into the Ti6Al4V alloy, and presented in the form of Ti2Cu phase at ambient temperature. With Cu content increase, the density of the alloy gradually decreased, and micropores were obviously found in the alloy. Electrochemical measurements showed that corrosion resistance of Cu-bearing alloys were stronger than Cu-free alloy. Antibacterial tests demonstrated that 4C and 6C alloys presented strong and stable antibacterial property against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) compared to the Ti6Al4V and 2C alloy. In addition, similar to the Ti6Al4V alloy, the Cu-bearing alloys also exerted good cytocompatibility to the Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs) from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Based on those results, the preliminary study verified that it was feasible to fabricated antibacterial Ti6Al4V-xCu alloys direct by SLM processing mixed commercial Ti6Al4V and Cu powder.

  15. Low Temperature Thermal Conductivity of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risegari, L.; Barucci, M.; Lolli, L.; Ventura, G.

    2008-05-01

    The CUORE detector, to be installed in 2010 at LNGS, is made of 988 TeO2 crystals to be cooled to 10 mK. It consists of a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by five pulse tubes and one high-power specially designed dilution refrigerator (R. Ardito et al. in http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0501010 , [2005]). The cryostat is ˜ 3 m high and has a diameter of ˜ 1.6 m. About 5 tons of lead shielding are to be cooled to below 1 K and a mass of 1.5 ton must be cooled to 10 mK. Some tie-rods sustain the different parts of the experiment. One end of each rod is at low temperature (10 mK for the detector frame, 50 mK for the coldest radiation shield, 700 mK for the shield linked to the still) with the other end usually at room temperature. A thermalization of the rods at the temperature of the first stage of the pulse tubes will be realized. Hence the value of the thermal conductivity of the material up to room temperature is important. At the lowest temperatures, the thermal conductivity has great influence in establishing the thermal load on the dilution refrigerator. The thermal conductivity of the structural material candidates for such tie-rods is usually known down to 4.2 K. Here we present data of thermal conductivity for the Ti6Al4V alloy below its superconductive transition temperature (4.38 K). A comparison over the full temperature range of operation is also done with other materials, such as 316 stainless steel and Torlon, candidates for the realization of the tie-rods.

  16. Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Growth on Functionalized Surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-Zr-Nb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypchuk, Ie V.; Petranovskaya, A. L.; Gorbyk, P. P.; Korduban, A. M.; Markovsky, P. E.; Ivasishin, O. M.

    2015-08-01

    A biomimetic approach for coating titanium-containing alloys with hydroxyapatite (HA) is reported in the article. Two types of Ti-containing alloys were chosen as an object for coating: Ti-6Al-4V (recommended for orthopedic application) and a novel highly biocompatible Ti-Zr-Nb alloy, with good mechanical compatibility due to a modulus that is more close to that of human bones (E ≈ 50 GPa instead of 110 GPa in Ti-6Al-4V). Coating process was carried out in a 10×-concentrated simulated body fluid (SBF)—synthetic analog of human body plasma. The effect of oxidized and carboxylated alloy surface on formation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite has been studied. By XRD, we found influence of thermal conditions on HA crystal formation and size. SEM images and Fourier transform infrared confirmed that hydroxyapatite with different morphology, crystallinity, and Ca/P ratio formed on metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that in the Ti-6AL-4V sample the observed Ca/P ratio reach 0.97, whereas in the Ti-Zr-Nb sample the observed Ca/P ratio reach 1.15.

  17. Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M.; Chudinova, E.; Syrtanov, M.; Koptioug, A.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces.

  18. Surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by EDM with Cu-SiC composite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Feng, L.; Bai, X.; Li, Z. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely used in many industries due to its outstanding properties. However, it has poor machinability using conventional mechanical cutting process. Electrical discharge machining is an alternative competitive process to machine titanium alloy by electrical erosion. This article studies the machining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with Cu-SiC composite electrode. Surface topography, subsurface microstructure, energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, and micro-hardness have been analyzed. The machined surfaces show irregular compound structures, droplets of debris, shallow craters, and micro-pores. The surfaces processed by Cu-SiC electrode have fewer number of microcracks compared with that by Cu electrode. Continuous and uniform hardened layer can be achieved by Cu-SiC electrode. The hardened layer has significantly higher hardness than the bulk material because the new phases of TiC and TiSi2 were created on the surface.

  19. Effect of thermal oxidation on corrosion and corrosion-wear behaviour of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Güleryüz, Hasan; Cimenoğlu, Hüseyin

    2004-07-01

    In this study, comparative investigation of thermal oxidation treatment for Ti-6Al-4V was carried out to determine the optimum oxidation conditions for further evaluation of corrosion-wear performance. Characterization of modified surface layers was made by means of microscopic examinations, hardness measurements and X-ray diffraction analysis. Optimum oxidation condition was determined according to the results of accelerated corrosion tests made in 5m HCl solution The examined Ti-6Al-4V alloy exhibited excellent resistance to corrosion after oxidation at 600 degrees C for 60 h. This oxidation condition achieved 25 times higher wear resistance than the untreated alloy during reciprocating wear test conducted in a 0.9% NaCl solution.

  20. Reverse-Ballistic Impact Study of Shear Plug Formation and Displacement in Ti6Al4V Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    temperatures at least as high as the 1660*C melting temperature for Ti6AI4V. 19 This melting observation is further supported by energy-dispersive...vicinity, an observed temperature would be lower but sufficiently high for melting to occur. Calculations by Bryant, et al., 20 on Ti 10V2Fe3A1 alloy...Ti6A14V alloy was selected for this work because it is known experimentally to be very prone to adiabatic shear band formation in response to high strain

  1. Sustained load crack growth design data for Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy tanks containing hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. C.; Kenny, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Sustained load crack growth data for Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in hydrazine per MIL-P-26536 and refined hydrazine are presented. Fracture mechanics data on crack growth thresholds for heat-treated forgings, aged and unaged welds, and aged and unaged heat-affected zones are reported. Fracture mechanics design curves of crack growth threshold stress intensity versus temperature are generated from 40 to 71 C.

  2. Effect of fluoride and albumin concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoride and albumin concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in acid artificial saliva (pH 5/37 degrees C) using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization test. Chemical analyses of the surface passive film were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that either the NaF (0-0.5%) or the presence of albumin (0-0.2%) in 0.1% NaF-containing media had a significant influence on the corrosion potential (E(corr)), corrosion rate (I(corr)), passive current density (I(pass)), and polarization resistance (R(p)) (p<0.01). The I(corr) and I(pass) values increased on increasing the NaF concentration, but decreased with the presence of albumin in NaF-containing media. The R(p) value decreased on increasing the NaF concentration, but increased with the presence of albumin in NaF-containing media. When the NaF concentration was higher than 0.1%, the protectiveness of TiO(2) passive film formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was destroyed by fluoride ions, leading to the formation of Na(2)TiF(6). The presence of albumin, regardless of the concentration, in 0.1% NaF-containing acid media improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  3. Effect of process parameters on deep drawing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotkunde, Nitin; Deole, Aditya D.; Gupta, A. K.; Singh, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Deep drawing process depends on the large number of process parameters and their interdependence. Optimization of process parameters in deep drawing is a vital task to reduce manufacturing cost and understand their influence on the deformation behaviour of the sheet metal. In this paper, significance of important process parameters namely, punch speed, blank holder pressure (BHP) and temperature on the deep-drawing characteristics of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy are investigated. Taguchi technique was employed to identify the influence of these parameters on thickness distribution. The finite element model of deep drawing process has been built up and analyzed using Dynaform version 5.6.1 with LS-Dyna version 971 as solver. Based on the predicted thickness distribution of the deep drawn circular cup and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, it is concluded that punch speed has the greatest influence on the deep drawing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy blank sheet. Temperature and BHP effect are negligible in deep drawing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at low warm temperatures (less than 450°C) but it may contribute to a significant extent at higher temperature. Also thickness distribution is predicted using artificial neural network (ANN). It is observed that the predicted thickness distribution is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Improvement in wear performance of surgical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by ion implantation of nitrogen or carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Rigney, E.D. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The effects of ion implantations of either nitrogen or carbon on the corrosive-wear performance of surgical Ti-6A1-4V alloy were investigated. In vitro tests made use of an apparatus which could produce certain chemical and mechanical aspects of a sliding interface such as that which occurs between alloy and polyethylene components of an artificial hip (or knee) joint. Cylindrical samples of the Ti alloy were rotated between loaded, conforming pads made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) while these test components were immersed either in a saline solution or a saline solution with bovine serum added. During the tests open-circuit corrosion currents for the alloy were measured by the Tafel extrapolation technique. Profilometry studies were done before and after the tests. Alloy samples implanted with either nitrogen or carbon remained as-new for all test conditions. Unimplanted control samples were severely scored. Corrosion currents as measured under the mechanical action were reduced by a factor of approximately one hundred by the ion implantation treatments. It is concluded that nitrogen or carbon ion implantation produces a marked improvement in the corrosive wear performance of the alloy in these tests. It is inferred that abrasive wear is the dominant mechanism of material removal. In addition, apparently owing to reduction of wear debris in the sliding interface, ion treatment of the alloy greatly improves wear performance of the mating UHMWPE component. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dynamic fracture behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with various stabilities of βphase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmoulin, I. A.; Niinomi, M.; Kobayashi, T.

    1994-08-01

    The effect of stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) β phase on the dynamic fracture behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at room temperature and 77 K has been studied. The presence of a highly unstable β phase in the quenched alloy leads to a decrease in both the dynamic fracture toughness and the crack propagation energy, and this decrease bccomes more pronounced when test temperature is reduced to 77 K. Somewhat improved fracture characteristics were obtained by applying anneal procedure to receive a fully stable β phase. The highest fracture toughness as well as the greatest crack propagation resistance were observed in the air-cooled grade, where the lattice parameter of the bcc phase was intermediate between those pertaining to quenched and annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The effect is attributed to the vanadium content in the β phase, which is sufficiently high to suppress deformation-induced transformation. On the other hand, the V content should be low enough to retard ductile-brittle transition, typical for the bcc metals at cryogenic temperatures. As a result, marked toughening can be achieved, so that the lowest application temperature of high-strength titanium alloys containing the bcc phase can be decreased significantly.

  6. Impact shear-numerical analyses of ASB evolution and failure for Ti-6AI-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwalik, P.; Klepaczko, J. R.; Rusinek, A.

    2003-09-01

    In this contribution a study is reported on a shear zone evolution at high strain rates for Ti-6AI-4V alloy. Such process of deformation, leading to development of Adiabatic Shear Band (ASB), is typical for fast and impact shearing. A very special experimental technique developed at LPMM-Metz bas permitted for shear tests at a wide range of strain rates and also for development of an advanced constitutive relation valid for that range of strain rates and also for a range of temperatures (range of strain rates from 10^{-4} I/s to about 10^5 1/s). This experimental technique called the Modified Double Shear has been applied to test Ti-6AI-4V alloy. In order to estimate the effect of stress concentration on the sensitivity to ASB triggering four different specimen geometries with different stress concentrators were tested and analyzed. After identification of all material constants for Ti-6AI-4V alloy in the advanced constitutive relation, this relation has been introduced into the finite element code ABAQUS Explicit. The constitutive relation accounts for the effects of strain hardening, rate sensitivity and thermal softening. In this way a complete dynamic approach with elastic-plastic wave propagation, adiabatic shear band development and failure could be studied numerically for all four geometries with different stress concentrators. In addition, the Critical Impact Velocity (CIV) in shear has been estimated analytically and numerically for Ti-6AI-4V. A very good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations are achieved.

  7. Effects of cutting parameters on tool insert wear in end milling of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Jing; Wu, Baohai; Zhang, Dinghua

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloy is a kind of typical hard-to-cut material due to its low thermal conductivity and high strength at elevated temperatures, this contributes to the fast tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys. The influence of cutting conditions on tool wear has been focused on the turning process, and their influence on tool wear in milling process as well as the influence of tool wear on cutting force coefficients has not been investigated comprehensively. To fully understand the tool wear behavior in milling process with inserts, the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V by using indexable cutters is investigated. The tool wear rate and trends under different feed per tooth, cutting speed, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut are analyzed. The results show that the feed rate per tooth and the radial depth of cut have a large influence on tool wear in milling Ti6Al4V with coated insert. To reduce tool wear, cutting parameters for coated inserts under experimental cutting conditions are set as: feed rate per tooth less than 0.07 mm, radial depth of cut less than 1.0 mm, and cutting speed sets between 60 and 150 m/min. Investigation on the relationship between tool wear and cutting force coefficients shows that tangential edge constant increases with tool wear and cutter edge chipping can lead to a great variety of tangential cutting force coefficient. The proposed research provides the basic data for evaluating the machinability of milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated inserts, and the recommend cutting parameters can be immediately applied in practical production.

  8. Effects of cutting parameters on tool insert wear in end milling of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Jing; Wu, Baohai; Zhang, Dinghua

    2017-01-01

    Titanium alloy is a kind of typical hard-to-cut material due to its low thermal conductivity and high strength at elevated temperatures, this contributes to the fast tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys. The influence of cutting conditions on tool wear has been focused on the turning process, and their influence on tool wear in milling process as well as the influence of tool wear on cutting force coefficients has not been investigated comprehensively. To fully understand the tool wear behavior in milling process with inserts, the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V by using indexable cutters is investigated. The tool wear rate and trends under different feed per tooth, cutting speed, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut are analyzed. The results show that the feed rate per tooth and the radial depth of cut have a large influence on tool wear in milling Ti6Al4V with coated insert. To reduce tool wear, cutting parameters for coated inserts under experimental cutting conditions are set as: feed rate per tooth less than 0.07 mm, radial depth of cut less than 1.0 mm, and cutting speed sets between 60 and 150 m/min. Investigation on the relationship between tool wear and cutting force coefficients shows that tangential edge constant increases with tool wear and cutter edge chipping can lead to a great variety of tangential cutting force coefficient. The proposed research provides the basic data for evaluating the machinability of milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated inserts, and the recommend cutting parameters can be immediately applied in practical production.

  9. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  10. Role of microstructure in the mean stress dependence of fatigue strength in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, S.G.; Cohen, F.S.; Biederman, R.R.; Sisson, R.D. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The high cycle fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with six different microstructure/texture combinations were investigated. Only materials with lamellar and fine bimodal microstructures exhibited linear Goodman relationship on the constant fatigue life diagram. Materials with coarse bimodal and equiaxed microstructures had anomalous mean stress dependency, with HCF strength at intermediate mean stresses being significantly lower than predicted by Goodman relationship, regardless of whether material was forged or cross-rolled. The role of microstructure in mean stress sensitivity behavior of Ti-6Al-4V is studied. Cyclic strain tests were conducted for all microstructures, and the results of strain-controlled and stress-controlled cyclic tests are compared and discussed.

  11. Effect of Bonding Temperature on the Joining of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Cu Coatings and Sn Interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHazaa, Abdulaziz N.; AlGharbi, Sultan H.; Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V samples were bonded together using Cu coatings and Sn interlayers. The bonding of titanium samples was successful at various temperatures (700-950 °C) which are below the β-transus temperature of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. An applied uniaxial pressure of 1 MPa and a short bonding time of 15 min were selected as bonding parameters. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy showed that the dissolution of Ti in the joint region increases with the increase in bonding temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis of the fractured surfaces revealed that Sn5Ti6, Sn3Ti5 and SnTi3 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were formed and dominated the joint structure. The shear strengths of the bonds increase with the increase in bonding temperature and reaches a maximum of 478 MPa for bond made at 950 °C. The microhardness analysis of the fractured surfaces compared to the base alloy confirmed the presence of the IMCs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the presence of Ti at the top surface of the fractured bonds made at 700 °C which confirmed a successful joint evolution even at the lowest bonding temperature used. Atomic force microscopy observations for bonds made at 700 and 950 °C coincide with the XRD and XPS analysis and were able to reveal the remaining Cu particles on the substrates.

  12. Effect of Bonding Temperature on the Joining of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Cu Coatings and Sn Interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHazaa, Abdulaziz N.; AlGharbi, Sultan H.; Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V samples were bonded together using Cu coatings and Sn interlayers. The bonding of titanium samples was successful at various temperatures (700-950 °C) which are below the β-transus temperature of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. An applied uniaxial pressure of 1 MPa and a short bonding time of 15 min were selected as bonding parameters. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy showed that the dissolution of Ti in the joint region increases with the increase in bonding temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis of the fractured surfaces revealed that Sn5Ti6, Sn3Ti5 and SnTi3 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were formed and dominated the joint structure. The shear strengths of the bonds increase with the increase in bonding temperature and reaches a maximum of 478 MPa for bond made at 950 °C. The microhardness analysis of the fractured surfaces compared to the base alloy confirmed the presence of the IMCs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the presence of Ti at the top surface of the fractured bonds made at 700 °C which confirmed a successful joint evolution even at the lowest bonding temperature used. Atomic force microscopy observations for bonds made at 700 and 950 °C coincide with the XRD and XPS analysis and were able to reveal the remaining Cu particles on the substrates.

  13. Electrochemical investigation of chromium oxide-coated Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrates.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Zeng, Haitong; Lawrynowicz, Daniel; Zhang, Zongtao; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2011-08-01

    Hard coatings for articulating surfaces of total joint replacements may improve the overall wear resistance. However, any coating approach must take account of changes in corrosion behavior. This preliminary assessment analyzes the corrosion kinetics, impedance and mechanical-electrochemical stability of 100 μm thick plasma sprayed chromium oxide (Cr₂O₃) coatings on bearing surfaces in comparison to the native alloy oxide films on Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-6V. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and mechanical abrasion under potentiostatic conditions were performed on coated and substrate surfaces in physiological saline. SEM analysis characterized the coating morphology. The results showed that the corrosion current density values of chromium oxide coatings (0.4-1.2 μA/cm²) were of the same order of magnitude as Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mechanical abrasion did not increase corrosion rates of chromium oxide coatings but did for uncoated Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V. The impedance response of chromium oxide coatings was very different than Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V native oxides characterized by a defected coating model. More of a frequency-independent purely resistive response was seen in mid-frequency range for the coatings (CPE(coat) : 40-280 nF/cm² (rad/s)(1-α) , α: 0.67-0.83) whereas a more capacitive character is seen for Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V (CPE(ox) around 20 μF/cm² (rad/s)(1-α) , α around 0.9). Pores, interparticle gaps and incomplete fusion typical for thermal spray coatings were present in these oxides which could have influenced corrosion resistance. The coating microstructure could have allowed some fluid penetration. Overall, these coatings appear to have suitable corrosion properties for wear surfaces.

  14. Tribocorrosion mechanisms of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys in artificial saliva with different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licausi, M. P.; Igual Muñoz, A.; Amigó Borrás, V.

    2013-10-01

    Titanium and its alloys has been widely used for the design of dental implants because of its biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The powder-metallurgy process is a promising alternative to the casting fabrication process of titanium alloys for bone implants design as the porous structure mimics the natural bone structures, allowing the bone to grow into the pores which results in a better fixation of the artificial implant. However, under in vivo conditions the implants are subjected to tribocorrosion phenomenon, which consists in the degradation mechanisms due to the combined effect of wear and corrosion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tribocorrosion behaviour of cast and sintered Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy for dental applications using the cast material as reference. Titanium samples were tested in artificial human saliva solution with three different pHs (3, 6, 9) and in an acidic saliva with 1000 ppm fluorides (AS-3-1000F-) by different electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic curves, potentiostatic tests and tribo-electrochemical tests). Cast and sintered titanium alloys exhibit the same tribocorrosion mechanisms in AS independently of the pH which consists in plastic deformation with passive dissolution, but the addition of fluorides to the acidified solution changes the degradation mechanism towards active dissolution of the titanium alloys.

  15. Effects of combined plasma chromizing and shot peening on the fatigue properties of a Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shouming; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Du, Dongxing

    2015-10-01

    A plasma chromizing treatment was conducted on Ti6Al4V samples by employing the recently developed double glow plasma surface alloying technology. The Cr-alloyed layer consisted of four sub-layers, namely the Cr deposition, Cr2Ti, CrTi4, and Cr-Ti solid-solution layers. The local hardness and moduli were determined via nanoindentation. In addition, the fatigue properties of the samples were evaluated by using a rotating-bending fatigue machine under a given load. The results showed that the hardness or elastic moduli of the adjacent sub-layers differed significantly and the fatigue properties of the Ti6Al4V alloy deteriorated with the plasma chromizing treatment. This deterioration stemmed mainly from cracks initiated at the interfaces between the sub-layers and the microstructural changes of the substrate; these changes were induced by the high temperature used in the plasma chromizing process. However, the fatigue life of the plasma-chromized samples was increased by a shot peening post-treatment. The fatigue life of the samples resulting from this combination of treatments was slightly higher than that of the single-shot-peened Ti6Al4V substrate. In fact, the sample retaining only the Cr-Ti solid-solution layer (that is, the first three sub-layers were removed), when shot-peened, exhibited the highest fatigue life among all the tested samples; this was attributed to that sample having the highest residual compressive stress, the significant work hardening, and the good hardness to toughness balance.

  16. Effect of cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaixuan; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    The effect of cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications was experimentally investigated in this paper. Cryogenic treatments with the same soaking time of 24h at different temperatures of -80°C, -140°C and -196°C were conducted and the treatments at the same temperature of -196°C were then further given different soaking time of 3h, 48h and 72h to be investigated. After cryogenic treatment, the Vickers hardness of specimens was measured. Wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was measured by pin-on-disk wear test under dry sliding condition. The results demonstrated that the Vickers hardness increased slightly with the reduction of temperature while it increased obviously with the elongation of soaking time at -196°C. The friction coefficients of specimens cryo-treated at -196°C were lower than those of untreated and of cryo-treated at -80°C and -140°C. And the longer the soaking time is during the cryogenic treatment, the higher the friction coefficient reduction can be achieved. The obvious reduction of mass loss can be obtained at -196°C with 72h soaking. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect the microstructure and worn surface of specimens. By cryogenic treatment, the plowing in the worn surface was smoothed and shallowed, and the degree of plastic deformation in the subsurface was decreased. There was no obvious phase transformation which can be detected in the microstructure after cryogenic treatment. However, the tendency of refinement in grain size can be detected by XRD which improved the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  17. Effect of heat treatment conditions on the dynamic strength and failure behavior of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, L.; Sommer, K.; Halle, T.; Hockauf, M.; Meyer, L. W.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of heat treatment conditions on high rate mechanical properties of the (α +β) titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was investigated. Dependent on the solution annealing temperature, cooling rate and further annealing the strength and failure properties can be varied in a wide range. Microstructures obtained by annealing below the β-transus followed by furnace cooling show balanced properties of high strength, deformability, and therefore the highest energy consumption under dynamic compressive loading, but the lowest hardness values. Instrumented impact tests on Charpy U-notch specimens reveal evidence for a less brittle behaviour combined with the highest absorbed energy for furnace cooled conditions, only.

  18. Effect of micro-particles on cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in sulfuric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Long, Y; Liang, P; Chen, D R

    2017-05-01

    The influences of micro-particles on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1M H2SO4 solution were investigated using mass loss weight, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer. Mass loss results revealed that the cavitation erosion damage obviously decreased with increasing particle size and mass concentration. Open circuit potential recorded during cavitation erosion shifted to positive direction with the decreased mass loss. Meanwhile, the mass loss sharply decreased with applying a positive potential during the entire ultrasonic cavitation erosion, and the relationship between the open circuit potential and the cavitation erosion resistance was discussed.

  19. Observation of Etch-Pits and LAGB Configurations During Ambient Creep of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jalaj; Singh, A. K.; Raman, S. Ganesh Sundara; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    The present work describes the microstructural features of alloy Ti-6Al-4V during constant stress creep at ambient temperature. Samples tested at 800 and 900 MPa stress levels exhibit the presence of etch-pits and/or voids. The ambient creep strain increases with an increase in applied stress due to higher strain rate sensitivity at higher stresses. A high density of low-angle grain boundaries is noticed in and around etch-pits in the creep-tested specimens due to occurrence of slip. The inverse pole figure obtained by EBSD indicates prismatic texture as the main deformation component in the creep-tested specimens.

  20. In vivo study of osteogenerating properties of calcium-phosphate coating on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Gnedenkov, Sergey V; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L; Puz, Artyom V; Egorkin, Vladimir S; Kostiv, Roman E

    2016-01-01

    The method of formation of bioactive calcium-phosphate coating on medical titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (3.5-5.3% V; 5.3-6.8% Al; balance -Ti) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has been developed. Evaluation of osteogenerating properties of the coating at fractures of the shaft of the femur on Wistar line laboratory rats has been performed. It has been established that the calcium-phosphate PEO coating accelerates osteogenesis and promotes the formation of a pronounced periosteal callus in the fracture area. The presence of calcium phosphates in the PEO coating surface layer significantly accelerates the growth of bone tissue on the titanium surface.

  1. Surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy part I: Surface roughness and apparent surface free energy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yingdi; Chibowski, Emil; Szcześ, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State). From LWAB approach the components of surface free energy were obtained, which shed more light on the wetting properties of samples surface. The surface roughness of the prepared samples was investigated with the help of optical profilometer and AFM. It was interesting whether the surface roughness affects the apparent surface free energy. It was found that both polar interactions the electron donor parameter of the energy and the work of water adhesion increased with decreasing roughness of the surfaces. Moreover, short time plasma treatment (1min) caused decrease in the surface hydrophilic character, while longer time (10min) treatment caused significant increase in the polar interactions and the work of water adhesion. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated many times, to our knowledge, so far no paper has been published in which surface roughness and changes in the surface free energy of the alloy were compared in the quantitative way in such large extent. This novel approach deliver better knowledge about the surface properties of differently smoothed and polished samples which may be helpful to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. Therefore the results obtained present also potentially practical meaning.

  2. Further Investigation Into the Use of Laser Surface Preparation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Adhesive Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Crow, Allison; Zetterberg, Anna; Hopkins, John; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Belcher, Tony; Blohowiak, Kay Y.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive bonding offers many advantages over mechanical fastening, but requires robust materials and processing methodologies before it can be incorporated in primary structures for aerospace applications. Surface preparation is widely recognized as one of the key steps to producing robust and predictable bonds. This report documents an ongoing investigation of a surface preparation technique based on Nd:YAG laser ablation as a replacement for the chemical etch and/or abrasive processes currently applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Laser ablation imparts both topographical and chemical changes to a surface that can lead to increased bond durability. A laser based process provides an alternative to chemical-immersion, manual abrasion, and grit blast process steps which are expensive, hazardous, environmentally unfriendly, and less precise. In addition, laser ablation is amenable to process automation, which can improve reproducibility to meet quality standards for surface preparation. An update on work involving adhesive property testing, surface characterization, surface stability, and the effect of laser surface treatment on fatigue behavior is presented. Based on the tests conducted, laser surface treatment is a viable replacement for the immersion chemical surface treatment processes. Testing also showed that the fatigue behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is comparable for surfaces treated with either laser ablation or chemical surface treatment.

  3. Acoustic emission during fatigue of porous-coated Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D H; Ducheyne, P; Awerbuch, J

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) events and event intensities (e.g., event amplitude, counts, duration, and energy counts) were recorded and analyzed during fatigue loading of uncoated and porous-coated Ti-6Al-4V. AE source location, spatial filtering, event, and event intensity distributions were used to detect, monitor, analyze, and predict failures. AE provides the ability to spatially and temporally locate multiple fatigue cracks, in real time. Fatigue of porous-coated Ti-6Al-4V is governed by a sequential, multimode fracture process of: transverse fracture in the porous coating; sphere/sphere and sphere/substrate debonding; substrate fatigue crack initiation; slow and rapid substrate fatigue crack propagation. Because of the porosity of the coating, the different stages of fracture within the coating occur in a discontinuous fashion. Therefore, the AE events generated are intermittent and the onset of each mode of fracture in the porous coating can be detected by increases in AE event rate. Changes in AE event rate also correspond to changes in crack extension rate, and may therefore be used to predict failure. AE offers two distinct advantages over conventional optical and microscopic methods of analyzing fatigue cracks--it is more sensitive and it can determine the time history of damage progression. The magnitude of the AE event intensities increased with increasing stress. Failure mechanisms are best differentiated by analyzing AE event amplitudes. Intergranular fracture and microvoid coalescence generated the highest AE event amplitudes (100 dB), whereas, plastic flow and friction generated the lowest AE event amplitudes (55-65 dB). Fractures in the porous coating were characterized by AE event amplitudes of less than 80 dB.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of 45S5 bioactive ceramic coating on Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado López, M. M.; Espitia Cabrera, M. I.; Faure, J.; Contreras García, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant materials because of their mechanical properties and non-toxic behavior. Unfortunately, they are not bioinert, which means that they can release ions and can only fix the bone by mechanical anchorage, this can lead to the encapsulation of dense fibrous tissue in the body. The bone fixation is required in clinical conditions treated by orthopedic and dental medicine. The proposal is to coat metallic implants with bioactive materials to establish good interfacial bonds between the metal substrate and bone by increasing bioactivity. Bioactive glasses, ceramics specifically 45 S5 Bioglass, have drawn attention as a serious functional biomaterial because osseointegration capacity. The EPD method of bioglass gel precursor was proposed in the present work as a new method to obtain 45S5/Ti6A14V for dental applications. The coatings, were thermally treated at 700 and 800°C and presented the 45 S5 bioglass characteristic phases showing morphology and uniformity with no defects, quantification percentages by EDS of Si, Ca, Na, P and O elements in the coating scratched powders, showed a good proportional relationship demonstrating the obtention of the 45S5 bioglass. The corrosion tests were carried out in Hank's solution. By Tafel extrapolation, Ti6Al4V alloy showed good corrosion resistance in Hank's solution media, by the formation of a passivation layer on the metal surface, however, in the system 45S5/Ti6Al4V there was an increase in the corrosion resistance; icon-, Ecorr and corrosion rate decreased, the mass loss and the rate of release of ions, were lower in this system than in the titanium alloy without coating.

  5. Microstructural characterisation of nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings on oxygen hardened Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalewicz, T.; Wendler, B.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A.

    2010-10-15

    Nanocomposite coatings are novel, important systems composed of two or more nanocrystalline, or nanocrystalline and amorphous, phases. Such coatings offer a possibility of tailoring the coating microstructure and achieving new improved properties of coated materials. In this work a duplex surface treatment, consisting of an oxygen diffusion treatment and deposition of low friction nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C (Me = transition metal, Ti, W or Cr) coatings, was applied for improvement of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy properties. The coatings composed of nanocrystallites of transition metal carbides (TiC or Cr{sub x}C{sub y} or WC) embedded in hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix were deposited onto the surface of an oxygen hardened Ti-6Al-4 V alloy substrate by means of a simple DC magnetron sputtering. A nano/microstructure of the substrate material and coatings has been examined by scanning- and transmission electron microscopy complemented with the results of X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that the nanocomposite coatings are composed of different carbide nanocrystals (with sizes of a few nanometres) embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix. The results of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the nanocrystalline phase in the coatings with use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with image analysis are given in the paper. An effect of the nano/microstructure parameters of the coated alloy onto its micro-mechanical (nanohardness and Young's modulus) and tribological properties (wear resistance and friction coefficient) is discussed in the paper.

  6. Superplastic Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V-0.1B Alloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    good fracture/ fatigue resistance and good corrosion resistance. Superplastic forming ( SPF ) is employed for several Ti-alloys to fabricate intricate...forming. Fig. 5 shows that the elongation is ≥ 200% at temperatures in the range 725 – 950 °C and therefore, SPF potentially can be carried out in this...temperature for SPF . This is consistent with the m-values described above (Table II). The elongation in direction 2 at 900 °C is higher than in direction 1

  7. Finite Element Simulation of Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-05-01

    Titanium and its alloys are an important class of materials, especially for aerospace applications, due to their excellent combination of strength and fracture toughness as well as low density. However, these materials are generally regarded as difficult to machine because of their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of Titanium inhibits dissipation of heat within the workpiece causing an higher temperature at the cutting edge and generating for higher cutting speed a rapid chipping at the cutting edge which leads to catastrophic failure. In addition, chip morphology significantly influences the thermo-mechanical behaviour at the workpiece/tool interface, which also affects the tool life. In this paper a finite element analysis of machining of TiAl6V4 is presented. In particular, cutting force, chip morphology and segmentation are taken into account due to their predominant roles to determine machinability and tool wear during the machining of these alloys. Results in terms of residual stresses are also presented. Moreover, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.

  8. Finite Element Simulation of Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-05-04

    Titanium and its alloys are an important class of materials, especially for aerospace applications, due to their excellent combination of strength and fracture toughness as well as low density. However, these materials are generally regarded as difficult to machine because of their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of Titanium inhibits dissipation of heat within the workpiece causing an higher temperature at the cutting edge and generating for higher cutting speed a rapid chipping at the cutting edge which leads to catastrophic failure. In addition, chip morphology significantly influences the thermo-mechanical behaviour at the workpiece/tool interface, which also affects the tool life.In this paper a finite element analysis of machining of TiAl6V4 is presented. In particular, cutting force, chip morphology and segmentation are taken into account due to their predominant roles to determine machinability and tool wear during the machining of these alloys. Results in terms of residual stresses are also presented. Moreover, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.

  9. Degradation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under cyclic loading in a simulated body environment with cell culturing.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kotaro; Miyabe, Sayaka; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports the corrosion fatigue of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using cyclic deformation test in a simulated body fluid under cell culturing for the first time. Cyclic deformation tests were carried out using three types of specimens to reveal the effects of proteins and cells on the corrosion fatigue of the alloy. For the 1-day-immersed and 1-week-immersed specimens, tensile specimens were soaked in a simulated body fluid for 1 day and 1 week, respectively, before cyclic deformation test, whereas for the cell-cultured specimen, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were seeded and then cultured on tensile specimens for 1 week. The incubation period for crack initiation was longer for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens compared to that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. On the other hand, crack propagation period for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens was shorter than that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. These results indicate that proteins and cells adhered on the alloy surface inhibit metal dissolution at newly created surface emerged by cyclic deformation to suppress crack initiation, whereas they accelerate crack propagation because dissolution at crack tip is accelerated in the occluded space formed under proteins and cells.

  10. Effect of superplastic forming exposure on fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Daeho; Kwon, Yongnam; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Sangshik

    2016-09-01

    The effect of superplastic forming (SPF) exposure on the ɛ (strain)-N (number of cycles to failure) fatigue and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy was examined at 298 and 473 K. To simulate the thermal exposure during superplastic forming process, the mill-annealed Ti64 alloy sheet was heated in the vacuum chamber with the pre-determined temperature profile. Notable microstructural change during the SPF exposure included the shape of transformed β phase from fine and round particles in the as-received specimen to coarse angular particles in the as-exposed specimen. The effective grain size tended to increase with the exposure, enhancing the slip reversibility and the resistance to FCP. However, the crack hindering effect by fine, particle-like β phase became weak with the exposure, offseting the beneficial effect associated with the increment of effective grain size. The effect of SPF exposure on ɛ-N fatigue and FCP behavior of mill-annealed Ti64 alloy was therefore marginal, excluding the effect of α-case (the oxygen-enriched phase) on the surface.

  11. Preparation and high-temperature oxidation behavior of plasma Cr-Ni alloying on Ti6Al4V alloy based on double glow plasma surface metallurgy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Ping-Ze; Yao, Zheng-Jun; Wei, Xiang-Fei; Zhou, Jin-Tang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2016-12-01

    To improve the oxidation resistance of Ti6Al4V alloy, it was coated with a Cr-Ni alloy with 20, 40, 60, and 80 at.% Ni content using the double-glow plasma surface metallurgy technology. The coatings were dense, uniform, and compact, including a complete structure of deposited layer, interdiffusion layer, and sputtering-affected zone. The effect of Ni content on the isothermal oxidation behavior of coating was investigated at 750, 850, and 950 °C. The results show that the oxide scale consisted of NiO and Cr2O3. The morphology and distribution of NiO in oxide scale were affected by oxidation temperature and Ni content. When the Ni content was ≤40 at.%, the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Ni alloy coating was enhanced.

  12. Mechanical Properties and High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Ti-Al Coating Reinforced by Nitrides on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jingjie; Yu, Huijun; Zhu, Jiyun; Weng, Fei; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-05-01

    Ti-Al alloyed coating reinforced by nitrides was fabricated by laser surface alloying technique to improve mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Microstructures, mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation behavior of the alloyed coating were analyzed. The results show that the alloyed coating consisted of Ti3Al, TiAl2, TiN and Ti2AlN phases. Nitrides with different morphologies were dispersed in the alloyed coating. The maximum microhardness of the alloyed coating was 906HV. The friction coefficients of the alloyed coating at room temperature and high temperature were both one-fourth of the substrate. Mass gain of the alloyed coating oxidized at 800∘C for 1000h in static air was 5.16×10-3mg/mm2, which was 1/35th of the substrate. No obvious spallation was observed for the alloyed coating after oxidation. The alloyed coating exhibited excellent mechanical properties and long-term high temperature oxidation resistance, which improved surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy significantly.

  13. Reduced toxicity and superior cellular response of preosteoblasts to Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and comparison with Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Challa, V S A; Mali, S; Misra, R D K

    2013-07-01

    There are serious concerns on the toxicity of vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In this regard, we describe the biological footprint of Ti-6Al-4V and compare with a viable alternate Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, in terms of novel experimentation pertaining to cellular activity that include qualitative and quantitative analysis of Feret's diameter of cells, area, and perimeter, and proteins-actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. Interestingly, Ti-6Al-7Nb was characterized by superior cell attachment, proliferation, viability, morphology, and spread, which were significantly different from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Additionally, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated stronger vinculin signals associated with actin stress fibers in the outer regions of the cells and cellular extensions in Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. These striking observations suggest enhanced cell-substrate interaction and activity on the surface of niobium-containing titanium alloy. The significant differences in the cellular response between the two alloys clearly point to the determining role of alloying element (Nb versus V) in a conclusive manner. Based on this study, next generation of titanium alloys is proposed to focus on niobium-containing alloy.

  14. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  15. Microstructure and Cavitation Erosion Properties of Ceramic Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Pack Carburizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibin; Cui, Zhenduo; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Shengli; Yang, Xianjin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was processed by pack carburizing to improve the cavitation erosion behavior. X-ray diffraction and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that a uniform and crack-free ceramic coating formed on the surface of the treated samples. The coating layer comprised primary TiC and less oxide. Cavitation erosion experiment results indicated that the treated samples have the factor of 3.44 to 6.68 increase in cavitation erosion resistance ( R e) as compared with the as-received sample. The ceramic coatings with high hardness and good metallurgical bonding were responsible for the enhanced cavitation erosion properties. When the coatings were treated at condition of high temperature and/or long time, the R e was enervated due to the thin oxide film formed at the outermost surface. Cavitation erosion mechanism for the coatings was characterized as brittle mode by SEM observation of the worn surfaces.

  16. Surface modifications of a Ti6Al4V implant/alloy by a picosecond Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtica, M. S.; Gakovic, B.; Radak, B.; Maravic, D.; Batani, D.; Desai, T.

    2008-07-01

    Interaction of an Nd:YAG laser, operating at 1064 or 532 nm, 40 ps pulse, with Ti6Al4V implant/alloy was studied. The energy absorbed from the laser is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects, such as melting, vaporization of the molten material, shock waves, etc. The following changes were observed: (i) appearance of crater like form in the central zone of the irradiated area; (ii) resolidified droplets of the material in the surrounding outer zone, especially expressed at 1064 nm; and (iii) appearance of a periodic surface structures, also more prominent at 1064 nm. Generally, both laser wavelengths show potential of enhancing the roughness of the surface, particularly useful in implant applications, for better bio-integration. Laser interaction with the samples was accompanied by formation of plasma, which additionally helps obtaining a sterilizing effect.

  17. Dynamic strength and failure behavior of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V for a variation of heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Lothar W.; Krüger, Lutz; Sommer, Kristin; Halle, Thorsten; Hockauf, Matthias

    2008-09-01

    In our study, samples of Ti-6Al-4V were subjected to modifications of an aging treatment where temperatures for solution annealing and final aging as well as the cooling rate were varied. The titanium alloy was annealed above and below the β-transus temperature followed by cooling in a vacuum furnace or by water quenching. Additionally, the final annealing temperature was varied. Compression tests under quasistatic and dynamic loading rates were performed to determine the flow stress and strain hardening behavior. Furthermore, instrumented Charpy impact tests on U-notch specimen were performed at room temperature to monitor the load-time response of deformation and fracturing. The obtained high rate mechanical properties are discussed and correlated with the present microstructure. Our results reveal a very strong effect of the microstructure on the material behavior and will assist to choose the appropriate heat treatment technology, especially if impact loaded or safety structures have to be considered.

  18. Casting defects of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in vertical centrifugal casting processes with graphite molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Limin; Xu, Daming; Li, Min; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2012-02-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental investigation are utilized to analyze the casting defects of Ti-6Al-4V alloy formed under different vertical centrifugal casting conditions in graphite molds. Mold rotating rates of 0, 110 and 210 rpm are considered in experimental process. Results show that centrifugal forces have significant effects on the quantity of both macropores and microdefects (micropores, microcracks and inclusions). The relative amount of all macro- and micro-scopic casting defects decreases from 62.4 % to 24.8 % with the increasing of the centrifugal force, and the macropore quantity in stepped casting decreases exponentially with the increase of the gravitation coefficient. The relative proportions of both micropores and microcracks decrease with the mold-rotating rate increase, but the relative proportion of inclusions increases significantly. Besides this, the mold-filling sequence is proved to be an important factor in casting quality control.

  19. Constitutive Model Modification of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V Based on Dislocation Pile-up Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Chuan; Zhou, Tian-Feng; Che, Jiang-Tao; Liang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xi-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Through the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test and the quasi-static tensile test on non-standard specimen of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, the rules of the mechanical property changing with the specimen size under different temperatures are summarized, and the parameters of the classical constitutive Johnson-Cook (JC) model are determined. Based on the dislocation pile-up theory, the classical constitutive JC model is modified by considering the influence of grain size, and the modified JC model is established by adding a functional term Δσ into the classical constitutive model to describe the influence of the grain. The tensile testis analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) simulation. Comparing with the experimental results, the simulation results based on the modified JC model show much better accuracy than that by the classical JC model.

  20. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  1. Effect of n-implantation on the corrosive-wear properties of surgical Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Beardsley, G.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Bacon, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of N-ion implantation on the corrosive-wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V, an alloy used for construction of the femoral component of artificial hip joints in humans, were tested. In corrosive-wear tests designed to simulate pertinent hip-joint parameters, electrochemical corrosion currents were measured for cylindrical samples in saline electrolyte in an arrangement which allowed the samples to be rotated between loaded polyethylene pads simultaneously with the current measurement. To further quantify material removal, Zr markers were ion-implanted into some samples so that, by use of Rutherford backscattering, material removal could be detected by changes in position of the marker relative to the surface. Corrosion currents were greatly reduced by implantation of approximately 20 at. % N, but even implantation of the Zr markers also reduced corrosion currents. The marker experiments confirmed the low rate of material removal for the implanted samples. 10 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Microtexture Analysis and Modeling of Ambient Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Damages in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jalaj; Singh, A. K.; Raman, S. Ganesh Sundara; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-02-01

    In the present investigation, microtexture analysis using electron back-scattered diffraction technique has been performed to study fatigue- and creep-fatigue damages and associated deformation structures in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Special emphasis has been given to low-angle grain boundary configuration and its possible application as a damage indicator. Damage is mostly present in the form of voids as investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Stored deformation energies have been evaluated for the strain-controlled fatigue-, the stress-controlled fatigue-, and the creep-fatigue-tested samples. Stored deformation energies have also been analyzed vis-à-vis total damage energies to quantify the contribution of damages to various samples. A relation between the stored deformation energy and the applied strain amplitude has been proposed in this study.

  3. Effect of nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation on the creep behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Oliveira, R. M.; Reis, D. A. P.; Carreri, F. C.

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation (HTPBII) performed on Ti-6Al-4V significantly improved the creep behavior of the alloy. Treatments were performed for 1 h at a working pressure of 4 mbar and negative high voltage pulses of 7.5 kV, 30 μs and 500 Hz were applied on the specimens heated at 800 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Microstructural characterization of the treated samples revealed the formation of nitrided layers, with simultaneous formation of TiN and Ti2N. The most intense peaks of these compounds were obtained at higher treatment temperature, probably due to the diffusion of nitrogen into titanium. The presence of nitrides caused surface hardening up to three times higher in comparison with untreated alloy. Constant load creep tests were conducted on a standard creep machine in air atmosphere, at stress level of 319 MPa at 600 °C. Significant reductions of the steady-state creep rates (ɛ) were measured for martensitic Ti-6Al-4V treated by nitrogen HTPBII, reaching minimum creep rates of 0.0318 h-1 in comparison with 0.1938 h-1 for untreated sample. The improvement of the creep resistance seems to be associated with the formation of a thick nitrided layer, which acts as a barrier to oxygen diffusion into the material. In addition, the increase of the grain size generated by the heating of the substrate during the treatment can affect some creep mechanisms, leading to a significant reduction of ɛ.

  4. Corrosion kinetics and topography analysis of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to different mouthwash solutions.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Barao, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Pires, Maria Flávia Araújo; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion kinetics and surface topography of Ti-6Al-4V alloy exposed to mouthwash solutions (0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.053% cetylpyridinium chloride and 3% hydrogen peroxide) compared to artificial saliva (pH6.5) (control). Twenty Ti-6Al-4V alloy disks were used and divided into 4 groups (n=5). For the electrochemical assay, standard tests as open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied at baseline, 7 and 14days after immersion in the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and profilometry (average roughness - Ra) were used for surface characterization. Total weight loss of disks was calculated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (α=0.05). Hydrogen peroxide generated the lowest polarization resistance (Rp) values for all periods (P<0.05). For the capacitance (Cdl), similar results were observed among groups at baseline (P=0.098). For the 7 and 14-day periods, hydrogen peroxide promoted the highest Cdl values (P<0.0001). Hydrogen peroxide promoted expressive superficial changes and greater Ra values than the others (P<0.0001). It could be concluded that solutions containing cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine digluconate might be the mouthwashes of choice during the post-operatory period of dental implants. However, hydrogen peroxide is counter-indicated in these situations. Further studies evaluating the dynamics of these solutions (tribocorrosion) and immersing the disks in daily cycles (two or three times a day) to mimic a clinical situation closest to the application of mouthwashes in the oral cavity are warranted to prove our results.

  5. A parametric study of the factors affecting the fatigue strength of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D H; Ducheyne, P

    1990-11-01

    The high cycle fatigue strength of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V is approximately 75% less than the fatigue strength of uncoated Ti-6A1-4V. This study separates the effects of three parameters thought to be responsible for this reduction: interfacial geometry, microstructure, and surface alterations brought about by sintering. To achieve the goal of one parameter variations, hydrogen-alloying treatments, which refined the lamellar microstructure of beta-annealed and porous coated Ti-6A1-4V, were formulated. The fatigue strength of smooth-surfaced Ti-6A1-4V subjected to hydrogen-alloying treatments is 643-669 MPa, significantly greater than the fatigue strength of beta-annealed Ti-6A1-4V (497 MPa) and also greater than the fatigue strength of pre-annealed, equiaxed Ti-6A1-4V (590 MPa). The fatigue strength of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V, however, is independent of microstructure. This leads to the conclusion that the notch effect of the surface porosity does not allow the material to take advantage of the superior fatigue crack initiation resistance of a refined alpha-grain size. Thus, sinternecks acts as initiated microcracks and fatigue of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V is propagation controlled.

  6. Infrared thermography for monitoring heat generation in a linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maio, L.; Liberini, M.; Campanella, D.; Astarita, A.; Esposito, S.; Boccardi, S.; Meola, C.

    2017-03-01

    The increasing use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes capable to decrease production costs and manufacturing times. In this regard welding and other joining techniques play an important role. Today, solid state friction joining processes, such as friction stir welding, friction spot welding, inertia friction welding, continuous-drive friction welding and linear friction welding (LFW), represent promising methods for part manufacturing. They allow for joining at temperature essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined, without the addition of filler metal. However, the knowledge of temperature is essential to understand and model the phenomena involved in metal welding. A global measured value represents only a clue of the heat generation during the process; while, a deep understanding of welding thermal aspects requires temperature field measurement. This paper is focused on the use of infrared thermography applied to the linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy. The attention is concentrated on thermal field that develops on the outer wall of the two parts to be joined (i.e. heat generated in the friction zone), and on the maximum temperature that characterizes the process before and after the flash formation.

  7. Preparation of conversion coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride through chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lanlan; He, Jian; Yang, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Conversion coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was prepared through chemical modification in phytic acid and ammonium fluoride mixed solution. The influences of pH, time and the composition of solution on the microstructure of alloy surface were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical composition of alloy surface before and after modification was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that a conversion coating could be formed on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride, the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were critically dependent on the pH, time and concentration of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride. In 100 mg/ml phytic acid containing 125 mg/ml ammonium fluoride solution with a pH of 6, a compact conversion coating with the thickness of about 4.7 μm formed after 30 min immersion on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. The preliminary evaluation of bioactivity of conversion coating was performed by in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that this chemical modification method is a promising surface modification technique for Ti-6Al-4V alloy inplants.

  8. Thermal Oxidation of Ti6Al4V Alloy with Enhanced Wear and Corrosion Resistance for Oil and Gas Application: Effect of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Naiming; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Yating; Zou, Jiaojuan; Ma, Yong; Wang, Zhenxia; Tian, Wei; Yao, Xiaofei; Tang, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Thermal oxidation (TO) treatments were performed at 873 K, 898 K, 923 K, 948 K, 973 K, 998 K and 1023 K for 10 h in air to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V alloy. The effect of TO temperature on microstructural characterizations and surface properties of the obtained TO layers were investigated. The results showed that TO layers with various thickness values were formed on Ti6Al4V alloy under different temperatures. The thickness of the TO layers increased with the increasing of TO temperature. TO layer that was obtained at 973 K suggested the highest surface hardness and the best wear resistance. TO layer that was realized at 948 K exhibited superior corrosion resistance to other TO layers. TO treatment could be considered as an effective method for preventing wear and corrosion of Ti6Al4V alloy.

  9. The chip-flow behaviors and formation mechanisms in the orthogonal cutting process of Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Chen, Xiangyu; Shuang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    This work involves experimental and analytical investigations of chip flow stability in metal cutting process. First, in cutting experiments of Ti6Al4V alloy, the transformation of chip morphology from continuous to serrated and later to discontinuous was observed as the cutting speed increased. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the shear fracture surface demonstrated shear-localized instability and intergranular failure behaviors. Then we used the improved orthogonal cutting model (OCM) to analyze the plastic flow process of work materials in a plane strain state. A corresponding governing equation system was set up, the dimensionless governing parameters were determined by dimensional analysis, and an instability criterion was established by linear perturbation analysis. Analytical results showed that the plastic instability of chip flow could take place in a continuous chip, which is different from the shear-localized instability in a serrated chip. Finally, in terms of the balance conditions between the kinetic energy and the surface energy, the sawtooth growth behavior in serrated chips and the formation mechanism of discontinuous chips were studied.

  10. Porosity, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Parts Fabricated by Powder Compact Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingtu; Zhang, Deliang; Liang, Jiamiao; Gabbitas, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy powders produced using a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation process and a gas atomization process, respectively, were rapidly consolidated into near-net-shaped parts by powder compact forging. The porosity, microstructure, and tensile mechanical properties of specimens cut from regions at different distances from the side surfaces of the forged parts were examined. The regions near the side surfaces contained a fraction of pores due to the circumferential tensile strain arising during the powder compact forging process, and the porosity level decreased rapidly to zero with increasing the distance from the side surface. The forged parts had a fully lamellar structure with the α + β colony sizes and α lamella thickness changing little with the distance from the side surface. The specimens cut from the regions near the side surfaces had a lower yield strength and tensile strength. The correlation of porosity with the yield strength of the specimens suggested that the reduction of load bearing areas due to the porosity and unbonded or weakly bonded interparticle boundaries was not the only reason for the lower strength, and the stress concentration at the pores and associated with their geometry also played an important role in this. It is likely that the effect of stress concentration on yield strength reduction of the forged part increases with oxygen content. The Hall-Petch relationship of the yield strength and the average α lamella thickness suggested that the strength of the fully dense and fully consolidated forged parts was increased by oxygen solution strengthening.

  11. A Modified Johnson-Cook Constitutive Equation to Predict Hot Deformation Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhai, Peng; Li, Fuguo; Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is proposed based on hot compression tests performed in the temperature range of 1073-1323 K and strain rate 0.001-1 s-1. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to develop the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of different phase regimes (α + β and β phase). The predicted flow stresses using the developed equation were compared with experimental data. Correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were introduced to verify the validity of the constitutive equation. The values of R and AARE for α + β phase were 0.990 and 7.81%, respectively. And in β phase region, the values of R and AARE were 0.985 and 10.36%, respectively. Meanwhile, the accuracy, the number of material constants involved, and the computational time required of the constitutive equation were evaluated by comparing with a strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equation. The results indicate that accuracy of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is higher than that of compensated Arrhenius-type model at α + β phase, while lower at single β phase region. Meanwhile, the time required for evaluating the material constants of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is much shorter than that of the strain-compensated Arrhenius type ones.

  12. A Modified Johnson-Cook Constitutive Equation to Predict Hot Deformation Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhai, Peng; Li, Fuguo; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    A modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is proposed based on hot compression tests performed in the temperature range of 1073-1323 K and strain rate 0.001-1 s-1. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to develop the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of different phase regimes (α + β and β phase). The predicted flow stresses using the developed equation were compared with experimental data. Correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were introduced to verify the validity of the constitutive equation. The values of R and AARE for α + β phase were 0.990 and 7.81%, respectively. And in β phase region, the values of R and AARE were 0.985 and 10.36%, respectively. Meanwhile, the accuracy, the number of material constants involved, and the computational time required of the constitutive equation were evaluated by comparing with a strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equation. The results indicate that accuracy of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is higher than that of compensated Arrhenius-type model at α + β phase, while lower at single β phase region. Meanwhile, the time required for evaluating the material constants of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is much shorter than that of the strain-compensated Arrhenius type ones.

  13. Effect of Wire-EDM cutting parameters on material removal rate of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, N.; Afendi, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) which is also known as difficult to cut material is used as workpiece. Seven main parameters namely pulse duration (A), pulse interval (B), servo voltage (C), ignition pulse current (D), wire tension (E), wire speed (F) and dielectric pressure (G) have been experimentally studied by using Taguchi method as well as the determination of optimum parameters for material removal rate (MRR). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used for recognizing the level of significant of WEDM cutting parameter for optimizing MRR and the result found that pulse duration and servo voltage give significant effect on MRR. While according to Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio response table for MRR, the parameters combination of A3B3C3D3E1F3G3 give the optimum value for MRR. It is also observed that the predicted results agree with the experimental values within an error of 4.6 %.

  14. Self-assembled monolayers of alendronate on Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces enhance osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Luis; Gharibi, Borzo; McLister, Robert; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta

    2016-07-01

    Phosphonates have emerged as an alternative for functionalization of titanium surfaces by the formation of homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via Ti-O-P linkages. This study presents results from an investigation of the modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by chemisorption of osseoinductive alendronate using a simple, effective and clean methodology. The modified surfaces showed a tailored topography and surface chemistry as determined by SEM microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that an effective mode of bonding is created between the metal oxide surface and the phosphate residue of alendronate, leading to formation of homogenous drug distribution along the surface. In-vitro studies showed that alendronate SAMs induce differentiation of hMSC to a bone cell phenotype and promote bone formation on modified surfaces. Here we show that this novel method for the preparation of functional coatings on titanium-based medical devices provides osseoinductive bioactive molecules to promote enhanced integration at the site of implantation.

  15. Microstructural characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to the duplex SMAT/plasma nitriding.

    PubMed

    Pi, Y; Faure, J; Agoda-Tandjawa, G; Andreazza, C; Potiron, S; Levesque, A; Demangel, C; Retraint, D; Benhayoune, H

    2013-09-01

    In this study, microstructural characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, subjected to the duplex surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)/nitriding treatment, leading to improve its mechanical properties, was carried out through novel and original samples preparation methods. Instead of acid etching which is limited for morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an original ion polishing method was developed. Moreover, for structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), an ion milling method based with the use of two ions guns was also carried out for cross-section preparation. To demonstrate the efficiency of the two developed methods, morphological investigations were done by traditional SEM and field emission gun SEM. This was followed by structural investigations through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) coupled with TEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results demonstrated that ionic polishing allowed to reveal a variation of the microstructure according to the surface treatment that could not be observed by acid etching preparation. TEM associated to SAED and X-ray diffraction provided information regarding the nanostructure compositional changes induced by the duplex SMAT/nitriding process.

  16. Porosity, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Parts Fabricated by Powder Compact Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingtu; Zhang, Deliang; Liang, Jiamiao; Gabbitas, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy powders produced using a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation process and a gas atomization process, respectively, were rapidly consolidated into near-net-shaped parts by powder compact forging. The porosity, microstructure, and tensile mechanical properties of specimens cut from regions at different distances from the side surfaces of the forged parts were examined. The regions near the side surfaces contained a fraction of pores due to the circumferential tensile strain arising during the powder compact forging process, and the porosity level decreased rapidly to zero with increasing the distance from the side surface. The forged parts had a fully lamellar structure with the α + β colony sizes and α lamella thickness changing little with the distance from the side surface. The specimens cut from the regions near the side surfaces had a lower yield strength and tensile strength. The correlation of porosity with the yield strength of the specimens suggested that the reduction of load bearing areas due to the porosity and unbonded or weakly bonded interparticle boundaries was not the only reason for the lower strength, and the stress concentration at the pores and associated with their geometry also played an important role in this. It is likely that the effect of stress concentration on yield strength reduction of the forged part increases with oxygen content. The Hall-Petch relationship of the yield strength and the average α lamella thickness suggested that the strength of the fully dense and fully consolidated forged parts was increased by oxygen solution strengthening.

  17. Effects of microstructural morphology on quasi-static and dynamic deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Geon; Kim, Sangho; Lee, Sunghak; Soo Lee, Chong

    2001-02-01

    The effects of microstructural morphology on quasi-static and dynamic deformation behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy were investigated in this study. Quasi-static and dynamic torsional tests were conducted using a torsional Kolsky bar for Widmanstätten, equiaxed, and bimodal microstructures, which were processed by different heat treatments, and then, the test data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, tensile properties, and fracture mode. Quasi-static torsional properties showed a tendency similar to tensile properties and ductile fracture occurred in all three microstructures. Under dynamic torsional loading, maximum shear stress of the three microstructures was higher and fracture shear strain was lower than those under quasi-static loading, but the overall tendency was similar. In the Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures, adiabatic shear bands were found in the deformed region of the fractured specimens. The possibility of the adiabatic shear band formation under dynamic loading was quantitatively analyzed, depending on how plastic deformation energy was distributed to either void initiation or adiabatic shear banding. It was found to be most likely in the equiaxed microstructure, whereas it was least likely in the bimodal microstructure.

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Micro-mechanical Behavior of Quenched Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xinkai; Li, Fuguo; Li, Jinghui; Cao, Jun; Li, Pan; Dong, Junzhe

    2015-10-01

    To determine the influence of the solution treatment temperature and holding time on the microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, micro-indentation experiments were conducted at maximum loads of 3000, 3500, 4500, 4600, 4700, 4800, and 4900 mN. A microstructure examination was also performed with an optical microscope. Based on the test data, the micro-hardness H, Young's modulus E, yield strength σy, ultimate tensile strength σ b , and strain-hardening exponent n were obtained by the Oliver-Pharr method. It was found that the solution treatment temperature and holding time had a significant influence on the morphology, size, and volume fraction of the α and β phases. The equiaxed microstructure (obtained at 950 °C) exhibits a higher H, E, and σb. In contrast, σy shows a downward trend over the entire range of solution treatment temperatures. The influences of holding time on H, E, σb, and σy were also significant.

  19. Characterization of laser peening-induced effects on a biomedical Ti6Al4V alloy by thermoelectric means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreón, Hector; Barriuso, Sandra; Porro, Juan Antonio; González-Carrasco, Jose Luis; Ocaña, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    Laser peening has recently emerged as a useful technique to overcome detrimental effects associated with other well-known surface modification processes such as shot peening or grit blasting used in the biomedical field. It is worthwhile to notice that besides the primary residual stress effect, thermally induced effects might also cause subtle surface and subsurface microstructural changes that might influence corrosion resistance and fatigue strength of structural components. In this work, plates of Ti-6Al-4V alloy of 7 mm in thickness were modified by laser peening without using a sacrificial outer layer. Irradiation by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (9.4-ns pulse length) working at the fundamental 1064-nm wavelength at 2.8 J/pulse and with water as a confining medium was used. Laser pulses with a 1.5-mm diameter at an equivalent overlapping density of 5000 cm-2 were applied. Attempts to analyze the global-induced effects after laser peening were addressed by using the contacting and noncontacting thermoelectric power techniques.

  20. High temperature deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with and equiaxed microstructure: a neural networks analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, N. S.; Lee, You-Hwan; Kim, Jeoung Han; Lee, Chong Soo

    2008-04-01

    The hot deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an equiaxed microstructure was investigated by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The flow stress data for the ANN model training was obtained from compression tests performed on a thermo-mechanical simulator over a wide range of temperature (from 700°C to 1100°C) with strain rates of 0.0001 s-1 to 100 s-1 and true strains of 0.1 to 0.6. It was found that the trained neural network could reliably predict flow stress for unseen data. Workability was evaluated by means of processing maps with respect to strain, strain rate, and temperature. Processing maps were constructed at different strains by utilizing the flow stress predicted by the model at finer intervals of strain rates and temperatures. The specimen failures at various instances were predicted and confirmed by experiments. The results establish that artificial neural networks can be effectively used for generating a more reliable processing map for industrial applications. A graphical user interface was designed for ease of use of the model.

  1. Surface modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by PIII at high temperatures: Effects of plasma potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. M.; Ueda, M.; Pichon, L.; Reuther, H.; Lepienski, C. M.

    2007-04-01

    The present work is aimed to analyzing the influence of the plasma potential in the efficiency of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process with nitrogen, at high temperatures (550 °C and 800 °C), applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy to increase its wear resistance. Treatments with plasma potentials (PP) at 420 V and 90 V were carried out. In the first case, in accordance with AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) analysis, nitrogen rich layers of 100 nm and 150 nm of thickness had been obtained, for total treatment times of 60 min and 120 min, respectively. For the treatments with lower PP of 90 V, the treated layers thicknesses have been measured by GDOS (Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy) and their values are 1 μm and 1.5 μm for treatments of 120 min and 240 min, respectively. The hardness values were determined for the samples treated with high PP by nanoindentation technique and a significant increase was observed for this treatment, reaching 11 GPa (60 min) and 19 GPa (120 min), which can be compared to 3.5-4.0 GPa obtained for the untreated samples. Pin-on-disk wear tests show that wear resistance increases after all these treatments. The friction coefficient as well as the wear rates are measured with a tribometer.

  2. Effect of Variants of Thermomechanical Working and Annealing Treatment on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V Closed Die Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, V. Anil; Kumar, P. Ram

    2016-06-01

    Performance of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pressure vessels made of closed die forged domes of route `B' (multiple step forged and mill annealed) is reported to be better than route `A' (single/two step forged and mill annealed). Analysis revealed that forgings processed through route `B' have uniformity in microstructure and yield strength at various locations within the forging, as compared to that of route `A.' It is attributed to in-process recrystallization (dynamic as well as static) of route `B' forgings as compared to limited recrystallization of route `A' forgings. Further, post-forging recrystallization annealing (RA) effect is found to be more significant for route `A' forgings in achieving uniform microstructure and mechanical properties, since route `B' forgings have already undergone similar phenomenon during the thermomechanical working process itself. Considering prime importance of yield strength, statistical scatter in yield strength values within the forgings have been evaluated for forgings of both the routes. Standard deviation in the yield strength of route `B' forgings was lower (<10 MPa) as compared to route `A' (>15 MPa), which later became lower (~10 MPa) after RA with a minor decrease in yield strength. The present work discusses these variants of thermomechanical processing along with annealing to achieve better uniformity in properties and microstructure.

  3. Self-assembled monolayers of alendronate on Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces enhance osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Luis; Gharibi, Borzo; McLister, Robert; Meenan, Brian J; Deb, Sanjukta

    2016-07-29

    Phosphonates have emerged as an alternative for functionalization of titanium surfaces by the formation of homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via Ti-O-P linkages. This study presents results from an investigation of the modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by chemisorption of osseoinductive alendronate using a simple, effective and clean methodology. The modified surfaces showed a tailored topography and surface chemistry as determined by SEM microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that an effective mode of bonding is created between the metal oxide surface and the phosphate residue of alendronate, leading to formation of homogenous drug distribution along the surface. In-vitro studies showed that alendronate SAMs induce differentiation of hMSC to a bone cell phenotype and promote bone formation on modified surfaces. Here we show that this novel method for the preparation of functional coatings on titanium-based medical devices provides osseoinductive bioactive molecules to promote enhanced integration at the site of implantation.

  4. Self-assembled monolayers of alendronate on Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces enhance osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Luis; Gharibi, Borzo; McLister, Robert; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta

    2016-01-01

    Phosphonates have emerged as an alternative for functionalization of titanium surfaces by the formation of homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via Ti-O-P linkages. This study presents results from an investigation of the modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by chemisorption of osseoinductive alendronate using a simple, effective and clean methodology. The modified surfaces showed a tailored topography and surface chemistry as determined by SEM microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that an effective mode of bonding is created between the metal oxide surface and the phosphate residue of alendronate, leading to formation of homogenous drug distribution along the surface. In-vitro studies showed that alendronate SAMs induce differentiation of hMSC to a bone cell phenotype and promote bone formation on modified surfaces. Here we show that this novel method for the preparation of functional coatings on titanium-based medical devices provides osseoinductive bioactive molecules to promote enhanced integration at the site of implantation. PMID:27468811

  5. Experimental Study of Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Turning of Titanium Alloy (Ti-6al-4v)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Y. M.; Gohil, Vikas

    2017-03-01

    Electrical discharge turning (EDT) is a new machining process in which an external axis is added to a conventional EDM machine in order to produce precise cylindrical forms on hard and difficult to machine materials. By feeding a pre shaped tool electrode against a rotating work piece, axially symmetrical pats can be produce. The machining performance of EDT process is influenced by its machining parameters, which directly affect the quality of the machined component. This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of EDM parameters namely pulse-on time, peak current, gap voltage, spindle speed and flushing pressure on material removal rate (MRR) in electrical discharge turning of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This has been done by means of the Taguchi’s design of experiment technique. A mathematical model has been developed for MRR by regression analysis and factor effects were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Signal-to-noise ratio analysis is used to find the optimal condition.

  6. Study of aging effects in a Ti-6AL-4V alloy with Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures by non-destructive means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Santoveña, Bayron

    2014-02-01

    When the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is over-aged at 500-600°C, nanometer-sized α2 (Ti3Al) phases can be homogeneously precipitated inside α phases, thereby leading to the additional improvement of mechanical properties. The present study was concerned with the effects of over-aging on thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures containing fine &agr2 (Ti3Al) particles were obtaining by over-aging a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Over-aging heat treatments were conducted at 515°C, 545°C and 575°C for different aging times. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in the TEP, the over-aging samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the aging time and temperature. It was found that the TEP measurements reveal an increase in the magnitude of the absolute TEP value of the over-aged Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures with regards to the unaged condition for different aging times, with a somewhat higher value at 515°C.

  7. Study of aging effects in a Ti-6AL-4V alloy with Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures by non-destructive means

    SciTech Connect

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Santoveña, Bayron

    2014-02-18

    When the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is over-aged at 500-600°C, nanometer-sized α{sub 2} (Ti{sub 3}Al) phases can be homogeneously precipitated inside α phases, thereby leading to the additional improvement of mechanical properties. The present study was concerned with the effects of over-aging on thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures containing fine and agr{sub 2} (Ti{sub 3}Al) particles were obtaining by over-aging a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Over-aging heat treatments were conducted at 515°C, 545°C and 575°C for different aging times. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in the TEP, the over-aging samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the aging time and temperature. It was found that the TEP measurements reveal an increase in the magnitude of the absolute TEP value of the over-aged Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures with regards to the unaged condition for different aging times, with a somewhat higher value at 515°C.

  8. Fatigue Performance of Powder Metallurgy (PM) Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: A Critical Analysis of Current Fatigue Data and Metallurgical Approaches for Improving Fatigue Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of fatigue performance of powder metallurgy (PM) Ti-6Al-4V alloy, manufactured using various powder-based processing approaches to-date, is performed in this work. The focus is on PM processes that use either blended element (BE) or pre-alloyed (PA) powder as feedstock. Porosity and the microstructure condition have been found to be the two most dominant material variables that control the fatigue strength. The evaluation reveals that the fatigue performance of PM Ti-6Al-4V, in the as-sintered state, is far lower than that in the wrought condition. This is largely caused by residual porosity, even if it is present in small amounts, or, by the coarse lamellar colony microstructure. The fatigue strength is significantly improved by the closure of pores, and it approaches the levels of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys, after hot-isostatic-pressing (HIPing). Further thermo-mechanical and heat treatments lead to additional increases in fatigue strength-in one case, a high fatigue strength level, exceeding that of the mill-annealed condition, was achieved. The work identifies the powder, process and microstructure improvements that are necessary for achieving high fatigue strength in powder metallurgical Ti-6Al-4V alloys in order for them to effectively compete with wrought forms. The present findings, gathered from the traditional titanium powder metallurgy, are also directly applicable to additively manufactured titanium, because of the similarities in pores, defects, and microstructures between the two manufacturing processes.

  9. The electrochemical and mechanical behavior of passivated and TiN/AlN-coated CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V alloys.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jay R; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2004-02-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical behavior of the surface oxides of CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V alloys during fracture and repassivation play an important role in the corrosion of the taper interfaces of modular hip implants. This behavior was investigated in one group of CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V alloy samples passivated with nitric acid and another group coated with a novel TiN/AlN coating. The effects of mechanical load and sample potential on peak currents and time constants resulting from fracture of the surface oxide or coating, and the effects of mechanical load on scratch depth were investigated to determine the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the oxides or coating. The polarization behavior of the samples after fracture of the oxide or coating was also investigated. CoCrMo had a stronger surface oxide and higher interfacial adhesion strength, making it more resistant to fracture than Ti6Al4V. If undisturbed, the oxide on the surface of Ti6Al4V significantly reduced dissolution currents at a wider range of potentials than CoCrMo, making Ti6Al4V more resistant to corrosion. The TiN/AlN coating had a higher hardness and modulus of elasticity than CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V. It was much less susceptible to fracture, had a higher interfacial adhesion strength, and was a better barrier to ionic diffusion than the surface oxides on CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V. The coating provided increased corrosion and fretting resistance to the substrate alloys.

  10. Effects of Friction Stir Processing on the Phase Transformation and Microstructure of TiO2-Compounded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zihao; Zhang, Chengjian; Xie, Lechun; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Wang, Liqiang; Lu, Weijie

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to improve the surface wear resistance properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy as well as its biocompatibility as implants in human bodies, TiO2 particles are introduced to strengthen the properties of Ti-6Al-4V through the effect of friction stir processing. The effects of friction stir processing on the phase transformation and microstructure of TiO2-compounded Ti-6Al-4V are investigated systematically. Grain refinement in the stirring zone and phase transformation in the matrix material are observed and discussed in detail. The study provides a new insight on the desired properties of Ti-6Al-4V for biomedical applications using friction stir processing.

  11. Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) versus titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) materials as bone anchored implants - Is one truly better than the other?

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A; Trobos, Margarita; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and titanium alloys (typically Ti6Al4V) display excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Although the chemical composition and topography are considered important, the mechanical properties of the material and the loading conditions in the host have, conventionally, influenced material selection for different clinical applications: predominantly Ti6Al4V in orthopaedics while cp-Ti in dentistry. This paper attempts to address three important questions: (i) To what extent do the surface properties differ when cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V materials are manufactured with the same processing technique?, (ii) Does bone tissue respond differently to the two materials, and (iii) Do bacteria responsible for causing biomaterial-associated infections respond differently to the two materials? It is concluded that: (i) Machined cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V exhibit similar surface morphology, topography, phase composition and chemistry, (ii) Under experimental conditions, cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V demonstrate similar osseointegration and biomechanical anchorage, and (iii) Experiments in vitro fail to disclose differences between cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V to harbour Staphylococcus epidermidis growth. No clinical comparative studies exist which could determine if long-term, clinical differences exist between the two types of bulk materials. It is debatable whether cp-Ti or Ti6Al4V exhibit superiority over the other, and further comparative studies, particularly in a clinical setting, are required.

  12. Investigation of the Workability and Response of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium alloys at Lower Elevated Temperature and Higher Strain Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Cindy Xiaohui; Lim, Chao Voon; Castagne, Sylvie

    2011-05-04

    Titanium and its alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries such as aerospace, medical, automotive and even commercial products. However, formability of titanium alloys has always been an issue. This study presents the results of an investigation on the workability and response of Ti-6Al-4V deformed at different strain rates and lower elevated temperatures with different initial microstructures. Compression tests of cylindrical specimens were performed at various temperatures (300 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 450 deg. C, 500 deg. C) and at different strain rates (0.001 s{sup -1}, 0.02 s{sup -1} and 0.1 s{sup -1}). The effects of strain rate, temperature and initial microstructure on the workability of the Ti alloy were investigated. Based on these experimental results, workability maps for the respective initial microstructures were developed. Results showed that temperature played an important role in the formability of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloys unlike strain rate. In addition, feasibility study on Multi-Directional Forging (MDF) was performed and positive results were obtained. It was demonstrated that Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloys can undergo severe plastic deformation at lower elevated temperature (400-500 deg. C) and at a higher strain rate of 0.1 s{sup -1}.

  13. Development of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe Alloys Using Low-Cost TiH2 Powder Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt; Moxon, Vladimir; Duz, Vlad; Nyberg, Eric; Weil, K. Scott

    2012-09-25

    Thermo-mechanical processing was performed on two titanium alloy billets, a beta-titanium alloy (Ti1Al8V5Fe) and an alpha-beta titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), which had been produced using a novel low-cost powder metallurgy process that relies on the use of TiH2 powder as a feedstock material. The thermomechanical processing was performed in the beta region of the respective alloys to form 16-mm diameter bars. The hot working followed by the heat treatment processes not only eliminated the porosity within the materials but also developed the preferred microstructures. Tensile testing and rotating beam fatigue tests were conducted on the as-rolled and heat-treated materials to evaluate their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of these alloys matched well with those produced by the conventional ingot processing route.

  14. Frequent Occurrence of Discontinuous Dynamic Recrystallization in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with α' Martensite Starting Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Bin, Liu; Lee, Sang-Hak; Li, Yunping; Ono, Yoshiki; Chiba, Akihiko

    2013-07-01

    The microstructural conversion mechanism in an α' martensite starting microstructure during hot deformation (at 973 K (700 °C)-10 s-1) of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is studied through detailed microstructural observations, kinetic analysis of deformation in the microstructure, and various theoretical models. After compressing the α' starting microstructure at 973 K (700 °C)-10 s-1 and at a height strain of 0.8, it is observed that the α' starting microstructure with acicular morphology evolved into an ultrafine-grained microstructure with an average grain size of 0.2 μm and a high fraction of high-angle grain boundaries. At the initial stage of deformation, subgrain formation in martensite variants and the formation of new grains with high-angle boundaries at interfaces of martensite variants, and \\{ 10bar{1}1\\} twins are dominant. On increasing the height strain to 0.8, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) along with heterogeneous nucleation and fragmentation of grains with high-angle boundaries becomes dominant. In contrast, in the case of an ( α + β) starting microstructure, continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) is dominant throughout the deformation process. Thus, we found that DDRX becomes dominant by changing the starting microstructure from the conventional ( α + β) to the acicular α' martensite one. This behavior of the α' martensite microstructure is attributed to the considerable number of nucleation sites such as dislocations, interfaces of martensite variants and \\{ 10bar{1}1\\} twins, and the high-speed grain fragmentation along with subgrain formation in the α' starting microstructure during the initial stage of deformation.

  15. Constitutive modeling for Ti-6Al-4V alloy machining based on the SHPB tests and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Ke, Zhihong; Ren, Chengzu; Li, Jun

    2016-09-01

    A constitutive model is critical for the prediction accuracy of a metal cutting simulation. The highest strain rate involved in the cutting process can be in the range of 104-106 s-1. Flow stresses at high strain rates are close to that of cutting are difficult to test via experiments. Split Hopkinson compression bar (SHPB) technology is used to study the deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at strain rates of 10-4-104s-1. The Johnson Cook (JC) model was applied to characterize the flow stresses of the SHPB tests at various conditions. The parameters of the JC model are optimized by using a genetic algorithm technology. The JC plastic model and the energy density-based ductile failure criteria are adopted in the proposed SHPB finite element simulation model. The simulated flow stresses and the failure characteristics, such as the cracks along the adiabatic shear bands agree well with the experimental results. Afterwards, the SHPB simulation is used to simulate higher strain rate(approximately 3×104 s-1) conditions by minimizing the size of the specimen. The JC model parameters covering higher strain rate conditions which are close to the deformation condition in cutting were calculated based on the flow stresses obtained by using the SHPB tests (10-4-104 s-1) and simulation (up to 3×104 s-1). The cutting simulation using the constitutive parameters is validated by the measured forces and chip morphology. The constitutive model and parameters for high strain rate conditions that are identical to those of cutting were obtained based on the SHPB tests and simulation.

  16. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-11-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient ( R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  17. Characterization and diffusion model for the titanium boride layers formed on the Ti6Al4V alloy by plasma paste boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, Mourad; Taktak, Sukru

    2017-03-01

    The present study is focused on the estimation of activation energy of boron in the plasma paste borided Ti6Al4V alloy, which is extensively used in technological applications, using an analytical diffusion model. Titanium boride layers were successfully produced by plasma paste boriding method on the Ti6Al4V alloy in the temperature range of 973-1073 K for a treatment time ranging from 3 to 7 h. The presence of both TiB2 top-layer and TiB whiskers sub-layer was confirmed by the XRD analysis and SEM observations. The surface hardness of the borided alloy was evaluated using Micro-Knoop indenter. The formation rates of the TiB2 and TiB layers were found to have a parabolic character at all applied process temperatures. A diffusion model was suggested to estimate the boron diffusivities in TiB2 and TiB layers under certain assumptions, by considering the effect of boride incubation times. Basing on own experimental data on boriding kinetics, the activation energies of boron in TiB2 and TiB phases were estimated as 136.24 ± 0.5 and 63.76 ± 0.5 kJ mol-1, respectively. Finally, the obtained values of boron activation energies for Ti6Al4V alloy were compared with the data available in the literature.

  18. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  19. Electrodeposition of HAp coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy and its electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai; Thom Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Grossin, David; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition method from electrolyte solution containing Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and NaNO3. The results show that the HAp coatings were single phase crystals of HAp. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images present that HAp/Ti6Al4V have flake shapes which arrange to form like-coral agglomerates. In vitro test of the Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was investigated with different immersion times. pH of SBF solution decreased and the mass of materials increased. SEM images prove the formation of apatite on the surface of Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V. The corrosion current density during immersion time of substrate is always higher than the one of HAp/Ti6Al4V because the deposited HAp can protect well for the substrate.

  20. Strength-Ductility Property Maps of Powder Metallurgy (PM) Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: A Critical Review of Processing-Structure-Property Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Chandran, K. S. Ravi

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive assessment of tensile properties of powder metallurgical (PM) processed Ti-6Al-4V alloy, through the mapping of strength-ductility property domains, is performed in this review. Tensile property data of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys made from blended element (BE) and pre-alloyed powders including that additive manufactured (AM) from powders, as well as that made using titanium hydride powders, have been mapped in the form of strength-ductility domains. Based on this, porosity and microstructure have been identified as the dominant variables controlling both the strength and the tensile ductility of the final consolidated materials. The major finding is that tensile ductility of the PM titanium is most sensitive to the presence of pores. The significance of extreme-sized pores or defects in inducing large variations in ductility is emphasized. The tensile strength, however, has been found to depend only weakly on the porosity. The effect of microstructure on properties is masked by the variations in porosity and to some extent by the oxygen level. It is shown that any meaningful comparison of the microstructure can only be made under a constant porosity or density level. The beneficial effect of a refined microstructure is also brought out by logically organizing the data in terms of microstructure groups. The advantages of new processes, using titanium hydride powder to produce PM titanium alloys, in simultaneously increasing strength and ductility, are also highlighted. The tensile properties of AM Ti-6Al-4V alloys are also brought to light, in comparison with the other PM and wrought alloys, through the strength-ductility maps.

  1. Stress-corrosion crack-growth study of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V exposed to freon PCA and nitrogen tetroxide MON-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental fracture mechanics program was performed to determine the stress corrosion crack growth sensitivity of the propellant tank material, titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, for aerospace satellite applications involving long term exposure to Freon PCA and nitrogen tetroxide MON-1. Sustained load tests were made at a 49 C (120 F) constant temperature using thin gauge tensile test specimens containing semielliptical surface flaws. Test specimen types included parent metal, center of weld, and weld heat affected zone. It was concluded that Ti-6Al-4V alloy is not adversely affected in a stress environment when exposed to Freon PCA for 1000 hours followed by exposure to nitrogen tetroxide MON-1 for 2000 hours at stress levels up to 80% of the experimental critical plane strain stress intensity factor.

  2. Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Electron Beam Melting for Rapid Prototyping on Ti6Al4V Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira Arce, Alderson

    To be a viable solution for contemporary engineering challenges, the use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes that are able to decrease production cost and delivery times. As a result, the use of material consolidation in a near-net-shape fashion, using dynamic techniques like additive manufacturing by electron beam selective melting EBSM represents a promising method for part manufacturing. However, a new product material development can be cost prohibitive, requiring the use of computer modeling and simulation as a way to decrease turnaround time. To ensure a proper representation of the EBSM process, a thermophysical material characterization and comparison was first performed on two Ti6Al4V powder feedstock materials prepared by plasma (PREP) and gas atomized (GA) processes. This evaluation comprises an evaluation on particle size distribution, density and powder surface area, collectively with the temperature dependence on properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and surface emissivity. Multiple techniques were employed in this evaluation, including high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (HT-DSC), laser flash analysis (LFA), infrared remote temperature analysis (IR-Thermography), laser diffraction, liquid and gas pycnometry using mercury and krypton adsorption respectively. This study was followed by the review of complementary strategies to simulate the temperature evolution during the EBSM process, using a finite element analysis package called COMSOL Multiphysics. Two alternatives dedicated to representing a moving heat source (electron beam) and the powder bed were developed using a step-by-step approximation initiative. The first method consisted of the depiction of a powder bed discretized on an array of domains, each one representing a static melt pool, where the moving heat source was illustrated by a series of time dependant selective

  3. Corrosion resistance characteristics of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy scaffold that is fabricated by electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingjing; Wang, Hong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Chao; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated with electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo. Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM). A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Surface morphology observation, component analysis, corrosion resistance experimental results, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, crevice corrosion resistance experimental results, immersion test and metal ions precipitation analysis were processed, respectively. The thermal stability of EBM specimen was the worst, based on the result of open circuit potential (OCP) result. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the corrosion resistance of the SLM specimen was the best under the low electric potential. The result of potentiodynamic polarization suggested that the corrosion resistance of the SLM specimen was the best under the low electric potential (<1.5V) and EBM specimen was the best under the high electric potential (>1.5V).The crevice corrosion resistance of the EBM specimen was the best. The corrosion resistance of SLM specimen was the best, based on the result of immersion test. The content of Ti, Al and V ions of EBM, SLM and wrought specimens was very low. In general, the scaffolds that were fabricated with EBM and SLM had good corrosion resistance, and were suitable for implantation in vivo.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on γTiAl and Ti-6Al-4V alloys.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Vera, J A; Torres-Zapata, I; Sundaram, P A; Diffoot-Carlo, N; Vega-Olivencia, C A

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in an αMEM+FBS solution on two Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and γTiAl) for 4, 7 and 14 days. EIS measurements were carried out at an open-circuit potential in a 1 mHz to 100 kHz frequency range. Results indicate a general increase in impedance on the Ti alloy surfaces with cells as a function of time. Bode plots indicate changes corresponding to the passive oxide film, adsorption of proteins and cell tissue on surfaces with the passage of time. Normal cellular activity based on the polygonal morphology, with long and fine cytoplasmic prolongations of the cells on Ti-6Al-4V and γTiAl was observed from SEM images. Similarly, mineralization nodules corresponding to cell differentiation associated with the osseogenetic process were observed confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining. Immunofluorescence analysis to detect the presence of collagen Type I showed an increase in the segregation of collagen as a function of time. The impedance values obtained from EIS testing are indicative of the corrosion protection offered to the Ti alloy substrates by the cell layer. This study shows that γTiAl has better corrosion resistance than that of Ti-6Al-4V in the αMEM+FBS environment in the presence of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MC3T3-E1 CELLS CULTURED ON γTiAl AND Ti-6Al-4V ALLOYS

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Vera, J.A.; Torres-Zapata, I.; Sundaram, P.A.; Diffoot-Carlo, N.; Vega, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of MC3T3-E1cells cultured in αMEM+FBS solution on two Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and γTiAl) during 4, 7 and 14 days. EIS measurements were carried out at the open-circuit potential in the 1 mHz to 100 kHz frequency range. Results indicate a general increase in impedance on the Ti alloy surfaces with cells as a function of time. Bode plots indicate changes corresponding to the passive oxide film, adsorption of proteins and cell tissue on surfaces with the passage of time. Normal cellular activity based on the polygonal morphology, with long and fine cytoplasmic prolongations of the cells on Ti-6Al-4V and γTiAl was observed from SEM images. Similarly, mineralization nodules corresponding to cell differentiation associated with the osseogenetic process were observed confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining. Immunofluorescence analysis to detect the presence of collagen Type I showed an increase in the segregation of collagen as a function of time. The impedance values obtained from EIS testing are indicative of the corrosion protection offered to the Ti alloy substrates by the cell layer. This study shows that γTiAl has better corrosion resistance than Ti-6Al-4V in the αMEM+FBS environment in the presence of MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:26145813

  6. Study of corrosion of combinations of titanium/Ti-6Al-4V implants and dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Masatoshi

    2010-10-01

    Metal ions released in 1% lactic acid solution from combinations of titanium fixtures with superstructures made of dental precious metal alloys (dental alloys) and titanium and differences based on the fixing method were investigated. In combinations of titanium with dental alloys, the level of Ti release was influenced by micro-structure of titanium: it was lower when the grain size was smaller. In titanium-titanium combinations, differences in the micro-structure of metal also markedly influenced the dissolution: the level of release increased when the micro-structure of titanium was different. The Ti and V release levels were higher in combination with titanium alloy and titanium than with titanium alloy and dental alloys. Regarding the superstructure-fixture fixing method, the level of Ti release was significantly lower in cement than in direct fixation.

  7. Surface analysis and biocorrosion properties of nanostructured surface sol-gel coatings on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Advincula, Maria C; Petersen, Don; Rahemtulla, Firoz; Advincula, Rigoberto; Lemons, Jack E

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of biocompatible alloys used as implants play a significant role in their osseointegration. Surface sol-gel processing (SSP), a variant of the bulk sol-gel technique, is a relatively new process to prepare bioreactive nanostructured titanium oxide for thin film coatings. The surface topography, roughness, and composition of sol-gel processed Ti6Al4V titanium alloy coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). This was correlated with corrosion properties, adhesive strength, and bioreactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). Electroimpedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization studies indicated similar advantageous corrosion properties between sol-gel coated and uncoated Ti6Al4V, which was attributed to the stable TiO2 composition, topography, and adhesive strength of the sol-gel coating. In addition, inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis of substrates immersed in SBF revealed higher deposition of calcium and phosphate and low release rates of alloying elements from the sol-gel modified alloys. The equivalent corrosion behavior and the definite increase in nucleation of calcium apatite indicate the potential of the sol-gel coating for enhanced bioimplant applications.

  8. Influence of the fabrication process and fluoride content on the tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Licausi, M P; Igual Muñoz, A; Amigó Borrás, V

    2013-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used as dental implants due to their low density, excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, during their lifetime Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys are subjected to different mechanical actions (i.e., sliding or fretting), thus resulting in a tribocorrosion system, which is an irreversible material degradation process due to the combined effect of corrosion and wear. In this study, the tribo-electrochemical behavior of cast and sintered (by powder metallurgy) Ti6Al4V alloy in artificial human saliva solution without and with fluoride additions of 100ppm and 1000ppm and in an average industrial mouth wash solution with a 112ppm fluoride content have been investigated by different electrochemical techniques. The same tribocorrosion mechanisms were found in the cast and sintered titanium alloys, although slightly different wear debris behavior was observed. At low applied passive potentials, wear rates are similar to those obtained under equilibrium conditions (Open Circuit Potential). There exists a critical fluoride concentration above which corrosion and tribocorrosion rates increase.

  9. Ion release and surface oxide composition of AISI 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo, and Ti-6Al-4V alloys immersed in human serum albumin solutions.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Shima; Alfantazi, Akram M

    2014-07-01

    The long-term weight loss, ion release, and surface composition of 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were investigated in a simulated body environment. The samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions with various human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations for 8, 14, and 22 weeks. The specimens initially lost weight up to 14 weeks and then slightly gained weight. The analysis of the released ions was performed by induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results revealed that the precipitation of the dissolved Fe and Co could cause the weight gain of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloys. The surface chemistry of the specimens was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analysis of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy showed that the interaction of Mo with HSA is different from Mo with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This was also observed for Na adsorption into the oxide layer of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the presence of HSA and BSA.

  10. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjeh, E.; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.; Khorsand, H.; Ghaffari, M.

    2012-09-15

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni and Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for brazing Ti

  11. In situ synthesized TiB-TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings: microstructure, tribological and in-vitro biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Das, Mitun; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Dittrick, Stanley A; Mandal, Chitra; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Sampath Kumar, T S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Manna, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    Wear resistant TiB-TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings were deposited on Ti substrate using laser based additive manufacturing technology. Ti6Al4V alloy powder premixed with 5wt% and 15wt% of boron nitride (BN) powder was used to synthesize TiB-TiN reinforcements in situ during laser deposition. Influences of laser power, scanning speed and concentration of BN on the microstructure, mechanical, in vitro tribological and biological properties of the coatings were investigated. Microstructural analysis of the composite coatings showed that the high temperature generated due to laser interaction with Ti6Al4V alloy and BN results in situ formation of TiB and TiN phases. With increasing BN concentration, from 5wt% to 15wt%, the Young's modulus of the composite coatings, measured by nanoindentation, increased from 170±5GPa to 204±14GPa. In vitro tribological tests showed significant increase in the wear resistance with increasing BN concentration. Under identical test conditions TiB-TiN composite coatings with 15wt% BN exhibited an order of magnitude less wear rate than CoCrMo alloy-a common material for articulating surfaces of orthopedic implants. Average top surface hardness of the composite coatings increased from 543±21HV to 877±75HV with increase in the BN concentration. In vitro biocompatibility and flow cytometry study showed that these composite coatings were non-toxic, exhibit similar cell-materials interactions and biocompatibility as that of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) samples. In summary, excellent in vitro wear resistance, high stiffness and suitable biocompatibility make these composite coatings as a potential material for load-bearing articulating surfaces towards orthopaedic implants.

  12. Microstructure and tribological properties of low-friction composite MoS2(Ti,W) coating on the oxygen hardened Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Zimowski, Sławomir; Wendler, Bogdan; Nolbrzak, Piotr; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Duplex surface treatment, which combines the oxygen diffusion hardening with a deposition of low friction MoS2(Ti,W) coating, was applied to improve the Ti-6Al-4V alloy load bearing capacity and tribological properties. The coating (3.1 μm thick) was deposited on the oxygen hardened alloy by magnetron sputtering. Microstructure characterisation was performed by scanning- and transmission electron microscopy methods, as well as X-ray diffractometry. The results of micro/nanostructural analyses performed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that the coatings are composed of MoS2 nanoclusters embedded in an amorphous matrix. Some Ti α, W, and Ti2S nanocrystals were also found in the coating microstructure. The wear resistance and friction coefficient of the hardened oxygen, as well as the coated alloy, was investigated at room temperature (RT), 300 °C, and 350 °C. The presence of the MoS2(Ti,W) coating decreases the friction coefficient from 0.85 for the oxygen hardened alloy to 0.15 (at RT) and 0.09 (at 300 °C and 350 °C) for the coated one. The coating essentially increases the wear resistance of the alloy at RT and 300 °C. It was found that the wear resistance of the coated alloy decreased significantly during the wear test performed at 350 °C.

  13. Effect of argon purity on mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture mode of commercially pure (cp) Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys for ceramometal dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José; Cella, Suelen; Pinto, Marcelo M; Filho, Leonardo E Rodrigues; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2009-12-01

    Provision of an inert gas atmosphere with high-purity argon gas is recommended for preventing titanium castings from contamination although the effects of the level of argon purity on the mechanical properties and the clinical performance of Ti castings have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of argon purity on the mechanical properties and microstructure of commercially pure (cp) Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The castings were made using either high-purity and/or industrial argon gas. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), proportional limit (PL), elongation (EL) and microhardness (VHN) at different depths were evaluated. The microstructure of the alloys was also revealed and the fracture mode was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The data from the mechanical tests and hardness were subjected to a two-and three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). The mean values of mechanical properties were not affected by the argon gas purity. Higher UTS, PL and VHN, and lower EL were observed for Ti-6Al-4V. The microhardness was not influenced by the argon gas purity. The industrial argon gas can be used to cast cp Ti and Ti-6Al-4V.

  14. Enhanced wear and fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modified by plasma carburizing/CrN coating.

    PubMed

    Park, Y G; Wey, M Y; Hong, S I

    2007-05-01

    In this study, a newly developed duplex coating method incorporating plasma carburization and CrN coating was applied to Ti-6Al-4V and its effects on the wear resistance and fatigue life were investigated. The carburized layer with approximately150 microm in depth and CrN coating film with 7.5 microm in thickness were formed after duplex coating. Hard carbide particles such as TiC And V(4)C(3) were formed in the carburized layer. XRD diffraction pattern analysis revealed that CrN film had predominant [111] and [200] textures. The hardness (Hv) was significantly improved up to about 1,960 after duplex coating while the hardness value of original Ti-6Al-4V was 402. The threshold load for the modification and/or failure of CrN coating was measured to be 32 N using the acoustic emission technique. The wear resistance and fatigue life of duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V improved significantly compared to those of un-treated specimen. The enhanced wear resistance can be attributed to the excellent adhesion and improved hardness of CrN coating film for the duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V. The initiation of fatigue cracks is likely to be retarded by the presence of hard and strong layers on the surface, resulting in the enhanced fatigue life.

  15. A comparison of corrosion, tribocorrosion and electrochemical impedance properties of pure Ti and Ti6Al4V alloy treated by micro-arc oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Golozar, M. A.; Garsivaz jazi, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were performed on pure Ti and Ti6Al4V samples at 180 V. The results indicated that unlike the volcanic morphology of oxide layer on pure Ti, a cortex-like morphology with irregular vermiform slots was seen on MAO/Ti6Al4V sample. According to polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of untreated samples was significantly increased by MAO process. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis showed a lower capacitance of barrier layer (led to higher resistance) for MAO/Ti specimens. This indicates that corrosive ions diffusion throughout the oxide film would be more difficult resulted in a higher corrosion resistance. Tribocorrosion results illustrated that the potential of untreated samples was dropped sharply to very low negative values. However, the lower wear volume loss was achieved for Ti6Al4V alloy. SEM images of worn surfaces demonstrated the local detachment of oxide layer within the wear track of MAO/Ti sample. Conversely, no delamination was detected in MAO/Ti6Al4V and a mild abrasive wear was the dominant mechanism.

  16. Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy by an MT-CVD Insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V. S. S.; Ezilarasan, C.; Kumaran, S. S.

    2013-04-01

    Titanium alloys find wide applications in aerospace, defence, and surgical industries due to their unique high strength- to- weight ratio which is maintained even at high temperatures and also their exceptional corrosion resistance. The machining of these materials is a thermally dominant process. At high temperature, they become chemically active and tend to react with tool materials. In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on surface roughness in turning a Ti6Al4V Titanium alloy with a medium temperature chemical vapor deposition tool insert. Experiments have been conducted using Taguchi's experimental design technique. Optimum cutting parameters for minimizing surface roughness have been determined by using the desirability function based approach. A second order model has been established between the cutting parameters and the surface roughness, using the response surface methodology. Predicted values and measured values fairly tally and it indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the surface roughness in the machining of Ti6Al4V Titanium alloy. Experimental results reveal that among the cutting parameters, the feed rate is the most significant machining parameter for surface roughness, followed by depth of cut and cutting speed.

  17. Development of Ultra-Fine Grained Ti and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    are presented and discussed. Ti alloys are a mixture of hexagonal-close-packed and body - centered - cubic crystal structures. Plastic deformation is accommodated by a mixture of dislocation motion and twinning.

  18. Fatigue endurance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with electro-eroded surface for improved bone in-growth.

    PubMed

    Janeček, Miloš; Nový, František; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Wagner, Lothar

    2011-04-01

    Ti-6Al-4V hour-glass shaped rotating beam specimens with duplex microstructure were processed by electric discharge machining (EDM). A comparatively high peak current of 29A was utilized in order to increase surface roughness for improved osteointegration. High cycle fatigue (HCF) tests were performed in rotating beam loading (R=-1) on these EDM specimens and results were compared with electrolytically polished specimens serving as reference. As expected, the HCF performance of EDM specimens was inferior to the electrolytically polished specimens. A detailed study of fatigue crack nucleation and microcrack growth was carried out on failed specimens by SEM. The poor HCF strength of EDM specimens is explained by early crack nucleation due to the high notch sensitivity of Ti-6Al-4V. In addition, process-induced residual tensile stresses and microstructural effects may also account for the drastic loss in HCF performance relative to the electropolished baseline.

  19. Microstructures and Properties of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidized Ti Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for Bio-implant Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Renu; Blawert, Carsten; Majumdar, J. Dutta

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Ti6Al4V has been performed in an electrolyte containing 20 g/L of Na2SiO3, 10 g/L of Na3PO4, 2 g/L of KOH, and 5 g/L of hydroxyapatite at an optimum constant potential of 430 V for 10 minutes. Followed by PEO treatment, surface roughness was measured using non-contact optical profilometer. A detailed characterization of microstructure, composition and phase analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction study. The mechanical properties of the surface have been evaluated by measuring nano-hardness and wear resistance. The effect of surface modification on corrosion resistance property has also been evaluated in Hank's solution. Finally, wettability and bioactivity test have been also performed. PEO developed a thick (150 μm) porous (35 pct) oxide film on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V consisting of anatase, rutile, and SiO2. The nano-hardness of the PEO-treated surface is increased to 8 ± 0.5 GPa as compared to 2 ± 0.4 GPa of the as-received Ti-6Al-4V. Wear and corrosion resistance were improved following oxidation. There is an improvement in wettability in terms of decrease in contact angle from 60 ± 1.5 to 45 ± 1 deg. Total surface energy and its polar component were also increased significantly on PEO-treated surface as compared to the as-received Ti6Al4V.

  20. Long-term corrosion investigation of AISI 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo, and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in simulated body solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Shima; Nickchi, Tirdad; Alfantazi, Akram M.

    2012-06-01

    The long-term weight loss, ion release and surface composition of AISI 316L, the Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were investigated in phosphate buffered solutions (PBS) with various bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentrations. All the samples lost weight up to 14 weeks and then started to gain weight. This can be explained by precipitation of dissolved ions on the surface after 14 weeks of immersion. The quantities of the dissolved ions were measured in immersed solution for 8, 14 and 22 weeks by induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The amounts of Fe released from 316L, and Co and Mo released from the Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy decreased after 14 weeks of immersion in PBS and BSA solutions. This observation coincides with the weight change of the samples. The oxide layer composition and concentration of the specimens exposed to solutions for 22 weeks were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The XPS results revealed that chromium is the main component of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The high Cr concentration of the 316L and Co-Cr-Mo oxide layer corresponds with the slow dissolution rate of Cr compared to other alloying elements of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

  1. Oxynitrided Surface Layer Produced On Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy Under Low Temperature Glow Discharge Conditions For Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wierzchon, T.; Ossowski, M.; Borowski, T.; Morgiel, J.; Czarnowska, E.

    2011-01-17

    In spite that titanium oxides increase biocompatibility of titanium implants but their functional life is limited due to the problems arising from brittles and metalosis. Therefore technology, that allow to produce composite surface layer with controlled microstructure, chemical and phase composition and surface morphology on titanium alloy and eliminates the oxides disadvantages has been existing till now is searched. The requirements of titanium and its alloys implants can be fulfill by the low-temperature glow discharge assisted oxynitriding.The paper describes the surface layer of TiO{sub 2}+TiN+Ti{sub 2}N+{alpha}Ti(N) type produced at temperature 680 deg. C that preserves mechanical properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Characteristics of produced diffusion multi-phase surface layers in range of phase composition, microstructure (SEM, TEM, XRD) and its properties, such as frictional wear resistance are presented. The biological properties in dependency to the applied sterilization method are also analyzed.Properties of produced surface layers are discussed with reference to titanium alloy. The obtained data show that produced surface layers improves titanium alloy properties both frictional wear and biological. Preliminary in vitro examinations show good biocompatibility and antithrombogenic properties.

  2. On the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tool for the effective machining of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Rao, Balkrishna C.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tungsten carbide tool for machining titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to synthesize diamond films on tungsten carbide tools. A boron-doped diamond interlayer was added to a microcrystalline diamond layer in an attempt to improve the interface adhesion strength. The dual-layered diamond-coated tool was employed in machining at cutting speeds in the range of 70 to 150 m min-1 with a lower feed and a lower depth of cut of 0.5 mm rev-1 and 0.5 mm, respectively, to operate in the transition from adhesion- to diffusion-tool-wear and thereby arrive at suitable conditions for enhancing tool life. The proposed tool was then compared, on the basis of performance under real-time cutting conditions, with commercially available microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, titanium nitride and uncoated tungsten carbide tools. The life and surface finish of the proposed dual-layered tool and uncoated tungsten carbide were also investigated in interrupted cutting such as milling. The results of this study show a significant improvement in tool life and finish of Ti-6Al-4V parts machined with the dual-layered diamond-coated tool when compared with its uncoated counterpart. These results pave the way for the use of a low-cost tool, with respect to, polycrystalline diamond for enhancing both tool life and machining productivity in critical sectors fabricating parts out of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The application of this coating technology can also be extended to the machining of non-ferrous alloys owing to its better adhesion strength.

  3. Oxygen depth profiling by resonant backscattering and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy of Ti-6Al-4V alloy oxidized by ion implantation and plasma based treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsengiyumva, S.; Topic, M.; Pichon, L.; Comrie, C. M.; Mtshali, C.

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen depth profiling by means of 16O(α,α)16O backscattering and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) was investigated in two different sets of Ti-6Al-4V samples. The first set was made of Ti-6Al-4V samples implanted at room temperature and 550 °C with 50 and 150 keV O+ ions at fluences ranging from 1.5 × 1017 to 6.0 × 1017 ions/cm2. The second set consisted of Ti-6Al-4V samples treated at 550 °C for 7 h and 24 h under low pressure (8 Pa) oxygen, eventually with RF plasma activation. These results are part of a wider investigation on Ti-6Al-4V motivated by recent publications which have shown that an oxide layer can enhance hydrogen absorption and can then promote Ti-6Al-4V alloys as efficient hydrogen storage materials. The results obtained by the two characterization techniques were compared and discussed, enabling to adjust the dependence to the oxygen concentration of the sputtering rates to be used in the time-to-depth transformation required in GDOES analysis. Considering the low thickness of oxidized alloy, usual procedures employed in GDOES depth calculation were indeed not adapted. Once calibrated thanks to the resonant RBS, GDOES can then be easily employed as fast characterization of oxidized and/or hydrogenated surface of Ti-6Al-4V. The obtained results show that the oxygen content into the surface oxidized layer slightly increases in samples implanted at higher fluence and higher temperature. However the overall oxidized layer thickness (<200 nm) remains within the projected ion depth range and is not significantly increased by thermal diffusion at 550 °C. Taken into account the initial oxide layer, the incorporated oxygen quantity mainly corresponds to the implanted fluence but it can be slightly higher with 550 °C implantation, indicating a slight additional oxidation by residual oxygen or surface contamination. The oxygen penetrations and contents in samples oxidized by thermally activated diffusion treatments were more

  4. The role of oxidative stress in pro-inflammatory activation of human endothelial cells on Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Roman; Peters, Kirsten; Barth, Susanne; Unger, Ronald E; Scharnweber, Dieter; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation is an important step in the early phase of tissue regeneration around an implanted metallic orthopaedic device. However, prolonged inflammation, which can be induced by metallic corrosion products, can lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. Cells in peri-implant tissue as well as metal corrosion can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, thus contributing to an oxidative microenvironment around an implant. Understanding cellular reactions to implant-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory activation is important to help prevent an adverse response to metallic materials. In an earlier study we have shown that endothelial cells grown on Ti6Al4V alloy are subjected to oxidative stress. Since endothelial cells play a critical role in inflammation, in this study we examined the role of oxidative stress in their response to pro-inflammatory activation. Therefore, we stimulated endothelial cells in contact with Ti6Al4V with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monitored the expression of inflammation-associated molecules, such as E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). The induction of these proteins was lower in endothelial cells on Ti6Al4V compared to control tissue culture conditions. There was, however, a discrepancy in pro-inflammatory activation at protein compared to mRNA level in the cells on Ti6Al4V. To examine the role of oxidative stress in this response we utilized different ROS scavengers and showed that ROS depletion improved cellular response to TNF-α on Ti6Al4V. These results could contribute to developing strategies to improve tissue response to metal implants.

  5. Wear studies on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 and 8mole% of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 composite coating on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy for orthopedic joint application.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Perumal; Manivasagam, Geetha; Rajamanickam, Asokamani; Natarajan, Alagumurthi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the wear characteristics of the composite ceramic coating made with Al2O3-40wt%8YSZ on the biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) used for total joint prosthetic components, with the aim of improving their tribological behavior. The coatings were deposited using a plasma spraying technique, and optimization of plasma parameters was performed using response surface methodology to obtain dense coating. The tribological behaviors of the coated and uncoated substrates were evaluated using a ball-on-plate sliding wear tester at 37°C in simulated body-fluid conditions. The microstructure of both the titanium alloy and coated specimen were examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness of the plasma-sprayed alumina-zirconia composite coatings was 2.5 times higher than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, while the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was 253 times higher than that of the composite-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The superior wear resistance of the alumina-zirconia coated alloy is attributed to its enhanced hardness and intersplat bonding strength. Wear-track examination showed that the predominant wear mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was abrasive and adhesive wear, whereas, in the case of alumina-zirconia composite coated alloy, the wear was dominated by microchipping and microcracking.

  6. Wear studies on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 and 8mole% of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 composite coating on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy for orthopedic joint application

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Perumal; Manivasagam, Geetha; Rajamanickam, Asokamani; Natarajan, Alagumurthi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the wear characteristics of the composite ceramic coating made with Al2O3-40wt%8YSZ on the biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) used for total joint prosthetic components, with the aim of improving their tribological behavior. The coatings were deposited using a plasma spraying technique, and optimization of plasma parameters was performed using response surface methodology to obtain dense coating. The tribological behaviors of the coated and uncoated substrates were evaluated using a ball-on-plate sliding wear tester at 37°C in simulated body-fluid conditions. The microstructure of both the titanium alloy and coated specimen were examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness of the plasma-sprayed alumina–zirconia composite coatings was 2.5 times higher than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, while the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was 253 times higher than that of the composite-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The superior wear resistance of the alumina–zirconia coated alloy is attributed to its enhanced hardness and intersplat bonding strength. Wear-track examination showed that the predominant wear mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was abrasive and adhesive wear, whereas, in the case of alumina–zirconia composite coated alloy, the wear was dominated by microchipping and microcracking. PMID:26491323

  7. Theoretical Assessment on the Phase Transformation Kinetic Pathways of Multi-component Ti Alloys: Application to Ti-6Al-4V

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Yanzhou; Heo, Tae Wook; Zhang, Fan; ...

    2015-12-21

    Here we present our theoretical assessment of the kinetic pathways during phase transformations of multi-component Ti alloys. Employing the graphical thermodynamic approach and an integrated free energy function based on the realistic thermodynamic database and assuming that a displacive structural transformation occurs much faster than long-range diffusional processes, we analyze the phase stabilities of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6wt.%Al-4wt.%V). Our systematic analyses predict a variety of possible kinetic pathways for β to (α + β) transformations leading to different types of microstructures under various heat treatment conditions. In addition, the possibility of unconventional kinetic pathways is discussed. Lastly, we also briefly discuss themore » application of our approach to general multicomponent/multiphase alloy systems.« less

  8. Effects of high-energy electro-pulsing treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lingsheng; Tse, Zion T H; Tang, Guoyi; Song, Guolin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electro-pulsing treatment (EPT) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy strips was investigated in this paper. It was found that the elongation to failure of materials obtains a noticeable enhancement with increased EPT processing time while slightly sacrificing strength. Fine recrystallized grains and the relative highest elongation to failure (32.5%) appear in the 11second-EPT samples. Grain coarsening and decreased ductility were brought in with longer EPT duration time. Fracture surface analysis shows that transition from intergranular brittle facture to transgranular dimple fracture takes place with an increase in processing time of EPT. Meanwhile, corrosion behavior of titanium alloys is greatly improved with increased EPT processing time, which is presented by polarization test and surface observation with the beneficial effect of forming a protective anatase-TiO2 film on the surface of alloys. The rapid recrystallization behavior and oxide formation of the titanium alloy strip under EPTs are attributed to the enhancement of nucleation rate, atomic diffusion and oxygen migration resulting from the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects.

  9. Accurate Descriptions of Hot Flow Behaviors Across β Transus of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Intelligence Algorithm GA-SVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-yong; Li, Le; Zhang, Zhi-hua

    2016-09-01

    Hot compression tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a wide temperature range of 1023-1323 K and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1 were conducted by a servo-hydraulic and computer-controlled Gleeble-3500 machine. In order to accurately and effectively characterize the highly nonlinear flow behaviors, support vector regression (SVR) which is a machine learning method was combined with genetic algorithm (GA) for characterizing the flow behaviors, namely, the GA-SVR. The prominent character of GA-SVR is that it with identical training parameters will keep training accuracy and prediction accuracy at a stable level in different attempts for a certain dataset. The learning abilities, generalization abilities, and modeling efficiencies of the mathematical regression model, ANN, and GA-SVR for Ti-6Al-4V alloy were detailedly compared. Comparison results show that the learning ability of the GA-SVR is stronger than the mathematical regression model. The generalization abilities and modeling efficiencies of these models were shown as follows in ascending order: the mathematical regression model < ANN < GA-SVR. The stress-strain data outside experimental conditions were predicted by the well-trained GA-SVR, which improved simulation accuracy of the load-stroke curve and can further improve the related research fields where stress-strain data play important roles, such as speculating work hardening and dynamic recovery, characterizing dynamic recrystallization evolution, and improving processing maps.

  10. Effect of micro shot peening on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of two microstructure Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Aymen A.; Mhaede, Mansour; Wollmann, Manfred; Wagner, Lothar

    2016-02-01

    Titanium alloys continue to be used extensively for the fabrication of surgical implants due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. The surface modification is the main technique to maintain a relatively good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, a surface modification through micro shot peening (SP) using different ceramic shot (850, 450 and 125-250 μm) at 0.22 mmA have been done on two microstructures Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effect of this treatment on the corrosion behavior, surface roughness, microhardness profiles, and residual stresses were investigated. In addition, the corrosion behavior of the ultra-fine grain of Ti-6Al-4V materials produced by rotary swaging (RS) deformation has been investigated and compared with the duplex (DU) and globular (GL) microstructures. The corrosion behavior was studied using potentiodynamic polarization and electro impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical tests were performed in Ringer's solution at 37 °C. The results show that shot peening resulted in near-surface maximum hardness and residual stresses values. Increasing the shot size led to a lower surface roughness and an improved corrosion resistance. However, SP reduces the corrosion resistance compared with the untreated materials. The globular microstructure shows high corrosion rate compared with the duplex and nanostructured materials.

  11. Characteristics of Ti(C, N)/TiB composite layer on Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by laser surface melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xian; Yamaguchi, Tomiko; Nishio, Kazumasa

    2016-06-01

    A Ti(C, N)/TiB reinforced titanium matrix composite layer was successfully in-situ synthesized by laser melting on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface with Ti-BN-C mixed powder, aiming at improving the wear resistance. The microstructure, chemical composition, hardness and wear behavior were analyzed. The results showed that, the cross sectional microstructure can be clearly divided into three parts, which were the laser melted layer, heat affected zone and non-affected zone. The reinforcements in laser melted layer consisted of dendritic TiC0.3N0.7 phases and fine-structure TiB phases. The matrix in laser melted layer was in a two-phase structure, being composed of platelet α titanium and intergranular β titanium. The hardness was increased from 320 HV in the substrate to 450-550 HV in the modified layer. The wear resistance was improved that, the wear volume loss of the laser treated sample was approximately half of the as received Ti-6Al-4V alloy after 8 h wear test.

  12. The effect of large-area pulsed electron beam melting on the corrosion and microstructure of a Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. C.; Murray, J. W.; Nie, M.; Cook, R. B.; Clare, A. T.

    2014-08-01

    The use of titanium alloys in biomedical applications continues to increase due to the excellent stiffness to weight ratio and high corrosion resistance. In order to improve the surface wettability and corrosion properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the surface treatment method, large area electron beam melting technique was investigated. Polished samples were subject to pulsed treatments of 1, 15 and 25 at 1.38 J/cm2 beam energy. Surface roughness and contact wetting angles were reduced as a result of the treatment. Microstructural analysis of the surface by XRD and FIB-TEM revealed a martensitic alpha prime phase formed as a result of the high cooling rates induced by the treatment. The presence of this homogenous martensite layer was shown to facilitate a compact passive oxide layer formation during corrosion, thus improving corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude compared to an untreated sample. Large area electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V induced a number of changes to the near surface microstructure of the samples, all of which could be used to tailor mechanical and corrosion properties to that of a desired application, without compromising the bulk material properties. These are explored in detail in this work.

  13. Enhanced compatibility and initial stability of Ti6Al4V alloy orthodontic miniscrews subjected to anodization, cyclic precalcification, and heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun-Ju; Nguyen, Thuy-Duong T.; Lee, Seung-Youp; Jeon, Young-Mi; Bae, Tae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the bioactivity, and the biomechanical and bone-regenerative properties of Ti6Al4V miniscrews subjected to anodization, cyclic precalcification, and heat treatment (APH treatment) and their potential clinical use. Methods The surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloys were modified by APH treatment. Bioactivity was assessed after immersion in simulated body fluid for 3 days. The hydrophilicity and the roughness of APH-treated surfaces were compared with those of untreated (UT) and anodized and heat-treated (AH) samples. For in vivo tests, 32 miniscrews (16 UT and 16 APH) were inserted into 16 Wistar rats, one UT and one APH-treated miniscrew in either tibia. The miniscrews were extracted after 3 and 6 weeks and their osseointegration (n = 8 for each time point and group) was investigated by surface and histological analyses and removal torque measurements. Results APH treatment formed a dense surface array of nanotubular TiO2 layer covered with a compact apatite-like film. APH-treated samples showed better bioactivity and biocompatibility compared with UT and AH samples. In vivo, APH-treated miniscrews showed higher removal torque and bone-to-implant contact than did UT miniscrews, after both 3 and 6 weeks (p < 0.05). Also, early deposition of densely mineralized bone around APH-treated miniscrews was observed, implying good bonding to the treated surface. Conclusions APH treatment enhanced the bioactivity, and the biomechanical and bone regenerative properties of the Ti6Al4V alloy miniscrews. The enhanced initial stability afforded should be valuable in orthodontic applications. PMID:25309864

  14. A Comparison in Mechanical Properties of Cermets of Calcium Silicate with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys for Hard Tissues Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Sumit; Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yau, Yat-Huang; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements. PMID:25538954

  15. Preparation of biomedical Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite/titania coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Lü, Guo-Hua; Mao, Fei-Fei; Yang, Si-Ze

    2014-03-01

    Nano-Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite/titania (HA/TiO2) coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by the plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Compared with the substrate, the deposited coatings display attractive mechanical and biomedical properties. First, the coatings have stronger wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Second, they show a strong antibacterial ability. The mean vitality of the P. gingivalis on the coating surfaces is reduced to about 21%. Third, the coatings have good biocompatibility. The mean viability of the fibroblast cells on the coating surface is increased to about 130%. With these attractive properties, Ag incorporated HA/TiO2 coatings may be useful in the biomedical field.

  16. A new behavior model for better understanding of titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzallah, M.; Pottier, T.; Senatore, J.; Mousseigne, M.; Germain, G.; Landon, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of Ti-6Al-4V has been studied via shear tests, using hat shaped specimen, on a servo-hydraulic Gleeble 3800 testing machine under the strain rate up to 103s-1and temperature up to 900°C. A new thermo-visco-plastic material law is proposed, based on a modified Johnson-Cook formulation. An inverse identification method based on Finite Element (FE) is established and detailed in order to determine the constitutive law's parameters. The new model is implemented in a 3D finite element model to study the chip formation in orthogonal cutting configuration. The numerical simulations were performed on FE software Impetus Afea® able to solve dynamic non-linear problem.

  17. Physical Simulation of Deformation and Microstructure Evolution During Friction Stir Processing of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, S. S.; Livingston, J.; Lippold, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of using high-strain rate (1.475 to 3.942 s-1) hot-torsion testing with a Gleeble® thermomechanical simulator was demonstrated for simulating microstructures consistent with friction stir processing (FSP) of Ti-6Al-4V. The tests were performed on α/β-processed base material at temperatures both above and below the β-transus. Various phenomena including the refinement of α- and β-grains, deformation-induced heating, and deformation instabilities were observed. These tests reproduced the range of microstructures that are observed under FSP processing conditions. The testing methodology can be used for generating constitutive material property equations relevant to computational FSP/friction stir welding models.

  18. Fabrication of dense α-alumina layer on Ti-6Al-4V alloy hybrid for bearing surfaces of artificial hip joint.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Rohit; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in hip replacements are focused towards producing reliable bearing surfaces to enhance their longevity. In this perspective, progressive attempts have been made to improve the wear resistance of polyethylene to eliminate osteolysis and mechanical reliability of brittle alumina ceramics, but in vain. It is proposed that both high wear resistance and mechanical reliability can be retained if a thin layer of dense alumina is formed onto high toughness Ti-6Al-4V alloy. For this purpose, we devised a unique methodology in which a layer of Al metal was deposited onto the Ti alloy substrate by cold spraying (CS), followed by a heat treatment to form Al3Ti reaction layer at their interface to improve adhesion and subsequent micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment to transform Al to alumina layer. An optimal MAO treatment of cold sprayed Al formed an adherent and dense α-alumina layer with high Vickers hardness matching with that of sintered alumina used as a femoral head. Structure-phase-property relationships in dense α-alumina layer have been revealed and discussed in the light of our research findings. The designed alumina/Ti alloy hybrid might be a potential candidate for reliable bearing surfaces of artificial hip joint.

  19. Determination of Specific Forces and Tool Deflections in Micro-milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using Finite Element Simulations and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Simone; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Thepsonti, Thanongsak; Oezel, Tugrul

    2011-05-04

    Titanium alloys offer superb properties in strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility and are commonly utilized in medical devices and implants. Micro-end milling process is a direct and rapid fabrication method for manufacturing medical devices and implants in titanium alloys. Process performance and quality depend upon an understanding of the relationship between cutting parameters and forces and resultant tool deflections to avoid tool breakage. For this purpose, FE simulations of chip formation during micro-end milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an ultra-fine grain solid carbide two-flute micro-end mill are investigated using DEFORM software.At first, specific forces in tangential and radial directions of cutting during micro-end milling for varying feed advance and rotational speeds have been determined using designed FE simulations for chip formation process. Later, these forces are applied to the micro-end mill geometry along the axial depth of cut in 3D analysis of ABAQUS. Consequently, 3D distributions for tool deflections and von Misses stress are determined. These analyses will yield in establishing integrated multi-physics process models for high performance micro-end milling and a leap-forward to process improvements.

  20. The effect of microstructure on fatigue performance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after EDM surface treatment for application in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Stráský, Josef; Janeček, Miloš; Harcuba, Petr; Bukovina, Michal; Wagner, Lothar

    2011-11-01

    Three different microstructures--equiaxed, bi-modal and coarse lamellar--are prepared from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Electric discharge machining (EDM) with a high peak current (29 A) is performed in order to impose surface roughness and modify the chemical composition of the surface. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation revealed a martensitic surface layer and subsurface heat affected zone (HAZ). EDX measurements showed carbon enriched remnants of the EDM process on the material surface. Rotating bending fatigue tests are undertaken for EDM processed samples for all three microstructures and also for electropolished-benchmark-samples. The fatigue performance is found to be rather poor and not particularly dependent on microstructure. The bi-modal microstructure shows a slightly superior high cycle fatigue performance. This performance can be further improved by a suitable heat treatment to an endurance limit of 200 MPa.

  1. Faster methods for estimating arc centre position during VAR and results from Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, B. G.; Winter, N.; Daniel, B.; Ward, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Direct measurement of the flow of electric current during VAR is extremely difficult due to the aggressive environment as the arc process itself controls the distribution of current. In previous studies the technique of “magnetic source tomography” was presented; this was shown to be effective but it used a computationally intensive iterative method to analyse the distribution of arc centre position. In this paper we present faster computational methods requiring less numerical optimisation to determine the centre position of a single distributed arc both numerically and experimentally. Numerical validation of the algorithms were done on models and experimental validation on measurements based on titanium and nickel alloys (Ti6Al4V and INCONEL 718). The results are used to comment on the effects of process parameters on arc behaviour during VAR.

  2. In vitro apatite formation on nano-crystalline titania layer aligned parallel to Ti6Al4V alloy substrates with sub-millimeter gap.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yuko; Uetsuki, Keita; Shirosaki, Yuki; Osaka, Akiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Pure titanium substrates were chemically oxidized with H2O2 and subsequent thermally oxidized at 400 °C in air to form anatase-type titania layer on their surface. The chemically and thermally oxidized titanium substrate (CHT) was aligned parallel to the counter specimen such as commercially pure titanium (cpTi), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) popularly used as implant materials or Al substrate with 0.3-mm gap. Then, they were soaked in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF, pH 7.4, 36.5 °C) for 7 days. XRD and SEM analysis showed that the in vitro apatite-forming ability of the contact surface of the CHT specimen decreased in the order: cpTi > Ti6Al4V > Al. EDX and XPS surface analysis showed that aluminum species were present on the contact surface of the CHT specimen aligned parallel to the counter specimen such as Ti6Al4V and Al. This result indicated that Ti6Al4V or Al specimens released the aluminum species into the SBF under the spatial gap. The released aluminum species might be positively or negatively charged in the SBF and thus can interact with calcium or phosphate species as well as titania layer, causing the suppression of the primary heterogeneous nucleation and growth of apatite on the contact surface of the CHT specimen under the spatial gap. The diffusion and adsorption of aluminum species derived from the half-sized counter specimen under the spatial gap resulted in two dimensionally area-selective deposition of apatite particles on the contact surfaces of the CHT specimen.

  3. Low-melting-point titanium-base brazing alloys. Part 2: Characteristics of brazing Ti-21Ni-14Cu on Ti-6Al-4V substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E.; Chen, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Filler metal of a low-melting-point (917 C) Ti-21Ni-14Cu was brazed onto the substrate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at 960 C for 2, 4, and 8 h to investigate the microstructural evolution and electrochemical characteristics of the brazed metal as a function of the period of brazing time. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the microstructure and phase of the brazed metal; also, the potentiostat was used for corrosion study. Experimental results indicate that diffusion of copper and nickel from the filler metal into the equiaxed {alpha} plus intergranular {beta} structure of Ti-6Al-4V substrate causes the lamellar Widmanstaetten structure to form. The intermetallic Ti{sub 2}Ni phase existing in the prior filler metal diminishes, while the Ti{sub 2}Cu phase can be identified for the metal brazed at 960 C for 2 h, but the latter phase decreases with time. Advantage might be taken from the evidence of faster diffusion of nickel than copper along the {beta} phase to the substrate. In deaerated Hank`s solution, corrosion potential, corrosion current density, and critical potential for active-to-passive transition decrease while the passivation range broadens with the period of brazing time. However, all the brazed metals, immersed for different periods in oxygen-saturated Hank`s solution, show similar corrosion behavior, irrespective of the brazing time.

  4. Multilayered TiAlN films on Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating process.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Huang, Jiaqiang

    2016-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy has been widely used as a suitable material for surgical implants such as artificial hip joints. In this study, a series of multilayered gradient TiAlN coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrate using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) process. Taguchi design of experiment approach was used to reveal the influence of depositing parameters to the film composition and performance of TiAlN coatings. The phase structure and chemical composition of the TiAlN films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical properties, including hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient, wear rate and adhesion strength were systematically evaluated. Potentiodynamic tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coated samples in Ringer's solution at 37°C to simulate human body environment. Comprehensive performance of TiAlN films was evaluated by assigning different weight according to the application environment. S8, deposited by Ti target current of 8A, Al target current of 6A, bias voltage of -60V and nitrogen content with OEM (optical emission monitor) value of 45%, was found to achieve best performance in orthogonal experiments. Depositing parameters of S8 might be practically applied for commercialization of surgical implants.

  5. Synthesis of High-Temperature Self-lubricating Wear Resistant Composite Coating on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jian; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Xiang, Zhan-Feng; Shi, Shi-Hong; Chen, Yao; Shi, Gao-Lian; Wu, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yu-Nan

    2015-05-01

    Laser deposition was adopted to prepare novel Ni-based solid solution (γ-NiCrAlTi)/ TiC/α-Ti/CaF2 high-temperature self-lubricating wear resistant composite coating on Ti6Al4V alloy. Microstructure, micro-hardness, wear behavior, and counter-body effect of the coating were investigated systematically. It can be seen that the coating mainly consists of γ-NiCrAlTi, TiC, α-Ti, and small fine CaF2 particles. Average micro-hardness of the coating is 1023 HV0.3, which is about three-factor higher than that of Ti6Al4V substrate (380 HV0.3). The friction coefficient and wear rate of the coating decrease at all test temperatures to different extents with respect to the substrate. The improvement in wear resistance is believed to be the combined effects of the γ-NiCrAlTi solid solution, the dominating anti-wear capabilities of the reinforced TiC carbides, and the self-lubricating property of CaF2.

  6. Influence of damping coefficient from permanent magnets on chatter formation during end milling of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Amin, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    In machining operations, chatter is undesirable due to its adverse effects on the product quality, operation cost, machining accuracy and machine tool life. It is also responsible for reducing output. Chatter is a self-excitation phenomenon occurring in machine tools, in which the cutting process tends to lower the damping capacity of the machine structural components ending in an unstable behavior of the system. Chatter arises due to resonance when the vibrations of the instability of chip formation and the natural vibration modes of the machine-system components coincide. This paper focuses on the influence of damping coefficient from permanent magnets on chip serration frequency as an approach of minimizing chatter in end milling of Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). The method consists of two ferrite permanent magnet bars (dimensions: 1" × 6" × 3"), mounted 5mm from the cutting tool using a specially designed fixture which provided a uniform magnetic field of 2500-2700 Gausses. A titanium alloy Ti6Al4V block was then end milled using uncoated WC-Co inserts. A sequence of 15 experimental runs was conducted based on a small Central Composite Design (CCD) model in Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The primary (independent) parameters were: cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The data acquisition system comprised a vibration sensor (accelerometer) and a signal conditioning unit was used to measure the vibration data. The resultant vibrations were then analyzed using the DASYLab 5.6 software. Machining tests were conducted for two different conditions - with and without the application of magnets. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to measure the chip segmentations. The SEM analysis of chip serrations demonstrated that the chip serration frequency were more stable while cutting under the presence of permanent magnets due to lower intensity of chatter.

  7. Effect of an amorphous titania nanotubes coating on the fatigue and corrosion behaviors of the biomedical Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Leonardo Contri; Bortolan, Carolina Catanio; da Silva, Paulo Sergio Carvalho Pereira; Bolfarini, Claudemiro; Oliveira, Nilson Tadeu Camarinho

    2017-01-01

    An array of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes with an amorphous structure was produced on the biomedical Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys, and the resulting fatigue and corrosion behaviors were studied. The electrochemical response of the nanotubular oxide surfaces was investigated in Ringer physiological solution through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The absence of transpassivation in the chloride-containing solution, in addition to the micron-scale values of the passivation current density, indicated the excellent corrosion behavior of the coating and the satisfactory protection against the creation of potential stress concentrators in the surface. Axial fatigue tests were performed in physiological solution on polished and coated conditions, with characterization of the treated surfaces by scanning electron microscopy before and after the tests. The surface modification was not deleterious to the fatigue response of both alloys mainly due to the nano-scale dimension of the nanotubes layer. An estimation based on fracture mechanics revealed that a circumferential crack in the range of 5μm depth would be necessary to affect the fatigue performance, which is far from the thickness of the studied coating, although no cracks were actually observed in the oxide surfaces after the tests.

  8. On the absence of shear cracking and grain boundary cavitation in secondary tensile regions of Ti-6Al-4V-0.1B alloy during hot (α + β)-compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Suwas, Satyam

    2014-02-01

    Deformation instabilities, such as shear cracking and grain boundary cavitation, which are observed in the secondary tensile region of Ti-6Al-4V alloy during compressive deformation in the (α + β)-phase field, do not form in Ti-6Al-4V-0.1B alloy when processed under the same conditions. This has been attributed to the microstructural modifications, e.g. the absence of grain boundary α and adjacent grain boundary retained β layers and a lower proportion of 90o-misoriented α-colonies that occur with boron addition.

  9. Effects of the different frequencies and loads of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface mechanical properties and fretting wear resistance of HIP Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Qu, S. G.; Pan, Y. X.; Li, X. Q.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of the different frequencies and loads of multi-pass ultrasonic surface rolling (MUSR) on surface layer mechanical properties, microstructure and fretting friction and wear characteristics of HIP (hot isostatic pressing) Ti-6Al-4 V alloy. Some microscopic analysis methods (SEM, TEM and EDS) were used to characterize the modified surface layer of material after MUSR treatment. The results indicated that the material in sample surface layer experienced a certain extent plastic deformation, and accompanied by some dense dislocations and twins generation. Moreover surface microhardness and residual stress of samples treated by MUSR were also greatly improved compared with the untreated. The fretting friction and wear properties of samples treated by MUSR in different conditions are tested at 10 and 15 N in dry friction conditions. It could be found that friction coefficient and wear volume loss were significantly declined in the optimal result. The main wear mechanism of MUSR-treated samples included abrasive wear, adhesion and spalling.

  10. Fatigue Life and Short Crack Behavior in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy; Interactions of Foreign Object Damage, Stress, and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Behzad

    2008-04-01

    High-cycle fatigue (HCF) failures associated with foreign object damage (FOD) in turbine engines of military aircrafts have been of major concern for the aeronautic industry in recent years. The present work is focused on characterizing the effects of FOD on crack initiation and small crack growth of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy at ambient and also elevated temperatures. Results show that the preferred crack initiation site depends on applied stress and temperature as maximum fractions of cracks emanating from the simulated damage site, and naturally initiated cracks are observed at 25 °C under the maximum stress of 700 MPa and at 300 °C under the maximum stress of 300 MPa. The fatigue crack growth rate is influenced by increasing temperature, and the FCG rate at 300 °C is higher than that at room temperature under the same Δ K, whereas this effect for FOD-site initiated cracks is not so remarkable. This observation seems to be due to the effect of stress relaxation at 300 °C. Results also indicate that fatigue crack initiation life ( N i ) and fatigue life ( N f ) are expressed by three-parameter Weibull distribution function.

  11. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of surface modified Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys used for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Basiaga, Marcin; Kajzer, Wojciech; Walke, Witold; Kajzer, Anita; Kaczmarek, Marcin

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of selected functional properties of TiO2 layers deposited by ALD method on the surface of Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys intended for implants in bone surgery. TiO2 layer was applied at the constant temperature of the ALD process at T=200°C at a variable number of cycles, which resulted in a different layer thickness. Different process cycles of 500, 1250, and 2500 were analyzed. The application of experimental methods (AFM, SEM, wettability, potentiodynamic test, EIS, scratch test, nanohardness and layer thickness) enabled to select the optimal number of cycles, and thus the thickness of the TiO2 layer of the most favorable functional properties. The obtained results clearly showed that regardless of the type of titanium substrate, the TiO2 layer applied in a 2500cycle ALD process has the best physicochemical and electrochemical properties. These properties have major impact on biocompatibility, and therefore the quality of the final product. The information obtained can be useful for manufacturers of medical devices involved in the production of implants used in reconstructive surgery of skeletal system.

  12. Reducing the Hook Defect of Friction Stir Lap Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Slightly Penetrating into the Lower Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-02-01

    For the purpose of reducing the hook defect in friction stir lap welding joint, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was lap welded by slightly penetrating into the lower sheet. Hook feature, microstructure and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly discussed. Results show that using slight penetration, plastic material mainly concentrates above the lap interface, which is beneficial to suppress the primary hook and broaden the stir zone (SZ) width. Simultaneously, a very small secondary hook is formed. The void-like defect, which is formed due to high peak temperature and big temperature gradient along thickness, can be eliminated by decreasing the rotating speed. Microstructures along thickness show much difference due to big temperature gradient. SZ hardness of both the upper and lower sheets is higher than the base material due to finer grains. Bigger lap shear failure load can be obtained using 150 rpm, which is 17.1 KN. Lap joints fracture along the secondary hook and present ductile fracture mode.

  13. Effects of volume fraction of tempered martensite on dynamic deformation properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy having a bimodal microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, You Hwan; Lee, Chong Soo; Lee, Sunghak

    2005-03-01

    The effects of the volume fraction of tempered martensite on the tensile and dynamic deformation properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy having a bimodal microstructure were investigated in this study. Five microstructures having various tempered-martensite volume fractions were obtained by varying heat-treatment conditions. Dynamic torsional tests were conducted on them using a torsional Kolsky bar. The test data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, tensile properties, and adiabatic shear-band formation. Under a dynamic loading condition, the maximum shear stress increased with increasing tempered-martensite volume fraction, whereas the fracture shear strain decreased. Observation of the deformed area after the dynamic torsional test indicated that a number of voids initiated mainly at α-phase/tempered-martensite interfaces, and that the number of voids increased with increasing martensite volume fraction. Adiabatic shear bands of 6 to 10 μm in width were formed in the specimens having lower martensite volume fractions, while they were not formed in those having higher martensite volume fractions. The possibility of adiabatic shear-band formation was explained by concepts of absorbed deformation energy and void initiation.

  14. Effects of microstructural factors on quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with widmanstätten structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Chong Soo; Hur, Sunmoo

    2003-11-01

    The effects of microstructural factors on the quasi-static tensile and dynamic torsional deformation behaviors in Ti-6Al-4V alloys with Widmanstätten structures were investigated in this study. Dynamic torsional tests were conducted using a torsional Kolsky bar for five Widmanstätten structures, in which microstructural parameters such as colony size and α lamellar spacing were varied by heat treatments, and then the test data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, tensile properties, and fracture mode. Under dynamic torsional loading, maximum shear stress was largely dependent on colony size, whereas shear strain at the maximum shear stress point was on colony size as well as α lamellar spacing. Adiabatic shear bands were found in the deformed area of the fractured torsional specimens, and their width was smallest in the structure whose colony size and α lamellar spacing were both large. The possibility of the adiabatic shear band formation was quantitatively analyzed in relation to microstructural factors. It was the highest in the coarse Widmanstätten structure, which was confirmed by the theoretical critical shear strain (υ c ) condition for the adiabatic shear band formation.

  15. Corrosion-fatigue of laser-repaired commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy under different test environments.

    PubMed

    Zavanelli, R A; Guilherme, A S; Pessanha-Henriques, G E; de Arruda Nóbilo, M Antônio; Mesquita, M F

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion-fatigue life of laser-repaired specimens fabricated from commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, tested under different storage conditions. For each metal, 30 dumbbell rods with a central 2.3 mm diameter were prepared by lost-wax casting with the Rematitan System. Simulating the failure after service, corrosion-fatigue life in different media at room temperature (air, synthetic saliva and fluoride synthetic saliva) was determined at a testing frequency of 10 Hz for intact specimens and after laser repairing, using a square waveform with equal maximum tensile and compressive stress that was 30% lower than the 0.2% offset yield strength. For laser welding, the fractured specimens were rejoined using a jig to align the sections invested in type-IV dental stone. The adjacent areas of the gap was air-abraded with 100 microm aluminum oxide, laser welded and retested under the same conditions as the initial intact specimens. The number of cycles at failure was recorded, and the fracture surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The number of cycles for failure of the welded and intact specimens was compared by anova and the Tukey test at a 5% probability level. Within the limitations of this study, the number of cycles required for fracture decreased in wet environments and the laser repairing process adversely affected the life of both metals under the corrosion-fatigue conditions.

  16. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-11-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide-sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (Icorr) and higher corrosion potential (Ecorr) than those of the substrate.

  17. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Naiming; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Fan, Ailan; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  18. A Comparative Study on Johnson Cook, Modified Zerilli-Armstrong and Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Models to Predict High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in α + β Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Han, Yingying

    2016-03-01

    True stress and true strain values obtained from isothermal compression tests over a wide temperature range from 1,073 to 1,323 K and a strain rate range from 0.001 to 1 s-1 were employed to establish the constitutive equations based on Johnson Cook, modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) and strain-compensated Arrhenius-type models, respectively, to predict the high-temperature flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in α + β phase. Furthermore, a comparative study has been made on the capability of the three models to represent the elevated temperature flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Suitability of the three models was evaluated by comparing both the correlation coefficient R and the average absolute relative error (AARE). The results showed that the Johnson Cook model is inadequate to provide good description of flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in α + β phase domain, while the predicted values of modified ZA model and the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could agree well with the experimental values except under some deformation conditions. Meanwhile, the modified ZA model could track the deformation behavior more accurately than other model throughout the entire temperature and strain rate range.

  19. Novel production method and in-vitro cell compatibility of porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy disk for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; Khalil, Khalil Abdel-Razek; Dewidar, Montasser; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Yi, Ho Keun; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-08-01

    Porous metals are attractive due to its unique physical, mechanical, and new bone tissue ingrowth properties. In the present study, the production of highly porous Ti-6Al-4V parts by powder metallurgical technology and subsequently it's uses in in vitro bone tissue engineering is described. A space-holder method using carbamide with different particle size to produce parts with porosities between 35 and 70% were applied. The compressive strength and Young's modulus of porous Ti-6Al-4V were determined. Results indicated that stress and Young's modulus decrease with increasing porosity and pore size. The porous parts are characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, study was to investigate the effects of three different porosities of porous Ti-6Al-4V (35, 50, and 70%) on proliferation, differentiation, and cell-matrix interaction of mouse osteoblast-like cells, MC-3T3. Results showed that the cell proliferation was significantly (p < 0.05) higher on 70% porous Ti-6Al-4V. However, synthesis of different types of extra cellular matrix proteins was also more abundant on 70% porous Ti-6Al-4V than 35 and 50% porous Ti-6Al-4V disk except some specific proteins. An increase in alkaline phosphate activity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher on 70 and 50% porous Ti-6Al-4V disk after 12 days of MC-3T3 cells incubation. Above all, results indicated that porosity (nearly 70%) of porous Ti-6Al-4V topography affects proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC-3T3 cells. The results showed that this novel process is a promise to fabricate porous biomaterials for bone implants.

  20. Anidulafungin (Eli Lilly & Co).

    PubMed

    Hawser, S

    1999-12-01

    The pentyloxyterphenyl side chain derivative of echinocandin B, anidulafungin, is a 1,3-alpha-glucan synthesis inhibitor undergoing phase II clinical trials by Versicor and Eli Lilly, in various formulations, for the potential treatment of fungal and protozoal infections. Eli Lilly has retained options to the oral formulation of the compound, but development, clinical registration and marketing rights were licensed to Versicor in June 1999. The primary target of this compound is Candida, but Eli Lilly also intends to develop the drug for Aspergillus infections. No activity has been shown against Cryptococcus. The oral activity of anidulafungin is compromised by a low bioavailability, a decreased absorption when taken with food, and gastrointestinal side effects at higher doses. The development of a phosphorylated prodrug, LY-307853, which is converted in the body to anidulafungin by tissue and serum phosphatases, was discontinued in favor of an oral formulation, which uses anidulafungin directly. In February 1999, Deutsche Bank predicted sales of $100 million in 2001, rising to $300 million in 2003.

  1. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties.

  2. Interfacial reaction of intermetallic compounds of ultrasonic-assisted brazed joints between dissimilar alloys of Ti6Al4V and Al4Cu1Mg.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhipeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Yan, Jiuchun; Li, Dacheng

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted brazing of Al4Cu1Mg and Ti6Al4V using Zn-based filler metal (without and with Si) has been investigated. Before brazing, the Ti6Al4V samples were pre-treated by hot-dip aluminizing and ultrasonic dipping in a molten filler metal bath in order to control the formation of intermetallic compounds between the Ti6Al4V samples and the filler metal. The results show that the TiAl(3) phase was formed in the interface between the Ti6Al4V substrate and the aluminized coating. For the Zn-based filler metal without Si, the Ti6Al4V interfacial area of the brazed joint did not change under the effect of the ultrasonic wave, and only consisted of the TiAl(3) phase. For the Zn-based filler metal with Si, the TiAl(3) phase disappeared and a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase was formed at the interfacial area of the brazed joints under the effect of the ultrasonic wave. Due to the TiAl(3) phase completely changing to a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase, the morphology of the intermetallic compounds changed from a block-like shape into a lamellar-like structure. The highest shear strength of 138MPa was obtained from the brazed joint free of the block-like TiAl(3) phase.

  3. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. PMID:26648719

  4. Development of Laser Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    2006-01-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) depositions with Ti-6Al-4V gas-atomized powder were accomplished at five different temperatures, ranging from 30 to 400 C, imposed on the base plate. These base plate temperatures were employed in an effort to relieve stresses which develop during the deposition. Warpage of the base plate was monitored. Only a slight decline in warpage was observed as the base plate temperature was increased. Results indicate that substrate temperatures closer to the stress relief minimum of 480 C would relieve deposition stresses, though process parameters would likely need to be modified to compensate for the higher base plate temperature. The compositions of the as-received powder and the LENS deposited material were chemically analyzed. The oxygen content of the LENS material was 0.154 wt.% which is less than the maximum impurity limit of 0.2 percent for commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloys, but is over the limit allowed in ELI grade (0.13 percent). The level of oxygen in the commercial base plate used was only 0.0635 percent. Tensile specimens were machined from the LENS deposited material and tested in tension at room temperature. The ultimate and yield tensile stresses of the LENS material were about 1200 and 1150 MPa respectively, which is about 20 percent higher than the strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V. The higher strength of the LENS material was due to its fine structure and high oxygen content. The LENS deposits were not fully dense; voids were frequent at the interfaces between deposited layers. These dispersed sheets of voids were parallel to the longitudinal axis of the resulting tensile specimens. Apparently there was sufficient continuous, fully dense material longitudinally to enable the high strengths. Ductility was low in the LENS material. Percent elongation at failure in the LENS material was near 4 percent, which is less than half of what is usually expected from Ti-6Al-4V. The low ductility was caused by high oxygen levels, and the

  5. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu

    2002-09-05

    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  6. Critical design aspects of dynamic titanium alloy risers

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, C.F.; Schutz, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    Titanium alloys offer a unique, attractive combination of physical, mechanical, and corrosion properties for design of dynamic, compliant offshore risers. The Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, in a beta-transformed condition and with minor ruthenium or palladium additions for chloride resistance above 80 C, represent logical base-case metallic materials for compliant risers. All of the technology and components needed to produce a complete, viable titanium alloy compliant riser system, including pipe, termination designs, joining methods, and coatings are available, and are reviewed in this paper.

  7. Determination of structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5 and (NbyCu 1-y)Ox thin films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Mazur, M; Kalisz, M; Wojcieszak, D; Grobelny, M; Mazur, P; Kaczmarek, D; Domaradzki, J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper comparative studies on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5/Ti and (NbyCu1-y)Ox/Ti alloy systems have been investigated. Pure layers of niobia and niobia with a copper addition were deposited on a Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface using the magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the prepared thin films were examined with the aid of XRD, XPS SEM and AFM measurements. The mechanical properties (i.e., nanohardness, Young's modulus and abrasion resistance) were performed using nanoindentation and a steel wool test. The corrosion properties of the coatings were determined by analysis of the voltammetric curves. The deposited coatings were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate, no discontinuity of the thin film was observed and the surface morphology was homogeneous. The hardness of pure niobium pentoxide was ca. 8.64GPa. The obtained results showed that the addition of copper into pure niobia resulted in the preparation of a layer with a lower hardness of ca. 7.79 GPa (for niobia with 17 at.% Cu) and 7.75 GPa (for niobia with 25 at.% Cu). The corrosion properties of the tested thin films deposited on the surface of titanium alloy depended on the composition of the thin layer. The addition of copper (i.e. a noble metal) to Nb2O5 film increased the corrosion resistance followed by a significant decrease in the value of corrosion currents and, in case of the highest Cu content, the shift of corrosion potential towards the noble direction. The best corrosion properties were obtained from a sample of Ti6Al4V coated with (Nb0.75Cu0.25)Ox thin film. It seems that the tested materials could be used in the future as protection coatings for Ti alloys in biomedical applications such as implants.

  8. Microstructure and high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy surface by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongxi; Wang, Chuanqi; Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Yehua

    2010-11-01

    A high-temperature oxidation resistant TiN embedded in Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating was fabricated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface by 6kW transverse-flow CO2 laser apparatus. The composition, morphology and microstructure of the laser clad TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the composite coatings and the titanium alloy substrate, isothermal oxidation test was performed in a conventional high-temperature resistance furnace at 600°C and 800°C respectively. The result shows that the laser clad intermetallic composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like, and dendrites), and uniformly distributed in the Ti3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between the Ti powder and AlN powder occurred completely under the laser irradiation. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is 844HV0.2, 3.4 times higher than that of the titanium alloy substrate. The high-temperature oxidation resistance test reveals that TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating results in the better modification of high-temperature oxidation behavior than the titanium substrate. The excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the laser cladding layer is attributed to the formation of the reinforced phase TiN and Al2O3, TiO2 hybrid oxide. Therefore, the laser cladding TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is anticipated to be a promising oxidation resistance surface modification technique for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  9. The effect of nitrogen diffusion hardening on the surface chemistry and scratch resistance of Ti-6A1-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, R; Weimer, J J; George, M A; Lucas, L C

    2000-08-01

    Modular, head-stem, mixed-metal connections are susceptible to mechanically mediated electrochemical interactions. Any attempt to improve the performance of these connections should center around increasing their resistance to mechanical damage, particularly the titanium alloy (Ti64). This study investigated the effect of a nitrogen-diffusion-hardening process on Ti64, with specific reference to changes in composition, chemistry, electrochemistry and its ability to resist and/or repassivate scratch damage. The nitrogen-diffusion-hardened Ti64 alloy had TiN and TiNO complexes at the immediate surface and sub-surface layers. The diffusion-hardened samples also had a deeper penetration of oxygen compared to regular Ti64 alloy samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data corroborated the increased thickness of the barrier oxide on the diffusion-hardened samples. The nitrogen-diffusion-hardened samples were more resistant to scratch damage and repaired/repassivated faster after such damage. The results suggest that the nitrogen-diffusion-hardened titanium alloy should exhibit increased resistance to mechanical-electrochemical interactions in mixed-metal modular interfaces in total hip prostheses.

  10. Fatigue Life of Titanium Alloys Fabricated by Additive Layer Manufacturing Techniques for Dental Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Koike, Marie; Mason, Robert L.; Okabe, Toru

    2013-02-01

    Additive layer deposition techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM) have been utilized to fabricate rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) contents. The layer-by-layer deposition techniques resulted in plates that have different surface finishes which can impact significantly on the fatigue life by providing potential sites for fatigue cracks to initiate. The fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys fabricated by EBM and LBM deposition techniques was investigated by three-point testing of rectangular beams of as-fabricated and electro-discharge machined surfaces under stress-controlled conditions at 10 Hz until complete fracture. Fatigue life tests were also performed on rolled plates of Ti-6Al-4V ELI, regular Ti-6Al-4V, and CP Ti as controls. Fatigue surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to identify the crack initiation site in the various types of specimen surfaces. The fatigue life data were analyzed statistically using both analysis of variance techniques and the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis method with the Gehan-Breslow test. The results indicate that the LBM Ti-6Al-4V ELI material exhibits a longer fatigue life than the EBM counterpart and CP Ti, but a shorter fatigue life compared to rolled Ti-6Al-4V ELI. The difference in the fatigue life behavior may be largely attributed to the presence of rough surface features that act as fatigue crack initiation sites in the EBM material.

  11. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~300 to 400nm and a width of ~60 to 70nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants.

  12. Characterization of Ti-6%Al-4%V and VascoMax C-350

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A J

    2005-02-07

    The {alpha}-{beta} Ti-6% Al-4% V (Ti64) alloy can be heat treated to meet the specified requirements of the applications. The as-received material from SLAC was given a solution heat treatment (SHT) to have a good strength and ductility combination. The SHT was done at 200 C below the Beta transus of 990 C for 15 min and air-cooled to 20 C. The designed microstructure consists of {beta} phase precipitates within the {alpha} phase matrix. The characterization of the as-received Ti64 alloy sheet microstructure reveals equiaxed, 10 {micro}m-sized grains on the flat surface and finer, 8 {micro}m-sized grains in the through thickness. Figures 1 and 2 show the microstructure of the alloy. The typical Ti64 microstructure is lamellar structure, consisting of alternating {alpha} and {beta} phases. In order for the alloy to have the micron sized, equiaxed grains, it had to undergo extensive wrought processing. The Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHN) showed that the slightly larger grained flat surface had a higher averaged value than the through thickness; 33 kg/mm{sup 2} vs. 30 kg/mm{sup 2}. The residual effect of wrought processing is still present even after the SHT to cause the small difference in the hardness values. The results of tensile tests conducted at LLNL and at BNL are given in Tables 2 and 1 in Appendices 1 and 2, respectively. The effects of the irradiation dosage damage on the tensile properties of the Ti64 are presented in Appendix 2. The as-received tensile specimens are not the standard specimens for testing. As shown in Attachment, Figure 1, only the 6 mm length is used in the reduced gage section of the specimens. As a result, a small change in the gage length will translate to a higher percentage change in elongation, giving higher elongation values than using the 30 mm length of the specimen. Since most of the deformation is concentrated in the reduced gage section, the present results are more accurate measurement of ductility. The Ti64 specimens

  13. Effect of Surface Modifications of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 Bulk Metallic Glass and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy on Human Osteoblasts In Vitro Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, Andreu; Hynowska, Anna; Nogués, Carme; Ibáñez, Elena; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Özkale, Berna; Pané, Salvador; Pellicer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The use of biocompatible materials, including bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), for tissue regeneration and transplantation is increasing. The good mechanical and corrosion properties of Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and its previously described biocompatibility makes it a potential candidate for medical applications. However, it is known that surface properties like topography might play an important role in regulating cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Thus, in the present study, Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG and Ti6-Al-4V alloy were surface-modified electrochemically (nanomesh) or physically (microscratched) to investigate the effect of material topography on human osteoblasts cells (Saos-2) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. For comparative purposes, the effect of mirror-like polished surfaces was also studied. Electrochemical treatments led to a highly interconnected hierarchical porous structure rich in oxides, which have been described to improve corrosion resistance, whereas microscratched surfaces showed a groove pattern with parallel trenches. Cell viability was higher than 96% for the three topographies tested and for both alloy compositions. In all cases, cells were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate on the alloys, hence indicating that surface topography plays a minor role on these processes, although a clear cell orientation was observed on microscratched surfaces. Overall, our results provide further evidence that Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12 BMG is an excellent candidate, in the present two topographies, for bone repair purposes. PMID:27243628

  14. A comparison of the corrosion behaviour and surface characteristics of vacuum-brazed and heat-treated Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M; Chang, E; Yang, C Y

    1998-08-01

    The corrosion characteristics of the brazed Ti6Al4V specimens were analysed and compared with respect to the conventionally heat-treated specimens by an electrochemical corrosion test. The object of this research was to explore the potentiality of the brazed titanium for biomaterials. The characteristics of the 1300 degrees C heat-treated and the 970 degrees C brazed specimens, with passivation and sterilization treatment, were evaluated by measurement of corrosion potential, Ecorr, corrosion current densities, Icorr, polarization resistance of the reacted surface films, Rp, in a potentiodynamic test. The experimental results show that the corrosion rates of the heat-treated and the brazed samples are similar at Ecorr, and the value of Ecorr for the brazed sample is noble to the heat-treated samples. The passive current density of the brazed specimen is either lower or higher than the heat-treated specimen, depending on the polarization potential. By Auger electron spectroscopic and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis on specimens from the potentiostatic test, the elements of copper and nickel in the brazing filler were not detected while less alumina was found in the reacted film of the brazed specimens when compared with the heat-treated specimens. The implication of the results is discussed.

  15. Mechanical characterization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy at multiple length scales using spherical indentation stress-strain measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in spherical indentation stress-strain protocols and analyses have demonstrated the capability for measuring reliably the local mechanical responses in polycrystalline metal samples at different length scales, ranging from sub-micron (regions within individual grains) to several hundreds of microns (regions covering several grains). These recent advances have now made it possible to study systematically the mechanical behavior of a single material system at different length scales, with tremendous potential to obtain new insights into the role of individual phases, interfaces, and other microscale constituents on the macroscale mechanical response of the material. In this paper, we report spherical indentationmore » stress-strain measurements with different indenter sizes (microns to millimeters) on Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) which capture the mechanical response of single phase alpha-Ti-64, single colony (alpha-beta), few colonies, and many colonies of Ti-64. The results show that the average mechanical response (indentation modulus and yield strength) from multiple indentations remains relatively unchanged from single phase alpha to many colonies of Ti-64, while the variance in the response decreases with indenter size. In conclusion, the work-hardening response in indentation tests follows a similar behavior up to indentation zones of many colonies, which shows significantly higher work hardening rates.« less

  16. In situ strain profiling of elastoplastic bending in Ti-6Al-4V alloy by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, M.; Shukla, V.; Akdogan, E. K.; Sadangi, R.; Ignatov, A.; Balarinni, L.; Tsakalakos, T.; Jisrawi, N.; Zhong, Z.; Horvath, K.

    2009-05-01

    Elastic and plastic strain evolution under four-point bending has been studied by synchrotron energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Measured strain profiles across the specimen thickness showed an increasing linear elastic strain gradient under increasing four-point bending load up to approx2 kN. The bulk elastic modulus of Ti-6Al-4V was determined as 118 GPa. The onset of plastic deformation was found to set in at a total in-plane strain of approx0.008, both under tension and compression. Plastic deformation under bending is initiated in the vicinity of the surface and at a stress of 1100 MPa, and propagates inward, while a finite core region remains elastically deformed up to 3.67 kN loading. The onset of the plastic regime and the plastic regime itself has been verified by monitoring the line broadening of the (100) peak of alpha-Ti. The effective compression/tension stress-strain curve has been obtained from the scaling collapse of strain profile data taken at seven external load levels. A similar multiple load scaling collapse of the plastic strain variation has also been obtained. The level of precision in strain measurement reported herein was evaluated and found to be 1.5x10{sup -5} or better.

  17. Mechanical characterization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy at multiple length scales using spherical indentation stress-strain measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in spherical indentation stress-strain protocols and analyses have demonstrated the capability for measuring reliably the local mechanical responses in polycrystalline metal samples at different length scales, ranging from sub-micron (regions within individual grains) to several hundreds of microns (regions covering several grains). These recent advances have now made it possible to study systematically the mechanical behavior of a single material system at different length scales, with tremendous potential to obtain new insights into the role of individual phases, interfaces, and other microscale constituents on the macroscale mechanical response of the material. In this paper, we report spherical indentation stress-strain measurements with different indenter sizes (microns to millimeters) on Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) which capture the mechanical response of single phase alpha-Ti-64, single colony (alpha-beta), few colonies, and many colonies of Ti-64. The results show that the average mechanical response (indentation modulus and yield strength) from multiple indentations remains relatively unchanged from single phase alpha to many colonies of Ti-64, while the variance in the response decreases with indenter size. In conclusion, the work-hardening response in indentation tests follows a similar behavior up to indentation zones of many colonies, which shows significantly higher work hardening rates.

  18. Characterization and friction behavior of LST/PEO duplex-treated Ti6Al4V alloy with burnished MoS2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yongkun; Xiong, Dangsheng; Li, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Laser surface-textured Ti6Al4V substrate was treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation process to prepare an oxide ceramic coating and then burnished with a thin MoS2 film. The area densities of textured dimples and the surface roughness of oxide ceramic underlay which affected the longevity of MoS2 films were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that a mixed surface pattern combining large textured dimples (diameter 150 μm) with small discharged dimples (diameter 5-17 μm) was fabricated by the LST/PEO duplex treatment and it contributed to prolonging the lubricating life of MoS2 film in comparison to the LST or PEO treatment. Wherein, the mixed dimples acted as lubricant reservoirs and the hard oxide coatings provided high load supports for the lubricating films. A much longer life of low friction was provided by the LST/PEO/MoS2 coatings with higher density of textured dimples (S = 55%) and lower roughness of LST/PEO surface (Ra = 1.0 μm).

  19. Direct Observations of Phase Transitions in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Transient Welds using Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Palmer, T A; Babu, S S; Zhang, W; Debroy, T

    2003-11-11

    Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD) experiments were used to directly observe phase transformations occurring during gas tungsten arc spot welding of Ti-6Al-4V. These in-situ x-ray diffraction experiments tracked the evolution of the {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} L {yields} {beta} {yields} {alpha}/{alpha}{prime} phase transformation sequence in real time during rapid weld heating and cooling. Three different weld locations were examined, providing kinetic information about phase transformations in the fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) under different heating and cooling rates and at different temperatures. The TRXRD data were further coupled with the results of thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria and numerical modeling to compute the weld temperatures. The results suggest that significant superheat is required above the {beta} transus temperature to complete the {alpha} {yields} {beta} transformation at all locations during weld heating, and that the amount of superheat decreases with distance from the center of the weld where the heating rates are lower. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami modeling of the weld heating kinetics produced a set of parameters that allowed the prediction of the {alpha} {yields} {beta} phase transformation rate at each location, but were not successful in determining a definitive mechanism for the transformation. The {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation during weld cooling in the HAZ was shown to initiate at the {beta} transus temperature and reach completion below the Ms temperature, producing substantial {alpha}{prime}martensite. In the FZ, the {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation during weld cooling was shown to initiate below the Ms temperature, and to completely transform the microstructure to {alpha}{prime} martensite.

  20. Drotrecogin alfa Eli Lilly.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E

    2002-04-01

    Drotrecogin alfa (Xigris, recombinant activated protein C) is an anticoagulant developed and launched by Eli Lilly & Co for the treatment of sepsis [333781], [339372], [430133], [436271]. The FDA and the EMEA accepted the brand name Xigris for drotrecogin alfa in June 2001. This trade name had been proposed by Lilly in place of the previous brand name, Zovant, which was deemed unacceptable by the EMEA due to concerns that the name could be confused with hospital-based drugs [412512]. Filings for sepsis were made in the US, EU and Australia in February 2001 [398514], [447870] and in March 2001, the US FDA assigned drotrecogin alfa Priority Review status [403435]. The FDA extended the action date from July 27 to October 27, 2001 for completion of its review of the biologics license application (BLA) for drotrecogin alfa to assess further supplementary data submitted by Lilly [412512]. At the October 16, 2001 meeting (postponed from September 12), the FDA Advisory Committee on Anti-Infective Drugs split 10 to 10 over whether to recommend approval [425873], [425940]. In late October 2001, Lilly received an approvable letter from the FDA for the treatment of severe sepsis. Approval was contingent upon successful negotiation of labeling, agreement on post-approval clinical trials, and successful completion of manufacturing inspections [427301]. In November 2001, the FDA approved drotrecogin alfa for the reduction of mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis who have a high risk of death [430133]; the product was launched onto the US market days later [436271]. Following the FDA committee's split decision in October 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston, which expected mid-2002 approval but with restrictive labeling, revised its predictions from $1.265 billion in 2004 sharply downwards to $543 million [425929].

  1. In vitro biological response of plasma electrolytically oxidized and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing Kiu; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Matthews, Allan; Yerokhin, Aleksey

    2013-08-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a relatively new surface modification process that may be used as an alternative to plasma spraying methods to confer bioactivity to Ti alloy implants. The aim of this study was to compare physical, chemical and biological surface characteristics of two coatings applied by PEO processes, containing different calcium phosphate (CaP) and titanium dioxide phases, with a plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Coating characteristics were examined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry, and wettability tests. The biological properties were determined using the human osteoblastic cell line MG-63 to assess cell viability, calcium and collagen synthesis. The tests showed that PEO coatings are significantly more hydrophilic (6%) and have 78% lower surface roughness (Ra) than the plasma-sprayed coatings. Cell behavior was demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the phase composition and surface distribution of elements in the PEO coating. MG-63 viability for the TiO2 -based PEO coating containing amorphous CaPs was significantly lower than that for the PEO coating containing crystalline HA and the plasma-sprayed coating. However, collagen synthesis on both the CaP and the TiO2 PEO coatings was significantly higher (92% and 71%, respectively) than on the plasma-sprayed coating after 14 days. PEO has been demonstrated to be a promising method for coating of orthopedic implant surfaces.

  2. Investigation of the voltage and time effects on the formation of hydroxyapatite-containing titania prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and its corrosion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, M.; Dehghanian, C.; Shokouhfar, M.; Baradaran, A.

    2011-06-01

    Producing titania and hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating on titanium alloys increases corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of these alloys. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is one of the effective techniques for producing this type of coating. This method produces coatings with enough thickness and appropriate adhesion. In this study, titania and HA were directly produced on Ti-6Al-4V by applying PEO process in a Ca- and P-containing electrolyte by changing voltage and time parameters. Morphology and cross section, chemical composition and elements of coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Corrosion behavior of the samples was also examined by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that the formation of HA phase with titania needs a minimum voltage below which HA is not formed. By increasing the operation time, the amount of the formed HA increased. Also, the sample coated at 500 V and 15 min showed the best corrosion behavior in Ringer's solution.

  3. Plasma nitriding of titanium alloy: Effect of roughness, hardness, biocompatibility, and bonding with bone cement.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Morshed; Riahinezhad, Shahram; Li, Yanling; Vaughan, Melville B; Sultana, Fariha; Morris, Tracy L; Phinney, Lucas; Hossain, Khalid

    2016-11-25

    Titanium (Ti) alloys have been widely used in orthopedics and orthodontic surgeries as implants because of their beneficial chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. Improvement of these properties of a Ti alloy, Ti-6Al-4V Eli, is possible by the use of plasma nitriding treatment on the Ti alloy. The novelty of this study is the evaluation of a DC glow discharge nitrogen plasma treatment method on the surface, mechanical and biological properties of Ti alloy. Specifically, this study measured the chemical states, roughness, hardness, and biocompatibility of plasma nitride treated Ti-6Al-4V Eli as well as determined the effect of plasma treatment on the fracture strength between the Ti alloy and bone clement. This study hypothesized that DC glow discharge nitrogen plasma treatment may alter the surface chemical and mechanical states of the Ti alloy that may influence the fracture strength of implant/cement interfaces under static load. This study found that plasma nitride treatment on Ti alloy does not have effect on the roughness and biocompatibility (P value > 0.5), but significantly effect on the hardness and fracture strength of Ti-bone cement interfaces compared to those values of untreated Ti samples (P value < 0.5). Therefore, the DC glow discharge nitrogen plasma treated Ti alloy can potentially be used for orthopedic applications.

  4. Materials data handbook. Titanium 6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for Titanium 6Al-4V alloy is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and bonding is developed.

  5. Effect of outdoor exposure at ambient and elevated temperatures on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution treated and aged condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution-treated and aged heat-treatment condition were exposed outdoors at ambient and 560 K (550 F) temperatures to determine the effect of outdoor exposure on fatigue life. Effects of exposure were determined by comparing fatigue lives of exposed specimens to those of unexpected specimens. Two procedures for fatigue testing the exposed specimens were evaluated: (1) fatigue tests conducted outdoors by applying 1200 load cycles per week until failure occurred and (2) conventional fatigue tests (continuous cycling until failure occurred) conducted indoors after outdoor exposure under static load. The exposure period ranged from 9 to 28 months for the outdoor fatigue-test group and was 24 months for the static-load group. All fatigue tests were constant-amplitude bending of specimens containing a drilled hole (stress concentration factor of 1.6). The results of the tests indicate that the fatigue lives of solution-treated and aged specimens were significantly reduced by the outdoor exposure at 560 K but not by the exposure at ambient temperature. Fatigue lives of the annealed specimens were essentially unaffected by the outdoor exposure at either temperature. The two test procedures - outdoor fatigue test and indoor fatigue test after outdoor exposure - led to the same conclusions about exposure effects.

  6. Pilot Plant Forging of Hydrogenated Ti-6Al-4V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    inserted into an M-246 nickel base superalloy die block with 713C alloy flat dies positioned on the heated die block. The entire die system was enclosed...side if neceaary and identify by block number) Hydrogenation Isothermal Forging Ring Test Titanium Alloy Ti-6A1-4V Flow Stress 20. k9Sr9Xd1’ (Continue on...5 Rack used to hold Specimens during Hydrogenation 29 6 Flow Stress-Plastic Strain Relation for Ti-6AI-4V Alloy (Heat A) with Various Hydrogen

  7. Deformation Behavior and Microstructure of Ti6Al4V Manufactured by SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakhmalev, P.; Fredriksson, G.; Yadroitsava, I.; Kazantseva, N.; Plessis, A. du; Yadroitsev, I.

    Mechanical properties, porosity, and microstructure of Ti6Al4V (ELI) material produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) under controlled oxygen content were analyzed. Fully martensitic α'structure with high dislocation density and stacking faults was observed in both as-built and stress relieved samples by means of XRD and TEM. Tensile {101 ̅2} twinning was identified by TEM and electron diffraction. Accommodation of thermal stresses during manufacturing was suggested as a possible reason for twinning. Computed tomography of pores was carried out. Pores in the specimens were evenly distributed and mostly had an elongated shape. Defect analysis by micro CT scans in pre-strained samples confirmed that the pore coalescence was the main crack formation mechanism in the final fracture with typical cup-and-cone fracture morphology. Additionally, typical dimples and quasi-cleavage were revealed. Mechanical properties of the samples after stress relieving heat treatment at 650°C for 3 h are complied with the international standard for Ti alloys for biomedical applications.

  8. Thick Low-Friction nc-MeC/a-C Nanocomposite Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Microstructure and Tribological Properties in Sliding Contact with a Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimowski, Sławomir; Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Wendler, Bogdan; Kot, Marcin; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that duplex surface treatment, combining oxygen diffusion hardening with the subsequent deposition of thick, low-friction nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings to improve the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. We have synthesized, in a magnetron sputtering process, the nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings (where Me denotes W or Ti transition metal) consisting of two dissimilar materials (nanocrystallites of transition metal carbides MeC and an amorphous carbon matrix a-C). The nano and microstructure of the substrate material and coatings were examined with the use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by X-ray diffractometry. It was found that different carbide nanocrystals of the same transition metal were embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix of both coatings. The HRTEM analysis indicated that the volume fraction of tungsten carbides in the nc-WC/a-C coating was equal to 13 pct, whereas in the nc-TiC/a-C one the volume fraction of the titanium carbides was equal to just 3 pct. The tribological properties, hardness, and scratch resistance of the coatings were investigated as well. The coefficient of friction (COF) of the coatings during dry sliding against 6 mm diameter alumina ball reached very low value, 0.05, in comparison with an oxygen-hardened alloy, whose COF was equal to 0.8. This low-friction effect of the coatings has been attributed to the formation of a self-lubricating film in sliding contact. The coatings exhibited similar failure morphology in the scratch tests. Even though the hardness was rather low, the coatings exhibited a very good wear resistance during sliding friction. The wear rate of the nc-WC/a-C coating was equal to 0.08 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 and for the nc-TiC/a-C one it was 0.28 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1.

  9. Local zone wise elastic and plastic properties of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy using digital image correlation technique: A comparative study between uniform stress and virtual fields method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranath, K. M.; Ramji, M.

    2015-05-01

    Joining of materials using welding results in the formation of material zones with varying microstructure across the weld. Extraction of the mechanical properties of those individual heterogeneous zones are important in designing components and structures comprised of welds. In this study, the zone wise local extraction of the elastic and plastic properties of an electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been carried out using both the uniform stress method (USM) and the virtual fields method (VFM) involving digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The surface strain field obtained using DIC technique from a transverse weld specimen tensile testing is used for extracting the zone wise strain evolution. Initially, using uniform stress assumption, zone wise full range stress-strain curves are extracted. In USM methodology, the elastic and plastic material models are fitted to the zone wise stress-strain curves and required parameters are extracted from it. But inherent disadvantage is lot of images need to be processed for the parameter extraction. Recently, VFM is gaining lot of popularity in characterization domain as it is robust, accurate and faster. VFM is based on the principle of virtual work where, the weak form of local equilibrium equations and kinematically admissible virtual displacement fields are utilized for parameter extraction. Hollomon's power law is used here as the hardening rule. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent are the parameters extracted zone wise using both USM and VFM. A Vicker's microhardness measurement is also conducted across the weld zone towards mapping the strength behavior. Fusion zone has reported higher yield strength, strength coefficient and Poisson's ratio. Young's modulus value is found decreasing from base metal towards the fusion zone. The trend observed in parameter variation across the weld zone obtained by both USM and VFM compares very well. Due

  10. Corrosion resistance and in vitro response of laser-deposited Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys for orthopedic implant applications.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Sonia; Nag, Soumya; Nasrazadani, Seifollah; Ukirde, Vaishali; El Bouanani, Mohamed; Mohandas, Arunesh; Nguyen, Kytai; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2010-09-15

    While direct metal deposition of metallic powders, via laser deposition, to form near-net shape orthopedic implants is an upcoming and highly promising technology, the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of such novel metallic biomaterials is relatively unknown and warrants careful investigation. This article presents the results of some initial studies on the corrosion resistance and in vitro response of laser-deposited Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys. These new generation beta titanium alloys are promising due to their low elastic modulus as well as due the fact that they comprise of completely biocompatible alloying elements. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of these laser-deposited alloys is comparable and in some cases even better than the currently used commercially-pure (CP) titanium (Grade 2) and Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys. The in vitro studies indicate that the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys exhibit comparable cell proliferation but enhanced cell differentiation properties as compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI.

  11. Investigation on Tool Life and Surface Integrity when Drilling Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-4V-Mo/Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Erween Abd.; Sharif, Safian

    Machinability study on the drilling of two alpha beta titanium alloy series, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-4V-0.6Mo-0.4Fe were conducted using an uncoated carbide drill. The effect of cutting speed on tool life, tool failure mode, cutting force and surface integrity of the drilled surface were discussed. Results showed that Ti-6Al-4V exhibited a more superior machinability property when compared to the Ti-5Al-4V-Mo/Fe alloy system. The tool wear progression when drilling Ti-6Al-4V was lower than that of Ti-5Al-4V-Mo/Fe. The tool experienced similar failure mechanisms which were non uniform wear and chipping when drilling both alloys. At high cutting speed and after prolonged machining, excessive plastic deformation was observed on the subsurface layer of the drilled surface which resulted in increase in the hardness value.

  12. On the fatigue behavior of medical Ti6Al4V roughened by grit blasting and abrasiveless waterjet peening.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Ibáñez, J; Ruiz-de-Lara, L; Díaz, M; Ocaña, J L; Alberdi, A; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-10-01

    Flat fatigue specimens of biomedical Ti6Al4V ELI alloy were surface-processed by high pressure waterjet peening (WJP) without abrasive particles using moderate to severe conditions that yield roughness values in the range of those obtained by commercial grit blasting (BL) with alumina particles. Fatigue behavior of WJP and BL specimens was characterized under cyclical uniaxial tension tests (R=0.1). The emphasis was put on a comparative analysis of the surface and subsurface induced effects and in their relevance on fatigue behavior. Within the experimental setup of this investigation it resulted that blasting with alumina particles was less harmful for fatigue resistance than abrasiveless WJP. BL specimens resulted in higher subsurface hardening and compressive residual stresses. Specimens treated with more severe WJP parameters presented much higher mass loss and lower compressive residual stresses. From the analysis performed in this work, it follows that, in addition to roughness, waviness emerges as another important topographic parameter to be taken into account to try to predict fatigue behavior. It is envisaged that optimization of WJP parameters with the aim of reducing waviness and mass loss should lead to an improvement of fatigue resistance.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Ni60-hBN high temperature self-lubricating anti-wear composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Yu, Peng-Cheng; Qiao, Shi-Jie; Zhai, Yong-Jie; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Yao; Xu, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Ni60-hBN composite coatings with varying hBN content were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrates by laser cladding. The composite coatings with no cracks and few pores are bonded metallurgically with the substrates. The phase composition and microstructure of the composite coatings were investigated. The tribological properties of the composite coatings were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at 20 °C, 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The microhardness gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the coating and increased with increasing of hBN content. The laser clad Ni60-10%hBN coating exhibits excellent tribological behavior at high temperatures (300 °C and 600 °C).

  14. "ELI"--The Educational Futures Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, V. L. Mike; Grantham, Lex

    This report describes ELI, a computer-based educational game that gives participants, as citizens of fictitious cities, the opportunity to examine a variety of typical community issues relating to education within the context of broader city and regional problems. After a brief introduction, the game structure is described, including the setting…

  15. Experimental investigation of quasistatic and dynamic fracture properties of titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David Deloyd

    2002-09-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the quasistatic and dynamic fracture properties of three titanium alloys: 6Al-4V titanium, 6Al-4V titanium ELI, and Timetal 5111. While standard tests exist for measuring quasistatic fracture toughness, the dynamic investigation requires that several measurement techniques are employed including Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS), Crack Opening Displacement (COD), and the use of strain gages. The use of these methods with difficult engineering materials in the dynamic loading regime requires methodologies to be advanced beyond that previously required with model materials having properties ideal for experimental measurements techniques. After a description of each measurement technique is given, stress intensity factor measurements made on 12.7 mm thick pre-cracked 6Al-4V titanium specimens are compared. These specimens were dynamically impacted in three point bend in a drop weight tower. Specimens with and without side-grooves were tested as each measurement technique allows. Resulting stress intensity factor-time histories from the different techniques are compared to verify that their results mutually agree. Advancements in employing CGS, a shearing interferometric technique, are described in more detail. First, the analysis of CGS interferograms is extended to allow experimental fringe data to be fit to very general analytical asymptotic crack tip solution to determine mixed mode stress intensity factors. As formulated in this work, the CGS technique can be used to measure stress intensity factors for non-uniformly propagating dynamic mixed mode cracks moving along arbitrary paths in homogeneous linear elastic isotropic materials. Other advancements are also detailed which improve analysis accuracy, objectivity, and efficiency. Finally, with the equivalence of the three measurement technique results established, tests were performed on 8--17 mm thick pre-cracked three point bend specimens of the three materials to measure

  16. Gamma beam system at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Ur, Calin Alexandru

    2015-02-24

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce brilliant, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams via Inverse Compton Scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The scattered radiation is Doppler upshifted by more than 1,000,000 times and is forward focused in a narrow, polarized, tunable, laser-like beam. The gamma-ray beam at ELI-NP will be characterized by large spectral density of about 10{sup 4} photons/s/eV, narrow bandwidth (< 0.5%) and tunable energy from 200 keV up to about 20 MeV. The Gamma Beam System is a state-of-the-art equipment employing techniques and technologies at the limits of the present-day's knowledge.

  17. Fatigue properties of a metastable beta-type titanium alloy with reversible phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Cui, T C; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2008-03-01

    Due to recent concern about allergic and toxic effects of Ni ions released from TiNi alloy into human body, much attention has been focused on the development of new Ni-free, metastable beta-type biomedical titanium alloys with a reversible phase transformation between the beta phase and the alpha'' martensite. This study investigates the effect of the stress-induced alpha'' martensite on the mechanical and fatigue properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.6Sn (wt.%) alloy. The results show that the as-forged alloy has a low dynamic Young's modulus of 55GPa and a recoverable tensile strain of approximately 3%. Compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI, the studied alloy has quite a high low-cycle fatigue strength because of the effective suppression of microplastic deformation by the reversible martensitic transformation. Due to the low critical stress required to induce the martensitic transformation, it has low fatigue endurance comparable to that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Cold rolling produces a beta+alpha'' two-phase microstructure that is characterized by regions of nano-size beta grains interspersed with coarse grains containing alpha'' martensite plates. Cold rolling increases fatigue endurance by approximately 50% while decreasing the Young's modulus to 49GPa along the rolling direction but increasing it to 68GPa along the transverse direction. Due to the effective suppression of the brittle isothermal omega phase, balanced properties of high strength, low Young's modulus and good ductility can be achieved through ageing treatment at intermediate temperature.

  18. Laser remelting of Ti6AL4V using high power diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya-Vázquez, M. R.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Boukha, Z.; El Amrani, K.; Botana, F. J.

    2012-04-01

    Titanium alloys present excellent mechanical and corrosion properties, being widely employed in different industries such as medical, aerospace, automotive, petrochemical, nuclear and power generation, etc. Ti6Al4V is the α-β alloy most employed in industry. The modification of its properties can be achieved with convectional heat treatments and/or with laser processing. Laser remelting (LR) is a technology applied to Ti6Al4V by other authors with excimer and Nd-Yag laser with pure argon shielding gas to prevent risk of oxidation. In the present contribution, laser remelting has been applied for the first time to Ti6Al4V with a high power diode laser (with pure argon as shielding gas). Results showed that remelted samples (with medium energy densities) have higher microhardness and better corrosion resistance than Ti6Al4V base metal.

  19. Water droplet erosion mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamkar Zahmatkesh, Niloofar

    Water impingement erosion of materials can be a life-limiting phenomenon for the components in many erosive environments. For example, aircraft body exposed to rain, steam turbine blade, and recently in gas turbine coupled with inlet fogging system. The last is the focus of this study. Inlet fogging system is the most common method used to augment gas turbine output during hot days; high ambient temperature causes strong deterioration of the engine performance. Micro-scaled droplets introduced into the inlet airflow allow the cooling of entering air as well as intercooling the compressor (overspray) and thus optimizes the output power. However, erosion damage of the compressor blades in overspray stage is one of the major concerns associated with the inlet fogging system. The main objective of this research work (CRIAQ MANU419 project) is to understand the erosion induced by water droplets on Titanium alloy to eventually optimize the erosion resistance of the Ti-based compressor blade. Therefore, characterization of the water droplet erosion damage on Ti-6Al-4V receives the major importance. The influence of base material microstructure and impact parameters were considered in erosion evaluation in present study. This work covers the characterization of the erosion damage on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in two parts: - The water droplet erosion damage through a novel experimental approach. The collected data were processed both qualitatively and quantitatively for multi-aspects damage study. - The influence of impact velocity on erosion in an attempt to represent the in-service conditions.

  20. 78 FR 49723 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests; Ely Ranger District; Ely Westside Rangeland Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... National Forest System (NFS) lands within the boundaries administered by the Ely Ranger District. The... Statement and Record of Decision were distributed in September 2011. While considering an appeal on the... additional information on the development of stocking rates on the allotments in the project area. DATES:...

  1. Elie Metchnikoff, the Man and the Myth.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Siamon

    2016-01-01

    The year 2016 marks the centenary of the death of Elie Metchnikoff, the father of innate immunity and discoverer of the significance of phagocytosis in development, homeostasis and disease. Through a series of intravital experiments on invertebrates and vertebrates, he described the role of specialised phagocytic cells, macrophages and microphages, subsequently renamed neutrophils and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, in the host response to injury, inflammation, infection and tissue repair. As a vigorous proponent of cellular immunity, he championed its importance versus humoral immunity in the so-called antibody wars. By 1908, when the Nobel Prize was awarded to Elie Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich, this debate was not yet resolved. Even earlier, Metchnikoff had turned his research interests to the process of ageing and the possible link to intestinal auto-intoxication, giving rise to the current interest in the microbiome of the gut and the use of probiotics to promote health and longevity. During the past century, Metchnikoff's reputation has waxed and waned, as lymphocyte heterogeneity, specificity and memory began to dominate the field of adaptive immunity, yet his benign visage continues to provide an iconic presence for specialists in innate immunology, whose studies have made a striking comeback in the past decade. In this review, I shall consider the nature of his studies and the person as well as the legendary description of his Eureka experience in Messina in 1882, a story loved by students and investigators alike, that marked, in his own words, his transformation from zoologist to pathologist.

  2. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  3. Influence of surface modification on corrosion and biocompatibility of titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia Ur

    Titanium alloys are playing a vital role in the field of biomaterials due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. These alloys enhance the quality and longevity of human life by replacing or treating various parts of the body. However, as these materials are in constant contact with the aggressive body fluids, corrosion leads to metal ions dissolution. These ions leach to the adjacent tissues and causes adverse reactions. Surface modifications are used to improve corrosion resistance and biological activity without changing their bulk properties. In this investigation, electropolishing, magnetoelectropolishing, titanium coating and hydroxiapatitecoating were carried out on commercially pure titanium (CPTi), Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V-ELI (Extra Low Interstitials). These surface modifications are known to effect surface charge, chemistry, morphology; wettability, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of these materials. In vitro cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in phosphate buffer saline in compliance with ASTM standard. The surface morphology, roughness and wettability of these alloys were studied using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and contact angle meter, respectively. Moreover, biocompatibility of titanium alloys was assessed by growing MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells on their surfaces

  4. Fatigue Behavior of Solution Treated and Quenched Ti-6Al-4V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    reveree eld* It neceeeary and Identify by block nsuiber) -- The effect of solution treating and quenching on titanium alloy Ti- 6Al - 4V was studied as a means...eval- uated, it is suggestive that the causative effect is more than just a manifestation of a high or low cycle fatigue characteristic of the...enhance early stage crack initiation resistance in both low and high cycle fatigue . In a + 6 titanium alloys , conflicting requirements appear to exist

  5. Development of Ti - 6Al - 4V Wire Rods for Fastener Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, S. V. S. Narayana; Nayan, Niraj; Chakravarthy, K. V. A.; Sharma, S. C.; Sinha, P. P.

    2014-05-01

    Multipass forging in dies is used to obtain thin rods 4 mm in diameter from alloy Ti - 6Al - 4V. The properties exhibited by the alloy in this process are described and the possibilities of making fasteners from it are considered. The high strain produced by warm swaging makes it possible to fabricate high-strength fasteners without the expensive and labor-intensive operations of solution treatment and aging.

  6. Process Modeling of Ti-6Al-4V Linear Friction Welding (LFW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    metal-alloy grades, such as (a) titanium alloys (e.g., Ref 6-9); (b) superalloys (Ref 10); (c) steel (Ref 11, 12); and (d) intermetallics (Ref 13...6. 2. Physical Metallurgy of Ti-6Al-4V Before one can expect to successfully complete the task of understanding the effect of FSW process parameters...the accompanying convective/radiation heat losses from the edge Table 2 LFW process parameter test matrix used in the present study Parameter FSW

  7. An Experimental and Theoretical Multi-Mbar Study of Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Tegner, B E; Macleod, S G; CYNN, H; Proctor, J; Evans, W J; McMahon, M I; Ackland, G J

    2011-04-13

    We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the room temperature (RT) compression of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V. In this work, we have extended knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) from 40 GPa to 221 GPa, and observed a different sequence of phase transitions to that reported previously for pure Ti.

  8. Deposition of dual-layer coating on Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain Din, Sajad; Shah, M. A.; Sheikh, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Dual-layer diamond coatings were deposited on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) using a hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique with the anticipation of studying the structural and morphology properties of the alloy. The coated diamond films were characterized using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD studies reveal that the deposited films are highly crystalline in nature, whereas morphological studies show that the films have a cauliflower structure. XRD analysis was used to calculate the structural parameters of the Ti6Al4V and CVD-coated Ti6Al4V. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nature and magnitude of the residual stress of the coatings.

  9. 76 FR 53898 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent; In Re: Ely Copper Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent; In Re: Ely Copper Mine... concerning the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site in Vershire, Vermont with the following settling party: Ely... e-mail at gardner.ann@epa.gov . Additional information on the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site can...

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department - About 1937-1938 Gift courtesy of Edward D. James, FAIA, Preservation Officer RESTORED INTERIOR - CORNER OF BUILDING - William Conner Trading Post, State Highway 234, Noblesville, Hamilton County, IN

  11. Corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, corrosion fatigue strength and cytocompatibility of new Ti alloys without Al and V.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y; Rao, S; Ito, Y; Tateishi, T

    1998-07-01

    The effects of various metallic ions using various metallic powders on the relative growth ratio of fibroblasts L929 and osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cells were carried out. Ti, Zr, Sn, Nb and Ta had evidently no effect on the relative growth ratios of cells. Otherwise, Al and V ions exhibit cytotoxicity from a concentration of > or = 0.2 ppm. This Al effect on cells tend to be stronger in medium containing small quantity of V ions (< or = 0.03 ppm). The new Ti-15%Zr-4%Nb-4%Ta-0.2%Pd alloy exhibited a higher corrosion resistance in physiological saline solution. The addition of 0.02%O and 0.05%N to Ti-Zr alloy improved the mechanical properties at room temperature and corrosion fatigue strength. The relative growth ratios for the new Ti alloy plate and the alloy block extraction were unity. Further, the relative growth ratios were almost unity for the new Ti alloy against apatite ceramic pins up to 10(5) wear cycles in Eagle's MEM solution. However, there was a sharp decrease for Ti-6%Al-4%V ELI alloy from 3 x 10(4) wear cycles as V ion was released during wear into the wear test solution since the pH of the Eagle's MEM increases with increasing wear cycles.

  12. Laser Processed TiN Reinforced Ti6Al4V Composite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bhat, Abhimanyu; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this first generation investigation is to evaluate fabrication, in vitro cytotoxicity, cell-materials interactions and tribological performance of TiN particle reinforced Ti6Al4V composite coatings for potential wear resistant load bearing implant applications. The microstructural analysis of the composites was performed using scanning electron microscope and phase analysis was done with X-ray diffraction. In vitro cell-materials interactions, using human fetal osteoblast cell line, have been assessed on these composite coatings and compared with Ti6Al4V alloy control samples. The tribological performance of the coatings were evaluated, in simulated body fluids, up to 1000 m sliding distance under 10N normal load. The results show that the composite coatings contain distinct TiN particles embedded in α + β phase matrix. The average top surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy increased from 394 ± 8 HV to 1138 ± 61 HV with 40 wt.% TiN reinforcement. Among the composite coatings, the coatings reinforced with 40 wt. % TiN exhibited the highest wear resistance of 3.74 × 10-6 mm3/Nm, which is lower than the wear rate, 1.04 × 10-5 mm3/Nm, of laser processed CoCrMo alloy tested under identical experimental conditions. In vitro biocompatibility study showed that these composite coatings were non-toxic and provides superior cell-material interactions compared to Ti6Al4V control, as a result of their high surface energy. In summary, excellent in vitro wear resistance and biocompatibility of present laser processed TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings clearly show their potential as wear resistant contact surfaces for load bearing implant applications. PMID:22301169

  13. Laser surface modification of Ti--6Al--4V: wear and corrosion characterization in simulated biofluid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raghuvir; Kurella, A; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2006-07-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) of Ti-6Al-4V is performed in argon to improve its properties, such as microstructure, corrosion, and wear for biomedical applications. Corrosion behavior is investigated by conducting electrochemical polarization experiments in simulated body fluid (Ringer's solution) at 37 C. Wear properties are evaluated in Ringer's solution using pin-on-disc apparatus at a slow speed. Untreated Ti-6Al-4V contains alpha+beta phase. After laser surface melting, it transforms to acicular alpha embedded in the prior beta matrix. Grain growth in the range of 65-89 microm with increase in laser power from 800 to 1500 W due to increase in associated temperature is observed. The hardness of as-laserprocessed Ti-6Al-4V alloy is more (275-297 HV) than that of the untreated alloy (254 HV). Passivation currents are significantly reduced to < 4.3 microA/cm2 after laser treatment compared to untreated Ti-6Al-4V (approximately 12 microA/cm2). The wear resistance of laser-treated Ti-6Al-4V in simulated body fluid is enhanced compared to that of the untreated one. It is the highest for the one that is processed at a laser power of 800 W. Typical micro-cutting features of abrasive wear is the prominent mechanism of wear in both untreated and as-laser-treated Ti-6Al-4V. Fragmentation of wear debris assisted by microcracking was responsible for mass loss during the wear of untreated Ti-6Al-4V in Ringer's solution.

  14. Hot Deformation of Ti-6Al-4V Single-Colony Samples (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Journal Article Preprint 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOT DEFORMATION OF Ti-6Al-4V SINGLE-COLONY SAMPLES (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6 . AUTHOR(S) A.A. Salem (Universal Technology Corp.) S.L. Semiatin (AFRL/RXLMP) 5d. PROJECT...strength, corrosion resistance, and low density, Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used alpha/beta titanium alloy. It accounts for approximately 80

  15. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Jorge Peremarch, C.; Pérez Tanoira, R.; Arenas, M. A.; Matykina, E.; Conde, A.; De Damborenea, J. J.; Gómez Barrena, E.; Esteban, J.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  16. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Tribopairs: Effect of Thermal Oxidation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Massimo; Boccarusso, Luca; Velotti, Carla; Astarita, Antonello; Squillace, Antonino; Carrino, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the study of the influence of the thermal oxidation (TO) treatment on the tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V tribopairs. A detailed experimental campaign, including tribological tests, microgeometrical measurements, microhardness tests and phase composition analyses, was carried out on both treated and untreated components. The tribological behavior was studied through the pin-on-disk tests in four different contact conditions: treated disk coupled with untreated pin, untreated disk coupled with treated pin, both treated and both untreated. The effectiveness of the treatment in enhancing the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets was found. In particular, the thermal oxidation treatment, promoting hardness enhancement and the formation of a superficial rutile layer, changed the wear mechanism of the titanium alloy, passing from adhesive wear type, for the untreated case, to abrasive wear, in the treated one.

  17. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Tribopairs: Effect of Thermal Oxidation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Massimo; Boccarusso, Luca; Velotti, Carla; Astarita, Antonello; Squillace, Antonino; Carrino, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the study of the influence of the thermal oxidation (TO) treatment on the tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V tribopairs. A detailed experimental campaign, including tribological tests, microgeometrical measurements, microhardness tests and phase composition analyses, was carried out on both treated and untreated components. The tribological behavior was studied through the pin-on-disk tests in four different contact conditions: treated disk coupled with untreated pin, untreated disk coupled with treated pin, both treated and both untreated. The effectiveness of the treatment in enhancing the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets was found. In particular, the thermal oxidation treatment, promoting hardness enhancement and the formation of a superficial rutile layer, changed the wear mechanism of the titanium alloy, passing from adhesive wear type, for the untreated case, to abrasive wear, in the treated one.

  18. Investigation of Ti6Al4V Orthogonal Cutting Numerical Simulations using Different Material Models

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Roberto

    2010-06-15

    Titanium alloys are materials considered as extremely difficult to cut and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V is a reference in machining of titanium. The segmented (saw toothed) chip morphology has attracted great interest in researchers because the understanding of the saw-toothed chip morphology helps to understand the chip formation mechanisms. In this study, the effect of different constitutive models on the saw-toothed chip morphology is examined in machining Ti6Al4V. The paper presents the influence of eight material constitutive modelling in the simulation of segmented chip formation. A critical comparison of outstanding process outputs as cutting force, temperature and measurable parameters for segmented chips is carried out to compare and discuss the performance of the eight different material models to each other and with experimental data.

  19. Radiation protection of a proton beamline at ELI-Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechet, S.; Versaci, R.; Rollet, S.; Olsovcova, V.; Fajstavr, A.; Zakova, M.; Margarone, D.

    2016-12-01

    ELI-Beamlines (ELI stands for Extreme Light Infrastructure) is a new EU funded laser facility located near Prague, in Czech Republic. It will use laser-driven plasma sources to accelerate particles and host a dedicated proton beamline called ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser- Ion Acceleration) designed to reach energies up to 250 MeV. This beamline could be exploited to study possible future medical application of laser-driven beams. The first part of this paper introduces the beamline, the corresponding source terms and the complete set-up. The second part of the paper details the evaluation of the ambient dose equivalent and the activation study inside the experimental halls based on Monte-Carlo simulation. These calculations show that the ELIMAIA operation is safe as long as nobody is present in the hall when the beam is on.

  20. Observations of Tool-Workpiece Interactions during Friction Stir Processing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilchak, A. L.; Juhas, M. C.; Williams, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    Significant tool wear manifested as submicron tungsten-rich particles was observed in the workpiece after friction stir processing (FSP) of investment cast Ti-6Al-4V on both the surface and in the bulk of the stir zone. The tool was manufactured from a tungsten alloy, which stabilizes the β phase and can locally suppress the β transus. A postprocessing α/β heat treatment was performed to demonstrate the microstructure effects of tungsten dissolution.

  1. Corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film on Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou, Anhong; Chellamuthu, Prithiviraj; Nguyen, Kytai

    2007-12-15

    The corrosion behavior and cell adhesion property of nanostructured TiO2 films deposited electrolytically on Ti6Al4V were examined in the present in vitro study. The nanostructured TiO2 film deposition on Ti6Al4V was achieved via peroxoprecursors. SEM micrographs exhibit the formation of amorphous and crystallite TiO2 nanoparticles on Ti6Al4V before and after being annealed at 500 degrees C. Corrosion behavior of TiO2-deposited and uncoated Ti6Al4V was evaluated in freely aerated Hank's solution at 37 degrees C by the measurement and analysis of open-circuit potential variation with time, Tafel plots, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicated that nano-TiO2 coated Ti6Al4V showed a better corrosion resistance in simulated biofluid than uncoated Ti6Al4V. Rat bone cells and human aortic smooth muscle cells were grown on these substrates to study the cellular responses in vitro. The SEM images revealed enhanced cell adhesion, cell spreading, and proliferation on nano-TiO2 coated Ti6Al4V compared to those grown on uncoated substrates for both cell lines. These results suggested that nanotopography produced by deposition of nanostructured TiO2 onto Ti alloy surfaces might enhance corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and cell integration for implants made of Ti alloys.

  2. Gamma beam industrial applications at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, Gabriel; Iancu, Violeta; Ur, Calin A.; Iovea, Mihai; Daito, Izuru; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    The Nuclear Physics oriented pillar of the pan-European Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI-NP) will host an ultra-bright, energy tunable, and quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beam system in the range of 0.2-19.5 MeV produced by laser Compton backscattering. This gamma beam satisfies the criteria for large-size product investigations with added capabilities like isotope detection through the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) and is ideal for non-destructive testing applications. Two major applications of gamma beams are being envisaged at ELI-NP: industrial applications based on NRF and industrial radiography and tomography. Both applications exploit the unique characteristics of the gamma beam to deliver new opportunities for the industry. Here, we present the experimental setups proposed at ELI-NP and discuss their performance based on analytical calculations and GEANT4 numerical simulations. One of the main advantages of using the gamma beam at ELI-NP for applications based on NRF is the availability of an advanced detector array, which can enhance the advantages already provided by the high quality of the gamma beam.

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department - About 1937-1938 Gift courtesy of Edward D. James, FAIA, Preservation Officer GENERAL VIEW OF TRADING POST (LEFT) AND CABIN OF WILLIAM CONNER (RIGHT) AFTER RESTORATION - William Conner Trading Post, State Highway 234, Noblesville, Hamilton County, IN

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department - About 1937-1938 Gift courtesy of Edward D. James, FAIA, Preservation Officer RESTORED INTERIOR SHOWING STORE SHELVING AND COUNTER - William Conner Trading Post, State Highway 234, Noblesville, Hamilton County, IN

  5. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  6. Development of a versatile procedure for the biofunctionalization of Ti-6Al-4V implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanian, Parsa; Arroyo-Hernández, María; Ramos, Milagros; Daza, Rafael; Elices, Manuel; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2016-11-01

    Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are among the most-commonly used metallic materials for implantation in the human body for the purpose of replacing hard tissue. Although Ti and its alloys are widely used for such an aim, in implants of a long duration they exhibit some shortcomings due to the loosening of the very implant. This phenomenon is highly dependent on the interaction between the organic tissues and the surface of the implant. In this study, the authors introduce a surface treatment technique for functionalization of the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with amino groups that could help to control this interaction. The functionalized layer was deposited by activated vapor silanization (AVS), which has been proven as a reliable and robust technique with other materials. The resulting biofunctional layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, with the optimal conditions for the deposition of a homogeneous film with a high density of amino groups being determined. Additionally, the non-toxic nature and stability of the biofunctional layer were confirmed by cell culturing. The results show the formation of a homogeneous biofunctional amine layer on Ti-6Al-4V alloy that may be used as a platform for the subsequent covalent immobilization of proteins or other biomolecules.

  7. Microstructure and tensile properties after thermohydrogen processing of Ti-6 Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Guitar, A; Vigna, G; Luppo, M I

    2009-04-01

    Thermohydrogen processing (THP), a technique in which hydrogen is used as a temporary alloying element, can refine the microstructure and improve the final mechanical properties of the Ti-6 Al-4V alloy. THP allows microstructural modification of titanium alloys near net shape such as biomaterial components obtained by powder metallurgy and castings, since it does not require mechanical working. Two THP, called THP-A and THP-B, have been evaluated in samples of Ti-6Al-4V with a coarse and lamellar microstructure typical of castings and powder metallurgy. The THP-A is based in the eutectoid decomposition of the beta(H) phase to alpha phase and hydride phase. The THP-B is based in the isothermal decomposition of alpha('') martensite phase, obtained by quenching of hydrogenated samples. The refinement of the microstructure due to THP has been evaluated by means of optical and electron microscopy. Tensile tests showed that while both processes were able to increase the strength of the alloy as compared with the starting material, the ductility in samples subjected to THP-B was severely reduced.

  8. Controlled silanization-amination reactions on the Ti6Al4V surface for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cano, Abraham; Cintas, Pedro; Fernández-Calderón, María-Coronada; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel-Ángel; Crespo, Lara; Saldaña, Laura; Vilaboa, Nuria; González-Martín, María-Luisa; Babiano, Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Formation of thin films on titanium alloys incorporating bioactive small molecules or macromolecules is a route to improve their biocompatibility. Aminoalkylsilanes are commonly employed as interface reagents that combine good adhesion properties with an amino tail group susceptible of further functionalization. This article introduces a reproducible methodology to obtain a cross-linked polymer-type brush structure of covalently-bonded aminoalkylsiloxane chains on Ti6Al4V. The experimental protocol can be fine-tuned to provide a high density of surface-coated amino groups (threshold value: 2.1±0.1×10(-8) mol cm(-2)) as proven by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses. Using a model reaction involving the condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) on Ti6Al4V alloy, we herein show the effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and solvent humidity on the composition and structure of the film. The stability of the resulting coating under physiological-like conditions as well as the possibility of surface re-silanization has also been evaluated. To verify if detrimental effects on the biological performance of the Ti6Al4V alloy were induced by this coverage, human primary osteoblasts behavior, Staphylococci adhesion and biofilm formation have been tested and compared to the Ti6Al4V oxidized surface. Reaction with trans-cinnamaldehyde has used in order to determine useful amino groups at aminosilanized surface, XPS and UV analyses of imino derivatives generated reveal that almost a 50% of these groups are actually available at the siloxane chains.

  9. Microstructure and Properties of the Ti6Al4V/Inconel 625 Bimetal Obtained by Explosive Joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolski, Krzysztof; Szulc, Zygmunt; Garbacz, Halina

    2016-08-01

    The study is concerned with the bimetallic plate composed of the Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 alloys. The alloys were joined together using the explosive method with the aim to produce a bimetallic joint. The structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received raw Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 alloys, the Ti6Al4V/Inconel 625 joint, and the joint after annealing (600 °C for 1 h) were examined. The samples observations were performed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties were estimated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and three-point bending tests. Moreover, the deformation strengthening of the metals and the strength of the joint were analyzed. The explosive process resulted in a good quality bimetallic joint. Both sheets were deformed plastically and the joint surface between the alloys had a wavy shape. In the area of the joint surface, the hardness was increased. For example, the annealing at 600 °C for 1 h resulted in changes of the microhardness in the entire volume of the samples and in changes of the morphology of the joint surface. In three-point bending tests, the samples were examined in two opposite positions (Ti6Al4V on the top or Inconel 625 on the top). The results indicated to depend on the position in which the sample was tested.

  10. Cyclic deformation fatigue behaviour of Ti6Al4V thermochemically nitrided for articular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Manero, J M; Rodriguez, D; Planell, J A

    2003-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have many attractive properties including high specific strength, low density, and excellent corrosion resistance. Titanium and the Ti6Al4V alloy have long been recognized as materials with high biocompatibility. These properties have led to the use of these materials in biomedical applications. Despite these advantages, the lack of good wear resistance makes the use of titanium and Ti6Al4V difficult in some biomedical applications, for example, articulating components of prostheses. To overcome this limitation, nitriding has been investigated as a surface-hardening method for titanium. Although nitriding greatly improves the wear resistance, this method reduces the fatigue strength. Low cycle fatigue performance in air of nitrided Ti6Al4V at different deformation amplitudes has been studied. Results show a reduction of low cycle fatigue life of up to 10% compared to the non-treated material. Studies suggest it is not related to the titanium nitride surface layer, but to microstructural changes caused by the high temperature treatment. (Journal of Applied Biomaterial & Biomechanics 2003; 1: 43-7).

  11. Potential and frequency effects on fretting corrosion of Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo surfaces.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2013-09-01

    Fretting corrosion has been reported at the metal-metal interfaces of a wide range of medical devices, including total joint replacements, spinal devices, and overlapping cardiovascular stents. Currently, the fretting corrosion phenomenon associated with metal-on-metal contacts is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of potential and fretting frequency on the fretting corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al4V/CoCrMo, and CoCrMo/CoCrMo alloy combinations at fixed normal load and displacement conditions using a custom built fretting corrosion test system. The results showed that the fretting current densities increased with increases in potential and were highest for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple (1.5 mA/cm(2) at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The coefficient of friction varied with potential and was about two times higher for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V (0.71 V at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). In most of the potential range tested, the fretting corrosion behavior of CoCrMo/Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo/CoCrMo was similar and dominated by the CoCrMo surface. Increase in applied fretting frequency linearly increased the fretting current densities in the regions where the passive film is stable. Also, the model-based fretting current densities were in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Overall, Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple was more susceptible to fretting corrosion compared with other couples. However, the effects of these processes on the biological system were not assessed.

  12. Characterization of Fatigue Crack-Inititation Facets in Relation to Lifetime Variablility in Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    in evaluation and design of materials for fracture critical applications. The material of interest in the present study was Ti-6Al-4V (Ti- 6 - 4 ...distribution unlimited. pertinent to fatigue crack-initiation in + titanium alloys and titanium alloys in general. The + titanium alloys, in particular Ti- 6 ...et al. [16] observed that subsurface crack initiation inTi- 6 -2- 4 - 6 occurred within a microtextured region in which the  phase was suitably oriented

  13. Influence of Porosity on Mechanical Properties and In vivo Response of Ti6Al4V Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Espana, Felix; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Ohgami, Yusuke; Davies, Neal M

    2009-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used to restore the lost structure and functions of human bone. Due to the large number of joint replacements, there is a growing demand for new and improved orthopedic implants. More specifically, there is a need for novel load bearing metallic implants with low effective modulus matching to that of bone in order to reduce stress shielding and consequent increase in the in vivo life-span of the implant. In this study, we have fabricated porous Ti6Al4V alloy structures, using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) to demonstrate that advanced manufacturing techniques such as LENS™ can be used to fabricate low-modulus, tailored porosity implants with a wide variety of metals/alloys, where the porosity can be designed in areas based on the patient's need to enhance biological fixation and achieve long-term in vivo stability. The effective modulus of Ti6Al4V alloy structures has been tailored between 7 and 60 GPa and porous Ti alloy structures containing 23 to 32 vol. % porosity showed modulus equivalent to human cortical bone. In vivo behavior of porous Ti6Al4V alloy samples in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks demonstrated significant increase in calcium within the implants indicating excellent biological tissue ingrowth through interconnected porosity. In vivo results also showed that total amount of porosity plays an important role in tissue ingrowth. PMID:19913643

  14. Comparison of bio-mineralization behavior of Ti-6Al-4V-1Nb and Zr-1Nb nano-tubes formed by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong; Hong, Sun I.

    2014-12-01

    Nano-tubes of titanium and zirconium alloys like Ti-6Al-4V-1Nb and Zr-1Nb were prepared by anodization followed by coating with hydroxylapatite (HA) and their bio-mineralization behaviors were compared to develop a bio-compatible material for implants in orthopedics, dentistry and cardiology. Ti-6Al-4V-1Nb weight gain in a simulated body solution increased gradually. The bigger tube diameter was, the heavier HA was deposited. Surface roughness of both alloys increased highly with the increasing diameter of nano-tube. Their surface roughness decreased by HA deposition due to the removal of the empty space of the nano-tubes. Zr-1Nb alloy had faster growth of nano-tubes layers more than Ti-6Al-4V-1Nb alloy.

  15. Brazing of zirconia to Ti and Ti6Al4V

    SciTech Connect

    Agathopoulos, S.; Moretto, P.; Peteves, S.D.

    1997-11-01

    The interface microstructure of tetragonal zirconia (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stab.), (TZP), brazed to itself, Ti and Ti6Al4V with a commercial Ag35Cu1.65Ti filler alloy at 900{degrees}C in vacuum was investigated. TiO formed in the reaction zone in TZP/TZP joints irrespectively the brazing time. In TZP/Ti joints, a complex interface microstructure comprising Ti{sub 2}O, Cu{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O and Cu-Ti-intermetallics was time dependent. High joint strengths of over 400 MPa were obtained for short brazing times. In TZP/Ti6Al4V joints, the evolution of the microstructure with brazing time depends on diffusion of Ti, Al and V to the interface forming Cu{sub 2}(Ti,A1,V){sub 4}O.

  16. Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics Eli-Np Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2015-06-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular High energy, Nuclear and Astrophysics as well as societal applications in Material Science, Nuclear Energy and Medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW class lasers and a Back Compton Scattering High Brilliance and Intense Low Energy Gamma Beam , a marriage of Laser and Accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  17. Fretting corrosion of CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V interfaces.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2012-08-01

    Mechanically assisted corrosion (fretting corrosion, tribocorrosion etc.,) of metallic biomaterials is a primary concern for numerous implant applications, particularly in the performance of highly-loaded medical devices. While the basic underlying concepts of fretting corrosion or tribocorrosion and fretting crevice corrosion are well known, there remains a need to develop an integrated systematic method for the analysis of fretting corrosion involving metal-on-metal contacts. Such a method can provide detailed and quantitative information on the processes present and explore variations in surfaces, alloys, voltages, loadings, motion and solution conditions. This study reports on development of a fretting corrosion test system and presents elements of an in-depth theoretical fretting corrosion model that incorporates both the mechanical and the electrochemical aspects of fretting corrosion. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new system and validate the proposed model, experiments were performed to understand the effect of applied normal load on fretting corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V, CoCrMo/Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo/CoCrMo material couples under potentiostatic conditions with a fixed starting surface roughness. The results of this study show that fretting corrosion is affected by material couples, normal load and the motion conditions at the interface. In particular, fretting currents and coefficient of friction (COF) vary with load and are higher for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple reaching 3 mA/cm(2) and 0.63 at about 73 MPa nominal contact stress, respectively. Ti6Al4V coupled with CoCrMo displayed lower currents (0.6 mA/cm(2)) and COF (0.3), and the fretting corrosion behavior was comparable to CoCrMo/CoCrMo couple (1.2 mA/cm(2) and 0.3, respectively). Information on the mechanical energy dissipated at the interface, the sticking behavior, and the load dependence of the inter-asperity distance calculated using the model elucidated the influence of

  18. High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Jolly, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

  19. Subcritical crack growth of Ti-6Al-4V at room temperature under high stress-ratio loading

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.P.

    1998-11-13

    Ti-6Al-4V is a two phase {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloy commonly used for turbine fan and compressor components. The crack growth behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and the role played by various material, mechanical, and environmental factors has been thoroughly investigated. This alloy is also susceptible to crack growth under sustained loading in air (SLC), and both hydrogen assisted cracking and low temperature creep mechanisms have been used to explain this susceptibility. Very little information is available on high R-ratio fatigue crack growth of Ti-6Al-4V and the role played by SLC on the fatigue process. In order to gain better understanding of the cracking behavior of this alloy under ripple loading conditions, room temperature, high stress-ratio (R {ge} 0.9) fatigue and SLC experiments have been conducted on a Ti-6Al-4V plate forging material in the duplex-annealed (DA) condition. The results of this investigation,namely, fatigue crack growth rates (CGR) as a function of stress intensity; SLC data; and scanning electron microscopy of the fatigue and SLC fracture surfaces are reported below.

  20. Improving the osteointegration of Ti6Al4V by zeolite MFI coating

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Jiao, Yilai; Li, Xiaokang; Guo, Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Osteointegration is crucial for success in orthopedic implantation. In recent decades, there have been numerous studies aiming to modify titanium alloys, which are the most widely used materials in orthopedics. Zeolites are solid aluminosilicates whose application in the biomedical field has recently been explored. To this end, MFI zeolites have been developed as titanium alloy coatings and tested in vitro. Nevertheless, the effect of the MFI coating of biomaterials in vivo has not yet been addressed. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effects of MFI-coated Ti6Al4V implants in vitro and in vivo. After surface modification, the surface was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). No difference was observed regarding the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti6Al4V (Ti) and MFI-coated Ti6Al4V (M−Ti) (p > 0.05). However, the attachment of MC3T3-E1 cells was found to be better in the M−Ti group. Additionally, ALP staining and activity assays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells grown on the M−Ti displayed high levels of osteogenic differentiation markers. Moreover, Van-Gieson staining of histological sections demonstrated that the MFI coating on Ti6Al4V scaffolds significantly enhanced osteointegration and promoted bone regeneration after implantation in rabbit femoral condylar defects at 4 and 12 weeks. Therefore, this study provides a method for modifying Ti6Al4V to achieve improved osteointegration and osteogenesis. - Highlights: • Osteointegration is a crucial factor for orthopedic implants. • We coated MFI zeolite on Ti6Al4V substrates and investigated the effects in vitro and in vivo. • The MFI coating displayed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation in vitro. • The MFI coating promoted osteointegration and osteogenesis peri-implant in vivo.

  1. Procedures for determining MATMOD-4V material constants

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    The MATMOD-4V constitutive relations were developed from the original MATMOD model to extend the range of nonelastic deformation behaviors represented to include transient phenomena such as strain softening. Improvements in MATMOD-4V increased the number of independent material constants and the difficulty in determining their values. Though the constitutive relations are conceptually simple, their form and procedures for obtaining their constants can be complex. This paper reviews in detail the experiments, numerical procedures, and assumptions that have been used to determine a complete set of MATMOD-4V constants for high purity aluminum.

  2. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Ti-6Al-4V to Multi-mbar Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, S G; Tegner, B E; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Proctor, J; McMahon, M I; Ackland, G J

    2012-03-14

    We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V to 221 GPa. We observe a phase transition to the hexagonal {omega}-phase at approximately 30 GPa, and then a further transition to the cubic {beta}-phase starting at 94-99 GPa. We do not observe the orthorhombic {gamma} and {delta} phases reported previously in pure Ti. Computational studies show that this sequence is possible only if there is significant local atomic ordering during the compression process, yet insufficient atomic diffusion to reach the phase separated thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  3. Fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V Scaffolds by Direct Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinda, G. P.; Song, L.; Mazumder, J.

    2008-12-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is a rapid laser-aided deposition method that can be used to manufacture near-net-shape components from their computer aided design (CAD) files. The method can be used to produce fully dense or porous metallic parts. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely used as an implantable material mainly in the application of orthopedic prostheses because of its high strength, low elastic modulus, excellent corrosion resistance, and good biocompatibility. In the present study, Ti-6Al-4V scaffold has been fabricated by DMD technology for patient specific bone tissue engineering. Good geometry control and surface finish have been achieved. The structure and properties of the scaffolds were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tension test. The microstructures of laser-deposited Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds are fine Widmanstätten in nature. The tensile and yield strengths of the as-deposited Ti-6Al-4V were 1163 ± 22 and 1105 ± 19 MPa, respectively, which are quite higher than the ASTM limits (896 and 827 MPa) for Ti-6Al-4V implants. However, the ductility of the as-deposited sample was very low (˜4 pct), which is well below the ASTM limit (10 pct). After an additional heat treatment (sample annealed at 950 °C followed by furnace cooling), both strength (UTS ˜ 1045 ± 16, and YS ˜ 959 ± 12 MPa) and ductility (˜10.5 ± 1 pct) become higher than ASTM limits for medical implants.

  4. Effect of HIPping (Hot Isostatic Pressing) on electron beam melting Ti6Al4V parts after machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolimont, Adrien; Michotte, Sebastien; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Ducobu, François; de Formanoir, Charlotte; Godet, Stéphane; Filippi, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    The fast growing of Additive Manufacturing (AM) leads us to study the functionality of parts built by these processes. Recently, the Electron Beam Melting process and the Direct Melting Laser Sintering process are used to produce parts in the biomedical and aeronautical fields. The Ti6Al4V is largely used in these fields. This paper present an experimental study of machining Ti6Al4V alloy produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM) before and after HIPping (Hot Isostatic Pressing). The results shows that the hipping has no significant influence on specific cutting pressure.

  5. Anisotropy of the Hot Plastic Deformation of Ti-6Al-4V Single-Colony Samples (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    April 2009 Journal Article Preprint 01 April 2009- 01 April 2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANISOTROPY OF THE HOT PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF Ti-6Al-4V SINGLE...COLONY SAMPLES (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6 . AUTHOR(S) A.A. Salem and S.L...resistance, and low density, Ti-6Al-4V is the most commonly used alpha/beta titanium alloy. It accounts for approximately 80% of the total titanium used in

  6. Microwave-assisted fabrication of strontium doped apatite coating on Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Kong, Shiqin; Pan, Yan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Deng, Linhong

    2015-11-01

    Strontium has been shown to be a beneficial dopant to calcium phosphates when incorporated at nontoxic level. In the present work we studied the possibility of solution derived doping strontium into calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V based implants by a recently reported microwave-assisted method. By using this method strontium doped calcium phosphate nuclei were deposited to pretreated titanium alloy surface dot by dot to compose a crack-free coating layer. The presence of strontium in solution led to reduced roughness of the coating and finer nucleus size formed. In vitro study found that proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells seeded on the coating were influenced by strontium content in coatings, showing an increasing followed by a decreasing behavior with increasing substitution of calcium by strontium. It is suggested that this new microwave-assisted strontium doped calcium phosphate coatings may have great potential in implant modification.

  7. Perspectives for photonuclear research at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipescu, D.; Anzalone, A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Belyshev, S. S.; Camera, F.; La Cognata, M.; Constantin, P.; Csige, L.; Cuong, P. V.; Cwiok, M.; Derya, V.; Dominik, W.; Gai, M.; Gales, S.; Gheorghe, I.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Mazzocchi, C.; Orlin, V. N.; Pietralla, N.; Sin, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Stopani, K. A.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursu, I.; Utsunomiya, H.; Varlamov, V. V.; Weller, H. R.; Zamfir, N. V.; Zilges, A.

    2015-12-01

    The perspectives for photonuclear experiments at the new Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility are discussed in view of the need to accumulate novel and more precise nuclear data. The parameters of the ELI-NP gamma beam system are presented. The emerging experimental program, which will be realized at ELI-NP, is presented. Examples of day-one experiments with the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique, photonuclear reaction measurements, photofission experiments and studies of nuclear collective excitation modes and competition between various decay channels are discussed. The advantages which ELI-NP provides for all these experiments compared to the existing facilities are discussed.

  8. The effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue and biological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI parts made by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, M; Torresani, E; Leoni, M; Fontanari, V; Bandini, M; Pederzolli, C; Potrich, C

    2017-03-28

    Fatigue resistance and biocompatibility are key parameters for the successful implantation of hard-tissue prostheses, which nowadays are more and more frequently manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). For this purpose, the present paper is aimed at investigating the effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue behavior and biological properties of Ti samples produced by SLM. After the building process, all samples are heat treated to achieve a complete stress relief. The remaining ones are tribofinished with the aim of reducing the surface roughness of the as-sintered condition. Part of the tribofinished samples are then subjected to one of the following post-sintering treatments: (i) shot peening, (ii) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and (iii) electropolishing. It is found that shot peening and HIP are the most effective treatments to improve the high and the very-high cycle fatigue resistance, respectively. At the same time, they preserve the good biocompatibility ensured by the biomedical Titanium Grade 23.

  9. Simulation of photofission experiments at the ELI-NP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, P.; Balabanski, D. L.; Cuong, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    An extensive experimental program for the study of photofission will take place at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, where different actinide targets will be exposed to a brilliant gamma beam to produce fission fragments. We report on the implementation within the Geant4 simulation toolkit of the photofission process, of related background processes, and of extended ionic charge parameterization. These developments are used to evaluate the production rates of photofission fragments and their release efficiency from the actinide targets.

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Eli Lilly Company Photographic Department - About 1937-1938 Gift courtesy of Edward D. James, FAIA, Preservation Officer SKETCH PLAN OF FARM Legend: (1) William Conner House; (2) Still house; (3) Milk house; (4) Museum; (5) Loom house; (6) Modern barns, grain and implement storage; (7) Three-eighths of a mile north or here on the river bank, William Conner lived in a double cabin trading post; (8) Trading post; (9) Conner cabin; (10) Pioneer barn - William Conner Prairie Farm, State Highway 234, Noblesville, Hamilton County, IN

  11. Specific heat treatment of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Ranran; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2015-12-01

    The ductility of as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V falls far short of the requirements for biomedical titanium alloy implants and the heat treatment remains the only applicable option for improvement of their mechanical properties. In the present study, the decomposition of as-fabricated martensite was investigated to provide a general understanding on the kinetics of its phase transformation. The decomposition of asfabricated martensite was found to be slower than that of water-quenched martensite. It indicates that specific heat treatment strategy is needed to be explored for as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V. Three strategies of heat treatment were proposed based on different phase transformation mechanisms and classified as subtransus treatment, supersolvus treatment and mixed treatment. These specific heat treatments were conducted on selective laser melted samples to investigate the evolutions of microstructure and mechanical properties. The subtransus treatment leaded to a basket-weave structure without changing the morphology of columnar prior β grains. The supersolvus treatment resulted in a lamellar structure and equiaxed β grains. The mixed treatment yielded a microstructure that combines both features of the subtransus treatment and supersolvus treatment. The subtransus treatment is found to be the best choice among these three strategies for as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V to be used as biomedical implants.

  12. NRA of nitrogen in Ti6Al4V and titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Vickridge, I.C.; Trompetter, W.J.; Brown, I.W.M.

    1994-12-31

    Titanium and its alloys have attractive mechanical properties for use as replacement body parts, however the wear and corrosion performance of these materials in biological systems is poor. Titanium nitride is bio-inert, and has a low friction coefficient making it an obvious choice as a coating for these materials. The most direct route to the formation of Ti{sub x}N coatings on Ti6Al4V is to simply heat it in a nitrogen atmosphere. The suthors have used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) with the {sup 14}N(d,{alpha}{sub 1}) reaction to observe significant differences in thermal nitridation processes in Ti and Ti6Al4V. They have also performed isotopic tracing using {sup 15}N, and show how it is possible to depth profile both isotopes simultaneously via the {sup 14}N(d,{alpha}{sub 1}) and the {sup 15}N(d,{alpha}{sub 0}) reactions. {sup 15}N may also be depth profiled by the {Gamma}=105eV 429 KeV resonance in {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}{gamma}), and theye have obtained {sup 15}N depth profiles from the outer few hundred Angstroms of the thermally nitrided Ti6Al4V. These depth profiles reveal a superficial layer that is free of or depleted in nitrogen.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Wire and Arc Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fude; Williams, Stewart; Colegrove, Paul; Antonysamy, Alphons A.

    2013-02-01

    Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a novel manufacturing technique in which large metal components can be fabricated layer by layer. In this study, the macrostructure, microstructure, and mechanical properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy after WAAM deposition have been investigated. The macrostructure of the arc-deposited Ti-6Al-4V was characterized by epitaxial growth of large columnar prior-β grains up through the deposited layers, while the microstructure consisted of fine Widmanstätten α in the upper deposited layers and a banded coarsened Widmanstätten lamella α in the lower layers. This structure developed due to the repeated rapid heating and cooling thermal cycling that occurs during the WAAM process. The average yield and ultimate tensile strengths of the as-deposited material were found to be slightly lower than those for a forged Ti-6Al-4V bar (MIL-T 9047); however, the ductility was similar and, importantly, the mean fatigue life was significantly higher. A small number of WAAM specimens exhibited early fatigue failure, which can be attributed to the rare occurrence of gas pores formed during deposition.

  14. Corrosion Resistance and Color Properties of Anodized Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambakhsh, Ali; Afshar, Abdollah; Malekinejad, Pejman

    2012-01-01

    In this research, color anodizing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was performed in phosphoric acid solution of 0.4 M concentration and within 30 s in different voltages (10-120 V) of a DC power supply. The effect of anodizing voltages on the color and thickness of anodized layers on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface was surveyed. Thickness and refractive index of layers were measured by spectrophotometery and reflectance curves. According to the results, thickness of layers increased with increasing anodizing voltage and was in the range of 38-167 nm. Also the refractive index of anodic film was approximately constant at about 2 and increased inconsiderably with increasing anodizing voltage. Corrosion resistance of the anodized samples in 20 and 50 V was surveyed in physiological solutions of Ringer's solution, Artificial Saliva solution, and Ringer's + 150 mM H2O2 solution at the temperature of 37 °C by potentiodynamic polarization method. The anodized sample in 50 V indicated lower corrosion rate than the non-anodized sample as well as the sample which was anodized in 20 V in all solutions. The non-anodized sample indicated the highest corrosion rate of about 0.25 μA cm-2.

  15. Influence of the processing route of porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces on shear bond strength.

    PubMed

    Toptan, Fatih; Alves, Alexandra C; Henriques, Bruno; Souza, Júlio C M; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Ariza, Edith

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at evaluating the two-fold effect of initial surface conditions and dental porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy joining processing route on the shear bond strength. Porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V samples were processed by conventional furnace firing (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and hot pressing. Prior to the processing, Ti-6Al-4V cylinders were prepared by three different surface treatments: polishing, alumina or silica blasting. Within the firing process, polished and alumina blasted samples were subjected to two different cooling rates: air cooling and a slower cooling rate (65°C/min). Metal/porcelain bond strength was evaluated by shear bond test. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's test (p<0.05). Before and after shear bond tests, metallic surfaces and metal/ceramic interfaces were examined by Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Shear bond strength values of the porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy interfaces ranged from 27.1±8.9MPa for porcelain fused to polished samples up to 134.0±43.4MPa for porcelain fused to alumina blasted samples. According to the statistical analysis, no significant difference were found on the shear bond strength values for different cooling rates. Processing method was statistically significant only for the polished samples, and airborne particle abrasion was statistically significant only for the fired samples. The type of the blasting material did not cause a statistically significant difference on the shear bond strength values. Shear bond strength of dental porcelain to Ti-6Al-4V alloys can be significantly improved from controlled conditions of surface treatments and processing methods.

  16. An experimental study of the (Ti-6Al-4V)-xH phase diagram using in situ synchrotron XRD and TGA/DSC techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Z. Zak; Koopman, Mark; Paramore, James D.; Chandran, K. S. Ravi; Ren, Yang; Lu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen has been investigated for decades as a temporary alloying element to refine the microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V, and is now being used in a novel powder metallurgy method known as "hydrogen sintering and phase transformation". Pseudo-binary phase diagrams of (Ti-6Al-4V)-xH have been studied and developed, but are not well established due to methodological limitations. In this paper, in situ studies of phase transformations during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of (Ti-6Al-4V)-xH alloys were conducted using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The eutectoid phase transformation of β ↔ α + δ was observed in the (Ti-6Al-4V)-xH alloy via in situ synchrotron XRD at 211 °C with a hydrogen concentration of 37.5 at.% (measured using TGA-DSC). The relationships of hydrogen composition to partial pressure and temperature were investigated in the temperature range 450-900°C. Based on these results, a partial pseudo-binary phase diagram of (Ti-6Al-4V)-xH is proposed for hydrogen compositions up to 60 at.% in the temperature range 100-900°C. Using the data collected in real time under controlled parameters of temperature, composition and hydrogen partial pressure, this work characterizes relevant phase transformations and microstructural evolution for practical titanium-hydrogen technologies of Ti-6Al-4V.

  17. Structural characterization of the metal/glass interface in bioactive glass coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Oku, T.; Suganuma, K.; Wallemberg, L.R.; Tomsia, A.P.; Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.

    1999-12-01

    Coating Ti-based implants with bioactive materials promotes joining between the prostheses and the bone as well as increasing long-term implant stability. In the present work, the interface between Ti-6Al-4V and bioactive silicate glass coatings, prepared using a simple enameling technique, is analyzed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the glass/alloy interface shows the formation of a reaction layer ({approx}150 nm thick) composed of Ti5Si3 nanoparticles with a size of {approx}20 nm. This nanostructured interface facilitates the formation of a stable joint between the glass coating and the alloy.

  18. The ELI-NP facility for nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur, C. A.; Balabanski, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Gales, S.; Morjan, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Ursescu, D.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is aiming to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. The facility, currently under construction at Magurele-Bucharest, will comprise a high power laser system and a very brilliant gamma beam system. The technology involved in the construction of both systems is at the limits of the present-day's technological capabilities. The high power laser system will consist of two 10 PW lasers and it will produce intensities of up to 1023-1024 W/cm2. The gamma beam, produced via Compton backscattering of a laser beam on a relativistic electron beam, will be characterized by a narrow bandwidth (<0.5%) and tunable energy of up to almost 20 MeV. The research program of the facility covers a broad range of key topics in frontier fundamental physics and new nuclear physics. A particular attention is given to the development of innovative applications. In the present paper an overview of the project status and the overall performance characteristics of the main research equipment will be given. The main fundamental physics and applied research topics proposed to be studied at ELI-NP will also be briefly reviewed.

  19. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V produced via electron beam additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Brian J.

    In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) has become an increasingly promising method used for the production of structural metallic components. There are a number of reasons why AM methods are attractive, including the ability to produce complex geometries into a near-net shape and the rapid transition from design to production. Ti-6Al-4V is a titanium alloy frequently used in the aerospace industry which is receiving considerable attention as a good candidate for processing via electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM). The Sciaky EBAM method combines a high-powered electron beam, weld-wire feedstock, and a large build chamber, enabling the production of large structural components. In order to gain wide acceptance of EBAM of Ti-6Al-4V as a viable manufacturing method, it is important to understand broadly the microstructural features that are present in large-scale depositions, including specifically: the morphology, distribution and texture of the phases present. To achieve such an understanding, stereological methods were used to populate a database quantifying key microstructural features in Ti-6Al-4V including volume fraction of phases, alpha lath width, colony scale factor, and volume fraction of basket weave type microstructure. Microstructural features unique to AM, such as elongated grains and banded structures, were also characterized. Hardness and tensile testing were conducted and the results were related to the microstructural morphology and sample orientation. Lastly, fractured surfaces and defects were investigated. The results of these activities provide insight into the process-structure-properties relationships found in EBAM processed Ti-6Al-4V.

  20. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Mahdipoor, M S; Kirols, H S; Kevorkov, D; Jedrzejowski, P; Medraj, M

    2015-09-22

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ V(n), where the speed exponent is 7-9 for Ti6Al4V and 11-13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl.

  1. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdipoor, M. S.; Kirols, H. S.; Kevorkov, D.; Jedrzejowski, P.; Medraj, M.

    2015-09-01

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ Vn, where the speed exponent is 7-9 for Ti6Al4V and 11-13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl.

  2. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipoor, M.S.; Kirols, H.S.; Kevorkov, D.; Jedrzejowski, P.; Medraj, M.

    2015-01-01

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ Vn, where the speed exponent is 7–9 for Ti6Al4V and 11–13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl. PMID:26391370

  3. Computational Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Friction-Stir Welding Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    aluminum alloy FSW joints. Int. J. Fatigue, 2003, 25, 939–948. 13 Lee, W. B., Lee, C. Y., Chang, W. S., Yeon, Y. M., and Jung, S. B. Microstructural...A fully coupled thermomechanical finite element analysis of the friction-stir welding ( FSW ) process developed in the authors’ previous work is...combined with the basic physical metallurgy of Ti–6Al–4V to predict/assess the structural response of FSW joints. A close examination of the experimental

  4. Interaction behaviors at the interface between liquid Al-Si and solid Ti-6Al-4V in ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Yan, Jiuchun; Gao, Fei; Wei, Jinghui; Xu, Zhiwu; Fan, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Power ultrasonic vibration (20 kHz, 6 μm) was applied to assist the interaction between a liquid Al-Si alloy and solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate in air. The interaction behaviors, including breakage of the oxide film on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V, and interfacial chemical reactions, were investigated. Experimental results showed that numerous 2-20 μm diameter-sized pits formed on the Ti-6Al-4V surface. Propagation of ultrasonic waves in the liquid Al-Si alloy resulted in ultrasonic cavitation. When this cavitation occurred at or near the liquid/solid interface, many complex effects were generated at the small zones during the bubble implosion, including micro-jets, hot spots, and acoustic streaming. The breakage behavior of oxide films on the solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate, excessive chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V into liquid Al-Si, abnormal interfacial chemical reactions at the interface, and phase transformation between the intermetallic compounds could be wholly ascribed to these ultrasonic effects. An effective bond between Al-Si and Ti-6Al-4V can be produced by ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air.

  5. Sodium hydroxide anodization of Ti-Al-4V adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filbey, Jennifer A.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA) for Ti-6Al-4V adherends is examined. The SHA surface is evaluated using SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The SHA procedures of Kennedy et al. (1983) were employed in this experiment. The photomicrographs of the SHA (sandblasted) and PSHA (sandblasted and pickled) oxide surface reveal that the two surfaces differ. The PSHA is patchy and similar to a chromic acid anodization surface and the porosity of the PSHA is more uniform than the SHA surface. The compositions of the surfaces are studied. It is noted that SHA is an effective pretreatment for Ti-6Al-4V adherends.

  6. Low cycle fatigue behavior of Ti6Al4V thermochemically nitrided for its use in hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, D; Manero, J M; Gil, F J; Planell, J A

    2001-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have many attractive properties including high specific strength, low density, and excellent corrosion resistance. Besides, titanium and the Ti6Al4V alloy have long been recognized as materials with high biocompatibility. These properties have led to the use of these materials in biomedical applications. Despite these advantages, the lack of good wear resistance makes difficult the use of titanium and Ti6Al4V in some biomedical applications, like articulating components of prostheses. Some surface treatments are available in order to correct these problems, like thermal surface treatment by means of nitrogen gaseous diffusion at high temperature. Nitrogen enters into the material by diffusion, creating a surface layer of increased hardness. Low cycle fatigue behavior in air of Ti6Al4V alloy has been studied. Results show a reduction of low cycle fatigue life up to 10% compared to the not-treated material. Studies suggest it is not related to the titanium nitride surface layer, but to microstructural changes caused by the high temperature treatment.

  7. Biocorrosion of TiO2 nanoparticle coating of Ti-6Al-4V in DMEM under specific in vitro conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Sarah; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2015-02-01

    A TiO2 nanoparticle coating was prepared on a biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy using "spin-coating" technique with a colloidal suspension of TiO2 nanopowders with the aim to optimize the surface morphology (e.g., roughness) for improved biocompatibility. The influence of a TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) coating on the corrosion behavior, metal ion release, and biomimetic apatite formation was studied in DMEM, at 37.5 °C with a continuous supply of 5% CO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicate a formation of a new layer on the surface of the NP-coated sample upon 28 days immersion in DMEM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the surface of the NP-coated Ti-6Al-4V shows a complete coverage by a Ca-phosphate layer in contrast to the non-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Hence, the TiO2-NP coating strongly enhances biomimetic apatite formation on the alloy surface. In addition, the TiO2-NP coating can efficiently reduce Al-release from the alloy, for which the bare Ti-6Al-4V alloy is significant for at least 28 days of immersion in DMEM.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA

  9. Joining of zirconium boride based refractory ceramics to Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muolo, Maria Luigia; Ferrera, Elena; Morbelli, Luisa; Zanotti, Claudio; Passerone, Alberto

    2003-09-01

    The exploitation of the peculiar characteristics of ceramic refractory materials in extreme conditions (as for Thermal Protection Systems - TPS) often depends to a great extent on the ability to join different ceramics one to the other and to special metallic alloys. Joints may be achieved in a number of ways, but principally are made by either solid phase or liquid phase transformations (brazing). Brazed joints are difficult to realise in the presence of ceramic materials, due to the fact that they are not wet, in general, by liquid metals. This paper presents experimental results on the wettability characteristics of zirconium boride based materials (with Si3N4, Ni etc.) by an AgZr alloy, the microstructures and thermal tests of brazed joints with the special alloy Ti6Al4V. The wetting data will be examined in terms of interfacial characteristics and in terms of the kinetics of spreading. Thermal tests and models will be devoted to evaluate and measure the thermal insulation capacity of the ceramic layers in order to determine the optimal thickness as a function of the foreseen outer surface temperature.

  10. A new-concept gamma calorimeter at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzi, M.; Adriani, O.; Albergo, S.; Andreotti, M.; Berto, D.; Borgheresi, R.; Cappello, G.; Cardarelli, P.; Ciaranfi, R.; Consoli, E.; Di Domenico, G.; Evangelisti, F.; Gambaccini, M.; Graziani, G.; Marziani, M.; Palumbo, L.; Passaleva, G.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Serban, A.; Starodubtsev, O.; Statera, M.; Tricomi, A.; Variola, A.; Veltri, M.

    2017-02-01

    ELI-NP is an European Research Infrastructure that will provide a monochromatic, high brilliance gamma beam with tunable energy up to 19.5 MeV. The time structure of the beam consists of 32 high intensity gamma bunches separated by a time interval of 16 ns and delivered at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. In order to match such unprecedented beam specifications, specific devices and techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the beam parameters during the commissioning and the operational phase. This paper presents an overview of the gamma beam characterization system, with particular focus on a new-concept sampling calorimeter made of silicon detectors and polyethylene absorbers.

  11. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; González-Doncel, G; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700°C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components.

  12. ELYS/MEL-28 chromatin association coordinates nuclear pore complex assembly and replication licensing.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Khoudoli, Guennadi A; Stewart, Graeme; Swedlow, Jason R; Blow, J Julian

    2007-10-09

    Xenopus egg extract supports all the major cell-cycle transitions in vitro. We have used a proteomics approach to identify proteins whose abundance on chromatin changes during the course of an in vitro cell cycle. One of the proteins we identified was ELYS/MEL-28, which has recently been described as the earliest-acting factor known to be required for nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly [1-4]. ELYS interacts with the Nup107-160 complex and is required for its association with chromatin. ELYS contains an AT-hook domain, which we show binds to chromatin with a high affinity. This domain can compete with full-length ELYS for chromatin association, thereby blocking NPC assembly. This provides evidence that ELYS interacts directly with chromatin and that this interaction is essential for NPC assembly and compartmentalization of chromosomal DNA within the cell. Furthermore, we detected a physical association on chromatin between ELYS and the Mcm2-7 replication-licensing proteins. ELYS chromatin loading, NPC assembly, and nuclear growth were delayed when Mcm2-7 was prevented from loading onto chromatin. Because nuclear assembly is required to shut down licensing prior to entry into S phase, our results suggest a mechanism by which these two early cell-cycle events are coordinated with one another.

  13. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm‑2, the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM.

  14. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm−2, the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM. PMID:27734951

  15. KD4v: comprehensible knowledge discovery system for missense variant

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin; Walter, Vincent; Linard, Benjamin; Poidevin, Laetitia; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Wicker, Nicolas; Lecompte, Odile; Thompson, Julie D.; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in the post-genomic era is a better understanding of how human genetic alterations involved in disease affect the gene products. The KD4v (Comprehensible Knowledge Discovery System for Missense Variant) server allows to characterize and predict the phenotypic effects (deleterious/neutral) of missense variants. The server provides a set of rules learned by Induction Logic Programming (ILP) on a set of missense variants described by conservation, physico-chemical, functional and 3D structure predicates. These rules are interpretable by non-expert humans and are used to accurately predict the deleterious/neutral status of an unknown mutation. The web server is available at http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/kd4v. PMID:22641855

  16. Mechanical stability of Ti6Al4V implant material after femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symietz, Christian; Lehmann, Erhard; Gildenhaar, Renate; Hackbarth, Andreas; Berger, Georg; Krüger, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    The surface of a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) implant material was covered with a bioactive calcium alkali phosphate ceramic with the aim to accelerate the healing and to form a stronger bond to living bone tissue. To fix the ceramic powder we used a femtosecond laser, which causes a thin surface melting of the metal. It is a requirement to prove that the laser irradiation would not reduce the lifetime of implants. Here we present the results of mechanical stability tests, determined by the rotating bending fatigue strength of sample rods. After describing the sample surfaces and their modifications caused by the laser treatment we give evidence for an unchanged mechanical stability. This applies not only to the ceramic fixation but also to a comparatively strong laser ablation.

  17. Microstructure and inclusion of Ti-6Al-4V fabricated by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qianli; Hu, Ningmin; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Ranran; Feng, Qingling

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) was used in fabricating the dense part from pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4V powder. The microstructural evolution and inclusion formation of as-fabricated part were characterized in depth. The microstructure was characterized by features of columnar prior β grains and acicular martensite α'. High density defects such as dislocations and twins can be produced in SLM process. Investigations on the inclusions find out that hard alpha inclusion, amorphous CaO and microcrystalline Al2O3 are three main inclusions formed in SLM. The inclusions formed at some specific sites on melt pool surface. The microstructural evolution and inclusion formation of as-fabricated material are closely related to the SLM process.

  18. Yield Behavior of Solution Treated and Aged Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, Andrew J.; Baker, Eric H.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Thesken, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Post yield uniaxial tension-compression tests were run on a solution treated and aged (STA), titanium 6-percent aluminum 4-percent vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy to determine the yield behavior on load reversal. The material exhibits plastic behavior almost immediately on load reversal implying a strong Bauschinger effect. The resultant stress-strain data was compared to a 1D mechanics model and a finite element model used to design a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV). Although the models and experimental data compare well for the initial loading and unloading in the tensile regime, agreement is lost in the compressive regime due to the Bauschinger effect and the assumption of perfect plasticity. The test data presented here are being used to develop more accurate cyclic hardening constitutive models for future finite element design analysis of COPVs.

  19. Thinning Behavior Simulations in Superplastic Forming of Friction Stir Processed Titanium 6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Paul D.; Sanders, Daniel G.; Ramulu, M.; Grant, Glenn; Trapp, Tim; Comley, Peter

    2010-06-01

    A study was undertaken to simulate the thinning behavior of titanium 6Al-4V alloy sheet during Superplastic Forming and to evaluate the feasibility of controlling thinning in areas of interest with Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of the material. The commercially available Finite Element Analysis software ABAQUS was used to execute these simulations. Material properties of the parent sheet and the Friction Stir Processed regions input into the models were determined experimentally by elevated temperature tensile testing. The results of these simulations were compared to experimental test results via Superplastically Forming representative aerospace parts and analytical computations for validation. It was found that numerical simulations can be used to predict the thin-out characteristics of superplastically formed titanium parts and the thin-out can be controlled in desired areas by FSP, locally, prior to forming.

  20. Corrosion of Ti6Al4V pins produced by direct metal laser sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Damborenea, J. J.; Arenas, M. A.; Larosa, Maria Aparecida; Jardini, André Luiz; de Carvalho Zavaglia, Cecília Amélia; Conde, A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technique allows the manufacturing a wide variety of medical devices for any type of prosthetic surgery (HIP, dental, cranial, maxillofacial) as well as for internal fixation devices (K-Wires or Steinmann Pins). There are a large number of research studies on DMLS, including microstructural characterization, mechanical properties and those based on production quality assurance but the influence of porosity in the corrosion behavior of these materials not been sufficiently considered. In the present paper, surgical pins of Ti6Al4V have been produced by DMLS. After testing in a phosphate buffered saline solution, the surface of the titanium alloy appeared locally covered by a voluminous white oxide. This unexpected behavior was presumably due to the existence of internal defects in the pins as result of the manufacturing process. The importance of these defects-that might act as crevice nucleation sites- has been revealed by electrochemical techniques and confirmed by computed tomography.

  1. Effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Jie Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2014-07-01

    The effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructures and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V alloy sheets was investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, tensile tests and fatigue tests. A microstructural examination shows that by increasing the overlapping factor, the grains in the fusion zone become coarser, and the width of the heat affected zone increases. As overlapping factor increases, the width of region composed completely of martensite α′ and the secondary α phase in the heat affected zone increases, consequently the gradient of microstructure along the direction from the fusion zone to base metal decreases, so does the gradient of microhardness. The results of tensile and fatigue tests reveal that the joints made using medium overlapping factor exhibit better mechanical properties than those welded with low and high overlapping factors. Based on the experimental results, it can be stated that a sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy can be obtained if an appropriate overlapping factor is used. - Highlights: • The weld quality of Ti6Al4V alloy under various overlapping factors was assessed. • Tensile and fatigue tests were conducted with as-welded specimen. • Localized strain across the weld was measured using DIC photogrammetry system. • A sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy is obtained by using right overlapping factor.

  2. High pressure coolant effect on PVD coated inserts during end milling of Ti-6AL-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Arvind

    Titanium alloys are being employed extensively in engineering and aerospace applications for their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical strength and ability to withstand high temperatures. Out of the different alloys of titanium available, the most commonly used alloy is Ti-6Al-4V. It is also called `Grade-5 titanium alloy' or 'α+β titanium alloy'. High speed machining of titanium alloys generates high temperatures in the cutting zone, promoting accelerated tool wear and reducing the efficiency in metal cutting. Consequently, the ability of the coolant to remove heat from the cutting zone plays an increasingly important role in the economics of the process as well as on the life of tool inserts. With the introduction of thru-tool coolant delivery, the coolant can now be delivered directly at the point of machining without having to flood the area of machining. This research tries to address the effects that high pressure and thru-tool coolant has on insert wear while end milling Ti-6Al-4V. The parameters used in this study are speed, feed, axial depth of cut, radial depth of cut and coolant pressure. A structured design of experiments along with a central composite design approach is used to determine the main effects of coolant pressure and its interactions with the remaining parameters. The results show that, within the parameters of this experiment, coolant pressure was not a significant main effect. However, pressure seems to react positively with feed rate. Contributions from this research can be used to recommend settings of the cutting factors in order to obtain the minimal tool wear.

  3. In vitro behavior of silicate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Goldman, Marni; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Marshall, Sally J.

    2002-01-09

    The in vitro response in simulated body fluid (SBF) of silicate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V was evaluated. Glasses belonging to the SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 system were used to prepare 50-70 (mu)m thick coatings on Ti6Al4V, employing a simple enameling technique. Glasses with silica content higher than 55 wt percent can be used to prepare coatings that do not crack or delaminate and exhibit good adhesion to the alloy. It has been found that coatings with silica content lower than 60 wt percent are more susceptible to corrosion and precipitate carbonated hydroxyapatite on their surface during in vitro tests. However, these coatings have a higher thermal expansion than the metal and are under tension. After 2 months in SBF cracks grow in the coating that reach the glass/metal interface and initiate delamination. Glasses with silica content higher than 60 wt percent are more resistant to corrosion and have lower thermal expansion. These coatings do not crack but they do not precipitate apatite, even after 2 months in SBF.

  4. Fracture Mechanics Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. W.; Martinez, J.; McLean, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant on orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent processing flaws will not cause failure during the design life of the tank. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking (KEAC) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched, or SE(B), specimens representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to AF-M315E at 50 C for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material was found to be at least 22 ksivin and at least 31 ksivin for the weld material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant.

  5. Fracture Growth Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Martinez, Jonathan; McLean, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant in orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent flaws will not cause failure during the design life. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environmentally-assisted cracking (K (sub EAC)) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched specimens SE(B) representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to the monopropellant at 50 degrees Centigrade for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant was found to be at least 22.0 kilopounds per square inch. The stress intensity factor of the weld material was at least 31.3 kilopounds per square inch.

  6. Bioceramic dip-coating on Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS implant materials.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Bunyamin; Hanyaloglu, C

    2008-05-01

    The focus of the present study is based on more economical and rapid bioceramic coating on the most common implant substrates such as Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS used often in orthopedics. For ceramic dip coating of implant substrates, Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, P2O5, Na2CO3 and KH2PO4 are used to provide the gel. Ceramic films on sandblasted substrates have been deposited by using a newly manufactured dip-coating apparatus. Sample characterization is evaluated by SEM and XRD analysis. A smooth and homogeneous coating films have been obtained and average of 20 MPa bonding strength has been achieved for both Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS alloys after sintering at 750 degrees C under flowing argon. The level of importance of the process parameters on coating was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The current process appears to be cheap, easy, and flexible to shape variations and high production rates for orthopedic applications.

  7. Fatigue behavior of Ti6Al4V and 316 LVM blasted with ceramic particles of interest for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Barriuso, S; Chao, J; Jiménez, J A; García, S; González-Carrasco, J L

    2014-02-01

    Grit blasting is used as a cost-effective method to increase the surface roughness of metallic biomaterials, as Ti6Al4V and 316 LVM, to enhance the osteointegration, fixation and stability of implants. Samples of these two alloys were blasted by using alumina and zirconia particles, yielding rough (up to Ra~8μm) and nearly smooth (up to Ra~1μm) surfaces, respectively. In this work, we investigate the sub-surface induced microstructural effects and its correlation with the mechanical properties, with special emphasis in the fatigue behavior. Blasting with zirconia particles increases the fatigue resistance whereas the opposite effect is observed using alumina ones. As in a conventional shot penning process, the use of rounded zirconia particles for blasting led to the development of residual compressive stresses at the surface layer, without zones of stress concentrators. Alumina particles are harder and have an angular shape, which confers a higher capability to abrade the surface, but also a high rate of breaking down on impact. The higher roughness and the presence of a high amount of embedded alumina particles make the blasted alloy prone to crack nucleation. Interestingly, the beneficial or detrimental role of blasting is more intense for the Ti6Al4V alloy than for the 316 steel. It is proposed that this behavior is related to their different strain hardening exponents and the higher mass fraction of particles contaminating the surface. The low value of this exponent for the Ti6Al4V alloy justifies the expected low sub-surface hardening during the severe plastic deformation, enhancing its capability to soft during cyclic loading.

  8. The corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr in protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Williams, R L; Williams, D F

    1999-04-01

    Ti alloys are used in orthopaedic applications owing to their appropriate mechanical properties and their excellent corrosion resistance. The release of titanium and the other alloying elements into the surrounding tissue has been reported due either to passive corrosion or accelerating processes such as wear. Since the passive layer can be broken down in certain circumstances by wear it is important to study the ability of these alloys to repassivate in biological environments, in particular in the presence of proteins, and evaluate how the repassivated surface may vary from the original surface. In this study we investigated the ability of Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr to repassivate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), bovine albumin solutions in PBS and 10% foetal calf serum in PBS at different pH values and at different albumin concentrations. It was found that an increase in pH had a greater effect on the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb than on Ti-13Nb-13Zr in PBS and that the addition of protein to the PBS reduced the influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour of all the alloys. The effect of the corrosion and repassivation was investigated by measuring changes in the surface hardness of the alloys and it was found that corrosion reduced the hardness of the surface oxides of all the alloys. In PBS the reduction was smallest for Ti-6Al-4V and largest for Ti-13Nb- 3Zr and that corrosion in protein solutions further reduced the hardness of the surface oxides. This effect was greater for Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb than for Ti-13Nb-13Zr. In conclusion, proteins in the environment appear to interact with the repassivation process at the surface of these alloys and influence the resulting surface properties.

  9. Diffusion Bonding of Ti-6Al-4V Sheet with Ti-6Al-4V Foam for Biomedical Implant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Brittany; Oppenheimer, Scott; Dunand, David C.; Lewis, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Advanced metallic bone implants are designed to have a porous surface to improve osseointegration and reduce risks of loosening. An alternative approach to existing surface treatments to create a porous surface is to bond separately produced metallic foams onto the implant. To assess the feasibility of this approach, a Ti-6Al-4V foam was diffusion bonded onto bulk Ti-6Al-4V in an argon atmosphere at temperatures between 1173 K and 1223 K (900 °C and 950 °C) for times between 45 and 75 minutes. These specimens were tested in tension to determine bond quality: failures occurred in the foam, indicating a strong diffusion-bonded interface. The quality of the bond was confirmed by metallographic studies, indicating that this approach, which can also be applied to creating of sandwich with porous cores, is successful.

  10. Fatigue crack growth rate of Ti-6Al-4V considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Yang, Shuo; Lin, Jiewei

    2015-03-01

    Fatigue fracture is one of the main failure modes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fracture toughness and crack closure have strong effects on the fatigue crack growth(FCG) rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The FCG rate of Ti-6Al-4V is investigated by using experimental and analytical methods. The effects of stress ratio, crack closure and fracture toughness on the FCG rate are studied and discussed. A modified prediction model of the FCG rate is proposed, and the relationship between the fracture toughness and the stress intensity factor(SIF) range is redefined by introducing a correcting coefficient. Notched plate fatigue tests (including the fracture toughness test and the FCG rate test) are conducted to investigate the influence of affecting factors on the FCG rate. Comparisons between the predicted results of the proposed model, the Paris model, the Walker model, the Sadananda model, and the experimental data show that the proposed model gives the best agreement with the test data particularly in the near-threshold region and the Paris region, and the corresponding calculated fatigue life is also accurate in the same regions. By considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure, the novel FCG rate prediction model not only improves the estimating accuracy, but also extends the adaptability of the FCG rate prediction model in engineering.

  11. Tribology and hydrophobicity of a biocompatible GPTMS/PFPE coating on Ti6Al4V surfaces.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Bharat; Sinha, Sujeet K

    2012-11-01

    Tribological properties of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) coated 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS) SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) onto Ti6Al4V alloy substrate were studied using ball-on-disk experiments. GPTMS SAMs deposition onto a Ti6Al4V alloy surface was carried out using solution phase method. Ultra-thin layer of PFPE was dip-coated onto SAMs modified specimens. Tribological tests were carried out at 0.2 N normal load and rotational speed of 200 rpm using track radius of 2 mm. Wear track and counterface surface conditions were investigated using optical microscopy. PFPE modified specimens were baked at 150 °C for 1h to investigate the effect of thermal treatment on tribological properties. Surface characterization tests such as contact angle measurement, AFM morphology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out for differently modified specimens. PFPE overcoat meets the requirements of cytotoxicity test using the ISO 10993-5 elution method. PFPE top layer lowered the coefficient of friction and increased wear durability for different specimens (with and without GPTMS intermediate layer). PFPE overcoat onto GPTMS showed significant increase in the wear resistance compared with overcoat onto bare Ti6Al4V specimens. The observed improvement in the tribological properties can be attributed to the change in the interaction of PFPE molecules with the substrate surface due to the GPTMS intermediate layer.

  12. Latest results of 10 petawatt laser beamline for ELi nuclear physics infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lureau, F.; Laux, S.; Casagrande, O.; Chalus, O.; Pellegrina, A.; Matras, G.; Radier, C.; Rey, G.; Ricaud, S.; Herriot, S.; Jougla, P.; Charbonneau, M.; Duvochelle, P. A.; Simon-Boisson, C.

    2016-03-01

    A laser system made of two beams of 10 PW each has been designed and is currently built for ELI-NP research infrastructure. Design is presented as well as preliminary results up to the 1PW level amplifier.

  13. Chaos in the Showalter-Noyes-Bar-Eli model of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, David; Turner, Jack S.; Barkley, Dwight

    1990-03-01

    The observation of robust, large-scale chaos in the Showalter-Noyes-Bar-Eli model of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction is reported. The chaos observed is comparable to that found in CSTR experiments at low flow rates.

  14. Mechanical and chemical analyses across dental porcelain fused to CP titanium or Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Souza, Júlio C M; Henriques, Bruno; Ariza, Edith; Martinelli, Antonio E; Nascimento, Rubens M; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of mechanical properties and chemical variation across veneering dental porcelain fused to different titanium-based substrates. Test samples were synthesized by fusing dental feldspar-based porcelain onto commercially pure titanium grade II or Ti6Al4V alloy. Samples were cross-sectioned at angles of 10 and 90° to the interface plane. Afterwards, nanoindentation tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) system were carried out across interfaces extending from the metal towards the porcelain area. Elemental diffusion profiles across the porcelain-to-metal interfaces were also obtained by EDS analysis. The mismatch in mechanical properties found in porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V interfaces was lower than that of porcelain-to-CP titanium. Cracking was noticed at low-thickness veneering dental porcelain regions after the nanoindentation tests of samples cross-sectioned at low angles to the interface plane. A wide reaction zone between titanium and porcelain as well as higher incidence of defects was noticed at the porcelain-to-CP titanium interfaces. This study confirmed Ti6Al4V as an improved alternative to CP-titanium as it showed to establish a better interface with the veneering dental porcelain considering the slight chemical interaction and the lower mechanical properties mismatch. The elastic modulus of porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V samples showed to be less sensitive to porcelain thickness variations.

  15. A review article: The mechanical properties and the microstructural behaviour of laser metal deposited Ti-6Al-4V and TiC composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erinosho, Mutiu F.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Grade 5 has been regarded as the most useful alloy for the aerospace applications, due to their light weight properties. Today, laser technology is an energetic process in which the beam ejected can travel a longer distance and spot on the focused surface. The combination of metallic powder and laser beam has been used concurrently to form a solid figure. However, this combination has generated a permanently solidified metallurgical bonding between the laser-deposited metallic powders. Several research works have been conducted to improve the mechanical properties of the primary alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. This article conversely highlights the series of work that have been conducted on improving the mechanical properties and microstructures of the primary alloy with the addition of titanium carbide (TiC). The Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been widely selected in most critical part of a component. Their reinforcement with TiC composite particle has been achieved successfully through the optimal usage of laser technology. The characteristics of the reinforced component have vehemently improved the mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, wear resistance, fracture toughness and hardness; as well as the morphologies and phases of the microstructures.

  16. Spall fracture in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. R.; Fensin, S. J.; Dippo, O.; Beal, R. A.; Livescu, V.; Martinez, D. T.; Trujillo, C. P.; Florando, J. N.; Kumar, M.; Gray, G. T.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study on the spall strength of additive manufactured (AM) Ti-6Al-4V. Samples were obtained from two pieces of selective laser melted (SLM, a powder bed fusion technique) Ti-6Al-4V such that the response to dynamic tensile loading could be investigated as a function of the orientation between the build layers and the loading direction. A sample of wrought bar-stock Ti-6Al-4V was also tested to act as a baseline representing the traditionally manufactured material response. A single-stage light gas-gun was used to launch a thin flyer plate into the samples, generating a region of intense tensile stress on a plane normal to the impact direction. The rear free surface velocity time history of each sample was recorded with laser-based velocimetry to allow the spall strength to be calculated. The samples were also soft recovered to enable post-mortem characterization of the spall damage evolution. Results showed that when the tensile load was applied normal to the interfaces between the build layers caused by the SLM fabrication process the spall strength was drastically reduced, dropping to 60% of that of the wrought material. However, when loaded parallel to the AM build layer interfaces the spall strength was found to remain at 95% of the wrought control, suggesting that when loading normal to the AM layer interfaces, void nucleation is facilitated more readily due to weaknesses along these boundaries. Quasi-static testing of the same sample orientations revealed a much lower degree of anisotropy, demonstrating the importance of rate-dependent studies for damage evolution in AM materials.

  17. Spall fracture in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, David Robert; Fensin, Saryu Jindal; Dippo, Olivia; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, we present a study on the spall strength of additive manufactured (AM) Ti-6Al-4V. Samples were obtained from two pieces of selective laser melted (SLM, a powder bed fusion technique) Ti-6Al-4V such that the response to dynamic tensile loading could be investigated as a function of the orientation between the build layers and the loading direction. A sample of wrought bar-stock Ti-6Al-4V was also tested to act as a baseline representing the traditionally manufactured material response. A single-stage light gas-gun was used to launch a thin flyer plate into the samples, generating a region of intense tensile stress on amore » plane normal to the impact direction. The rear free surface velocity time history of each sample was recorded with laser-based velocimetry to allow the spall strength to be calculated. The samples were also soft recovered to enable post-mortem characterization of the spall damage evolution. Results showed that when the tensile load was applied normal to the interfaces between the build layers caused by the SLM fabrication process the spall strength was drastically reduced, dropping to 60% of that of the wrought material. However, when loaded parallel to the AM build layer interfaces the spall strength was found to remain at 95% of the wrought control, suggesting that when loading normal to the AM layer interfaces, void nucleation is facilitated more readily due to weaknesses along these boundaries. Quasi-static testing of the same sample orientations revealed a much lower degree of anisotropy, demonstrating the importance of rate-dependent studies for damage evolution in AM materials.« less

  18. Spall fracture in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David Robert; Fensin, Saryu Jindal; Dippo, Olivia; Beal, Roberta Ann; Livescu, Verpnica; Martinez, Daniel Tito; Trujillo, Carl Patrick; Florando, J. N.; Kumar, M.; Gray, III, George Thompson

    2016-10-07

    Here, we present a study on the spall strength of additive manufactured (AM) Ti-6Al-4V. Samples were obtained from two pieces of selective laser melted (SLM, a powder bed fusion technique) Ti-6Al-4V such that the response to dynamic tensile loading could be investigated as a function of the orientation between the build layers and the loading direction. A sample of wrought bar-stock Ti-6Al-4V was also tested to act as a baseline representing the traditionally manufactured material response. A single-stage light gas-gun was used to launch a thin flyer plate into the samples, generating a region of intense tensile stress on a plane normal to the impact direction. The rear free surface velocity time history of each sample was recorded with laser-based velocimetry to allow the spall strength to be calculated. The samples were also soft recovered to enable post-mortem characterization of the spall damage evolution. Results showed that when the tensile load was applied normal to the interfaces between the build layers caused by the SLM fabrication process the spall strength was drastically reduced, dropping to 60% of that of the wrought material. However, when loaded parallel to the AM build layer interfaces the spall strength was found to remain at 95% of the wrought control, suggesting that when loading normal to the AM layer interfaces, void nucleation is facilitated more readily due to weaknesses along these boundaries. Quasi-static testing of the same sample orientations revealed a much lower degree of anisotropy, demonstrating the importance of rate-dependent studies for damage evolution in AM materials.

  19. On the interactions of human bone cells with Ti6Al4V thermally oxidized by means of laser shock processing.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Lara; Hierro-Oliva, Margarita; Barriuso, Sandra; Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; Montealegre, M Ángeles; Saldaña, Laura; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; González-Carrasco, José Luis; González-Martín, María Luisa; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2016-02-02

    We investigated a Ti6Al4V alloy modified by means of laser peening in the absence of sacrificial coatings. As a consequence of the temperature rise during laser focusing, melting and ablation generated an undulated surface that exhibits an important increase in the content of titanium oxides and OH- ions. Human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts cultured on the oxidized alloy develop noticeable filopodia and lamellipodia. Their paxillin-stained focal adhesions are smaller than in cells attached to the untreated alloy and exhibit a marked loss of colocalization with the ends of actin stress fibers. An important imbalance of phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase is detected in cells grown on the oxidized alloy. Although these mechanisms of adhesion are deeply altered, the surface treatment does not affect cell attachment or proliferation rates on the alloy. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the treated alloy in media containing osteogenic inducers differentiate towards the osteoblastic phenotype to a higher extent than those on the untreated surface. Also, the specific functions of human osteoblasts cultured on these media are enhanced on the treated alloy. In summary, laser peening tailors the Ti6Al4V surface to yield an oxidized layer with increased roughness that allows the colonization and activities of bone-lineage cells.

  20. Properties of ion implanted Ti-6Al-4V processed using beamline and PSII techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Woodring, J.S.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.M.; Williams, J.M.; Poker, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The surface of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy has been modified using beamline implantation of boron. In separate experiments, Ti64 has been implanted with nitrogen using a plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique utilizing either ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen (N{sub 2}), or their combinations as the source of nitrogen ions. Beamline experiments have shown the hardness of the N-implanted surface saturates at a dose level of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2} at {approximately} 10 GPa. The present work makes comparisons of hardness and tribological tests of (1) B implantation using beamline techniques, and (2) N implanted samples using ammonia and/or nitrogen gas in a PSII process. The results show that PSII using N{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} gives similar hardness as N implantation using a beamline process. The presence of H in the Ti alloy surface does not affect the hardness of the implanted surface. Boron implantation increased the surface hardness by as much as 2.5x at the highest dose level. Wear testing by a pin-on-disk method indicated that nitrogen implantation reduced the wear rate by as much as 120x, and boron implantation reduced the wear rate by 6.5x. Increased wear resistance was accompanied by a decreased coefficient of friction.

  1. Straight talk with... Ricardo Dolmetsch. Interview by Elie Dolgin.

    PubMed

    Dolmetsch, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    Neuroscience, in recent years, has started to look like a graveyard for drug development, with many large pharmaceutical companies either eliminating their brain disorder programs or cutting back heavily on such research. Novartis seemed to have made exactly this kind of drastic change two years ago when the company announced plans to shutter its neuroscience operations at its global headquarters in Basel, Switzerland. But the company made it known then that its intention was to ultimately set up a new neuroscience division at the company's US base in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The US site was initially picked to take advantage of the local academic strength in the field of psychiatric genetics. Now, it seems that Novartis is also looking to add stem cell technologies to the mix with the appointment in August of Ricardo Dolmetsch as the company's global head of neurosciences-the first new hire for the company's reincarnated division. As a professor at California's Stanford University School of Medicine for the past ten years, Dolmetsch made his name using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to study a rare form of autism known as Timothy syndrome. Elie Dolgin met with Dolmetsch at the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research in the Technology Square area of Cambridge to discuss how he plans to succeed where so many others have failed.

  2. Novel Bio-functional Magnesium Coating on Porous Ti6Al4V Orthopaedic Implants: In vitro and In vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaokang; Gao, Peng; Wan, Peng; Pei, Yifeng; Shi, Lei; Fan, Bo; Shen, Chao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Ke; Guo, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys with various porous structures are one of the most important metals used in orthopaedic implants due to favourable properties as replacement for hard tissues. However, surface modification is critical to improve the osteointegration of titanium and its alloys. In this study, a bioactive magnesium coating was successfully fabricated on porous Ti6Al4V by means of arc ion plating, which was proved with fine grain size and high film/substrate adhesion. The surface composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Furthermore, the in vitro study of cytotoxicity and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells showed that magnesium coated porous Ti6Al4V had suitable degradation and biocompatibility. Moreover, the in vivo studies including fluorescent labelling, micro-computed tomography analysis scan and Van-Gieson staining of histological sections indicated that magnesium coated porous Ti6Al4V could significantly promote bone regeneration in rabbit femoral condylar defects after implantation for 4 and 8 weeks, and has better osteogenesis and osteointegration than the bare porous Ti6Al4V. Therefore, it is expected that this bioactive magnesium coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with improved osteointegration and osteogenesis functions can be used for orthopedic applications. PMID:28102294

  3. Computational Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Friction-Stir Welding Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-04

    residual stress field in the aluminum alloy FSW joints. Int. J. Fatigue, 2003, 25, 939–948. 13 Lee, W. B., Lee, C. Y., Chang, W. S., Yeon, Y. M., and...OF: A fully coupled thermomechanical finite element analysis of the friction-stir welding ( FSW ) process developed in the authors’ previous work is...combined with the basic physical metallurgy of Ti–6Al–4V to predict/assess the structural response of FSW joints. A close examination of the experimental

  4. Validation of a Model of Linear Friction Welding of Ti6Al4V by Considering Welds of Different Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, F.; Ward, R. Mark; Turner, R. P.; Walpole, A. R.; Attallah, M. M.; Gebelin, J.-C.; Reed, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    A model for the linear friction welding of the alloy Ti6Al4V was tested experimentally. Instrumented welds were carried out on rectilinear geometries of various dimensions, and the thermal profiles, upset rates, in-plane forces and subsequent micro hardness were measured for comparison. In particular the effects of weld size perpendicular and parallel to the oscillation were investigated, including a case in which the two sides of the weld had different sizes. The predictions of the model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, which provides confirmation that the model is useful for the purposes of design.

  5. Evaluation of ARCAM Deposited Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, Kevin; Slaughter, Blake; Speorl, Emily; Good, James; Gilley, Scott; McLemore, Carole

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) technologies are becoming available. One of the challenges in using new technologies for aerospace systems is demonstrating that the process and system has the ability to manufacture components that meet the high quality requirements on a statistically significant basis. The widest-used system for small to medium sized components is the ARCAM system manufactured in Gothenburg, Sweden. This system features a 4kW electron-beam gun, and has a chamber volume of 250mm long x 250mm wide x 250mm to 400mm tall. This paper will describe the basis for the quality and consistency requirements, the experimental and evaluation procedures used for the evaluation, and an analysis of the results for Ti-6Al-4V.

  6. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  7. Characterization and mechanical properties investigation of TiN-Ag films onto Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Dongxing; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Tang, Jingang; Xiang, Dinggen

    2016-03-01

    To investigate their effect on fretting fatigue (FF) resistance of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hard solid lubricating composite films of TiN with varying silver contents (TiN-Ag) were deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy using ion-assisted magnetron sputtering. The surface morphology and structure were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness, bonding strength, and toughness of films were tested using a micro-hardness tester, scratch tester, and a repeated press-press test system that was manufactured in-house, respectively. The FF resistance of TiN-Ag composite films was studied using self-developed devices. The results show that the FF resistance of a titanium alloy can be improved by TiN-Ag composite films, which were fabricated using hard TiN coating doped with soft Ag. The FF life of Ag0.5, Ag2, Ag5, Ag10 and Ag20 composite films is 2.41, 3.18, 3.20, 2.94 and 2.87 times as great as that of the titanium alloy, respectively. This is because the composite films have the better toughness, friction lubrication, and high bonding strength. When the atomic fraction of Ag changes from 2% to 5%, the FF resistance of the composite films shows the best performance. This is attributed to the surface integrity of the composite film is sufficiently fine to prevent the initiation and early propagation of FF cracks.

  8. Fretting Fatigue Behavior of the Titanium Alloy Ti-6AL-4V Under Seawater Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    continuously broken up by the mechanical action. The oxide debris piles up and can become trapped in a valley between two contacting asperities. Pits...element analysis used in this study was similar to the one utilized by Lykins [42] and Yuksel [40]. A commercially available finite element code, ABAQUS ...Strip (With Particular Reference to Fretting Experiments),” Wear, 185: 235-238 (1995). 113 51. ABAQUS Standard User’s Manual. Vol. 2. Hibbit

  9. Fretting Fatigue Behavior of a Titanium Alloy Ti-6AL-4V at Elevated Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Displacement w Specimen width β Dundar’s parameter δ Slip in the x...direction δ∆ Slip range at the crack location axialσ∆ Change in the axial stress υ...life under fretting conditions that was a function of slip amplitude, contact pressure, and materials. They also observed that the cracks initiate

  10. Responses & Modeling of Electron Beam Single Melt Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-13

    an armor, the material undergoes finite plastic deformation at high strain rates and temperatures , as well as at high hydrostatic pressures. US Army...Split Hopkinson Bar, Constitutive Modeling, High Temperature , Multiaxial Loading Akhtar S. Khan University of Maryland - Baltimore County Office of...plastic deformation at high strain rates and temperatures , as well as at high hydrostatic pressures. US Army is contemplating on making a light tank

  11. In vitro fibroblast and pre-osteoblastic cellular responses on laser surface modified Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Chikarakara, Evans; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Moore, Eric; Levingstone, Tanya; Grehan, Laura; Higginbotham, Clement; Vázquez, Mercedes; Bagga, Komal; Naher, Sumsun; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-12-29

    The success of any implant, dental or orthopaedic, is driven by the interaction of implant material with the surrounding tissue. In this context, the nature of the implant surface plays a direct role in determining the long term stability as physico-chemical properties of the surface affect cellular attachment, expression of proteins, and finally osseointegration. Thus to enhance the degree of integration of the implant into the host tissue, various surface modification techniques are employed. In this work, laser surface melting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was carried out using a CO2 laser with an argon gas atmosphere. Investigations were carried out to study the influence of laser surface modification on the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy implant material. Surface roughness, microhardness, and phase development were recorded. Initial knowledge of these effects on biocompatibility was gained from examination of the response of fibroblast cell lines, which was followed by examination of the response of osteoblast cell lines which is relevant to the applications of this material in bone repair. Biocompatibility with these cell lines was analysed via Resazurin cell viability assay, DNA cell attachment assay, and alamarBlue metabolic activity assay. Laser treated surfaces were found to preferentially promote cell attachment, higher levels of proliferation, and enhanced bioactivity when compared to untreated control samples. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of this laser surface melting treatment to significantly improve the biocompatibility of titanium implants in vivo.

  12. Characterization of Ti-C-N coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    de Viteri, V Sáenz; Barandika, M G; de Gopegui, U Ruiz; Bayón, R; Zubizarreta, C; Fernández, X; Igartua, A; Agullo-Rueda, F

    2012-12-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is the most commonly employed implant material for orthopedic replacements due to its good mechanical properties close to those of bones, biocompatibility and its good corrosion resistance in biological media. Nevertheless, it does not exhibit good wear resistance, showing friction and wear even with soft tissues. This latter feature can lead to a premature failure of the implant with the subsequent component replacement. Therefore, a system with good tribological resistance is required for several medical applications. One possible alternative to solve tribological problems consists of protecting the alloy surface by means of biocompatible Ti-C-N coatings. In this work, five types of metallic Ti-C-N coatings deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) cathodic arc method on Ti6Al4V substrate have been studied. Different deposition conditions have been analyzed, and the superficial properties of films have been characterized. Additionally, tribological response of these films have been determined and compared with the substrate one under fretting conditions in simulated body fluid. The results indicate that Ti-C-N coatings improve the general response of the biomaterial.

  13. A nano-scale mirror-like surface of Ti-6Al-4V attained by chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenliang, Liang; Weili, Liu; Shasha, Li; Hui, Kong; Zefang, Zhang; Zhitang, Song

    2016-05-01

    Metal Ti and its alloys have been widely utilized in the fields of aviation, medical science, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for its excellent specific strength, resistance to corrosion, and biological compatibility. As the application of Ti moves to the micro or nano scale, however, traditional methods of planarization have shown their short slabs. Thus, we introduce the method of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to provide a new way for the nano-scale planarization method of Ti alloys. We obtain a mirror-like surface, whose flatness is of nano-scale, via the CMP method. We test the basic mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) in the CMP process, and optimize the composition of CMP slurry. Furthermore, the possible reactions that may take place in the CMP process have been studied by electrochemical methods combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An equivalent circuit has been built to interpret the dynamic of oxidation. Finally, a model has been established to explain the synergy of chemical and mechanical effects in the CMP of Ti-6Al-4V. Project supported by the National Major Scientific and Technological Special Project during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period of China (Grant No. 2009ZX02030-1), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51205387), the Support by Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 11nm0500300), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 14XD1425300).

  14. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  15. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    SciTech Connect

    Gales, S. Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-24

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  16. Thermoelectric assessment of laser peening induced effects on a metallic biomaterial Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreón, H.; Barriuso, S.; Porro, J. A.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Ocaña, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    Laser peening has recently emerged as a useful technique to overcome detrimental effects associated to another wellknown surface modification processes such as shot peening or grit blasting used in the biomedical field. It is worth to notice that besides the primary residual stress effect, thermally induced effects might also cause subtle surface and subsurface microstructural changes that might influence corrosion resistance. Moreover, since maximum loads use to occur at the surface, they could also play a critical role in the fatigue strength. In this work, plates of Ti-6Al-4V alloy of 7 mm in thickness were modified by laser peening without using a sacrificial outer layer. Irradiation by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (9.4 ns pulse length) working in fundamental harmonic at 2.8 J/pulse and with water as confining medium was used. Laser pulses with a 1.5 mm diameter at an equivalent overlapping density (EOD) of 5000 cm-2 were applied. Attempts to analyze the global induced effects after laser peening were addressed by using the contacting and non-contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) techniques. It was demonstrated that the thermoelectric method is entirely insensitive to surface topography while it is uniquely sensitive to subtle variations in thermoelectric properties, which are associated with the different material effects induced by different surface modification treatments. These results indicate that the stress-dependence of the thermoelectric power in metals produces sufficient contrast to detect and quantitatively characterize regions under compressive residual stress based on their thermoelectric power contrast with respect to the surrounding intact material. However, further research is needed to better separate residual stress effects from secondary material effects, especially in the case of low-conductivity engineering materials like titanium alloys.

  17. Wear of Steel and Ti6Al4V Rollers in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by results of a qualification test of a mechanism to be used for the James Webb Space Telescope. Post-test inspections of the qualification test article revealed some loose wear debris and wear of the steel rollers and the mating Ti6Al4V surfaces. An engineering assessment of the design and observations from the tested qualification unit suggested that roller misalignment was a controlling factor. The wear phenomena were investigated using dedicated laboratory experiments. Tests were done using a vacuum roller rig for a range of roller misalignment angles. The wear in these tests was mainly adhesive wear. The measured wear rates were highly correlated to the misalignment angle. For all tests with some roller misalignment, the steel rollers lost mass while the titanium rollers gained mass indicating strong adhesion of the steel with the titanium alloy. Inspection of the rollers revealed that the adhesive wear was a two-way process as titanium alloy was found on the steel rollers and vice versa. The qualification test unit made use of 440F steel rollers in the annealed condition. Both annealed 440F steel rollers and hardened 440C rollers were tested in the vacuum roller rig to investigate possibility to reduce wear rates and the risk of loose debris formation. The 440F and 440C rollers had differing wear behaviors with significantly lesser wear rates for the 440C. For the test condition of zero roller misalignment, the adhesive wear rates were very low, but still some loose debris was formed

  18. Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP): Present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), a new Research Center under construction, will use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research and will be operational in 2018. The status of the Project implementation will be presented. At ELI-NP, a high power laser system together with a very brilliant gamma beam are the two main research tools. Their targeted operational parameters will be described. The related experimental set-ups will be presented, together with the main directions of the research envisioned.

  19. Future prospects of nuclear reactions induced by gamma-ray beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipescu, D.; Balabanski, D. L.; Camera, F.; Gheorghe, I.; Ghita, D.; Glodariu, T.; Kaur, J.; Ur, C. A.; Utsunomiya, H.; Varlamov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The future prospects of photonuclear reactions studies at the new Extreme Light Infrastructure—Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility are discussed in view of the pursuit of investigating the electromagnetic response of nuclei using γ-ray beams of unprecedented energy resolution and intensity characteristics. We present here the features of the γ-ray beam source, the emerging ELI-NP experimental program involving photonuclear reactions cross section measurements and spectroscopy and angular measurements of γ-rays and neutrons along with the detection arrays currently under implementation.

  20. Micro-Structures of Hard Coatings Deposited on Titanium Alloys by Laser Alloying Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Weng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This work is based on micro-structural performance of the Ti-B4C-C laser alloying coatings on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The test results indicated that laser alloying of the Ti-B4C-C pre-placed powders on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the ceramics reinforced hard alloying coatings, which increased the micro-hardness and wear resistance of substrate. The test result also indicated that the TiB phase was produced in alloying coating, which corresponded to its (101) crystal plane. In addition, yttria has a refining effect on micro-structures of the laser alloying coating, and its refinement mechanism was analyzed. This research provided essential experimental and theoretical basis to promote the applications of the laser alloying technique in manufacturing and repairing of the aerospace parts.

  1. Effect of low temperature on fatigue and fracture properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn(ELI) for use in engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, J. T.; Witzell, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (ELI) alloy used in a fuel pump impeller at cryogenic temperatures. Tension, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack propagation data were collected determining the effect of frequency and load ratio on crack propagation. The results revealed that tensile strength increased significantly at 20 K compared to room temperature and fracture toughness was reduced at cryogenic temperatures. The fatigue crack growth rate was not sensitive to experimental conditions and there were only minimal crack orientation effects. Different frequencies produced no effect. At various temperatures and frequencies a load ratio increase resulted in higher crack growth rates. At low stress intensity levels the fatigue rate for both temperatures was the same; however, at high stress intensity levels the crack growth rate at 20 K increased because of the decrease in fracture toughness. The results correlated well with previous data.

  2. Controllable two-scale network architecture and enhanced mechanical properties of (Ti5Si3+TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Y.; Huang, L. J.; Duan, T. B.; Wei, S. L.; Kaveendran, B.; Geng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties. Apart from the reinforcement distribution and the volume fraction, the ratio between Ti5Si3 and TiBw fraction were controlled. The prepared (Ti5Si3 + TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites showed higher tensile strength and ductility than the composites with a one-scale microstructure, and superior wear resistance over the Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding wear conditions at room temperature. PMID:27622992

  3. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture.

  4. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture. PMID:28094350

  5. Effects of Defects in Laser Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V on Fatigue Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wycisk, Eric; Solbach, Andreas; Siddique, Shafaqat; Herzog, Dirk; Walther, Frank; Emmelmann, Claus

    Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) enables economical production of complex lightweight structures as well as patient individual implants. Due to these possibilities the additive manufacturing technology gains increasing importance in the aircraft and the medical industry. Yet these industries obtain high quality standards and demand predictability of material properties for static and dynamic load cases. However, especially fatigue and crack propagation properties are not sufficiently determined. Therefore this paper presents an analysis and simulation of crack propagation behavior considering Laser Additive Manufacturing specific defects, such as porosity and surface roughness. For the mechanical characterization of laser additive manufactured titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, crack propagation rates are experimentally determined and used for an analytical modeling and simulation of fatigue. Using experimental results from HCF tests and simulated data, the fatigue and crack resistance performance is analyzed considering material specific defects and surface roughness. The accumulated results enable the reliable prediction of the defects influence on fatigue life of laser additive manufactured titanium components.

  6. Modelling and simulation of effect of ultrasonic vibrations on machining of Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandip; Joshi, Shashikant; Tewari, Asim; Joshi, Suhas S

    2014-02-01

    The titanium alloys cause high machining heat generation and consequent rapid wear of cutting tool edges during machining. The ultrasonic assisted turning (UAT) has been found to be very effective in machining of various materials; especially in the machining of "difficult-to-cut" material like Ti6Al4V. The present work is a comprehensive study involving 2D FE transient simulation of UAT in DEFORM framework and their experimental characterization. The simulation shows that UAT reduces the stress level on cutting tool during machining as compared to that of in continuous turning (CT) barring the penetration stage, wherein both tools are subjected to identical stress levels. There is a 40-45% reduction in cutting forces and about 48% reduction in cutting temperature in UAT over that of in CT. However, the reduction magnitude reduces with an increase in the cutting speed. The experimental analysis of UAT process shows that the surface roughness in UAT is lower than in CT, and the UATed surfaces have matte finish as against the glossy finish on the CTed surfaces. Microstructural observations of the chips and machined surfaces in both processes reveal that the intensity of thermal softening and shear band formation is reduced in UAT over that of in CT.

  7. Wetting Behavior of Laser Synthetic Surface Micro Textures on Ti-6Al-4V for Bioapplication

    SciTech Connect

    Dahotre, Narendra B; Paital, Sameer R; Samant, Anoop N; Daniel, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Wettability at the surface of an implant material play a key role in its success as it modulate the protein adsorption and thereby influences cell attachment and tissue integration at the interface. Hence, surface engineering of implantable materials to enhance wettability to physiological fluid under in vivo conditions is an area of active research. In light of this, in the present work a laser based optical interference and direct melting techniques were used to develop synthetic micro textures on Ti-6Al-4V alloys and their effects on wettability were systematically studied. Improved wettability to simulated body fluid and distilled water was observed for the Ca-P coatings obtained by direct melting technique. This superior wettability was attributed to both the appropriate surface chemistry and three dimensional surface features obtained using this technique. To assert a better control on surface texture and wettability a three dimensional thermal model based on COMSOL sTM multiphysics was employed to predict the features obtained by laser melting technique. The effect of physical texture and wetting on biocompatibility of laser processed Ca-P coating was evaluated in the preliminary efforts on culturing of mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells.

  8. Characterization of high energy ion implantation into Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M. P.; Stephenson, K.; Findley, K. O.

    2009-06-01

    Ion implantation is a surface modification process that can improve the wear, fatigue, and corrosion resistance for several metals and alloys. Much of the research to date has focused on ion energies less than 1 MeV. With this in mind, Ti-6Al-4V was implanted with Al 2+, Au 3+, and N + ions at energies of 1.5 and 5 MeV and various doses to determine the effects on strengthening of a high energy beam. A post heat treatment on the specimens implanted with Al 2+ samples was conducted to precipitate Ti xAl type intermetallics near the surface. Novel techniques, such as nanoindentation, are available now to determine structure-mechanical property relationships in near-surface regions of the implanted samples. Thus, nanoindentation was performed on pre-implanted, as-implanted, and post heat treated samples to detect differences in elastic modulus and hardness at the sub-micron scale. In addition, sliding wear tests were performed to qualitatively determine the changes in wear performance. The effect of this processing was significant for samples implanted with Al 2+ ions at 1.5 MeV with a dose higher than 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 where precipitation hardening likely occurs and with N + ions.

  9. Wetting behaviour of femtosecond laser textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Alexandre; Serro, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Vitor; Almeida, Amélia; Vilar, Rui; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the wetting behaviour of biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces textured by a femtosecond laser treatment. The material was treated in ambient atmosphere using an Yb: KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser with a wavelength of 1030 nm and a pulse duration of 500 fs. Four main types of surface textures were obtained depending on the processing parameters and laser treatment method. These textures consist of: (1) nanoscale laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS); (2) nanopillars; (3) a bimodal roughness distribution texture formed of LIPSS overlapping microcolumns; (4) a complex texture formed of LIPSS overlapping microcolumns with a periodic variation of the columns size in the laser scanning direction. The wettability of the surfaces was evaluated by the sessile drop method using distilled-deionized (DD) water and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) as testing liquids. The laser treated surfaces present a hydrophilic behaviour as well as a high affinity for the saline solution, with equilibrium contact angles in the ranges 24.1-76.2° for DD water and 8.4-61.8° for HBSS. The wetting behaviour is anisotropic, reflecting the anisotropy of the surface textures.

  10. Synthesis and In vitro Evaluation of Electrodeposited Barium Titanate Coating on Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Shahram; Basiriani, Mohammad Basir; Rafienia, Mohammad; Yaghini, Jaber; Raeisi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegration has been the concern of implantology for many years. Researchers have used various ceramic coatings for this purpose; however, piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., barium titanate [BTO]) are a novel field of interest. In this regard, BTO (BaTiO3) coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti6Al4V medical alloy, using sol-gel-synthesized nanometer BTO powder. Structure and morphologies were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Bioactivity response of coated samples was evaluated by SEM and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cell compatibility was also studied via MTT assay and SEM imaging. Results showed homogenous coating with cubic structure and crystallite size of about 41 nm. SEM images indicated apatite formation on the coating after 7 days of SBF immersion, and ICP analysis approved ions concentration decrement in SBF. Cells showed flattened morphology in intimate contact with coating after 7 days of culture. Altogether, coated samples demonstrated appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  11. Surface Deformation Behavior of BSTOA Ti-6Al-4V during Laser Shock Processing

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Zaleski, T M; Gray, J J; Rybak, S J; Chen, H

    2005-07-21

    The surface of a beta solution treated and overaged (BSTOA) Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimen deformed by laser shock processing was studied using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Slip steps were observed within grains oriented with their c-axis nearly parallel to the specimen surface normal. Based on the slip step traces and orientation information, the slip planes were determined to be (11{bar 2}2) for grains with their c-axis within 15{sup o} of the specimen surface normal and (11{bar 2}1) for grains with their c-axis between 15{sup o} and 40{sup o} away from the specimen surface normal. Although both these planes are known to belong to twinning systems, (11{bar 2}2)<11{bar 2}{bar 3}> and (11{bar 2}1)<11{bar 2}{bar 6}> respectively, the latter has not been observed to operate as a slip system. Examination of the Taylor factors associated with these slip systems shows that the grains with slip steps have the lowest Taylor factors. Determination of localized lattice rotations showed a unique behavior in grains with slip steps, such that all the lattice rotations were concentrated about the steps, with almost no orientation variations in between slip steps. This distribution indicates that stress concentrations exist at the slip steps, which could potentially affect the performance of the material.

  12. Texture Evolution During Laser Direct Metal Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Chaudhary, Anil; Nandwana, Peeyush; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-01-20

    Titanium alloys are used in a wide variety of high performance applications and hence the processing of the titanium and the resulting microstructures after additive manufacturing has received significant attention. During additive manufacturing the processing route involves the transition from a liquid to solid state. The addition of successive layers results in a complex microstructure due to solid-state transformations. The current study focuses on understanding the phase transformations and relate it to the transformation texture in Ti-6Al-4V to identify conditions leading to a strong alpha transformation texture. The as deposited builds were characterized using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed columnar prior β grains with a martensitic structure after the deposition of a single layer. On subsequent depositions the martensitic microstructure decomposes to a colony and basketweave microstructure with a stronger transformation texture. The alpha texture with a colony and basketweave microstructure shows a stronger transformation texture as a result of variant selection. Thus by controlling the cooling rate of the build from the β transus it is possible to control the alpha transformation texture.

  13. New Strategies For Hole Making In Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbicain, G.; Olvera, D.; de Lacalle, L. N. López; Zamakona, I.; Rodal, P.

    2009-11-01

    The working conditions for the aircraft engines components demand a good response of their mechanical properties at high temperatures and aggressive environments. Those challenging conditions force the use of new materials like titanium (and nickel) based alloys, qualified as difficult-to-cut materials due to their low machinability. Among them, the Ti-6Al-4V is very widespread because of its high strength/weight ratio. On the other hand, a very demand task for aeronautical components is the hole making operation, being in most cases, the last performed operation. For this reason, drilling operation is strongly related to the quality and productivity since any machining error could damage the component in the final steps. Thus, drilling operation determines the minimum machining time which is reflected upon the cost per unit. This study focuses the attention on a relative new technique that could replace the conventional drilling resulting in a more added-value operation: ball helical milling (BHM). This new technique and a modified version (CBHM) were compared with a common drilling operation.

  14. Texture Evolution During Laser Direct Metal Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V

    DOE PAGES

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Chaudhary, Anil; Nandwana, Peeyush; ...

    2016-01-20

    Titanium alloys are used in a wide variety of high performance applications and hence the processing of the titanium and the resulting microstructures after additive manufacturing has received significant attention. During additive manufacturing the processing route involves the transition from a liquid to solid state. The addition of successive layers results in a complex microstructure due to solid-state transformations. The current study focuses on understanding the phase transformations and relate it to the transformation texture in Ti-6Al-4V to identify conditions leading to a strong alpha transformation texture. The as deposited builds were characterized using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction.more » The results showed columnar prior β grains with a martensitic structure after the deposition of a single layer. On subsequent depositions the martensitic microstructure decomposes to a colony and basketweave microstructure with a stronger transformation texture. The alpha texture with a colony and basketweave microstructure shows a stronger transformation texture as a result of variant selection. Thus by controlling the cooling rate of the build from the β transus it is possible to control the alpha transformation texture.« less

  15. Laser Ablation Surface Preparation of Ti-6A1-4V for Adhesive Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Watson, Kent A.; Morales, Guillermo; Williams, Thomas; Hicks, Robert; Wohl, Christopher J.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive bonding offers many advantages over mechanical fastening, but requires certification before it can be incorporated in primary structures for commercial aviation without disbond-arrestment features or redundant load paths. Surface preparation is widely recognized as the key step to producing robust and predictable bonds. Laser ablation imparts both topographical and chemical changes to a surface which can lead to increased bond durability. A laser based process provides an alternative to chemical-dip, manual abrasion and grit blast treatments which are expensive, hazardous, polluting, and less precise. This report documents preliminary testing of a surface preparation technique using laser ablation as a replacement for the chemical etch and abrasive processes currently applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloy adherends. Failure mode, surface roughness, and chemical makeup were analyzed using fluorescence enhanced visualization, microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Single lap shear tests were conducted on bonded and aged specimens to observe bond strength retention and failure mode. Some promising results showed increasing strength and durability of lap shear specimens as laser ablation coverage area and beam intensity increased. Chemical analyses showed trends for surface chemical species which correlated with improved bond strength and durability. Combined, these results suggest that laser ablation is a viable process for inclusion with or/and replacement of one or more currently used titanium surface treatments. On-going work will focus on additional mechanical tests to further demonstrate improved bond durability.

  16. Synthesis and In vitro Evaluation of Electrodeposited Barium Titanate Coating on Ti6Al4V

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Shahram; Basiriani, Mohammad Basir; Rafienia, Mohammad; Yaghini, Jaber; Raeisi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegration has been the concern of implantology for many years. Researchers have used various ceramic coatings for this purpose; however, piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., barium titanate [BTO]) are a novel field of interest. In this regard, BTO (BaTiO3) coating was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti6Al4V medical alloy, using sol-gel-synthesized nanometer BTO powder. Structure and morphologies were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Bioactivity response of coated samples was evaluated by SEM and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cell compatibility was also studied via MTT assay and SEM imaging. Results showed homogenous coating with cubic structure and crystallite size of about 41 nm. SEM images indicated apatite formation on the coating after 7 days of SBF immersion, and ICP analysis approved ions concentration decrement in SBF. Cells showed flattened morphology in intimate contact with coating after 7 days of culture. Altogether, coated samples demonstrated appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility. PMID:27186538

  17. Effect of fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Ti and Ti6Al4V dental implants coupled with different superstructures.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Eman M; Kheiralla, Lamia S; Tammam, Riham H

    2011-06-01

    The effect of fluoride ion concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ti and Ti6Al4V implant alloys, when coupled with either metal/ceramic or all-ceramic superstructure, was examined by different electrochemical methods in artificial saliva solutions. It was concluded that increased fluoride concentration leads to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of all tested couples. The type of the superstructure also showed a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of the couple.

  18. A Comparison Between Mechanical And Electrochemical Tests on Ti6Al4V Welded By LBW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serroni, G.; Bitondo, C.; Astarita, A.; Scala, A.; Gloria, A.; Prisco, U.; Squillace, A.; Bellucci, F.

    2011-05-01

    Titanium and its alloys are nowadays widely used in many sectors: in the medical field (orthopedic and dental ones), in the architectural field, in the chemical plants field and in aeronautic. In this last field it is more and more used both for its contribution to make lightweight and time durable structures and for its compatibility with new materials, first of all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP). To this aim, lots of researches are now focusing on new and emerging technologies capable to make titanium objects and, at the same time, reducing the scrap, since titanium alloys for aeronautic application are very expensive. This paper examines Grade 5 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V) welded by Laser Beam (LBW) in butt-joint configuration. The source was Nd:YAG laser, moreover two inert gases were used, in order to provide a shield both on the top and on the bottom of the weld bead. The joints were studied by varying two process parameters: welding speed and power of the laser beam. It was not possible to realize a full experimental plan, due to technological limits in making titanium laser beam welds. The joints were tested to measure their mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance. The process parameters do not significantly affect the maximum static strength of the joints. Microscopic analysis showed that welds made with high power and low welding speed have a uniform weld bead, and no macroscopic defect occurs. Fatigue test results, instead, show a marked influence of the morphology of the weld bead: the occurrence of some defects, such as the undercut, both on the top and on the bottom of the weld bead, dramatically reduced fatigue resistance of the joints. Corrosion resistance was studied using the electrochemical micro cell technique, which allows to distinguish electrochemical properties of each zone of the weld bead, even when, as in this case, they are very narrow. By a general point of view, it has been demonstrated that the joints showing the best

  19. First insight on the impact of an osteoblastic layer on the bio-tribocorrosion performance of Ti6Al4V hip implants.

    PubMed

    Runa, M J; Mathew, M T; Fernandes, M H; Rocha, L A

    2015-01-01

    In uncemented Ti6Al4V hip implants, the bone-stem interface is subjected to cyclic loading motion driven by the daily activities of the patients, which may lead to the complete failure of the implant in the long term. It may also compromise the proliferation and differentiation processes of osteoblastic cells (bone-forming cells). The main objective of this work is to approach for the first time the role of these organic materials on the bio-tribocorrosion mechanisms of cultured Ti6Al4V alloys. The colonized materials with MG63 osteoblastic-like cells were characterized through cell viability/proliferation and enzymatic activity. Tribocorrosion tests were performed under a reciprocating sliding configuration and low contact pressure. Electrochemical techniques were used to measure the corrosion kinetics of the system, under free potential conditions. All tests were performed at a controlled atmosphere. The morphology and topography of the wear scar were evaluated. The results showed that the presence of an osteoblastic cell layer on the implant surface significantly influences the tribocorrosion behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy. It was concluded that the cellular material was able to form an extra protective layer that inhibits further wear degradation of the alloy and decreases its corrosion tendency.

  20. Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Argue, Denise M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    The information was used to develop an overall assessment of the impact on the aquatic system that appears to be a result of the acid rock drainage at the Ely Mine. More than 700 meters of Ely Brook, including two of the six ponds, were found to be severely impacted, on the basis of water-quality data and biological assessments. The reference location was of good quality based on the water quality and biological assessment. More than 3,125 meters of Schoolhouse Brook are also severely impacted, on the basis of water-quality data and biological assessments. The biological community begins to recover near the confluence with the Ompompanoosuc River. The evidence is less conclusive regarding the Ompompanoosuc River. The sediment data suggest that the sediments could be a source of toxicity in Ely Brook and Schoolhouse Brook. The surface-water assessment is consistent with the outcome of a surface-water toxicity testing program performed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for Ely Brook and Schoolhouse Brook and a surface-water toxicity testing program and in situ amphibian testing program for the ponds.

  1. 78 FR 21849 - Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...

  2. Clinical utility of the Duncan-Ely test for rectus femoris dysfunction during the swing phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Marks, M C; Alexander, J; Sutherland, D H; Chambers, H G

    2003-11-01

    The Ely Test (or Duncan-Ely test) has been accepted as a clinical tool to assess rectus femoris spasticity by passively flexing the knee rapidly while the patient lies prone in a relaxed state. In this retrospective review, patients' dynamic knee range of motion (ROM) during gait and an electromyogram (EMG) were compared with the results of the Ely test. Data for 70 patients (44 males, 26 females; 104 limbs) were included. Mean age of patients was 13 years, SD 9 years, range 4 years 5 months to 54 years. All patients were diagnosed with cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, n = 42; spastic quadriplegia, n = 15, and hemiplegia, n = 13). All patients were ambulatory (50 independent, 20 with assistive devices). A standard matrix was used to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the Ely test as well as its positive and negative predictive value. For the gait variables examined (decreased dynamic knee ROM, timing of peak knee flexion, and abnormal EMG in swing) the sensitivity of the Ely test ranged from 56 to 59% and the specificity ranged from 64 to 85%. For the same variables the positive predictive value ranged from 91 to 98% and the negative predictive value ranged from 4 to 19%. The Ely test was shown to have a good positive predictive value (i.e. the certainty about the presence of rectus spasticity in patients with a positive Ely test result) for rectus femoris dysfunction during gait.

  3. Cladding of titanium/fluorapatite composites onto Ti6Al4V substrate and the in vitro behaviour in the simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hezhou; Liu, Xing Yang; Hong, Han Ping

    2009-06-01

    To improve the bioactivity of Ti6Al4V alloy, an innovative cladding method has been developed to bond a Ti/fluorapatite (FA) composite onto the alloy for load-bearing applications. With the aid of a silver interlayer and external pressure during sintering, a defect-free interface between the composite and the substrate was obtained. The fabricated materials were bioactive and could induce the nucleation and formation of bone-like carbonated apatite after immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Functional ions, such as Ag + and F -, were released from the materials during immersion, which could impart favourable activities for the implant. This work demonstrated that a simple and novel method could be applied to enhance functionalities of Ti alloys for load-bearing implant applications.

  4. Fatigue and Microstructural Properties of Quenched Ti-6Al-4V. A Crystallographic Study of Fatigue Damage in Titanium. Corrosion and Corrosion-Fatigue Behavior of Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr (Corona 5) and Ti-6Al-4V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    1805°F± 25°F) Alloy 2: The alloy Ti-6A£-4V was provided by the Naval Ship Research and Development Lab , Annapolis, MD (Heat No. 304171-06) as 3.18 cm...identified by the technique of selected area diffration . The morphology of the martensite was observed in the dark field image of Figure 10 taken of a...George Yoder of The Naval Research Lab were of considerable help during the progress of this work. A- 25 REFERENCES 1. R. C. Steele and A. J. McEvily

  5. Influence of annealing on depth distributions and microstructure of ion-implanted Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Miehe, G.; Schminke, A.; Soltanifarshi, M.

    1999-08-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy was ion implanted with carbon, nitrogen, platinum, or gold. The effect of heat treatment at 500°C on the depth distributions of oxygen and implanted atoms was investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The phases in the near-surface region were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Platinum and gold are enriched in both α- and β-titanium solid solutions. Implanted carbon forms titanium carbide at lower concentration than nitrogen forms titanium nitride. The depth profiles of Au, Pt, and N are not altered by annealing. Implanted carbon as well as oxygen diffuse to larger depth upon heat treatment. Noble metal-implanted layers are permeable to oxygen diffusion. At concentrations exceeding 35 at. pct, implanted carbon and nitrogen act as a diffusion barrier for oxygen.

  6. Microstructural Investigations of the White and Deformed Layers Close to the Turned Surface of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rancic, Mickael; Colin, Christophe; Sennour, Mohamed; Costes, Jean-Phillipe; Poulachon, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    In the aircraft industry, along with geometrical and dimensional integrity, the surface integrity of manufactured parts is a necessity. In fact, severe anomalies generated during machining may have a substantial impact on the lifetime of the parts. Nevertheless, these anomalies are not well known in terms of microstructures such as the white layer in titanium alloys. Based on this observation, the present paper deals with microstructural investigations performed on Ti-6Al-4V white and deformed layers generated during turning with a round uncoated carbide insert. The aim of this study is to characterize these anomalies in terms of microstructure and phases. In particular, this study provides a better understanding of metallurgical transformations in the sublayer of machined surfaces through qualitative models.

  7. 2D finite element model and microstructural changes during cutting of Ti6Al4V in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Rinaldi, Sergio; Seara, Borja; Arrazola, Pedro J.; Rotella, Giovanna; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a FE model of the orthogonal cutting process executed on Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) under dry condition. In detail, the Abaqus/Explicit 2D formulation has been used to simulate the process and the results provided (temperature and strain rate) where employed to calculate the microstructural and hardness changes on surface and sub-surface. The quantitative analysis in terms of the grain refinement and hardness variation during the cutting process has been provided taking into account the Zener-Hollomon and Hall-Petch equations. The obtained results were compared with the experimental outcomes in order to understand the reliable rate of the model.

  8. The Effect of Deposition Conditions on Adhesion Strength of Ti and Ti6Al4V Cold Spray Splats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Dina; Shockley, J. Michael; Chromik, Richard R.; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Yue, Stephen; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Irissou, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Cold spray is a complex process where many parameters have to be considered in order to achieve optimized material deposition and properties. In the cold spray process, deposition velocity influences the degree of material deformation and material adhesion. While most materials can be easily deposited at relatively low deposition velocity (<700 m/s), this is not the case for high yield strength materials like Ti and its alloys. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of deposition velocity, powder size, particle position in the gas jet, gas temperature, and substrate temperature on the adhesion strength of cold spayed Ti and Ti6Al4V splats. A micromechanical test technique was used to shear individual splats of Ti or Ti6Al4V and measure their adhesion strength. The splats were deposited onto Ti or Ti6Al4V substrates over a range of deposition conditions with either nitrogen or helium as the propelling gas. The splat adhesion testing coupled with microstructural characterization was used to define the strength, the type and the continuity of the bonded interface between splat and substrate material. The results demonstrated that optimization of spray conditions makes it possible to obtain splats with continuous bonding along the splat/substrate interface and measured adhesion strengths approaching the shear strength of bulk material. The parameters shown to improve the splat adhesion included the increase of the splat deposition velocity well above the critical deposition velocity of the tested material, increase in the temperature of both powder and the substrate material, decrease in the powder size, and optimization of the flow dynamics for the cold spray gun nozzle. Through comparisons to the literature, the adhesion strength of Ti splats measured with the splat adhesion technique correlated well with the cohesion strength of Ti coatings deposited under similar conditions and measured with tubular coating tensile (TCT) test.

  9. Fixation of bioactive calcium alkali phosphate on Ti6Al4V implant material with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symietz, Christian; Lehmann, Erhard; Gildenhaar, Renate; Koter, Robert; Berger, Georg; Krüger, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Bone implants made of metal, often titanium or the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V, need to be surface treated to become bioactive. This enables the formation of a firm and durable connection of the prosthesis with the living bone. We present a new method to uniformly cover Ti6Al4V with a thin layer of ceramics that imitates bone material. These calcium alkali phosphates, called GB14 and Ca10, are applied to the metal by dip coating of metal plates into an aqueous slurry containing the fine ceramic powder. The dried samples are illuminated with the 790 nm radiation of a pulsed femtosecond laser. If the laser fluence is set to a value just below the ablation threshold of the ceramic (ca. 0.4 J/cm 2) the 30 fs laser pulses penetrate the partly transparent ceramic layer of 20-40 μm thickness. The remaining laser fluence at the ceramic-metal interface is still high enough to generate a thin metal melt layer leading to the ceramic fixation on the metal. The laser processing step is only possible because Ti6Al4V has a lower ablation threshold (between 0.1 and 0.15 J/cm 2) than the ceramic material. After laser treatment in a fluence range between 0.1 and 0.4 J/cm 2, only the particles in contact with the metal withstand a post-laser treatment (ultrasonic cleaning). The non-irradiated rest of the layer is washed off. In this work, we present results of a successful ceramic fixation extending over larger areas. This is fundamental for future applications of arbitrarily shaped implants.

  10. In vitro assessment of the biological response of Ti6Al4V implants coated with hydroxyapatite microdomains.

    PubMed

    Clavell, R Salvador; de Llano, J J Martín; Carda, C; Ribelles, J L Gómez; Vallés-Lluch, A

    2016-11-01

    Dental implantology is still an expanding field of scientific study because of the number of people that receive dental therapies throughout their lives worldwide. Recovery times associated to dental surgery are still long and demand strategies to improve integration of metallic devices with hard tissues. In this work, an in vitro ceramic coating is proposed to improve and accelerate osseointegration of titanium surfaces conceived to be used as dental implants or hip or knee prosthesis, shaped either as dishes or screws. Such coating consists of hydroxyapatite microdomains on the implant surfaces obtained in vitro by immersion of titanium alloy samples (Ti6Al4V) in a simulated body fluid. This titanium alloy is highly used in implant dentistry and trauma surgery, among other fields. Once the immersion times under physiological conditions yielding to different ceramic topographies on this alloy were set, the acellular coating time of major interest so as to optimize its biological development was determined. For this purpose, dental pulp mesenchymal cells were cultured on titanium coated surfaces with different hydroxyapatite outline, and cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology were followed through histological techniques and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that 4 days of acellular hydroxyapatite coating led to a significant cell adhesion on the titanium alloys at an early stage (6 h). Cells tended although to detach from the surface of the coating over time, but those adhered on domains of intricated topography or hydroxyapatite cauliflowers proliferated on them, leading to isolated large cell clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2723-2729, 2016.

  11. Influence of oxidative nanopatterning and anodization on the fatigue resistance of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Ketabchi, Amirhossein; Weck, Arnaud; Variola, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    With an increasingly aging population, a significant challenge in implantology is the creation of biomaterials that actively promote tissue integration and offer excellent mechanical properties. Engineered surfaces with micro- and nanoscale topographies have shown great potential to control and direct biomaterial-host tissue interactions. Two simple yet efficient chemical treatments, oxidative nanopatterning and anodization, have demonstrated the ability to confer exciting new bioactive capacities to commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, the resulting nanoporous and nanotubular surfaces require careful assessment in regard to potential adverse effects on the fatigue resistance, a factor which may ultimately cause premature failure of biomedical implants. In this work, we have investigated the impact of oxidative nanopatterning and anodization on the fatigue resistance of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V. Quantitative (e.g., S-N curves) and qualitative analyses were carried out to precisely characterize the fatigue response of treated metals and compare it to that of polished controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging revealed the effects of cyclic loading on the fracture surface and on the structural integrity of chemically grown nanostructured oxides. Results from this study reinforce the importance of mechanical considerations in the development and optimization of micro- and nanoscale surface treatments for metallic biomedical implants.

  12. Effect of Heat Input on the Tensile Damage Evolution in Pulsed Laser Welded Ti6Al4V Titanium Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jianxun

    2016-11-01

    The present paper is focused on studying the effect of heat input on the tensile damage evolution of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of Ti6Al4V alloy under monotonic loading. To analyze the reasons that the tensile fracture site of the pulsed-laser-welded Ti6Al4V sheet joints changes with the heat input under monotonic loading, the microstructure of the sample with different nominal strain values was investigated by in situ observation. Experiment results show that the tensile ductility and fatigue life of welded joints with low heat input are higher than that of welded joints with high heat input. Under tensile loads, the critical engineering strain for crack initiation is much lower in the welded joint with high heat input than in the welded joints with low and medium heat input. And the microstructural damage accumulation is much faster in the fusion zone than in the base metal for the welded joints with high input, whereas the microstructural damage accumulation is much faster in the base metal than in the fusion zone for the welded joints with low input. Consequently, the welded joints fractured in the fusion zone for the welds with high heat input, whereas the welded joints ruptured in the base metal for the welds with low heat input. It is proved that the fine grain microstructure produced by low heat input can improve the critical nominal strain for crack initiation and the resistance ability of microstructural damage.

  13. Review of Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Made by Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Powder Feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beese, Allison M.; Carroll, Beth E.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) of metals using powder feedstock can be accomplished via two broadly defined technologies: directed energy deposition (DED) and powder bed fusion (PBF). In these processes, metallic powder is delivered to a location and locally melted with a laser heat source. Upon deposition, the material undergoes a rapid cooling and solidification, and as subsequent layers are added to the component, the material within the component is subjected to rapid thermal cycles. In order to adopt AM for the building of structural components, a thorough understanding of the relationships among the complex thermal cycles seen in AM, the unique heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, and the mechanical properties must be developed. Researchers have fabricated components by both DED and PBF from the widely used titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and studied the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties. This review article discusses the progress to date on investigating the as-deposited and heat-treated microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V structures made by powder-based laser AM using DED and PBF.

  14. The elevated-temperature mechanical behavior of as-cast and wrought Ti-6Al-4V-1B

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Boehlert, C. J.; Howe, Jane Y; Payzant, E Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This work studied the effect of processing on the elevated-temperature [728 K (455 C)] fatigue deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V-1B for maximum applied stresses between 300 to 700 MPa (R = 0.1, 5 Hz). The alloy was evaluated in the as-cast form as well as in three wrought forms: cast-and-extruded, powder metallurgy (PM) rolled, and PM extruded. Processing caused significant differences in the microstructure, which in turn impacted the fatigue properties. The PM-extruded material exhibited a fine equiaxed {alpha} + {beta} microstructure and the greatest fatigue resistance among all the studied materials. The {beta}-phase field extrusion followed by cooling resulted in a strong {alpha}-phase texture in which the basal plane was predominately oriented perpendicular to the extrusion axis. The TiB whiskers were also aligned in the extrusion direction. The {alpha}-phase texture in the extrusions resulted in tensile-strength anisotropy. The tensile strength in the transverse orientation was lower than that in the longitudinal orientation, but the strength in the transverse orientation remained greater than that for the as-cast Ti-6Al-4V. The ratcheting behavior during fatigue is also discussed.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of the Ti6Al4V macrostructure obtained by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, J. C.; Paz, M. D.; Serra, J.; González, P.

    2014-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys (Ti6Al4V) have been widely used in the biomedical field; nevertheless, they should be subject to specific surface treatments, before being implanted, in order to improve bio-integration. Although laser processing is a useful technique for this purpose, different aspects of the basic mechanisms of this process are still in progress, with special emphasis on the modeling structure formation on the irradiated surface. For this research, the finite element method was used to study the generation of a macrostructure on the Ti6Al4V surface using a Nd:YAG laser. The temperature profiles, estimated during the extremely high heating and cooling rates caused by the output power of the laser beam, allowed us to analyze, among other things, the melting depth and the heat affected zone, in order to optimize the process. Moreover, the experimental results (SEM data) were positively compared with the numerical model, and a relationship of the crater profile formation (depth to width ratio) was determined.

  16. The effect of thermal cycling on the shear bond strength of porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sendão, Isabel A; Alves, Alexandra C; Galo, Rodrigo; Toptan, Fatih; Silva, Filipe S; Ariza, Edith

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thermal cycling on the shear bond strength of the porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces prepared by two different processing routes and metallic surface conditions. Polished and SiO2 particle abraded Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Triceram bonder porcelain were used to produce the interfaces. Porcelain-to-metal specimens were processed by conventional furnace firing and hot pressing. Thermal cycling was performed in Fusayama's artificial saliva for 5000 cycles between 5 ± 1 and 60 ± 2°C. After thermal cycling, shear bond tests were carried out by using a custom-made stainless steel apparatus. The results were analyzed using t-Student test and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.01). Most of the polished-fired specimens were fractured during thermal cycling; thus, it was not possible to obtain the shear bond strength results for this group. Sandblasted-fired, polished-hot pressed, and sandblasted-hot pressed specimens presented the shear bond strength values of 76.2 ± 15.9, 52.2 ± 23.6, and 59.9 ± 22.0 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that thermal cycling affected the polished specimens processed by firing, whereas a significant difference was not observed on the other groups.

  17. Significance of the contacting and no contacting thermoelectric power measurements applied to grit blasted medical Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Carreon, H; Barriuso, S; Lieblich, M; González-Carrasco, J L; Jimenez, J A; Caballero, F G

    2013-04-01

    Grit blasting is a surface plastic deformation technique aimed to increase the surface area available for bone/implant apposition, which contributes to improve fixation and mechanical stability of Ti-6Al-4V implants. Besides roughening, grit blasting also causes surface contamination with embedded grit particles and subtle subsurface microstructural changes that, although does not challenge their biocompatibility, might influence other surface dominated properties like corrosion and ion release. Additional benefits are expected due to the induced compressive residual stresses, hence enhancing fatigue strength. The net effect depends on the type of particles used for blasting, but also on the amount of the subsurface cold work associated to the severe surface plastic deformation. In this work we study the potential of the non-contacting and contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements in the analysis of the global changes induced in the Ti6Al4V when blasting the alloy with Al2O3 or ZrO2 particles, which yields a coarse and a fine rough surface, respectively. To reveal the effect of residual stresses, a set of specimens were thermally treated. The study proves that the non-contacting technique is more sensitive to the presence of residual stresses, whereas the contact technique is strongly influenced by the grain size refinements, work hardening and changes in solute.

  18. Effects of nanometric roughness on surface properties and fibroblast's initial cytocompatibilities of Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rex C-C; Hsieh, Ming-Che; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2011-09-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) has widespread medical applications because of its excellent biocompatibility. Its biological responses can further be enhanced by polishing and passivation. Unfortunately, preparing titanium alloy samples of nanometric roughness is by far much more difficult than preparing those of micrometric roughness, and numerous investigations on roughness induced effects are all focused on micrometric scales. For the remedy, we investigate, at nanometric scale, the influence of roughness on surface properties and biological responses. Six groups of Ti6Al4V with average roughness (R(a)) values of 2.75-30.34 nm are prepared. The results indicated that nanometric roughness of samples change the wettability and amphoteric OH groups. The contact angles monotonically decrease from 2.75 to 30.34 nm and the rougher surfaces lead to higher wettability. The in vitro cell-culture studies, using Murine NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, showed the spindle-shaped morphology on rougher surface compared to round∕spherical morphology on smoother surface. A cytodetacher is employed to quantitatively measure the initial adhesion force of fibroblasts to specimen. The adhesion strength of fibroblasts, ranging from 55 to 193 nN, is significantly influenced by the nanometric roughness while the surface is within the range of 2.75-30.34 nm R(a) roughness, and the adhesion strength appeared stronger for rougher surface. The cell number on the smoother surface is higher than on the rougher surface at 5-day culture. The studies indicated that nanometric roughness would alter the surface properties and further influence cell morphology, adhesion strength, and proliferation.

  19. Laser surface processing of Ti6Al4V in gaseous nitrogen: corrosion performance in physiological solution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raghuvir; Chowdhury, S Ghosh; Tiwari, S K; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2008-03-01

    Laser surface processing was carried out in gaseous nitrogen atmosphere at ambient temperature. The laser scan speed was varied (50-150 cm/min) at constant power of 1500 watts and resulting changes such as microstructural evolution, hardness, and electrochemical response of modified surface in Ringer's physiological solution at varying pH were studied. Increase in laser scanning speed was found to reduce the thickness of alloyed zone from 258 to 87 microm. The microstructure of laser-modified surface contains dendrites grown perpendicular to the laser traverse direction, beneath which basket weave structure of acicular alpha (martensite) was prevalent. Hardness at the top surface of laser-processed at 50 cm/min was approximately 1137 kg/mm2 that reduced with increase in the laser scan speed (577 kg/mm2 at 150 cm/min). Laser surface processing shifted the corrosion potential of Ti6Al4V towards noble side as compared to untreated alloy; the maximum shift by approximately 494 mV was recorded in pH approximately 9 solution. Passivation after laser surface modification was improved as currents were at least 1/3 of the untreated Ti6Al4V in passive region. While the pitting potential of untreated material was found to increase from 1.84 V for 4.0 pH to >2.5 V for 9.0 pH, the pitting potential after laser treatment was observed to drop from maximum of 74% for 4.0 pH (at 100 cm/min) to maximum of 42% for 9.0 pH (at 150 cm/min).

  20. Friction and wear of titanium alloys and copper alloys sliding against titanium 6-percent-aluminum - 4-percent-vanadium alloy in air at 430 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisander, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the friction and wear characteristics of aluminum bronzes and copper-tin, titanium-tin, and copper-silver alloys sliding against a titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Hemispherically tipped riders of aluminum bronze and the titanium and copper alloys were run against Ti-6Al-4V disks in air at 430 C. The sliding velocity was 13 cm/sec, and the load was 250 g. Results revealed that high tin content titanium and copper alloys underwent significantly less wear and galling than commonly used aluminum bronzes. Also friction force was less erratic than with the aluminum bronzes.

  1. Effect of prior {beta}-grain size on the hot deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V: Coarse vs coarser

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Seshacharyulu, T.; Medeiros, S.C.; Frazier, W.G.

    2000-04-01

    The hot deformation behavior of extra low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti-6Al-4V with a transformed {beta}-perform microstructure was studied in coarse (0.5 to 1 mm) and coarser (2 to 3 mm) (prior {beta}) grained materials using hot compression testing in the temperature range of 750 to 1,100 C and a strain rate range of 0.001 to 100 s{sup {minus}1}. Processing maps were developed on the basis of the flow stress data as a function of temperature and strain rate. The maps revealed that the domain of globularization of the lamellar structure and region of large grained superplasticity of {beta} were not influenced by the prior {beta}-grain size. However, the regimes of cracking at the prior {beta}-grain boundaries occurring at lower temperatures and strain rates and the flow instability occurring at lower temperatures and higher strain rates were both wider for the coarse grained material than the coarser grained material. The {beta}-instability regime, however, was more pronounced in the coarser grained material. From the hot workability viewpoint, the present results show that there is no remarkable benefit in refining the prior {beta}-grain size. On the contrary, it will somewhat restrict the workability domain by widening the adjacent regimes, causing microstructural damage.

  2. Layered Composite of TiC-TiB2 to Ti-6Al-4V in Graded Composition by Combustion Synthesis in High-gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuegang; Zhao, Zhongmin; Zhang, Long

    2013-03-01

    By taking combustion synthesis to prepare solidified TiB2 matrix ceramic in high-gravity field, the layered composite of TiC-TiB2 ceramic to Ti-6Al-4V substrate in graded composition was achieved. XRD, FESEM and EDS results showed that the bulk full-density solidified TiC-TiB2 composite was composed of fine TiB2 platelets, TiC irregular grains, a few of α-Al2O3 inclusions and Cr alloy phases, and α'-Ti phases alternating with Ti-enriched carbides constituted the matrix of the joint in which fine TiB platelets were embedded, whereas some C, B atoms were also detected at the heat-affected zone of Ti-6A1-4V substrate. The layered composite of the solidified ceramic to Ti-6Al-4V substrate in graded composition with continuous microstructure was considered a result of fused joint and inter-diffusion between liquid ceramic and surface-molten Ti alloy, followed by TiB2-Ti peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction in TiC-TiB-Ti ternary system.

  3. 6D phase space electron beam analysis and machine sensitivity studies for ELI-NP GBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giribono, A.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Palumbo, L.; Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vannozzi, A.; Variola, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ELI-NP Gamma Beam Source (GBS) is now under construction in Magurele-Bucharest (RO). Here an advanced source of gamma photons with unprecedented specifications of brilliance (>1021), monochromaticity (0.5%) and energy tunability (0.2-19.5 MeV) is being built, based on Inverse Compton Scattering in the head-on configuration between an electron beam of maximum energy 750 MeV and a high quality high power ps laser beam. These requirements make the ELI-NP GBS an advanced and challenging gamma ray source. The electron beam dynamics analysis and control regarding the machine sensitivity to the possible jitter and misalignments are presented. The effects on the beam quality are illustrated providing the basis for the alignment procedure and jitter tolerances.

  4. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  5. Status of the ELIMED multidisciplinary and medical beam-line at ELI-Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. F.; Korn, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Marchese, V.; Marchetto, F.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Sacchi, R.; Vignati, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest challenges consists in using high intensity laser-target interaction to generate high-energy ions for medical purposes, eventually replacing the old paradigm of acceleration characterized by huge and complex machines. In order to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary application, a dedicated beam transport line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), as a part of the User-oriented ELIMAIA beam-line dedicated to ion acceleration and their potential applications. The beam-line section dedicated to transport and dosimetric endpoints is called ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) and will be developed by the INFN-LNS.

  6. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, F.; Gugiu, M.; Petrascu, H.; Petrone, C.; Pietreanu, D.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Antici, P.; Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C.; Risca, M.; Toma, M.; Turcu, E.; Ursescu, D.

    2015-02-01

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr3(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  7. Nuclear physics with advanced brilliant gamma beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur, Călin A.; Filipescu, Dan; Gheorghe, Ioana; Iancu, Violeta; Suliman, Gabriel; Teşileanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility is dedicated to nuclear physics studies with the use of extreme electromagnetic radiation. One of the main research system to be installed and operated in the facility is an outstanding high brilliance gamma beam system. The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce intense, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams via inverse Compton scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The gamma beams available at ELI-NP will allow for the performance of photo-nuclear reactions aiming to reveal the intimate structure of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, photo-fission, photo-disintegration reactions above the particle threshold will be used to study the dipole response of nuclei, the structure of the Pygmy resonances, nuclear processes relevant for astrophysics, production and study of exotic neutron-rich nuclei.

  8. Effect of hypoeutectic boron additions on the grain size and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured with powder bed electron beam additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mahbooba, Zaynab; West, Harvey; Harrysson, Ola; Wojcieszynski, Andrzej; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Nandwana, Peeyush; Horn, Timothy

    2016-12-02

    In additive manufacturing, microstructural control is feasible via processing parameter alteration. However, the window for parameter variation for certain materials, such as Ti-6Al-4V, is limited, and alternative methods must be employed to customize microstructures. Grain refinement and homogenization in cast titanium alloys has been demonstrated through the addition of hypoeutectic concentrations of boron. This work explores the influence of 0.00 wt.%, 0.25 wt.%, 0.50 wt.%, and 1.0 wt.% boron additions on the microstructure and bulk mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples fabricated in an Arcam A2 electron beam melting (EBM) system with commercial processing parameters for Ti-6Al-4V. Analyses of EBM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V + B indicate that the addition of 0.25–1.0 wt.% boron progressively refines the grain structure, and it improves hardness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, despite a reduction in size, the β grain structure remained columnar as a result of directional heat transfer during EBM fabrication.

  9. Effect of hypoeutectic boron additions on the grain size and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured with powder bed electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Mahbooba, Zaynab; West, Harvey; Harrysson, Ola; ...

    2016-12-02

    In additive manufacturing, microstructural control is feasible via processing parameter alteration. However, the window for parameter variation for certain materials, such as Ti-6Al-4V, is limited, and alternative methods must be employed to customize microstructures. Grain refinement and homogenization in cast titanium alloys has been demonstrated through the addition of hypoeutectic concentrations of boron. This work explores the influence of 0.00 wt.%, 0.25 wt.%, 0.50 wt.%, and 1.0 wt.% boron additions on the microstructure and bulk mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples fabricated in an Arcam A2 electron beam melting (EBM) system with commercial processing parameters for Ti-6Al-4V. Analyses of EBM fabricatedmore » Ti-6Al-4V + B indicate that the addition of 0.25–1.0 wt.% boron progressively refines the grain structure, and it improves hardness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, despite a reduction in size, the β grain structure remained columnar as a result of directional heat transfer during EBM fabrication.« less

  10. Effect of Hypoeutectic Boron Additions on the Grain Size and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured with Powder Bed Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahbooba, Zaynab; West, Harvey; Harrysson, Ola; Wojcieszynski, Andrzej; Dehoff, Ryan; Nandwana, Peeyush; Horn, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    In additive manufacturing, microstructural control is feasible via processing parameter alteration. However, the window for parameter variation for certain materials, such as Ti-6Al-4V, is limited, and alternative methods must be employed to customize microstructures. Grain refinement and homogenization in cast titanium alloys has been demonstrated through the addition of hypoeutectic concentrations of boron. This work explores the influence of 0.00 wt.%, 0.25 wt.%, 0.50 wt.%, and 1.0 wt.% boron additions on the microstructure and bulk mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples fabricated in an Arcam A2 electron beam melting (EBM) system with commercial processing parameters for Ti-6Al-4V. Analyses of EBM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V + B indicate that the addition of 0.25-1.0 wt.% boron progressively refines the grain structure, and it improves hardness and elastic modulus. Despite a reduction in size, the β grain structure remained columnar as a result of directional heat transfer during EBM fabrication.

  11. Study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas at future ELI-NP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzalone, G.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Lamia, L.; Mascali, D.; Muoio, A.; Negoita, F.; Odorici, F.; Petrascu, H.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this contribution we will present the future activities that our collaboration will carry out at ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics), the new multi peta-watt Laser facility, currently under construction at Bucharest (Romania). The activities concerns the study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas. In this framework we proposed the construction of a new, general-purpose experimental set-up able to detect and identify neutrons and charged particles.

  12. ELYS regulates the localization of LBR by modulating its phosphorylation state

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Masatoshi; Clever, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lamin B receptor (LBR), an inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein, contributes to the functional integrity of the nucleus by tethering heterochromatin to the nuclear envelope. We have previously reported that the depletion of embryonic large molecule derived from yolk sac (ELYS; also known as AHCTF1), a component of the nuclear pore complex, from cells perturbs the localization of LBR to the INM, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we found that the depletion of ELYS promoted LBR phosphorylation at the residues known to be phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and serine/arginine protein kinases 1 and 2 (SRPK1 and SRPK2, respectively). These phosphorylation events were most likely to be counter-balanced by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and the depletion of PP1 from cells consistently caused the mislocalization of LBR. These observations point to a new mechanism regulating the localization of LBR, which is governed by an ELYS-mediated phosphorylation network. This phosphorylation-dependent coordination between INM proteins and the nuclear pore complex might be important for the integrity of the nucleus. PMID:27802161

  13. Performance and Surface Integrity of Ti6Al4V After Sinking EDM with Special Graphite Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Fred L.; Stedile, Leandro J.; Torres, Ricardo D.; Soares, Paulo C.; Henning Laurindo, Carlos A.

    2014-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys have high chemical reactivity with most of the cutting tools. This makes it difficult to work with these alloys using conventional machining processes. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) emerges as an alternative technique to machining these materials. In this work, it is investigated the performance of three special grades of graphite as electrodes when ED-Machining Ti6Al4V samples under three different regimes. The main influences of electrical parameters are discussed for the samples material removal rate, volumetric relative wear and surface roughness. The samples surfaces were evaluated using SEM images, microhardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that the best results for samples material removal rate, surface roughness, and volumetric relative wear were obtained for the graphite electrode with 10-μm particle size and negative polarity. For all samples machined by EDM and characterized by x-ray (XRD), it was identified the presence of titanium carbides. For the finish EDM regimes, the recast layer presents an increased amount of titanium carbides compared to semi-finish and rough regimes.

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on nanostructured Ti6Al4V and Ti13Nb13Zr

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Luzi, Ettore; Fabbri, Sergio; Ciuffi, Simone; Sorace, Sabina; Tognarini, Isabella; Galli, Gianna; Zonefrati, Roberto; Sbaiz, Fausto; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone tissue engineering and nanotechnology enable the design of suitable substitutes to restore and maintain the function of human bone tissues in complex fractures and other large skeletal defects. Long-term stability and functionality of prostheses depend on integration between bone cells and biocompatible implants. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) have been shown to possess the same ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and to produce bone matrix of classical bone marrow derived stem cells (BMMSCs). Ti6A14V and Ti13Nb13Zr are two different biocompatible titanium alloys suitable for medical bone transplantation. Preliminary results from our Research Group demonstrated that smooth Ti6Al4V surfaces exhibit an osteoconductive action on hAMSCs, granting their differentiation into functional osteoblasts and sustaining bone matrix synthesis and calcification. The purpose of this study is to assay the ability of nanostructured Ti6Al4V and Ti13Nb13Zr alloys to preserve the growth and adhesion of hAMSCs and, mostly, to sustain and maintain their osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast activity. The overall results showed that both nanostructured titanium alloys are capable of sustaining cell adhesion and proliferation, to promote their differentiation into osteoblast lineage, and to support the activity of mature osteoblasts in terms of calcium deposition and bone extracellular matrix protein production. PMID:26811701

  15. Influence of the substrate bias voltage on the crystallographic structure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V coatings deposited by rf magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, J. E.; Pacheco, Fernando; Castro P., Alvaro; Torres, J.

    2005-08-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of pure titanium are improved when the material is mixed with aluminum and vanadium at specific concentrations. Specifically, the alloy composed by 90% of titanium, 6% of aluminum and 4% of vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) is highly resistant to fatigue and corrosion titanium and their alloys can be deposited by two techniques: Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD). However, some problems are generated when carbonated steel substrates are used under the CVD technique, mainly because those substrates lost its carbon as a result of the high substrate temperature used during the deposition process. Alternatively, PVD (magnetron sputtering, ion plating) is a low temperature substrate process and also has the advantage that substrate bias can promote structure refinement through resputtering effects.Substrate bias influence on the crystalline structure of Ti6Al4V thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering are presented in this work. Samples were grown onto common glass and AISI 420 steel substrates using a Ti6Al4V (99.9 %) target. Substrate bias was varied from -100 V to -200 V. Samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Thin films stoichiometry were studied by EDX in agreement with the Ti-6Al-4V target. Finally, the studies of the mechanical behavior of the films on steel showed that the hardness increased 1100 Knoop when the bias voltage is raised to -160 V.

  16. Tribocorrosive behaviour of commonly used temporomandibular implants in a synovial fluid-like environment: Ti-6Al-4V and CoCrMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royhman, D.; Yuan, J. C.; Shokuhfar, T.; Takoudis, C.; Sukotjo, C.; Mathew, M. T.

    2013-10-01

    The temporomandibular joint implant metal alloys, Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo, (n = 3/group) were tested under free-potential and potentiostatic conditions using a custom-made tribocorrosion apparatus. Sliding duration (1800 cycles), frequency (1.0 Hz) and load (16 N) mimicked the daily mastication process. Synovial-like fluid (bovine calf serum, pH = 7.6 at 37 °C) was used to simulate the in vivo environment. Changes in friction coefficient were monitored throughout the sliding process. Changes in surface topography, total weight loss and roughness values were calculated using scanning electron microscopy and white-light interferometry. Finally, statistical analyses were performed using paired t-tests to determine significance between regions within each metal type and also independent sample t-tests to determine statistical significance between metal alloy types. Ti6Al4V demonstrated a greater decrease of potential than CoCrMo, a higher weight loss from wear (Kw = 257.8 versus 2.62 µg p < 0.0001), a higher weight loss from corrosion (Kc = 17.44 versus 0.14 µg p < 0.0001) and a higher weight loss from the combined effects of wear and corrosion (Kwc = 275.28 versus 2.76 µg p < 0.0001). White-light interferometry measurements demonstrated a greater difference in surface roughness inside the wear region in Ti6Al4V than CoCrMo after the sliding (Ra = 323.80 versus 70.74 nm p < 0.0001). In conclusion, CoCrMo alloy shows superior anti-corrosive and biomechanical properties.

  17. Understanding the Role of Hot Isostatic Pressing Parameters on the Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, William H.; Nandwana, Peeyush; Kirka, Michael M.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Sames, William; Erdman, III, Donald L.; Eklund, Anders; Howard, Ron

    2015-04-01

    In this project, Avure and ORNL evaluated the influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and thermal cycling as standalone post processing techniques on the microstructure of electron beam powder bed deposited Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 alloys. Electron beam powder bed deposition is an effective technology for fabricating complex net shape components that cannot be manufactured with conventional processes. However, material deposited by this technology results in columnar grain growth which is detrimental for many applications. For Ti-6Al-4V, it has been found that thermal cycling alone is not sufficient to breakdown the columnar microstructure that is typical of electron beam powder bed technology. HIP, on the other hand, has the potential to be an effective technique to break down the columnar microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V into a more equiaxed and refined β grain structure, and provide a more homogeneous microstructure compared to the thermally cycled samples. Overall, the project showed that hot isostatic pressing reduced/eliminated porosity in both Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 However, based on the unique thermal cycle and the application of pressure in the HIP vessel, Ti-6Al-4V e-beam deposited microstructures were modified from columnar grain growth to equiaxed microstructures; a significant outcome to this collaboration. Inconel 718, on the other hand, shows no change in the macrostructure as a result of the current HIP cycle based on the thermal history, and would require further investigation. Though the results of HIP cycle were very good at changing the microstructure, further development in optimizing the post heat treatments and HIP cycles is required to improve mechanical properties.

  18. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  19. Materials Characterization of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan; Lerch, Brad; Rogers, Richard; Martin, Richard; Locci, Ivan; Garg, Anita

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth material characterization of Electron Beam Melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V material has been completed. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) was utilized to close porosity from fabrication and also served as a material heat treatment to obtain the desired microstructure. The changes in the microstructure and chemistry from the powder to pre-HIP and post-HIP material have been analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) scans indicated porosity closure during HIP and high-density inclusions scattered throughout the specimens. The results of tensile and high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing are compared to conventional Ti-6Al-4V. The EBM Ti-6Al-4V had similar or superior mechanical properties compared to conventionally manufactured Ti-6Al-4V.

  20. [Evaluation of biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting].

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhao, B J; Yan, R Z; Wang, C; Luo, C C; Hu, M

    2016-11-09

    Objective: To investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting(EBM). Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSC) co-cultured with Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated with EBM was prepared as experimental group and the regular cells culture was employed as control. The biocompatibility was detected using CCK-8 and cytoskeleton staining. The osteogenic differentiation ability was assessed using mineralization nodule formation. A 24 mm defect was created on the right mandibular body in 12 beagles. The mandibular defects were repaired with Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds mesh fabricated by EBM. General observation, CT and histology examination was carried out to evaluated the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds in vivo. Results: CCK-8 result showed the A values of the two groups had no significant difference(P >0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Cytoskeletal staining showed that cells were fully stretched out and grew well on T-i6Al-4V specimen. The actin fibers were arranged in parallel and stained uniformly with fluorescent. After osteogenic culture, the quantity of the nodule formation of the experimental group and control group were 5.7±0.7 and 5.1 ± 0.6, respectively(P>0.05). All animals had tolerated the surgery and healed well. CT examination showed that Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds mesh had good retention with surrounding bone and the continuity of mandible was restored. Histological examination showed that no inflammation reaction or toxity was caused in the soft tissue surrounding the scaffolds and in the liver and kidney after implantation. Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds had good retention with surrounding bone. Conclusions: Ti-6Al-4V fabricated with electron beam melting has good biocompatibility.

  1. Tribocorrosion behavior of veneering biomedical PEEK to Ti6Al4V structures.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Miguel; Buciumeanu, Mihaela; Henriques, Bruno; Silva, Filipe S; Souza, Júlio C M; Gomes, José R

    2016-02-01

    In dentistry, prosthetic structures must be able to support masticatory loads combined with a high biocompatibility and wear resistance in the presence of a corrosive environment. In order to improve the simultaneous wear and corrosion response of highly biocompatible prosthetic structures, a veneering poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) to Ti6Al4V substrate was assessed by tribocorrosion analyses under conditions mimicking the oral environment. Samples were synthesized by hot pressing the PEEK veneer onto Ti6Al4V cylinders. The tribocorrosion tests on Ti6Al4V or PEEK/Ti6Al4V samples were performed on a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer at 30N normal load, 1Hz and stroke length of 3mm. The tests were carried out in artificial saliva at 37°C. Open circuit potential (OCP) was measured before, during and after reciprocating sliding tests. The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed a lower wear rate on PEEK combined with a lower coefficient of friction (COF), when compared to Ti6Al4V. In fact, PEEK protected Ti6Al4V substrate against the corrosive environment and wear avoiding the release of metallic ions to the surrounding environment.

  2. Overview on the target fabrication facilities at ELI-NP and ongoing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, C. C.; Leca, V.; Popa, D.; Cernaianu, M. O.; Stutman, D.

    2016-10-01

    Along with the development of petawatt class laser systems, the interaction between high power lasers and matter flourished an extensive research, with high-interest applications like: laser nuclear physics, proton radiography or cancer therapy. The new ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics) petawatt laser facility, with 10PW and ~ 1023W/cm2 beam intensity, is one of the innovative projects that will provide novel research of fundamental processes during light-matter interaction. As part of the ELI-NP facility, Targets Laboratory will provide the means for in-house manufacturing and characterization of the required targets (mainly solid ones) for the experiments, in addition to the research activity carried out in order to develop novel target designs with improved performances. A description of the Targets Laboratory with the main pieces of equipment and their specifications are presented. Moreover, in view of the latest progress in the target design, one of the proposed strategies for the forthcoming experiments at ELI-NP is also described, namely: ultra-thin patterned foil of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated with a carbon-based ultra-low density layer. The carbon foam which behaves as a near-critical density plasma, will allow the controlled-shaping of the laser pulse before the main interaction with the solid foil. Particular emphasis will be directed towards the target's design optimization, by simulation tests and tuning the key-properties (thickness/length, spacing, density foam, depth, periodicity etc.) which are expected to have a crucial effect on the laser-matter interaction process.

  3. Design and simulation of a pulsed positron beam at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djourelov, N.; Dinescu, D.

    2017-01-01

    The design of the pulsing system for the slow e+ beam at ELI-NP is presented. It will deliver narrow time width e+ pulses, achieved by a combination of prebuncher, chopper and buncher. The effect of the different components on the pulse compression is simulated by a Matlab program. The results show that the best compression of the e+ pulses, which can be achieved by the proposed pulsing system, is limited to about 100 ps (FWHM). The most effective solution, applied up to now, for minimizing the influence of the backscattered e+ on the PALS spectra by using a bent tube filter is simulated by Comsol Multiphysics.

  4. Cryogenic stopping cell for photofission fragments at the ELI-NP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, P.; Balabanski, D. L.; Cuong, P. V.

    2015-10-01

    The brilliant gamma beam at the future Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility will be used to generate a beam of exotic neutron-rich isotopes via photofission of actinide targets. We present simulations with the Geant4 toolkit of the photofission process for the design and optimization of the expected performance parameters of the Cryogenic Stopping Cell (CSC). The CSC will be used to extract the photofission fragments into the secondary beam of about 106 ions/s. We propose an experimental program to study refractory neutron-rich isotopes.

  5. Cryogenic stopping cell for photofission fragments at the ELI-NP facility

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, P. Balabanski, D. L.; Cuong, P. V.

    2015-10-15

    The brilliant gamma beam at the future Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility will be used to generate a beam of exotic neutron-rich isotopes via photofission of actinide targets. We present simulations with the Geant4 toolkit of the photofission process for the design and optimization of the expected performance parameters of the Cryogenic Stopping Cell (CSC). The CSC will be used to extract the photofission fragments into the secondary beam of about 10{sup 6} ions/s. We propose an experimental program to study refractory neutron-rich isotopes.

  6. 100-J level amplifier concepts for HiLASE and ELI-Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikocinski, P.; Divoky, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Sawicka, M.; Novak, J.; Rus, B.; Mocek, T.

    2012-07-01

    We present comparison of two alternative layouts of a 100 J cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG multi-slab laser system operating at 10 Hz for HiLASE and ELI Beamlines projects. In the first approach, the 100 J slab amplifier consists of a preamplifier and power amplifier, while in the second approach it uses single power amplifier with two amplifier heads. These two concepts are compared, with respect to output power, B-integral, accumulated B-integral, and peak fluence. Results are obtained by simulating beam propagation in MIRÓ code and calculating stored energy in the amplifier by homemade ray-tracing MATLAB code for amplified spontaneous emission evaluation.

  7. Influence of microstructure on high-cycle fatigue of Ti-6Al-4V: Bimodal vs. lamellar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalla, R. K.; Ritchie, R. O.; Boyce, B. L.; Campbell, J. P.; Peters, J. O.

    2002-03-01

    The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) of titanium alloy turbine engine components remains a principal cause of failures in military aircraft engines. A recent initiative sponsored by the United States Air Force has focused on the major drivers for such failures in Ti-6Al-4V, a commonly used turbine blade alloy, specifically for fan and compressor blades. However, as most of this research has been directed toward a single processing/heat-treated condition, the bimodal (solution-treated and overaged (STOA)) microstructure, there have been few studies to examine the role of microstructure. Accordingly, the present work examines how the overall resistance to high-cycle fatigue in Ti-6Al-4V compares between the bimodal microstructure and a coarser lamellar ( β-annealed) microstructure. Several aspects of the HCF problem are examined. These include the question of fatigue thresholds for through-thickness large and short cracks; microstructurally small, semi-elliptical surface cracks; and cracks subjected to pure tensile (mode I) and mixed-mode (mode I+II) loading over a range of load ratios (ratio of minimum to maximum load) from 0.1 to 0.98, together with the role of prior damage due to sub-ballistic impacts (foreign-object damage (FOD)). Although differences are not large, it appears that the coarse lamellar microstructure has improved smooth-bar stress-life (S-N) properties in the HCF regime and superior resistance to fatigue-crack propagation (in pure mode I loading) in the presence of cracks that are large compared to the scale of the microstructure; however, this increased resistance to crack growth compared to the bimodal structure is eliminated at extremely high load ratios. Similarly, under mixed-mode loading, the lamellar microstructure is generally superior. In contrast, in the presence of microstructurally small cracks, there is little difference in the HCF properties of the two microstructures. Similarly, resistance to HCF failure following FOD is comparable in the

  8. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  9. Study of the {alpha}{yields}{beta} phase transformation of a Ti-6Al-4V sheet by means of texture change

    SciTech Connect

    Gey, N.; Humbert, M.; Moustahfid, H.

    2000-02-01

    Although a large number of studies on the {alpha}/{beta} phase transformation in titanium alloys have been reported, only a few works deal with the texture change observed during the {alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation during continuous heating. This is due to the difficulty to obtain information about the metallurgical state of the high temperature {beta} phase, which is not stable at room temperature. In pure titanium, the hcp {alpha} phase generally transforms into the bcc {beta} phase according to the Burgers relation with sometimes orientation variant selections. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the transformation of the {alpha} phase is performed in the presence of a low volume fraction of {beta} phase which can influence the transformation mechanism. In the present paper, the {alpha}{yields}{beta} texture change of Ti-6Al-4V material is characterized using adapted methods. The resulting textures allows us to discuss the influence of the residual {beta} phase on the transition texture.

  10. Status of the project for a positron laboratory at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djourelov, N.; Oprisa, A.; Dinescu, D.; Leca, V.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the plans of a positron laboratory to be built at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The slow e+ source is based on e‑–e+ pair production in a converter made of tungsten foils by a brilliant gamma beam (Eγ<3.5 MeV, Iγ = 2.4×1010 γ s-1) which will be generated by Compton back–scattering of photons from a high power laser on electrons from a LINAC. Numerical simulations of γ–ray interactions with the designed converter showed that, if the tungsten foils are used for moderation of the created fast e+, a slow e+ beam of an intensity of ~1×106 s-1 can be obtained. Circular polarization of the γ-beam is proposed to be one of the ELI-NP’s upgrades. The slow e+ will be extracted perpendicularly to the γ–beam and will have ~ 30% transversal polarization degree. By using a transmission re-moderation stage and electrostatically turning the re–moderated beam by 90°, the transversal polarization will be changed to longitudinal. Longitudinal polarization can then be preserved in the longitudinal magnetic guiding field. The heat load to the converter was estimated at < 2 mW which implies that e+ moderation by frozen neon is applicable.

  11. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Negoita, F. Gugiu, M. Petrascu, H. Petrone, C. Pietreanu, D.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Antici, P.; Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C.; and others

    2015-02-24

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  12. Strong field physics and QED experiments with ELI-NP 2×10PW laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Turcu, I. C. E. Balascuta, S. Negoita, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; McKenna, P.

    2015-02-24

    The ELI-NP facility will focus a 10 PW pulsed laser beam at intensities of ∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2} for the first time, enabling investigation of the new physical phenomena at the interfaces of plasma, nuclear and particle physics. The electric field in the laser focus has a maximum value of ∼10{sup 15} V/m at such laser intensities. In the ELI-NP Experimental Area E6, we propose the study of Radiation Reaction, Strong Field Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) effects and resulting production of Ultra-bright Sources of Gamma-rays which could be used for nuclear activation. Two powerful, synchronized 10 PW laser beams will be focused in the E6 Interaction Chamber on either gas or solid targets. One 10 PW beam is the Pump-beam and the other is the Probe-beam. The focused Pump beam accelerates the electrons to relativistic energies. The accelerated electron bunches interact with the very high electro-magnetic field of the focused Probe beam. The layout of the experimental area E6 will be presented with several options for the experimental configurations.

  13. Identification of Conserved MEL-28/ELYS Domains with Essential Roles in Nuclear Assembly and Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Yasuhiro; Mauro, Michael; Lai, Allison; Ayuso, Cristina; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Piano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoporins are the constituents of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and are essential regulators of nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression and genome stability. The nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS plays a critical role in post-mitotic NPC reassembly through recruitment of the NUP107-160 subcomplex, and is required for correct segregation of mitotic chromosomes. Here we present a systematic functional and structural analysis of MEL-28 in C. elegans early development and human ELYS in cultured cells. We have identified functional domains responsible for nuclear envelope and kinetochore localization, chromatin binding, mitotic spindle matrix association and chromosome segregation. Surprisingly, we found that perturbations to MEL-28’s conserved AT-hook domain do not affect MEL-28 localization although they disrupt MEL-28 function and delay cell cycle progression in a DNA damage checkpoint-dependent manner. Our analyses also uncover a novel meiotic role of MEL-28. Together, these results show that MEL-28 has conserved structural domains that are essential for its fundamental roles in NPC assembly and chromosome segregation. PMID:27341616

  14. Identification of Conserved MEL-28/ELYS Domains with Essential Roles in Nuclear Assembly and Chromosome Segregation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Saldivar, Georgina; Fernandez, Anita; Hirano, Yasuhiro; Mauro, Michael; Lai, Allison; Ayuso, Cristina; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Piano, Fabio; Askjaer, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Nucleoporins are the constituents of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and are essential regulators of nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression and genome stability. The nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS plays a critical role in post-mitotic NPC reassembly through recruitment of the NUP107-160 subcomplex, and is required for correct segregation of mitotic chromosomes. Here we present a systematic functional and structural analysis of MEL-28 in C. elegans early development and human ELYS in cultured cells. We have identified functional domains responsible for nuclear envelope and kinetochore localization, chromatin binding, mitotic spindle matrix association and chromosome segregation. Surprisingly, we found that perturbations to MEL-28's conserved AT-hook domain do not affect MEL-28 localization although they disrupt MEL-28 function and delay cell cycle progression in a DNA damage checkpoint-dependent manner. Our analyses also uncover a novel meiotic role of MEL-28. Together, these results show that MEL-28 has conserved structural domains that are essential for its fundamental roles in NPC assembly and chromosome segregation.

  15. Materials Characterization of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Telesman, Jack; Martin, Richard E.; Locci, Ivan E.; Garg, Anita; Ring, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth material characterization of Electron Beam Melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V material has been completed on samples fabricated on an ARCAM A2X EBM machine. The specimens were fabricated under eight separate builds with the material divided into two lots for material testing purposes. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) was utilized to close porosity from fabrication and also served as a material heat treatment to obtain the desired microstructure. The changes in the microstructure and chemistry from the powder to pre-HIP and post-HIP material have been analyzed. Several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques were utilized to characterize the samples both before and after HIP. The test matrix included tensile, high cycle fatigue, low cycle fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth at cryogenic, room, and elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties of the EBM Ti-6Al-4V are compared to conventional Ti-6Al-4V in the annealed condition. Fractography was performed to determine failure initiation site. The EBM Ti-6Al-4V had similar or superior mechanical properties compared to conventionally manufactured Ti-6Al-4V.

  16. The Implications of John Hart Ely's Conceptual Framework for Interpretation of First Amendment Questions: The Continuation of Balancing in the Free Expression Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Mary E.

    Examining interpretive approaches to the First Amendment free speech and press clause, this paper focuses on the conceptual framework proposed by John Hart Ely. Other First Amendment tests examined include clear and present danger, balancing, the absolute test, and A. Meiklejohn's "absolute" test. Following an analysis of Ely's First…

  17. The bone tissue compatibility of a new Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus.

    PubMed

    Miura, Keiki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Itoi, Eiji

    2011-05-01

    A Ti-Nb-Sn alloy was developed as a new β-type titanium alloy which had a low Young's modulus and high strength. The Young's modulus of the Ti-Nb-Sn alloy was reduced to about 45 GPa by cold rolling, much closer to human cortical bone (10-30 GPa) than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy (110 GPa) and other β-type titanium alloys developed for biomedical applications. The tensile strength of the Ti-Nb-Sn alloy was increased to a level greater than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by heat treatment after severe cold rolling. In this study the cytotoxicity of Ti-25Nb-11Sn alloy was evaluated in direct contact cell culture tests using metal disks and the bone tissue compatibility - examined using metal rods inserted into the medullary canal of rabbit femurs. The remarkable findings were that: (1) there were no significant differences in the relative growth ratio and relative absorbance ratio between cells grown with the Ti-Nb-Sn alloy, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and CP-Ti in direct contact cell culture tests; (2) there were no significant differences in the load at failure between the Ti-Nb-Sn alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy in pull-out metal rods tests; (3) there were no significant differences in new bone formation around metal rods between the Ti-Nb-Sn alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy in histological evaluations. The new Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with an elasticity closer to that of human bone is thus considered to be bioinert while also having a high degree of bone compatibility similar to that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  18. Bietti Crystalline Corneoretinal Dystrophy Is Caused by Mutations in the Novel Gene CYP4V2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anren; Jiao, Xiaodong; Munier, Francis L.; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Yao, Wenliang; Iwata, Fumino; Hayakawa, Mutsuko; Kanai, Atsushi; Shy Chen, Muh; Alan Lewis, Richard; Heckenlively, John; Weleber, Richard G.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Zhang, Qingjiong; Xiao, Xueshan; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2004-01-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy characterized by multiple glistening intraretinal crystals scattered over the fundus, a characteristic degeneration of the retina, and sclerosis of the choroidal vessels, ultimately resulting in progressive night blindness and constriction of the visual field. The BCD region of chromosome 4q35.1 was refined to an interval flanked centromerically by D4S2924 by linkage and haplotype analysis; mutations were found in the novel CYP450 family member CYP4V2 in 23 of 25 unrelated patients with BCD tested. The CYP4V2 gene, transcribed from 11 exons spanning 19 kb, is expressed widely. Homology to other CYP450 proteins suggests that CYP4V2 may have a role in fatty acid and steroid metabolism, consistent with biochemical studies of patients with BCD. PMID:15042513

  19. Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy is caused by mutations in the novel gene CYP4V2.

    PubMed

    Li, Anren; Jiao, Xiaodong; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F; Yao, Wenliang; Iwata, Fumino; Hayakawa, Mutsuko; Kanai, Atsushi; Shy Chen, Muh; Alan Lewis, Richard; Heckenlively, John; Weleber, Richard G; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zhang, Qingjiong; Xiao, Xueshan; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel; Sergeev, Yuri V; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2004-05-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy characterized by multiple glistening intraretinal crystals scattered over the fundus, a characteristic degeneration of the retina, and sclerosis of the choroidal vessels, ultimately resulting in progressive night blindness and constriction of the visual field. The BCD region of chromosome 4q35.1 was refined to an interval flanked centromerically by D4S2924 by linkage and haplotype analysis; mutations were found in the novel CYP450 family member CYP4V2 in 23 of 25 unrelated patients with BCD tested. The CYP4V2 gene, transcribed from 11 exons spanning 19 kb, is expressed widely. Homology to other CYP450 proteins suggests that CYP4V2 may have a role in fatty acid and steroid metabolism, consistent with biochemical studies of patients with BCD.

  20. Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy associated with CYP4V2 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Makoto; Lin, Jian; Nishiguchi, Koji; Kondo, Mineo; Sugita, Jiro; Miyake, Yozo

    2006-01-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive chorioretinal dystrophy characterized by progressive night blindness, tiny, yellowish, glistening retinal crystals, choroidal sclerosis, and crystalline deposits in the peripheral cornea. Recent studies have demonstrated that the CYP4V2 gene which encodes a CYP450 family protein is the causative gene of the disease. We have identified a homozygous mutation in the CYP4V2 gene in 8 separate Japanese patients with BCD and conclude that mutations in the CYP4V2 gene are the major cause of BCD. The IVS6-8_c.810del/insGC mutation is found at a higher frequency in the Asian populations suggesting a founder effect.

  1. Effects of Process Parameters on Deformation and Temperature Uniformity of Forged Ti-6Al-4V Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiyuan; Zhu, Dahu; Hua, Lin; Qian, Dongsheng; Yan, Sijie; Yu, Fengping

    2016-11-01

    This work is motivated by the frequent occurrence of macro- and microdefects within forged Ti-6Al-4V turbine blades due to the severely nonuniform strain and temperature distributions. To overcome the problem of nonuniformity during the blade forging operation, firstly, a 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element approach using the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive model is employed to simulate the real movements and processing conditions, and its reliability is verified experimentally. Secondly, two evaluation indexes, standard deviation of equivalent plastic strain and standard deviation of temperature, are proposed to evaluate the uniformity characteristics within the forged blade, and the effects of four process parameters including the forging velocity, friction factor, initial workpiece temperature and dwell time on the uniformity of strain and temperature distributions are carefully studied. Finally, the numerically optimized combination of process parameters is validated by the application in a practical process. The parametric study reveals that a reasonable combination of process parameters considering the flow resistance, flow localization and the effects of deformation and friction heating is crucial for the titanium alloy blade forging with uniformity. This work can provide a significant guidance for the design and optimization of blade forging processes.

  2. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H C

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

  3. Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.

    2016-07-01

    The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of different preparations of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ricardo M; Lemus, M Mercedes; Reis, Rui L

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of four different preparations of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates in static Hank's balanced salt solution was investigated using dc potentiodynamic and ac impedance techniques. Two different nominal thicknesses, 50 microm and 200 microm, and two different spraying conditions, were considered. The electrochemical impedance experiments proved this technique to be very suitable for the investigation of the electrochemical behavior of surgical implant alloys when they are coated with HA, which is characterized by the dissolution and passivation characteristics of the underlying metal substrate. Because the coatings are porous, ionic paths between the electrolytic medium and the base material can eventually be produced, resulting in the corrosion of the coated metal. Differences in the corrosion resistance of the coated materials were detected, and a relevant model for the description of the coating degradation in the biosimulating solution was proposed. The model consisted of the description of the coated system in terms of a two-layer model of the surface film. Significant differences in electrochemical behavior for similar nominal thicknesses of HA coatings obtained under different spraying conditions were found.

  5. Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

  6. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels.

  7. Studies of laser textured Ti-6Al-4V wettability for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Prakash, S.; Kumar, S.

    2016-09-01

    Wettability plays a notable role in success of any bio-implant. It influences tissue amalgamation, protein adsorption and cell attachment at the surface of an implant. Hence, wettability enhancement of the implant is a field of today's dynamic research. In this work, laser based direct melting approach was employed to generate four separate surface patterns on Ti-6Al-4V by means of nanosecond pulse fibre laser. The modification of surface morphology was assessed by means of SEM. Wettability was measured by the help of goniometer. The obtained results revealed that pulsed laser irradiation can substantially improve the biocompatibility of Ti-6AL-4V by making its surface super hydrophilic.

  8. The development of Ti alloys for dental implant with high corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Junichi; Nakagawa, Masaharu; Matono, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Akari; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, Ti-0.5Pt, Ti-6Al-4V-0.5Pt, and Ti-6Al-7Nb-0.5Pt alloys were examined using an electrochemical analyzer in artificial saliva containing 0.1 and 0.2% NaF at a pH of 4.0. The SEM observations revealed that the surfaces of the alloys containing 0.5 wt% Pt were not affected in fluoride-containing environments, whereas the surfaces of Ti, Ti-6A1-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys were markedly rough. In artificial saliva containing 0.1% NaF at a pH of 4.0, the amounts of Ti dissolved from the Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys were about 50 times larger than those of the alloys containing 0.5 wt% Pt. The tensile strengths of the alloys containing 0.5 wt% Pt were equal to or higher than those of pure Ti or the alloys without Pt. The Ti-0.5Pt, Ti-6Al-4V-0.5Pt, and Ti-6Al-7Nb-0.5 alloys are expected to be useful in clinical dentistry as new Ti alloys with high corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.

  9. Characterization of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications. Part 2: Wettability, Tribological Performance and Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braic, V.; Balaceanu, M.; Braic, M.; Vitelaru, C.; Titorencu, I.; Pruna, V.; Parau, A. C.; Fanara, C.; Vladescu, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy, prepared in a levitation melting furnace, was investigated as a possible candidate for replacing Ti6Al4V alloy in medical applications. The sessile drop method, pin-on-disc and in vitro tests were used to analyze wettability, wear resistance, and biocompatibility of the new alloy. The characteristics of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy were assessed in comparison to those of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta system was found to have hydrophilic characteristics with similar contact angle as the Ti6Al4V alloy. In all environments (deionized water, simulated body fluid and Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva), the friction coefficient showed a stable evolution versus sliding distance, being similar for both alloys. On overall, the wear resistance of Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy was lower than that of Ti6Al4V for all testing environments. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy exhibited good biocompatibility characteristics at in vitro test compared to Ti6Al4V alloy. The cell viability on Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta surfaces was higher than the one observed on Ti6Al4V samples, regardless the number of days spent in osteoblast-like cells culture. A high degree of cell attachment and spreading was observed on both alloys.

  10. New metallographic preparation techniques for tantalum and tantalum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, A.M.; Bingert, S.R.; Reiswig, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Two new metallographic techniques have been developed for tantalum and its alloys. The first is a chemical polishing method that can even be used on specimens immediately after grinding on silicon carbide papers. The second is an etching technique that even delineates low-angle grain boundaries, making it particularly suitable for quantitative grain size measurements. It has also been determined that these are suitable for the preparation of a surprisingly large variety of other metals and alloys, including, titanium, tungsten, Ti-6Al-4V, molybdenum, a Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni alloy, a Ti-Ta-Sc alloy, Fansteel 85, and a Hf-Zr alloy to name a few.

  11. ELI/SBP'S UVB (VACUUM VAPORIZATION WELL) SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF VOC-CONTAMINATED SOILS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the Unterdruck-Verdampfer-Brunnen (UVB) technology developed by IEG Technologies (IEG) and licensed in the eastern United States by Environmental Laboratories, Inc. (ELI) and SBP Technologies (SBP). This evaluation was cond...

  12. Data on ground-water quality for the Ely 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle, eastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1986-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater were compiled for the Ely 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of eastern Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)

  13. Eli Whitney's Patent for the Cotton Gin. The Constitution Community: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    This lesson focuses on the power of the U.S. Congress to pass laws related to issuing patents. Using Eli Whitney's 1812 Congressional petition to extend the patent on his cotton gin as an example, the lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Government. It contains two primary source documents,…

  14. National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ely quadrangle, Nevada; Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-15

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1937 sediment samples from the Ely Quadrangle, Nevada; Utah. The samples were collected by Savannah River Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  15. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  16. Study of Magnetic Alloys: Critical Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC ALLOYS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SEEBECK EFFECT , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, GADOLINIUM ALLOYS, GOLD ALLOYS, IRON ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, PALLADIUM ALLOYS, PLATINUM ALLOYS, RHODIUM ALLOYS

  17. Flow behavior and plasticity of Ti-6Al-4V under different electrically assisted treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tianhao; Peng, Linfa; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin

    2016-12-01

    Both electrically assisted tension (EAT) and electrically assisted pre-treatment tension (EAPT) were conducted to compare different effects on improving deformation resistance and ductility of Ti-6Al-4V. It is found EAPT obviously enhanced the ductility of Ti-6Al-4V compared with that obtained in EAT. In order to decouple the thermal effect from electro-plastic effect, thermally assisted tension (TAT) as well as thermally assisted pre-treatment tension (TAPT) were also conducted. The result indicates deformation mechanism of alpha phase with h.c.p crystal structure in Ti-6Al-4V was insensitive to electric current when current duty is less than 20%. However, the elevated temperature alone is insufficient to account for additional stress drop in the initial yielding stress observed in EAT and EAPT when current duty is higher than 20%. According to XRD investigation on specimens treated in original state, TAPT and EAPT, it is found electric current accelerates the annihilation of alpha phase and formation of beta phase in Ti-6Al-4V more effectively than the rising temperature does and such microstructure evolution also throws light on the improvement of flow stress and ductility observed in EAPT both experimentally and theoretically.

  18. ELI-Beamlines: development of next generation short-pulse laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, B.; Bakule, P.; Kramer, D.; Naylon, J.; Thoma, J.; Green, J. T.; Antipenkov, R.; Fibrich, M.; Novák, J.; Batysta, F.; Mazanec, T.; Drouin, M. A.; Kasl, K.; Baše, R.; Peceli, D.; Koubíková, L.; Trojek, P.; Boge, R.; Lagron, J. C.; Vyhlídka, Å.; Weiss, J.; Cupal, J.,; Hřebíček, J.; Hříbek, P.; Durák, M.; Polan, J.; Košelja, M.; Korn, G.; Horáček, M.; Horáček, J.; Himmel, B.; Havlíček, T.; Honsa, A.; Korouš, P.; Laub, M.; Haefner, C.; Bayramian, A.; Spinka, T.; Marshall, C.; Johnson, G.; Telford, S.; Horner, J.; Deri, B.; Metzger, T.; Schultze, M.; Mason, P.; Ertel, K.; Lintern, A.; Greenhalgh, J.; Edwards, C.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Collier, J.; Ditmire, T.,; Gaul, E.; Martinez, M.; Frederickson, C.; Hammond, D.; Malato, C.; White, W.; Houžvička, J.

    2015-05-01

    Overview of the laser systems being built for ELI-Beamlines is presented. The facility will make available high-brightness multi-TW ultrashort laser pulses at kHz repetition rate, PW 10 Hz repetition rate pulses, and kilojoule nanosecond pulses for generation of 10 PW peak power. The lasers will extensively employ the emerging technology of diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) to pump OPCPA and Ti:sapphire broadband amplifiers. These systems will provide the user community with cutting-edge laser resources for programmatic research in generation and applications of high-intensity X-ray sources, in particle acceleration, and in dense-plasma and high-field physics.

  19. Positron production at extreme light infrastructure – nuclear physics (ELI-NP)

    SciTech Connect

    Oprisa, A. Balascuta, S. Ur, C. A.

    2015-02-24

    Applied and material physics studies with positron beams of Fermi–surfaces, defects, interfaces etc. offer excellent diagnostics tools. At ELI-NP, an intense γ beam of about 10{sup 11} photons/s with energies up to 3.5 MeV will be used to generate a positron beam via pair production in a tungsten converter target. To obtain a high intensity beam of moderated positrons the design of the positron source is of high importance. The design of a dedicated positron source at ELI–NP is being investigated based on extensive GEANT4 simulations. The goal of the simulations is to optimize the geometry of the target and the gamma beam collimation. We present here the characteristics of the positron beam obtained for different geometries of the converter target.

  20. A conceptual design of an electron spectrometer for ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Balascuta, S. Turcu, I. C. E.

    2015-02-24

    We present the geometry and field parameters of an Electron Spectrometer (ES) with two dipole magnets, considered for electron energy measurements at the High Fields QED experimental area at ELI-NP. The first magnet is a 2 meter long permanent magnet, placed inside the Interaction Chamber (IC). The second magnet is a 1.5 meters long electromagnet, placed outside IC. The pulsed electron beam will be produced by the 10 PW pulsed Laser, ‘pump-beam’, focused into one meter long capillary low density plasma cell. A second 10 PW pulsed Laser, ‘probe-beam’, will interact with the relativistic electron bunch providing the strong electromagnetic field. The ES will measure the subtle changes in the electron energy spectrum as a result of the electron beam interaction with the probe-beam field.

  1. A Journey with Elie Metchnikoff: From Innate Cell Mechanisms in Infectious Diseases to Quantum Biology

    PubMed Central

    Merien, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Many reviews of Elie Metchnikoff’s work have been published, all unanimously acknowledging the significant contributions of his cellular theory to the fields of immunology and infectious diseases. In 1883, he published a key paper describing phagocytic cells in frogs. His descriptions were not just about phagocytes involved in host defense, he also described how these specialized cells eliminated degenerating or dying cells of the host. This perspective focuses on key concepts developed by Metchnikoff by presenting relevant excerpts of his 1883 paper and matching these concepts with challenges of modern immunology. A new approach to macrophage polarization is included to introduce some creative thinking about the exciting emerging area of quantum biology. PMID:27379227

  2. Electron beam loss assumptions for ELI-NPMEGa-ray radioprotection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G A

    2011-10-06

    The ELI-NP project is now working on the design of their conventional facility. Dr. Gheorghe Cata-Danil recently requested that I provide them with information on the location and amount of electron-beam loss in the MEGa-ray source they have proposed for ELI-NP. This memo is intended to document that information, for transmission to ELI-NP. The ELI-NP MEGa-ray source, as presently proposed, consists of two x-band accelerator sections separated by a large chicane, as show in figure 1. The basic parameters of the machine that are pertinent for specifying the radiation source terms are shown in table 1. These are the parameters of the intentionall-produced photobeam. In addition to the photobeam, the electron gun and accelerator will produce 'dark current' that originates throughout the RF structures (that is, distributed along the accelerator axis) and therefore has a distribution of energy below the energy of the photobeam. Because it is emitted from surfaces inside the RF structures, much of it is not transported through the accelerator and is lost in the accelerator RF structures. A large fraction of the total dark current is produced in the photogun and lost at the entrance of the 1st accelerator RF structure. Important sources of radiation during operation are beam alignment screens that are used for observing the image of the electron beam, during adjustment of beam steering and for general diagnostic purposes. Each screen consists of a 1 mm thick Ce:YAG plate that is moved into the path of the beam when desired. This destroys the electron beam, spraying all beam current into the structures downstream of the screen. Only one screen is inserted at a time. These screens may be located after each accelerator RF structure, and after each set of bend magnets, as shown in figure 3. The photobeam energy and currents at each location are listed in table 2; for simplicity, the dark current energy is (conseratively) assumed to be the same as the photobeam energy. In

  3. Effects of radiation damping on the dynamics of electrons in ELI intensity laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Christopher; Marklund, Mattias

    2012-07-01

    An electron in the presence of a high intensity laser field, such as that anticipated at ELI, will be accelerated so strongly that its own radiation emission may significantly affect its motion. This opens up the possibility of testing experimentally the classical theory of radiation reaction in such a context. We therefore explore the effects of radiation damping on the dynamics of electrons in optical laser pulses. In the case of high intensities and high initial electron energies, the trajectories and net energy changes of the electrons are found to be significantly altered. These effects are found to become increasingly significant the closer one gets to a directly head on collision between the laser and electrons.

  4. Design of the gas cell for the IGISOL facility at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, P.; Balabanski, D. L.; Anh, L. T.; Cuong, P. V.; Mei, B.

    2017-04-01

    One of the experimental programs that will be carried out at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility is the production of exotic neutron-rich ion beams in an IGISOL facility via photofission in a stack of actinide targets placed at the center of a cell filled with He gas. Simulations with the Geant4 toolkit were done for the optimization of the target configuration that maximizes the rate of released photofission fragments. The cell geometry is established based on the stopping properties of these fragments. Studies, based on simulations with Geant4 and SIMION 8.1, of the space charge effect and its induced electric field in the gas cell are presented. Estimates of the extraction time and efficiency of the photofission fragments are derived.

  5. A Constitutive Equation Relating Composition and Microstructure to Properties in Ti-6Al-4V: As Derived Using a Novel Integrated Computational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamarian, Iman; Samimi, Peyman; Dixit, Vikas; Collins, Peter C.

    2015-11-01

    While it is useful to predict properties in metallic materials based upon the composition and microstructure, the complexity of real, multi-component, and multi-phase engineering alloys presents difficulties when attempting to determine constituent-based phenomenological equations. This paper applies an approach based upon the integration of three separate modeling approaches, specifically artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and Monte Carlo simulations to determine a mechanism-based equation for the yield strength of α+ β processed Ti-6Al-4V (all compositions in weight percent) which consists of a complex multi-phase microstructure with varying spatial and morphological distributions of the key microstructural features. Notably, this is an industrially important alloy yet an alloy for which such an equation does not exist in the published literature. The equation ultimately derived in this work not only can accurately describe the properties of the current dataset but also is consistent with the limited and dissociated information available in the literature regarding certain parameters such as intrinsic yield strength of pure hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium. In addition, this equation suggests new interesting opportunities for controlling yield strength by controlling the relative intrinsic strengths of the two phases through solid solution strengthening.

  6. Study of alpha-case depth in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, R.; Sefer, B.; Pederson, R.; Antti, M.-L.

    2013-12-01

    At temperatures exceeding 480°C titanium alloys generally oxidises and forms a hard and brittle layer enriched with oxygen, which is called alpha case. This layer has negative effects on several mechanical properties and lowers the tensile ductility and the fatigue resistance. Therefore any alpha-case formed on titanium alloys during various manufacturing processes, such as heat treatment procedures, must be removed before the final part is mounted in an engine. In addition, long time exposure at elevated temperatures during operation of an engine could possibly also lead to formation of alpha-case on actual parts, therefore knowledge and understanding of the alpha-case formation and its effect on mechanical properties is important. Factors that contribute for growth of alpha-case are: presence of oxygen, exposure time, temperature and pressure. In the present study, isothermal oxidation experiments in air were performed on forged Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo at 500°C and 593°C up to 500 hours. Similar studies were also performed on Ti-6Al-4V plate at 593°C and 700°C. Alpha-case depth for both alloys was quantified using metallography techniques and compared.

  7. The Development of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy via Oxygen Solid Solution Strengthening for Aerospace and Defense Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    latter strategy. Mixtures of titanium powders and TiO2 particles were employed as starting materials and consolidated by spark - plasma sintering and...were consolidated in a carbon container installed in the spark - plasma sintering (SPS) equipment under vacuum condition (ɞ Pa) at a temperature of...evaluation of tensile properties of the wrought pure titanium materials consolidated by sintering and hot extrusion process, a theoretical approach using

  8. Evaluation of superplastic forming and co-diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy expanded sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvin, G. H.; Israeli, L.; Stolpestad, J. H.; Stacher, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    The application of the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) process to supersonic cruise research is investigated. The capability of an SPF/DB titanium structure to meet the structural requirements of the inner wing area of the NASA arrow-wing advanced supersonic transport design is evaluated. Selection of structural concepts and their optimization for minimum weight, SPF/DB process optimization, fabrication of representative specimens, and specimen testing and evaluation are described. The structural area used includes both upper and lower wing panels, where the upper wing panel is used for static compression strength evaluation and the lower panel, in tension, is used for fracture mechanics evaluations. The individual test specimens, cut from six large panels, consist of 39 static specimens, 10 fracture mechanics specimens, and one each full size panel for compression stability and fracture mechanics testing. Tests are performed at temperatures of -54 C (-65 F), room temperature, and 260 C (500 F).

  9. Preliminary study of raw material for calcium silicate/PVA coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, Farah 'Atiqah bt Abdul; Shamsudin, Roslinda

    2015-09-25

    Calcium silicate bioceramic was prepared from the rice husk and limestone resources using the sol gel method. The preparations of CaSiO{sub 3} formulation were differ from the previous study due CaO/SiO{sub 2} amount with 45:55 ratio. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis was carried out to clarify the amount of SiO{sub 2} and CaO content in the limestone and rice husk ash. The high amount of CaO was found in the limestone with the percentages of 97.22%, whereby 89% of SiO{sub 2} content of the rice husk ash. Several milling time were studied to obtain the optimized milling ti me and speed in progress to obtain nano size particle. The particle size analysis result confirms that increase in milling time does not certainly reduce the size of particle. The addition of 0.05% polyvinyl alcohol as a binder did not change the phases or composition of calcium silicates after examined by X-Ray diffraction analysis which make it suitable to be used as a binder for calcium silicate coating without changing the chemical structure.

  10. Ballistic Damage Characteristics and Fracture Toughness of Laminated Aluminum 7049-T73 and Titanium 6Al-4V Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    ANCTIL, A. A., CHAIT, R., CURLL, C. H., and KULA , F. B. Structural Properties of Dual Hardness Steel Armor. Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center...Center, AMMRC TN 74-4, April 1974. 16. KULA , E. B., ANCTIL, A. A., and JOHNSON, H. H. Fatigue Crack Growth in Dual.Hardness Steel Armor. Army

  11. Processing Response of Boron Modified Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in (alpha+Beta) Working Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    instability (e.g. cavitations at triple junctions, wedge cracking at grain boundaries , adiabatic shear banding etc.) cannot be found even in the... boundaries (see Fig 1a). The prior β grain size is ~200 microns with the alpha colonies being finer than 50 microns in. Hexagonal Titanium Boride...crystals can be seen at the grain boundary (see Fig. 1b) and forming a typical ‘necklace’ structure. Table 2 shows the variation of flow stress with

  12. Statistical Analysis of Metallurgical Mechanical Properties with an Application to Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Fatigue Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    SEP 81 6 A KILLIAN UNCLASSIFIED AFITLSSR868lN2m ___ I1.6 MICROCOPY RLSOLU1 ION UST CHARI g -. ) This document has been approved ~ELECTEnIfor public... Dolores Newsom, who came to my aid and typed the final manu- script. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......... ......... iii LIST OF TABLES...most of the a from returning to the a phase by diffusion. After the quench, a super -saturated solution exists, in that the amount of a present is

  13. Preliminary study of raw material for calcium silicate/PVA coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, Farah Atiqah bt Abdul; Shamsudin, Roslinda

    2015-09-01

    Calcium silicate bioceramic was prepared from the rice husk and limestone resources using the sol gel method. The preparations of CaSiO3 formulation were differ from the previous study due CaO/SiO2 amount with 45:55 ratio. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis was carried out to clarify the amount of SiO2 and CaO content in the limestone and rice husk ash. The high amount of CaO was found in the limestone with the percentages of 97.22%, whereby 89% of SiO2 content of the rice husk ash. Several milling time were studied to obtain the optimized milling ti me and speed in progress to obtain nano size particle. The particle size analysis result confirms that increase in milling time does not certainly reduce the size of particle. The addition of 0.05% polyvinyl alcohol as a binder did not change the phases or composition of calcium silicates after examined by X-Ray diffraction analysis which make it suitable to be used as a binder for calcium silicate coating without changing the chemical structure.

  14. Determination of Fatigue Damage in Corrosion-Fatigued Al-2024-T4 and Cycled Ti-6Al-4V Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    specimen (_2 0). To assess the degree of microplasticity induced by corrosion fatigue, it is worth noting that when a monotonic stress of 350 MPa was applied...the morphology of crack forma- tion in corrosion fatigue. Because the maximum stress applied was 276 MPa at this frequency the strain rate of the...process. 49 I 4. In low cycle corrosion fatigue (LCCF), when the largest percentage of life was taken up with crack propagation, the maximum applied stress

  15. Processing, Microstructure, and Tensile Properties of the Ti-6Al-4V-1.55B Eutectic Alloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Several microstructural forms in the as-cast condition as well as their transformation during thermomechanical processing (TMP) were identified. Two...significantly modified via TMP. Fragmentation of TiB occurred during 3D forging and aligned microstructures were produced after rolling or extrusion. An...diameter and 10 mm length were used and a wire W/W- 20Re thermocouple in direct contact with the sample was used to record temperature. Sample

  16. Improved tribological behavior of boron implanted Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, N.P.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    Boron implanted of Ti6Al4V has been conducted at combinations of 32 and 40 keV to supplement that done previously at 75 keV. Shallower boron depth profiles with higher B-concentrations in the Ti64 surface have been obtained by tailoring the combinations of ion energy and dose. This work used three different ion energy and dose combinations of 4 {times} 10{sup 17} B-at/cm{sup 2} at 40 keV plus 2 {times} 10{sup 17} B-at/cm{sup 2} at 32 keV, 4 {times} 10{sup 17} B-at/cm{sup 2} at 40 keV, and 4 {times} 10{sup 17} B-at/cm{sup 2} at 32 keV plus 2 {times} 10{sup 17} B-at/cm{sup 2} at 40 keV. Comparisons are made between Ti6Al4V with a shallow implanted boron depth profile, Ti6Al4V with a deeper boron depth profile and nitrogen implanted using a plasma source ion implantation process. It has been previously shown that while boron implanted Ti64 has a {approximately} 30% higher surface hardness than nitrogen implanted Ti64, the N-implantation reduced the wear coefficient of Ti64 by 25--120x, while B-implantation reduced the wear coefficient by 6.5x or less. The results show that no significant improvement is made in the wear resistance of boron implanted Ti6Al4V by increasing the concentration of boron at the surface from approximately 10% to 43%. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) indicated the formation of crystalline TiB in the implanted surface layer. Shallower depth profiles result in reductions of the Ti6Al4V wear coefficient by 6.5x or less which is the same result obtained earlier with the deeper boron depth profile. Surface hardness of Ti6Al4V with shallower boron depth profiles was improved approximately 10% compared to the results previously acquired with deeper boron depth profiles.

  17. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Welding of Mill-Annealed Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    maximum temperature for the 800 rpm weld. It is noteworthy that during FSW of aluminum alloys, heat loss to the tool as a percentage of heat generated...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Pilchak et al. – DRAFT – Page 2 of 44 1. Introduction Friction stir welding ( FSW ), invented in...of its high success for joining aluminum alloys [2-4]. The process features a non-consumable rotating tool with a probe that is plunged into the

  18. Evaluation of Ti-6Al-4V surface treatments for use with a polyphenylquinoxaline adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Three surface treatments for Ti-6Al-4V adherends were evaluated using a thermoplastic polymer monoether polyphenylquinoxaline, MEPPQ, which had been shown in previous studies to have good potential as a high temperature adhesive for aerospace applications. Initial results based on long term thermal exposure at 232 C (450 F) using the phosphate-fluoride (PF) and chromic acid anodized (CAA) treatments with MEPPQ adhesive were not encouraging. A significant improvement in strength retention and a change in failure mode (cohesive) at 232 C (450F) was found for the SHA treated specimens compared to the PF and CAA treatments. Although an improvement in long term thermal durability was obtained with the SHA treatment of Ti-6Al-4V, an improved surface treatment with better long term durability is still required for aerospace applications.

  19. Reducing Wear of Steel Rolling Against Ti6Al4V Operating in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    This work was motivated by a qualification test of a mechanism for a space telescope. During the test undesired wear debris was formed. In this project alterative materials and coatings were tested with intent to reduce wear and debris when steel has a misaligned rolling contact against Ti6Al4V. Testing was done using a vacuum roller rig mimicking the mechanism's contact conditions. Ten configurations were tested. Most configurations resulted in significant debris. A sputtered 1-micrometer-thick nan-ocomposite molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) film provided the best wear protection. The best configuration made use of the MoS2 coating on both materials, and in preparing for sputtering the anodized Ti6Al4V working surface was smoothed using an ultrasonic process.

  20. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V surfaces texturized by laser engraving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Amador, A.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar Rivero, P.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.; Estupiñán Duran, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    The cell adhesion of the implant is determinate by the chemical composition, topography, wettability, surface energy and biocompatibility of the biomaterial. In this work the interaction between human osteosarcoma HOS cells and textured Ti6Al4V surfaces were evaluated. Ti6Al4V surfaces were textured using a CO2 laser in order to obtain circular spots on the surfaces. Test surfaces were uncoated (C1) used as a control surface, and surfaces with points obtained by laser engraving, with 1mm spacing (C2) and 0.5mm (C3). The HOS cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. No cells toxicity after one month incubation time occurred. The increased cell adhesion and cell spreading was observed after 1, 3 and 5 days without significant differences between the sample surfaces (C2 and C3) and control (uncoated) at the end of the experiment.