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  1. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or...

  2. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... investigations. Restricted Data means all data concerning design, manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or...

  3. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... investigations. Restricted Data means all data concerning design, manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or...

  4. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... investigations. Restricted Data means all data concerning design, manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or...

  5. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... investigations. Restricted Data means all data concerning design, manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or...

  6. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from Agricultural Soils by Wind Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  7. Levels and major sources of PM2.5 and PM10 in Bangkok Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Chuersuwan, Nares; Nimrat, Subuntith; Lekphet, Sukanda; Kerdkumrai, Tida

    2008-07-01

    This research was the first long-term attempt to concurrently measure and identify major sources of both PM(10) and PM(2.5) in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) were evaluated at four monitoring stations and analyzed for elemental compositions, water-soluble ions, and total carbon during February 2002-January 2003. Fifteen chemical elements, four water-soluble ions, and total carbon were analyzed to assist major source identification by a receptor model approach, known as chemical mass balance. PM(10) and PM(2.5) were significantly different (p<0.05) at all sites and 24 h averages were high at traffic location while two separated residential sites were similar. Seasonal difference of PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations was distinct between dry and wet seasons. Major source of PM(10) at the traffic site indicated that automobile emissions and biomass burning-related sources contributed approximately 33% each. Automobiles contributed approximately 39 and 22% of PM(10) mass at two residential sites while biomass burning contributed about 36 and 28%. PM(10) from re-suspended soil and cooking sources accounted for 10 to 15% at a residential site. Major sources of PM(2.5) at traffic site were automobile and biomass burning, contributing approximately 32 and 26%, respectively. Biomass burning was the major source of PM(2.5) mass concentrations at residential sites. Meat cooking also accounted for 31% of PM(2.5) mass at a low impact site. Automobile, biomass burning, and road dust were less significant, contributed 10, 6, and 5%, respectively. Major sources identification at some location had difficulty to achieve performance criteria due to limited source profiles. Improved in characterize other sources profiles will help local authority to better air quality. PMID:18258301

  8. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  9. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 and PM10 in south Phoenix, AZ, USA.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Nabin; Clements, Andrea; Fraser, Matthew; Herckes, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Phoenix, AZ, experiences high particulate matter (PM) episodes, especially in the wintertime. The spatial variation of the PM concentrations and resulting differences in exposure is of particular concern. In this study, PM2.s (PM with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter <10 microm) samples were collected simultaneously from the east and west sides of South Phoenix and at a control site in Tempe and analyzed for trace elements and bulk elemental and organic carbon. Measurements showed that although PM2.5 concentrations had similar trends in temporal scale across all sites, concentrations of PM10 did not. The difference in PM10 concentrations and fluctuation across the three sites suggest effects of a local soil source as evidenced by high concentrations of Al, Ca, and Fe in PM10. K and anthropogenic elements (e.g., Cu, Pb, and Zn) in PM2.5 samples on January 1 were strikingly high, suggesting the influence of New Year's fireworks. Concentrations of toxic elements (e.g., Pb) in the study presented here are not different from similar studies in other U.S. cities. Application of principal component analysis indicated two broad categories of emission sources--soil and combustion--together accounting for 80 and 90% of variance, respectively, in PM2.5 and PM10. The soil and combustion components explained approximately 60 and 30% of the variance in PM10, respectively, whereas combustion sources dominated PM2.5 (>50% variance). Many elements associated with anthropogenic sources were highly enriched, with enrichment factors in PM2.5 an order of magnitude higher than in PM10 relative to surface soil composition in the study area.

  10. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5...

  11. Chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Mexico City during winter 1997.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Edgerton, Sylvia A; Vega, Elizabeth

    2002-03-27

    PM2.5 and PM10 were measured over 24-h intervals at six core sites and at 25 satellite sites in and around Mexico City from 23 February to 22 March 1997. In addition, four 6-h samples were taken each day at three of the core sites. Sampling locations were selected to represent regional, central city, commercial, residential, and industrial portions of the city. Mass and light transmission concentrations were determined on all of the samples, while elements, ions and carbon were measured on approximately two-thirds of the samples. PM10 concentrations were highly variable, with almost three-fold differences between the highest and lowest concentrations. Fugitive dust was the major cause of PM10 differences, although carbon concentrations were also highly variable among the sampling sites. Approximately 50% of PM10 was in the PM2.5 fraction. The majority of PM mass was comprised of carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and crustal components, but in different proportions on different days and at different sites. The largest fine-particle components were carbonaceous aerosols, constituting approximately 50% of PM2.5 mass, followed by approximately 30% secondary inorganic aerosols and approximately 15% geological material. Geological material is the largest component of PM10, constituting approximately 50% of PM10 mass, followed by approximately 32% carbonaceous aerosols and approximately 17% secondary inorganic aerosols. Sulfate concentrations were twice as high as nitrate concentrations. Sulfate and nitrate were present as ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Approximately two-thirds of the ammonium sulfate measured in urban areas appears to have been transported from regions outside of the study domain, rather than formed from emissions in the urban area. Diurnal variations are apparent, with two-fold increases in concentration from night-time to daytime. Morning samples had the highest PM2.5 and PM10 mass, secondary inorganic aerosols and carbon concentrations

  12. A PROBABILISTIC POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PM10 AND PM 2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM10, and PM2.5, exposures of an urban, population has been developed. This model is intended to be used to predict exposure (magnitude, frequency, and duration) ...

  13. PREDICTING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO PM10 AND PM 2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved model for human exposure to particulate matter (PM), specifically PM10 and PM2.5 is under development by the U.S. EPA/NERL. This model will incorporate data from new PM exposure measurement and exposure factors research. It is intended to be used to predict exposure...

  14. The distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol in Baotou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haijun; He, Jiang; Zhao, Boyi; Zhang, Lijun; Fan, Qingyun; Lü, Changwei; Dudagula; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Yinghui

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM), including PM10 and PM2.5, is one of the major impacts on air quality, visibility, climate change, earth radiation balance, and public health. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are the major components of PM. 804 samples (PM10 and PM2.5) were simultaneously collected from six urban sites covering 3 districts in Baotou, in January, April, September, and November 2014. As to a long-term study on the effects of carbonaceous aerosol, data were collected annually at Environmental Protection Agency of Baotou (EPB). The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, the spatial distribution and content of OC and EC, the relationship between OC and EC, and the formation of secondary organic carbon (SOC) have been investigated. The findings indicated that the concentrations of these particle matter are higher than that in US or European standards. The average concentrations of OC in PM10 and PM2.5 follow the order: January > November > April > September; and for EC in PM10 and PM2.5 follow the order: January > November > September > April. Affected by metrological factors, it was indicated that high wind speed and low relative humidity were beneficial for removal of OC and EC in January and November. Pearson correlations and cluster analysis on OC and EC concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 with gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, and CO) suggested that OC shared the same emission sources with SO2 and CO from combustion, while EC's sources mainly came from vehicles exhaust and combustion which contributed to NO2 as well. The OC concentration is mainly primary in warm months, while it appears secondary in cold months in Baotou. There is a common characteristic among the cities with higher SOC in winter, wherever the coal combustion can lead to the severe pollution. This work is important for the construction of the database of OC and EC concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 at spatial and time intervals, and it can provide scientific suggestion for similar PM

  15. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5...

  16. Intraurban variability of PM10 and PM2.5 in an Eastern Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Rawad; Shihadeh, Alan. L.; Roumié, Mohamed; Youness, Myriam; Gerard, Jocelyne; Saliba, Nada; Zaarour, Rita; Abboud, Maher; Farah, Wehbeh; Saliba, Najat Aoun

    2011-09-01

    The results of the first large scale chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 at three different sites in the urban city of Beirut, Lebanon, are presented. Between May 2009 and April 2010 a total of 304 PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected by sampling every sixth day at three different sites in Beirut. Observed mass concentrations varied between 19.7 and 521.2 μg m - 3 for PM10 and between 8.4 and 72.2 μg m - 3 for PM2.5, respectively. Inorganic concentrations accounted for 29.7-35.6 μg m - 3 and 46.0-53.5 μg m - 3 of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Intra-city temporal and spatial variations were assessed based on the study of three factors: correlation coefficients (R) for PM and chemical components, coefficient of divergence (CODs), and source apportionment using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Based on R and COD of PM concentrations, the three sites appear homogeneous. However, when individual elements were compared, heterogeneity among sites was found. This latter was attributed to the variability in the percent contribution of biogenic and local anthropogenic source factors such as traffic related sources and dust resuspension. Other factors included the proximity to the Mediterranean sea, the population density and the topographical structure of the city. Hence, despite its small size (20.8 km 2), one PM monitoring site does not reflect an accurate PM level in Beirut.

  17. Modeling the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the PM10-PM2.5 relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Huang, Bo; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores the spatio-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) in Taiwan based on a series of methods. Using fuzzy c-means clustering first, the spatial heterogeneity (six clusters) in the PM data collected between 2005 and 2009 in Taiwan are identified and the industrial and urban areas of Taiwan (southwestern, west central, northwestern, and northern Taiwan) are found to have high PM concentrations. The PM10-PM2.5 relationship is then modeled with global ordinary least squares regression, geographically weighted regression (GWR), and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR). The GTWR and GWR produce consistent results; however, GTWR provides more detailed information of spatio-temporal variations of the PM10-PM2.5 relationship. The results also show that GTWR provides a relatively high goodness of fit and sufficient space-time explanatory power. In particular, the PM2.5 or PM10 varies with time and space, depending on weather conditions and the spatial distribution of land use and emission patterns in local areas. Such information can be used to determine patterns of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in PM that will allow the control of pollutants and the reduction of public exposure.

  18. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  19. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC + OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  20. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl‑, NO3‑, SO4‑), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC + OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  1. Gravimetric and chemical features of airborne PM 10 AND PM 2.5 in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M C; Farinha, M M; Ventura, M G; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Pacheco, A M G

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes concentration amounts of arsenic (As), particulate mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in PM(10) and PM(2.5), collected since 1993 by the Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN) at different locations in mainland Portugal, featuring urban, industrial and rural environments, and a control as well. Most results were obtained in the vicinity of coal- and oil-fired power plants. Airborne mass concentrations were determined by gravimetry. As and Hg concentrations were obtained through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and Ni and Pb concentrations through proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Comparison with the EU (European Union) and the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) directives for Ambient Air has been carried out, even though the sampling protocols herein--set within the framework of ITN's R&D projects and/or monitoring contracts--were not consistent with the former regulations. Taking this into account, 1) the EU daily limit for PM(10) was exceeded a few times in all sites except the control, even if the number of times was still inferior to the allowed one; 2) the EU annual mean for PM(10) was exceeded at one site; 3) the EPA daily limit for PM(2.5) was exceeded one time at three sites; 4) the EPA annual mean for PM(2.5) was exceeded at most sites; 5) the inner-Lisbon site approached or exceeded the legislated PMs; 6) Pb levels stayed far below the EU limit value; and 7) concentrations of As, Ni and Hg were also far less than the reference values adopted by EU. In every location, Ni appeared more concentrated in PM(2.5) than in coarser particles, and its levels were not that different from site to site, excluding the control. The highest As and Hg concentrations were found in the neighbourhood of the coal-fired, utility power plants. The results may be viewed as a "worst-case scenario" of atmospheric pollution, since they have been obtained in busy urban-industrial areas and/or near major power

  2. PM 2.5 and PM 10: The influence of sugarcane burning on potential cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Flavio S.; Cristale, Joyce; André, Paulo A.; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Marchi, Mary R. R.

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil, sugarcane fields are often burned to facilitate manual harvesting, and this burning causes environmental pollution from the large amounts of soot released into the atmosphere. This material contains numerous organic compounds such as PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of PAHs in two particulate-matter fractions (PM 2.5 and PM 10) in the city of Araraquara (SE Brazil, with around 200,000 inhabitants and surrounded by sugarcane plantations) were determined during the sugarcane harvest (HV) and non-harvest (NHV) seasons in 2008 and 2009. The sampling strategy included four campaigns, with 60 samples in the NHV season and 220 samples in the HV season. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions were collected using a dichotomous sampler (10 L min -1, 24 h) with Teflon™ filters. The filter sets were extracted (ultrasonic bath with hexane/acetone (1:1 v/v)) and analyzed by HPLC/Fluorescence. The median concentration for total PAHs (PM 2.5 in 2009) was 0.99 ng m -3 (NHV) and 3.3 ng m -3 (HV). In the HV season, the total concentration of carcinogenic PAHs (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene) was 5 times higher than in the NHV season. B(a)P median concentrations were 0.017 ng m -3 and 0.12 ng m -3 for the NHV and HV seasons, respectively. The potential cancer risk associated with exposure through inhalation of these compounds was estimated based on the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence (BaP eq), where the overall toxicity of a PAH mixture is defined by the concentration of each compound multiplied by its relative toxic equivalence factor (TEF). BaP eq median (2008 and 2009 years) ranged between 0.65 and 1.0 ng m -3 and 1.2-1.4 ng m -3 for the NHV and HV seasons, respectively. Considering that the maximum permissible BaP eq in ambient air is 1 ng m -3, related to the increased carcinogenic risk, our data suggest that the level of human exposure to PAHs in cities surrounded by sugarcane crops where the burning process is used

  3. Residential indoor PM 10 and PM 2.5 in Hong Kong and the elemental composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Christopher Y.; Wong, Kelvin K.

    Indoor air particulate samples were collected in 34 homes and their adjacent outdoor environments in Hong Kong during the fall and winter seasons. It was found that the mean indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were 45.0 and 63.3 μg m -3, respectively. The corresponding mean outdoor levels were 47.0 and 69.5 μg m -3, respectively. The indoor particulate levels were found to be about 2-4 times higher than those in the homes in western countries where most are located in suburb areas with a much better ambient air quality. Pearson paired t-tests were conducted on the data and it was found that poor correlation was seen in the indoor and the outdoor particulate concentrations. This was probably due to the fact that windows were closed more often in the fall and winter seasons keeping the ventilation rate low, plus the factor that window type air conditioners were used commonly in Hong Kong, which again, constituted to a low air change rate. Both the indoor and the outdoor elemental compositions of the particulate samples collected in these 34 homes were identified by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis. Seventeen elements were identified. The mean inorganic elemental compositions in the indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were 6.4 and 10.2 μg m -3, respectively while those in the outdoor samples were 7.9 and 14.1 μg m -3, respectively. Enrichment factor analysis was performed and it was noted that those species existing in fine mode were highly enriched (bromine, lead, nickel, potassium, sulfur, vanadium and zinc) while those species existing in the coarse mode had their enrichment factors close to 1 (aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, silicon, sodium and titanium).

  4. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and coarse PM with 2.5 < da < 10 microm (PM2.5-10) were collected using dichotomous samplers. The inhalable particle fraction, PM10, was determined as the sum of fine and coarse concentrations. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured continuously. Average concentrations of PM2.5 for the 1989-2001 period ranged from 38.5 microg/m3 to 53 microg/m3. For PM2.5-10 levels ranged from 35.8-48.2 microg/m3 and for PM10 results were 74.4-101.2 microg/m3 across the four sites. Both annual and daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration levels exceeded the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  5. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for...

  6. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for...

  7. Global emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 from agricultural tillage and harvesting operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil particles emitted during agricultural activities is a major recurring source contributing to atmospheric aerosol loading. Emission inventories of agricultural dust emissions have been compiled in several regions. These inventories, compiled based on historic survey and activity data, may reflect the current emission strengths that introduce large uncertainties when they are used to drive chemical transport models. In addition, there is no global emission inventory of agricultural dust emissions required to support global air quality and climate modeling. In this study, we present our recent efforts to develop a global emission inventory of PM10 and PM2.5 released from field tillage and harvesting operations using an emission factors-based approach. Both major crops (e.g., wheat and corn) and forage production were considered. For each crop or forage, information of crop area, crop calendar, farming activities and emission factors of specified operations were assembled. The key issue of inventory compilation is the choice of suitable emission factors for specified operations over different parts of the world. Through careful review of published emission factors, we modified the traditional emission factor-based model by multiplying correction coefficient factors to reflect the relationship between emission factors, soil texture, and climate conditions. Then, the temporal (i.e., monthly) and spatial (i.e., 0.5º resolution) distribution of agricultural PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from each and all operations were estimated for each crop or forage. Finally, the emissions from individual crops were aggregated to assemble a global inventory from agricultural operations. The inventory was verified by comparing the new data with the existing agricultural fugitive dust inventory in North America and Europe, as well as satellite observations of anthropogenic agricultural dust emissions.

  8. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA...

  9. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA...

  10. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.51.0) and Coarse (PM102.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.51.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.51.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM102.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM102.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM102.5 than PM2.51.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM102.5 than in PM2.51.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.51.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  11. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PMID:24634602

  12. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

  14. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  15. [Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in mountain background region of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Liu, Xin-Dong; Tao, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The online PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured from March 2011 'to February 2012 at the national atmospheric background monitoring station in Wuyishan of Fujian Province to discuss the characteristic of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and the impact factors in forest and mountain background region of East China. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model was used to investigate the potential sources of particulates during the pollution episodes. The results showed that the background concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were (23 +/- 16) microg.m-3 and (18 +/- 12) microg.m-3, respectively. Seasonal variations of PMl0 and PM2.5 loadings were observed, and loadings decreased in the same order: spring > autumn > winter > summer. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were obviously higher in spring than in other seasons because of the transportation of dust storm. The fine particles were the dominant pollutant which accounted for 76% of PM10. The good correlation between PM10/PM2.5 and gas pollutants suggested that regional transportation and secondary aerosol were the major sources in the background station. One episode occurring in April 2011 was related with the transportation of dust storm. However, another episode occurring in September 2011 had close relationship with the transportation of higher pollutant loadings in East China. PMID:23668109

  16. [Spatial-temporal variations of extractable organic matter in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue-Ling; Liu, Da-Meng; Yuan, Yang-Sen; Che, Rui-Jun

    2009-02-15

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in parallel in different function zones of Beijing during four seasons of 2005. The pollution level, distribution characteristics of the extractable organic matter (EOM) and relationship between EOM (PM10) and EOM (PM2.5) were illustrated. The results show that: the annual mean concentrations of organic compound in PM10 and PM2.5 are 41.39 microg/m3 and 34.84 microg/m3, being 1.44 times and 1.26 times higher than Ming Tombs site. The concentrations of EOM in winter are 67.04 microg/m3 (PM10) and 64.64 microg/m3 (PM2.5), which are 1.15 and 1.82 times, 2.06 and 2.26 times, 4.53 and 6.26 times higher than that in spring, autumn, summer, respectively. Ratios of EOM in PM2.5 to that in PM10 in different seasons exceed 0.60. In different function zones the concentrations of EOM present industrial and commercial zones > living, traffic and contrast zones. The influence of EOM (PM2.5) on EOM (PM10) in different districts are various. The order of annual concentrations of organic compositions is non-hydrocarbons > asphaltenes > aromatics > saturated hydrocarbon. The seasonal emissions of pollution sources play an important role in seasonality of compositions of EOM. PMID:19402477

  17. [Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in mountain background region of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Liu, Xin-Dong; Tao, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The online PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured from March 2011 'to February 2012 at the national atmospheric background monitoring station in Wuyishan of Fujian Province to discuss the characteristic of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and the impact factors in forest and mountain background region of East China. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model was used to investigate the potential sources of particulates during the pollution episodes. The results showed that the background concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were (23 +/- 16) microg.m-3 and (18 +/- 12) microg.m-3, respectively. Seasonal variations of PMl0 and PM2.5 loadings were observed, and loadings decreased in the same order: spring > autumn > winter > summer. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were obviously higher in spring than in other seasons because of the transportation of dust storm. The fine particles were the dominant pollutant which accounted for 76% of PM10. The good correlation between PM10/PM2.5 and gas pollutants suggested that regional transportation and secondary aerosol were the major sources in the background station. One episode occurring in April 2011 was related with the transportation of dust storm. However, another episode occurring in September 2011 had close relationship with the transportation of higher pollutant loadings in East China.

  18. Contamination characteristics and possible sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in different functional areas of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Zimei; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2013-04-01

    From July 2009 through September 2010, PM10 and PM2.5 were collected at two different functional areas in Shanghai (Baoshan district, an industrial area, and Putuo district, a mixed-use area of residential, commercial, and educational compounds). In our analysis, 15 elements were determined using a 710-ES Inductively Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The contents of PM2.5, PM10, and metal elements at the two different sites were comparatively analyzed. The results show that the mean annual concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 (149.22 μg m-3 and 103.07 μg m-3, respectively) in Baoshan district were significantly higher than those in Putuo district (97.44 μg m-3 and 62.25 μg m-3 respectively). The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were both greatest in winter and lowest in summer, with the two different sites exhibiting the same seasonal variation. It was found that the proportions of 15 metal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 in Baoshan district were 20.49% and 20.56%, respectively, while the proportions in Putuo district were higher (25.98% and 25.93%, respectively). In addition, the proportions of eight heavy metals in PM10 and PM2.5 were 5.50% and 3.07%, respectively, for Baoshan district, while these proportions in Putuo district were 3.18% and 2.77%, respectively, indicating that heavy metal pollution is more pronounced in Baoshan district. Compared with cities in developed countries, the total levels of PM10, PM2.5 and heavy metals in Shanghai were slightly higher. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the possible sources of PM10 in Baoshan district were ground level fugitive dust, traffic sources, and industrial activities, whereas PM2.5 mainly originated from industrial activities, coal combustion, and traffic sources. The sources are same for PM10 and PM2.5 in Putuo region, which originate from traffic sources and ground level fugitive dust.

  19. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  20. Characterization and Cytotoxicity of PM<0.2, PM0.2–2.5 and PM2.510 around MSWI in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingling; Zeng, Jianrong; Liu, Ke; Bao, Liangman; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), which is an anthropogenic source of aerosol emissions, is of great public health concern. This study investigated the characterization and cytotoxic effects of ambient ultrafine particles (PM<0.2), fine particles (PM0.2–2.5) and coarse particles (PM2.510) collected around a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant in the Pudong district of Shanghai. Methods: Mass concentrations of trace elements in particulate matter (PM) samples were determined using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The cytotoxicity of sampled atmospheric PM was evaluated by cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in A549 cells. Result: The mass percentage of PM0.2–2.5 accounted for 72.91% of the total mass of PM. Crustal metals (Mg, Al, and Ti) were abundant in the coarse particles, while the anthropogenic elements (V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) were dominant in the fine particles. The enrichment factors of Zn, Cd and Pb in the fine and ultrafine particles were extremely high (>100). The cytotoxicity of the size-resolved particles was in the order of coarse particles < fine particles < ultrafine particles. Conclusions: Fine particles dominated the MSWI ambient particles. Emissions from the MSWI could bring contamination of anthropogenic elements (Zn, Cd and Pb) into ambient environment. The PM around the MSWI plant displayed an additive toxic effect, and the ultrafine and fine particles possessed higher biological toxicity than the coarse particles. PMID:25985309

  1. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas; Hannigan, Michael P.; Miller, Shelly L.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Milford, Jana B.

    2016-06-01

    Coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10-2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study measured PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM) in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10-2.5), from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10-2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10-2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m-3 and mean PM10-2.5 / PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10-2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10-2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10-2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10-2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s-1. Little wind speed dependence was observed for the residential sites in Denver and Greeley. The mass

  2. Concentrations and emission factors for PM2.5 and PM10 from road traffic in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferm, Martin; Sjöberg, Karin

    2015-10-01

    PM10 concentrations exceed the guidelines in some Swedish cities and the limit values will likely be further reduced in the future. In order to gain more knowledge of emission factors for road traffic and concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, existing monitoring stations in two cities, Gothenburg and Umeå, with international E-road thoroughfares, were complemented with some PM2.5 measurements. Emission factors for PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated using NOX as a tracer. Monitoring data from kerbside and urban background sites in Gothenburg during 2006-2010 and in Umeå during 2006-2012 were used. NOX emissions were estimated from the traffic flow and emission factors calculated from the HBEFA3.1 model. PM2.5 constitutes the finer part of PM10. Emissions of the coarser part of PM10 (PM10-PM2.5) are suppressed when roads are wet and show a maximum during spring when the roads dry up and studded tyres are still used. Less than 1% of the road wear caused by studded tyres give rise to airborne PM2.5-10 particles. The NOX emission factors decrease with time in the used model, due to the renewal of the vehicle fleet. However, the NOX concentrations resulting from the roads show no clear trend. The air dispersion is an important factor controlling the PM concentration near the road. The dispersion has a minimum in winter and during midnight. The average street level concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Gothenburg were 21 ± 20 and 8 ± 6 μg m-3 respectively, which is 36% and 22% higher than the urban background concentrations. Despite the four times lower traffic flow in Umeå compared to Gothenburg, the average particle concentrations were very similar; 21 ± 31 and 7 ± 5 μg m-3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. These concentrations were, however, 108% and 55% higher than the urban background concentrations in Umeå. The emission factors for PM10 decreased with time, and the average factor was 0.06 g km-1 vehichle-1. The emission factors for PM2.5 are very uncertain due to the

  3. Bioaccessibility of selected trace metals in urban PM2.5 and PM10 samples: a model study.

    PubMed

    Falta, Thomas; Limbeck, Andreas; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2008-02-01

    Bioaccessibility of trace metals originating from urban particulate matter was assessed in a worst case scenario to evaluate the uptake and thus the hazardous potential of these metals via gastric juice. Sampling was performed over a period of about two months at the Getreidemarkt in downtown Vienna. Concentrations of the assayed trace metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb) were determined in PM2.5 and PM10 samples by ICP-MS. The metal concentrations in sampled air were in the low picogram to high nanogram per cubic metre range. The concentrations in PM2.5 samples were generally lower than those in PM10 samples. The average daily intake of these metals by inhalation for a healthy adult was estimated to be in the range of <1 ng (Tl) to >1,000 ng (Zn). To estimate the accessibility of the inhaled and subsequently ingested metals (i.e. after lung clearance had taken place) in the size range from 2.5- to 10-microm aerodynamic equivalent diameter, a batch-extraction with synthetic gastric juice was performed. The data were used to calculate the bioaccessibility of the investigated trace metals. Extractable fractions ranged from 2.10% (Ti in PM2.5) to 91.0% (Cd in PM2.5), thus yielding bioaccessible fractions (PM(2.5-10)) from 0.16 ng (Ag) to 178 ng (Cu).

  4. Dust monitoring on the Hanford Site: An investigation into the relationship between TSP, PM-10 and PM-2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Tara L.; Fritz, Brad G.

    2004-12-01

    Samples were collected to determine TSP concentration in air on the central plateau of the Hanford Site. These were compared to PM-10 and PM-2.5 data collected over the same time period. Results provide a means to estimate TSP concentration based on PM-10 concentration.

  5. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05). PMID:18036738

  6. Understanding intra-neighborhood patterns in PM2.5 and PM10 using mobile monitoring in Braddock, PA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Braddock, Pennsylvania is home to the Edgar Thomson Steel Works (ETSW), one of the few remaining active steel mills in the Pittsburgh region. An economically distressed area, Braddock exceeds average annual (>15 μg/m3) and daily (>35 μg/m3) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods A mobile air monitoring study was designed and implemented in morning and afternoon hours in the summer and winter (2010–2011) to explore the within-neighborhood spatial and temporal (within-day and between-day) variability in PM2.5 and PM10. Results Both pollutants displayed spatial variation between stops, and substantial temporal variation within and across study days. For summer morning sampling runs, site-specific mean PM2.5 ranged from 30.0 (SD = 3.3) to 55.1 (SD = 13.0) μg/m3. Mean PM10 ranged from 30.4 (SD = 2.5) to 69.7 (SD = 51.2) μg/m3, respectively. During summer months, afternoon concentrations were significantly lower than morning for both PM2.5 and PM10, potentially owing to morning subsidence inversions. Winter concentrations were lower than summer, on average, and showed lesser diurnal variation. Temperature, wind speed, and wind direction predicted significant variability in PM2.5 and PM10 in multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Data reveals significant morning versus afternoon variability and spatial variability in both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations within Braddock. Information obtained on peak concentration periods, and the combined effects of industry, traffic, and elevation in this region informed the design of a larger stationary monitoring network. PMID:23051204

  7. Wintertime PM 2.5 and PM 10 carbonaceous and inorganic constituents from urban site in western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengarajan, R.; Sudheer, A. K.; Sarin, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Daily variability in the chemical composition of atmospheric PM 2.5 and PM 10 has been studied from an urban site (Ahmedabad) in western India over a span of 30 days during winter. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 32 to 106 μg m - 3 and 121 to 327 μg m - 3 , respectively. On average, PM 2.5 constitutes ~ 33% of PM 10, indicating dominance of coarse mode aerosols in the urban atmosphere. The particulate EC and OC show higher abundances in PM 2.5 (average: 3.0 ± 0.9 and 18.3 ± 5.9 μg m - 3 respectively) whereas those in PM 10 are 4.4 ± 2.4 and 29.8 ± 11.2 μg m - 3 respectively. A linear increasing trend and representative OC/EC ratio of 6.2 indicate their primary source from biomass burning emissions. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC: 4.0-14.7 μg m - 3 ) and its linear relationship with K + (0.6-1.7 μg m - 3 ) in PM 2.5 further support biomass burning emissions as a dominant source for carbonaceous aerosol. Among water-soluble inorganic species, SO 42- is the most abundant (range: 3.2-22.5 μg m - 3 ); almost all of it occurs in fine mode (PM 2.5) and exhibits near-quantitative neutralization with NH 4+ (r = 0.98, slope: 1.3). The water-soluble Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ mainly abundant in the coarse mode, suggest significant contribution from mineral dust. Documenting large temporal variability in the chemical composition of coarse and fine mode aerosol is essential in order to assess the changing regional emission scenario over mega-cities and their down-wind transport.

  8. Trends in arsenic levels in PM10 and PM 2.5 aerosol fractions in an industrialized area.

    PubMed

    García-Aleix, J R; Delgado-Saborit, J M; Verdú-Martín, G; Amigó-Descarrega, J M; Esteve-Cano, V

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that affects human health and is widely distributed in the environment. In the area of study, the main Spanish and second largest European industrial ceramic cluster, the main source of arsenic aerosol is related to the impurities in some boracic minerals used in the ceramic process. Epidemiological studies on cancer occurrence in Spain points out the study region as one with the greater risk of cancer. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic content in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured and characterized by ICP-MS in the area of study during the years 2005-2010. Concentrations of PM10 and its arsenic content range from 27 to 46 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 6 ng/m(3) in the industrial area, respectively, and from 25 to 40 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 2.8 ng/m(3) in the urban area, respectively. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its arsenic content range from 12 to 14 μg/m(3) and from 0.5 to 1.4 ng/m(3) in the urban background area, respectively. Most of the arsenic content is present in the fine fraction, with ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the range of 0.65-0.87. PM10, PM2.5, and its arsenic content show a sharp decrease in recent years associated with the economic downturn, which severely hit the production of ceramic materials in the area under study. The sharp production decrease due to the economic crisis combined with several technological improvements in recent years such as substitution of boron, which contains As impurities as raw material, have reduced the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and As in air to an extent that currently meets the existing European regulations.

  9. Influence of tobacco smoke on carcinogenic PAH composition in indoor PM 10 and PM 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, K.; Castro, D.; Pereira, M. C.; Morais, S.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), have a direct impact on human population. Consequently, there is a widespread interest in analysing and evaluating the exposure to PAH in different indoor environments, influenced by different emission sources. The information on indoor PAH is still limited, mainly in terms of PAH distribution in indoor particles of different sizes; thus, this study evaluated the influence of tobacco smoke on PM 10 and PM 2.5 characteristics, namely on their PAH compositions, with further aim to understand the negative impact of tobacco smoke on human health. Samples were collected at one site influenced by tobacco smoke and at one reference (non-smoking) site using low-volume samplers; the analyses of 17 PAH were performed by Microwave Assisted Extraction combined with Liquid Chromatography (MAE-LC). At the site influenced by tobacco smoke PM concentrations were higher 650% for PM 10, and 720% for PM 2.5. When influenced by smoking, 4 ring PAH (fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene) were the most abundant PAH, with concentrations 4600-21 000% and 5100-20 800% higher than at the reference site for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, accounting for 49% of total PAH (Σ PAH). Higher molecular weight PAH (5-6 rings) reached concentrations 300-1300% and 140-1700% higher for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, at the site influenced by tobacco smoke. Considering 9 carcinogenic PAH this increase was 780% and 760% in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, indicating the strong potential risk for human health. As different composition profiles of PAH in indoor PM were obtained for reference and smoking sites, those 9 carcinogens represented at the reference site 84% and 86% of Σ PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, and at the smoking site 56% and 55% of Σ PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. All PAH (including the carcinogenic ones) were mainly present in fine particles, which corresponds to a strong risk

  10. PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Koçak, M; Mihalopoulos, N; Tutsak, E; Theodosi, C; Zarmpas, P; Kalegeri, P

    2015-11-01

    Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between April 2009 and July 2010 at a rural site (Sinop) situated on the coast of the Central Black Sea. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 23.2 ± 16.7 and 9.8 ± 6.9 μg m(-3), respectively. Coarse and fine filters were analyzed for Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), C2O4(2-), PO4(3-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) by using ion chromatography. Elemental and organic carbon content in bulk quartz filters were also analyzed. The highest PM2.5 contribution to PM10 was found in summer with a value of 0.54 due to enhanced secondary aerosols in relation to photochemistry. Cl(-), Na(+), and Mg(2+) illustrated their higher concentrations and variability during winter. Chlorine depletion was chiefly attributed to nitrate. Higher nssCa(2+) concentrations were ascribed to episodic mineral dust intrusions from North Africa into the region. Crustal material (31%) and sea salt (13%) were found to be accounted for the majority of the PM10. The ionic mass (IM), particulate organic matter (POM), and elemental carbon (EC) explained 13, 20, and 3% of the PM10 mass, correspondingly. The IM, POM, and EC dominated the PM2.5 (~74%) mass. Regarding EU legislation, the exceeded PM2.5 values were found to be associated with secondary aerosols, with a particular dominance of POM. For the exceeded PM10 values, six of the events were dominated by dust while two and four of these exceedances were caused by sea salt and mix events, respectively. PMID:26174981

  11. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  12. The empirical correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and AOD in the Beijing metropolitan region and the PM2.5, PM10 distributions retrieved by MODIS.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingbin; Xin, Jinyuan; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-09-01

    We observed PM2.5, PM10 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and Ångström exponents (α) in three typical stations, the Beijing city, the Xianghe suburban and the Xinglong background station in the Beijing metropolitan region, from 2009 to 2010, synchronously. The annual means of PM2.5 (PM10) were 62 ± 45 (130 ± 88) μg m(-3) and 79 ± 61 (142 ± 96) μg m(-3) in the city and suburban region, which were much higher than the regional background (PM2.5: 36 ± 29 μg m(-3)). The annual means of AOD were 0.53 ± 0.47 and 0.54 ± 0.46 and 0.24 ± 0.22 in the city, suburban and the background region, respectively. The annual means of Ångström exponents were 1.11 ± 0.31, 1.09 ± 0.31 and 1.02 ± 0.31 in three typical stations. Meanwhile, the rates of PM2.5 accounting for PM10 were 44%-54% and 46%-70% in the city and suburban region during four seasons. The pollution of fine particulate was more serious in winter than other seasons. The linear regression functions of PM2.5 (y) and ground-observed AOD (x) were similarly with high correlation coefficient in the three typical areas, which were y = 74x + 18 (R(2) = 0.58, N = 337, in the City), y = 80x + 25 (R(2) = 0.55, N = 306, in the suburban) and y = 87x + 9 (R(2) = 0.64, N = 350, in the background). The functions of PM10 (y) and ground-observed AOD (x) were y = 112x + 57 (R(2) = 0.54, N = 337, in the city) and y = 114x + 68 (R(2) = 0.47, N = 304, in the suburban). But the functions had large differences in four seasons. The correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and MODIS AOD were similar with the correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and the ground-observed AOD. With MODIS C6 AOD, the distributions of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were retrieved by the seasonal functions. The absolute retrieval errors of seasonal PM2.5 distribution were less than 5 μg m(-3) in the pollutant city and suburb, and less than 7 μg m(-3) in the clean background. PMID

  13. Spatial and temporal variations in airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) across Spain 1999-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Viana, M. M.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Artiñano, B.; Salvador, P.; Sánchez, M.; Garcia Dos Santos, S.; Herce Garraleta, M. D.; Fernandez-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Palomo-Marín, R.; Pinilla-Gil, E.; Cuevas, E.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.

    Average ranges of particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) concentrations and chemical composition in Spain show significant variations across the country, with current PM 10 levels at several industrial and traffic hotspots exceeding recommended pollution limits. Such variations and exceedances are linked to patterns of anthropogenic and natural PM emissions, climate, and reactivity/stability of particulate species. PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations reach 14-22 μg PM 10 m -3 and 8-12 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at most rural/regional background sites, 25-30 μg PM 10 m -3 and 15-20μg PM 2.5 m -3 at suburban sites, 30-46 μg PM 10 m -3 and 20-30 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at urban background and industrial sites, and 46-50 μg PM 10 m -3 and 30-35 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at heavy traffic hotpots. Spatial distributions show sulphate and carbon particle levels reach maxima in industrialised areas and large cities (where traffic emissions are higher), and nitrate levels increase from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (independent of the regional NO x emissions). African dust outbreaks have an influence on the number of exceedances of the daily limit value, but its additional load on the mean annual PM 10 levels is only highly significant in Southern Iberia and Canary and Balearic islands. The marine aerosol contribution is near one order of magnitude higher in the Canaries compared to the other regions. Important temporal influences include PM intrusion events from Africa (more abundant in February-March and spring-summer), regional-scale pollution episodes, and weekday versus weekend activity. Higher summer insolation enhances (NH 4) 2SO 4 but depletes particulate NO 3- (as a consequence of the thermal instability of ammonium nitrate in summer) and Cl - (due to HCl volatilisation resulting from the interaction of gaseous HNO 3 with the marine NaCl), as well as generally increasing dry dust resuspension under a semi-arid climate. Average trace metal concentrations rise with the highest levels at

  14. Maternal exposure to air pollutant PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhao, Jinzhu; Qian, Zhengmin; Bassig, Bryan A; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Yiming; Hu, Ke; Xu, Shunqing; Zheng, Tongzhang; Yang, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has increasingly been linked to congenital heart defects (CHDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 are related to increased risk of CHDs in Wuhan, China. We conducted a cohort study with a total of 105,988 live-born infants, stillbirths, and fetal deaths. The study included mothers living in the urban district of Wuhan during pregnancy over the 2-year period from 10 June 2011 to 9 June 2013. For each study participant, we assigned 1-month and 1-week averages of PM10 and PM2.5 exposure based on measurements obtained from the nearest exposure monitor to the living residence of mothers during their early pregnancy period. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between exposure to these ambient air pollutants during early pregnancy and CHDs. We observed an increased risk of CHDs, particularly ventricular septal defect (VSD), with increasing PM2.5 exposure. Using 1-week averages, we also observed significant monotonically increasing associations between PM2.5 exposure during weeks 7–10 of pregnancy and risk of VSD, with aORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02–1.20, 1.03–1.22, 1.05–1.24, and 1.08–1.26 separately) per a 10 μg/m3 change in PM2.5 concentration. Our study contributes to the small body of knowledge regarding the association between in utero exposure to air pollution and CHDs, but confirmation of these associations will be needed in future studies. PMID:26883477

  15. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  16. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  17. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variations in PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 in the Seoul Metropolitan Area between 2002 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Jung, K.; Kang, M.

    2010-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM; PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations at ambient air monitoring stations located in Seoul between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed. In Korea, PM10 is regulated as a criteria pollutant and thus is monitored as a part of the urban ambient air pollution monitoring network. PM2.5 is currently not a criteria pollutant but will be soon designated as a criteria pollutant. The hourly-average PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using the beta-ray absorption method. In this study, data from 14 stations with consistent measurements during the study period were used. As in other major cities, primary factors determining the PM concentrations in Seoul are vehicle emissions (including emissions from other combustion sources) and secondary formation. However, in Seoul, fugitive dust comprising crustal elements accounts for a large proportion of total PM, especially coarse particles (PM10-2.5). During the past several years, the Korean Government as well as the City Government has strived to lessen the PM pollution in Seoul and its satellite cities. Temporal and spatial variations in fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10-2.5) were analyzed to discern behaviors according to the particle size of fugitive dust. Variations in annual averages were examined to assess the effects of policy on PM levels. The influence of fugitive dust was found to be high in the springtime due to low relative humidity and high wind speed, even excluding the Asian dust events. In contrast, PM levels are affected primarily by combustion-related emissions in winter and active secondary formation in later spring and fall. Typical seasonal characteristics and diurnal variations were also explored based on data for high PM2.5 days only. Spatial variability of PM and PM10-2.5 were examined on both all and high PM2.5 days and compared with those of other pollutants.

  19. 40 CFR 53.34 - Test procedure for methods for PM10 and Class I methods for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Class I methods for PM2.5. 53.34 Section 53.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... for PM10 and Class I methods for PM2.5. (a) Comparability. Comparability is shown for PM10 methods and for Class I methods for PM2.5 when the relationship between: (1) Measurements made by a...

  20. Fine (PM2.5), coarse (PM2.5-10), and metallic elements of suspended particulates for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Pi-Cheng Fu, Peter; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2003-06-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple (120 degrees, 34('), 10(") E; 24 degrees, 16('), 12(") N) in this study. This is representative of incense burning and semi-open sampling sites. The Universal-sampler collected fine and coarse particle material was used to measure suspended particulate concentrations, and sampling periods were from 16/08/2001 to 2/1/2002 at Tzu Yun Yen temple. In addition, metallic element concentrations, compositions of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple were also analyzed in this study. The PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios ranged between 31% and 87% and averaged 70+/-11% during incense the burning period, respectively. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Mn>Ni>Cu in fine particles (PM(2.5)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cd>Ni>Mn>Cu in coarse particle (PM(2.5-10)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. Fine particulates (PM(2.5)) are the main portion of PM(10) at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. From the point of view of PM(10), these data reflect that the elements Fe, Zn, and Cr were the major elements distributed at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study.

  1. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...% 2 15% 2 Slope of regression relationship 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.05 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.12 Intercept of regression relationship, µg/m3 0 ± 5 0 ± 1 Between: 13.55 − (15.05 × slope), but not less than −1.5; and 16.56 − (15.05 × slope), but not more than +1.5 Between: 15.05 − (17.32 × slope), but...

  2. Proceedings of the National Technological Literacy Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 2-5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W., Ed.; Cheek, Kim A., Ed.

    This collection of 20 papers represents the work of 24 authors with a variety of perspectives on the growth of the science, technology and society movement in the United States in the past 10 years. These essays are seen as a representative sample of the work of the movement. Divided into four sections, Section 1, "General Science, Technology and…

  3. High T(c) electron doped Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 and Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 superconductors with skutterudite intermediary layers.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ni; Allred, Jared M; Chan, Benny C; Cava, Robert Joseph

    2011-11-01

    It has been argued that the very high transition temperatures of the highest T(c) cuprate superconductors are facilitated by enhanced CuO(2) plane coupling through heavy metal oxide intermediary layers. Whether enhanced coupling through intermediary layers can also influence T(c) in the new high T(c) iron arsenide superconductors has never been tested due the lack of appropriate systems for study. Here we report the crystal structures and properties of two iron arsenide superconductors, Ca(10)(Pt(3)As(8))(Fe(2)As(2))(5) (the "10-3-8 phase") and Ca(10)(Pt(4)As(8))(Fe(2)As(2))(5) (the "10-4-8 phase"). Based on -Ca-(Pt(n)As(8))-Ca-Fe(2)As(2)- layer stacking, these are very similar compounds for which the most important differences lie in the structural and electronic characteristics of the intermediary platinum arsenide layers. Electron doping through partial substitution of Pt for Fe in the FeAs layers leads to T(c) of 11 K in the 10-3-8 phase and 26 K in the 10-4-8 phase. The often-cited empirical rule in the arsenide superconductor literature relating T(c) to As-Fe-As bond angles does not explain the observed differences in T(c) of the two phases; rather, comparison suggests the presence of stronger FeAs interlayer coupling in the 10-4-8 phase arising from the two-channel interlayer interactions and the metallic nature of its intermediary Pt(4)As(8) layer. The interlayer coupling is thus revealed as important in enhancing T(c) in the iron pnictide superconductors.

  4. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (~2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of “fluctuation” range (~1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (~2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. PMID:24035819

  5. Emissions inventory of anthropogenic PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Delhi during Commonwealth Games 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Saroj Kumar; Beig, Gufran; Parkhi, Neha S.

    2011-11-01

    As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM 10 and PM 2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and developed for a domain of 70 km × 65 km with a 1.67 km × 1.67 km resolution covering Delhi and surrounding region using Geographical Information System (GIS) technique. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for Delhi environment. It has been found that total emissions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg yr -1 and 94 Gg yr -1 respectively. The contribution of windblown road dust is found to be as high as 131 Gg yr -1 for PM 10.

  6. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 near a large mining zone in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorquera, H.

    2008-12-01

    Chile's economic growth is mainly driven by intensive mining activities; currently Chile produces ~ 40% of copper worldwide. Most of those activities are located in northern Chile, in a desert region where strong regional winds contribute with soil erosion as well. The city of Calama (22.4°S, 68.9°W) is about 17 km south of Chuquicamata, one of the largest open pit copper mines in the world, both located on the west edge of the Andes; Calama is at 2,400 m asl and it is 215 km east of the Pacific Ocean. The mining complex releases ~ 21 kton/y of PM10 and ~ 78 kton/y of SO2 from a copper smelter. The levels of ambient PM10 have steadily increased at Calama in the last 5 years, so there is concern about the impacts from copper industry in the city´s inhabitants, most of who work in mining or related economic activities. A campaign was conducted at Calama between October and December 2007, sampling ambient PM10 and PM2.5 at several sites across the city. Filters were analyzed at the Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV for elemental composition by XRF and for elemental and organic carbon using thermal analysis. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model identified four sources contributing to ambient PM2.5: secondary sulfates (49%), traffic emissions (37%), dust street (9%) and copper smelter emissions (5%). In the coarse fraction, four sources were identified: dust street (45%), wind erosion (34%), mineral processing (14%) and copper smelter emissions (7%). No natural background was found for PM2.5. For ambient PM10 the source apportionment obtained is: mining activities (33%), street dust (34%), wind erosion (22%) and traffic emissions (12%). With a current PM10 annual average of 58 μg/m3 and further mining activities projected in the area, there is a big challenge to improve air quality in the populated area close to the mining operations.

  7. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  8. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  9. Indoor air quality modeling for PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1.0 in naturally ventilated classrooms of an urban Indian school building.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Radha; Khare, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school environment. However, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) is of great significance as they may significantly affect occupants' health. The objectives of the present study are twofold, one, to measure the concentrations of PM(10) (<10 microm), PM(2.5) (<2.5 microm), and PM(1.0) (<1.0 microm) in naturally ventilated classrooms of a school building located near a heavy-traffic roadway (9,755 and 4,296 vehicles/hour during weekdays and weekends, respectively); and second, to develop single compartment mass balance-based IAQ models for PM(10) (NVIAQM(pm10)), PM(2.5) (NVIAQM(pm2.5)), and PM(1.0) (NVIAQM(pm1.0)) for predicting their indoor concentrations. Outdoor RSPM levels and classroom characteristics, such as size, occupancy level, temperature, relative humidity, and CO(2) concentrations have also been monitored during school hours. Predicted indoor PM(10) concentrations show poor correlations with observed indoor PM(10) concentrations (R (2) = 0.028 for weekdays, and 0.47 for weekends). However, a fair degree of agreement (d) has been found between observed and predicted concentrations, i.e., 0.42 for weekdays and 0.59 for weekends. Furthermore, NVIAQM(pm2.5) and NVIAQM(pm1.0) results show good correlations with observed concentrations of PM(2.5) (R(2) = 0.87 for weekdays and 0.9 for weekends) and PM(1.0) (R(2) = 0.86 for weekdays and 0.87 for weekends). NVIAQM(pm10) shows the tendency to underpredict indoor PM(10) concentrations during weekdays as it does not take into account the occupant's activities and its effects on the indoor concentrations during the class hours. Intense occupant's activities cause resuspension or delayed deposition of PM(10). The model

  10. Influence of meteorological conditions on PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 concentrations during the monsoon season in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hien, P. D.; Bac, V. T.; Tham, H. C.; Nhan, D. D.; Vinh, L. D.

    Twenty-four hour samples of air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters from 2 to 10 μm (PM 10) and <2.5 μm (PM 2.5) were collected in Hanoi throughout 1 year since August 1998. The air sampler was located in a meteorological garden where routine surface observations and upper air radiosoundings were conducted. Very high PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 concentrations were observed in conjunction with the occurrence of nocturnal radiation inversions from October to December and subsidence temperature inversions (STI) from January to March. In the first case, the PM 2.5-10 fraction was much enhanced and particulate pollution was significantly higher at night than in daytime. During the occurence of STIs particulate mass was almost evenly distributed among the two fractions and no significant diurnal variations in concentrations were observed. In summer (May-September) particulate pollution was much lower than in winter. The multiple regression of 24-h particulate concentrations against meteorological parameters for both the winter and summer monsoon periods shows that the most important determinants of PM 2.5 are wind speed and air temperature, while rainfall and relative humidity largely control the daily variations of PM 2.5-10, indicating the high abundance of soil dust in this fraction. As to turbulence parameters, among the determinants of 24-h particulate concentrations are the vertical gradients of potential temperature and wind speed recorded at 06.30 and 18.30, respectively. Meteorological parameters could explain from 60% to 74% of the day-to-day variations of particulate concentrations.

  11. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of the daily PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Meinan; Wu, Huaichun; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Tianshui; Liu, Wei; Liu, He

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, Beijing has been shown to suffer one of the most serious air pollution problems of any major world city. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM) pollutants, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, are commonly used as air pollution indexes. We conducted a detailed environmental magnetism study to investigate possible sources of air pollution in Beijing, China, using 283 pairs of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples collected daily from July 2010 to June 2011. Rock magnetic measurements, including magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves (FORCs), and thermomagnetism, indicate that the main magnetic mineral is low-coercivity pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the PM indicate that the major magnetic phase is coarse-grained magnetite, which is most likely from automobile exhausts and braking system debris. Magnetic parameters of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show significant seasonal patterns that may be attributed to domestic heating enhancing magnetization of the PM during late autumn to early spring. Power spectral analyses and box-whisker plots indicate that the magnetic parameters have strong weekly variations that may be due to traffic emissions. These results indicate that magnetic parameters can be used as efficient proxies for monitoring Beijing's air pollution, and that the atmospheric environment may be improved by controlling vehicle emissions.

  12. Lattice distortion and stripelike antiferromagnetic order in Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5

    SciTech Connect

    Sapkota, Aashish; Tucker, Gregory S; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Tian, Wei; Ni, N; Cava, R J; McQueeney, Robert J; Goldman, Alan I; Kreyssig, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 is the parent compound for a class of Fe-based high-temperature superconductors where superconductivity with transition temperatures up to 30 K can be introduced by partial element substitution. We present a combined high-resolution high-energy x-ray diffraction and elastic neutron scattering study on a Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 single crystal. This study reveals the microscopic nature of two distinct and continuous phase transitions to be very similar to other Fe-based high-temperature superconductors: an orthorhombic distortion of the high-temperature tetragonal Fe-As lattice below TS=110(2) K followed by stripelike antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments below TN=96(2) K. These findings demonstrate that major features of the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors are very robust against variations in chemical constitution as well as structural imperfection of the layers separating the Fe-As layers from each other and confirms that the Fe-As layers primarily determine the physics in this class of material.

  13. Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM 10, PM 2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, H.; Diemer, J.; Dietrich, S.; Cyrys, J.; Heinrich, J.; Lang, W.; Kiranoglu, M.; Twardella, D.

    Studies have shown high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in schools. Further insights into the sources and the composition of these particles are needed. During school hours for a period of 6 weeks, outdoor air and the air in two classrooms were sampled. PM was measured gravimetrically, and PM filters were used for the determination of the elemental and organic carbon, light absorbance, and 10 water-soluble ions. Some filters were further analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). The median PM 10 concentrations were 118.2 μg m -3 indoors and 24.2 μg m -3 outdoors; corresponding results for PM 2.5 were 37.4 μg m -3 indoors and 17.0 μg m -3 outdoors. Using PM 10 and PM 2.5 data, we calculated the following indoor/outdoor ratios: 0.3 and 0.4 (sulfate), 0.1 and 0.2 (nitrate), 0.1 and 0.3 (ammonium), and 1.4 and 1.6 (calcium). Using the measured sulfate content on PM filters as an indicator for ambient PM sources, we estimated that 43% of PM 2.5 and 24% of PM 10, respectively, were of ambient origin. The composition of the classrooms' PM (e.g., high calcium concentrations) and the findings from SEM/EDX suggest that the indoor PM consists mainly of earth crustal materials, detrition of the building materials and chalk. Physical activity of the pupils leads to resuspension of mainly indoor coarse particles and greatly contributes to increased PM 10 in classrooms. The concentration of fine particles caused by combustion processes indoors and outdoors is comparable. We conclude that PM measured in classrooms has major sources other than outdoor particles. Assuming that combustion-related particles and crustal materials vary in toxicity, our results support the hypothesis that indoor-generated PM may be less toxic compared to PM in ambient air.

  14. Syntheses, characterization, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Colak, Alper Tolga; Oztopcu-Vatan, Pinar; Colak, Ferdag; Akduman, Demet; Kabadere, Selda; Uyar, Ruhi

    2013-10-01

    In this study, four mononuclear M(II)-pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate (M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid or isocinchomeronic acid, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [Co(Hpydc)(2)(phen)]·H(2)O (1), [Ni(pydc)(phen)(2)]·6.5H(2)O (2) [Cu(pydc)(phen)(H(2)O)(2)] (3) and [Zn(pydc)(phen)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O (4) have been synthesized. Elemental, thermal and mass analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibilities, IR and UV/vis spectroscopic studies have been performed to characterize the complexes. Subsequently, these ligands and complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method on Gram positive, negative bacteria and yeast. In addition, cytotoxic activity tests were performed on rat glioma (C6) cells by MTT viability assay for 24 and 48 h. Antimicrobial activity results demonstrated that when compared to the standard antibiotics, phen displayed the most effective antimicrobial effect. The effect of synthesized complexes was close to phen or less. Cytotoxic activity results showed that IC(50) value of phen was determined as 31 μM for 48 h. (1) and (2) compared to the alone ligand had less toxic activity. IC(50) values of (3) for 24 and 48 h treatments were 2.5 and 0.6 μM, respectively. IC(50) value of (4) for 48 h was 15 μM. In conclusion, phen, (3) and (4) may be useful as antibacterial and antiproliferative agents in the future. PMID:23669312

  15. The weekly cycle of ambient concentrations and traffic emissions of coarse (PM 10-PM 2.5) atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmpadimos, I.; Nufer, M.; Oderbolz, D. C.; Keller, J.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Hueglin, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the existence of a weekly cycle of coarse mode (PM 10-PM 2.5) atmospheric particles, to compare this weekly cycle to the weekly cycle of PM 2.5 and to compare the strength of the coarse mode weekly cycle in different seasons and different wind speed, wind direction and precipitation conditions. In addition, an estimate of the contribution of traffic to the total ambient coarse mode particulate matter in Zurich, Switzerland is provided by estimating the weekly cycle of coarse mode traffic emissions and by comparing it to the weekly cycle of ambient concentrations. The coarse mode data used in the study are the result of simultaneous daily measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 at seven sites located in Switzerland. The measurements cover a period of 7-12 years for six stations and 3 years for one station. It is found that a coarse mode weekly cycle is present in various types of urban and rural stations. Ambient concentrations on weekdays are higher than on Sundays by a factor of 1.53 on average over all urban and suburban sites and by a factor of 1.32 on average over all rural sites. Moreover, the relative increase of coarse mode ambient concentrations on weekdays compared to Sundays was larger than the relative increase of PM 2.5 concentrations by a factor of 2.7 on average over all urban and suburban sites, whereas no considerable difference was found at the rural sites. A calculation of coarse mode traffic emissions for an urban scenario was carried out using traffic-induced dust resuspension and brake wear emission factors for light and heavy duty vehicles and traffic counts from Zurich, Switzerland. It is shown that coarse mode emissions on weekdays are greater than on Sundays by a factor of 2.0. The contribution of traffic to coarse mode urban ambient concentrations was estimated to be 53% (34%-78%) on Sundays and 70% (57%-86%) on weekdays. It is deemed however that these numbers are somewhat overestimating the traffic

  16. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  17. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-03-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro, PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μPM2.5 m-3). This is most probably due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. On the platforms, levels were considerably higher, reaching mean levels of 59 and 88 μgPM2.5 m-3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is more difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed clear PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., and marked decreases between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment are those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM inside the metro system, the contribution of commuting by metro

  18. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with PM 10 and PM 2.5: Differential responses related to scale and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lei, Tian; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    ObjectionTo study the pollution of atmospheric particles at winter in Beijing and compare the lung toxicity which induced by particle samples from different sampling sites. MethodWe collected samples from two sampling points during the winter for toxicity testing and chemical analysis. Wistar rats were administered with particles by intratracheal instillation. After exposure, biochemically index, esimmunity indexes, histopathology and DNA damage were detected in rat pulmonary cells. ResultThe elements with enrichment factors (EF) larger than 10 were As, Cd, Cu, Zn, S and Pb in the four experiment groups. The priority control of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 of Near-traffic source was much higher than that of Far-traffic source, it demonstrated that near the traffic source of PAHs pollution was heavier than that of Far-traffic source, as it was close to main roads Beiyuan Road, motor vehicle emissions were much higher. The pathology of lung showed that the degree of inflammation was increased with the particle diameter minished, it was the same as the detection of biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total antioxidant status(T-AOC) and total protein (TP) in BALF and inflammation cytokine(interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in lung homogenate. The indexes of DNA damage including the content of DNA and Olive empennage of PM 2.5 were significant higher than that of PM 10 at the same surveillance point ( P < 0.05), near-traffic particles were higher than the far-traffic particles at the same diameter, ( P < 0.05). ConclusionNear-traffic area particles had certain pollution at winter in Beijing. Meanwhile, atmospheric particulate matters on lung toxicity were related to the particles size and distance related sites which were exposed: smaller size, more toxicity; nearer from traffic, more toxicity.

  19. 40 CFR 53.34 - Test procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5. 53.34 Section 53.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5. (a) Comparability. Comparability is...

  20. 40 CFR 53.34 - Test procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5. 53.34 Section 53.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5. (a) Comparability. Comparability is...

  1. GIS Assessment of the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 Concentrations in Urban Area of Tehran in Warm and Cold Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halek, F.; Kavousi-rahim, A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, atmospheric models, such as GIS, are used for environmental analysis and the related management for supporting the environmental decision makers in different countries. In this study, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 are found in urban areas of Tehran in warm and cold seasons and the data applied in the related modelling, using Arc-GIS. For this purpose, samples were collected from 42 sites in an 18 km2 region located in the west and central parts of Tehran. The mean concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 are found to be 13.14 μg/m3, 22.67 μg/m3 and 95.72 μg/m3 in the warm season; and 50.12 μg/m3, 70.72 μg/m3 and 193.86 μg/m3 in the cold season respectively. In this paper, with the aid of GIS, concentrations of the suspended particles were measured in 22 major hospitals, the patients in which are in contact with these pollutants. It was found the concentrations of the suspended particles were much higher in the cold season.

  2. A brief review of the reflood closure package optimization efforts performed within TRAC 5.4.25R10

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, D.A.; Nelson, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes the implementation of tools within Version 5.4.25R10 of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC); this implementation allows the semiautomated optimization of the reflood constitutive package. The tools included a software package external to TRAC that used a line search method to minimize a generic function value given the function`s partial derivative vector with respect to a set of closure coefficients used within TRAC`s reflood model. Within TRAC, the generic function was a normalized penalty function dependent on time averaged calculated values of vapor temperature, vapor void fraction, wall to a fluid heat transfer rate (or wall temperature), and the respective steady state data. The penalty function was implemented only for a one dimensional vessel configuration because the available reflood data were taken primarily from postcritical heat flux tube experiments.

  3. Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Borm, Paul J. A.

    Objectives: We collected fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter fractions in two areas ˜80 km apart and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Here we report on temporo-spatial variation of endotoxin content in the collected particles. Methods: Dichotomous Anderson samplers were used to collect 21 weekly samples of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in both towns from January to June 2002. Each Teflon filter was water extracted and endotoxin was measured by a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate method. Endotoxin concentrations were expressed per mg of fine or mg of coarse mass and per sampled air volume (m 3). Results: For both cities, the mean endotoxin content in PM 2.5 was 1.2 EU mg -1; however the endotoxin content in the coarse fraction was ˜10 times higher compared to the fine mass fractions. Although endotoxin content is highly variable over time, a good correlation was observed between the two town sites for both fine ( r=0.85) and coarse PM ( r=0.88). The fluctuations of weekly endotoxin means were high in both areas suggesting a strong temporal dependence on particle source and composition. The endotoxin content in particles collected during May and June were two to four times higher than concentrations measured during the winter and early spring weeks. Conclusions: Ambient airborne endotoxin concentrations were detected in coarse and fine particle fraction, but 10-fold higher in the coarse PM. The strong seasonality and the week to week fluctuation of endotoxin content in PM indicate different biologic PM properties which might affect results of time series studies on short-term effects as well as in vitro studies and human exposure studies.

  4. Anthropogenic platinum group element (Pt, Pd, Rh) concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Diong, Huey Ting; Das, Reshmi; Khezri, Bahareh; Srivastava, Bijayen; Wang, Xianfeng; Sikdar, Pradip K; Webster, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates platinum group elements (PGEs) in the breathable (PM10) and respirable (PM2.5) fractions of air particulates from a heavily polluted Indian metro city. The samples were collected from traffic junctions at the heart of the city and industrial sites in the suburbs during winter and monsoon seasons of 2013-2014. PGE concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The PGE concentrations in the samples from traffic junctions are within the range of 2.7-111 ng/m(3) for Pd, 0.86-12.3 ng/m(3) for Pt and 0.09-3.13 ng/m(3) for Rh, and from industrial sites are within the range of 3.12-32.3 ng/m(3) for Pd, 0.73-7.39 ng/m(3) for Pt and 0.1-0.69 ng/m(3) for Rh. Pt concentrations were lower in the monsoon compared to winter while Pd concentrations increased during monsoon and Rh stayed relatively unaffected across seasons. For all seasons and locations, concentrations of Pd > Pt > Rh, indicating dominance of Pd-containing exhaust converters. Most of the PGEs were concentrated in the PM2.5 fraction. A strong correlation (R ≥ 0.62) between the PGEs from traffic junction indicates a common emission source viz. catalytic converters, whereas a moderate to weak correlation (R ≤ 0.5) from the industrial sites indicate mixing of different sources like coal, raw materials used in the factories and automobile. A wider range of Pt/Pd, Pt/Rh and Pd/Rh ratios measured in the traffic junction possibly hint towards varying proportions of PGEs used for catalyst productions in numerous rising and established car brands. PMID:27536525

  5. Anthropogenic platinum group element (Pt, Pd, Rh) concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Diong, Huey Ting; Das, Reshmi; Khezri, Bahareh; Srivastava, Bijayen; Wang, Xianfeng; Sikdar, Pradip K; Webster, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates platinum group elements (PGEs) in the breathable (PM10) and respirable (PM2.5) fractions of air particulates from a heavily polluted Indian metro city. The samples were collected from traffic junctions at the heart of the city and industrial sites in the suburbs during winter and monsoon seasons of 2013-2014. PGE concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The PGE concentrations in the samples from traffic junctions are within the range of 2.7-111 ng/m(3) for Pd, 0.86-12.3 ng/m(3) for Pt and 0.09-3.13 ng/m(3) for Rh, and from industrial sites are within the range of 3.12-32.3 ng/m(3) for Pd, 0.73-7.39 ng/m(3) for Pt and 0.1-0.69 ng/m(3) for Rh. Pt concentrations were lower in the monsoon compared to winter while Pd concentrations increased during monsoon and Rh stayed relatively unaffected across seasons. For all seasons and locations, concentrations of Pd > Pt > Rh, indicating dominance of Pd-containing exhaust converters. Most of the PGEs were concentrated in the PM2.5 fraction. A strong correlation (R ≥ 0.62) between the PGEs from traffic junction indicates a common emission source viz. catalytic converters, whereas a moderate to weak correlation (R ≤ 0.5) from the industrial sites indicate mixing of different sources like coal, raw materials used in the factories and automobile. A wider range of Pt/Pd, Pt/Rh and Pd/Rh ratios measured in the traffic junction possibly hint towards varying proportions of PGEs used for catalyst productions in numerous rising and established car brands.

  6. Cytotoxicity of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5--10) ambient air pollutants assessed by the MTT and the Comet assays.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, W L; Mo, Z Y; Fang, M; Shi, X M; Wang, F

    2000-11-20

    Ambient air particulate matters are classified into two distinct modes in size distribution, namely the coarse and fine particles. Correlation between high particulate concentration and adverse effects on human populations has long been recognized, however, the toxicology of these adverse effects has not been clarified. In the current report, the cytotoxic effects of the solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) from fine particles smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) and from coarse particles between 2.5-10 microm (PM(2.5-10)) were studied. Nine 24h consecutive monthly samples were tested to determine the correlation between cytotoxicity and total SEOC in two size fractions of particulate air pollution. Cytotoxicity of SEOC was measured by two micro-scale mammalian cells-based bioassays: the MTT cell proliferation assay, and the Comet assay for the detection of DNA damage. A well-defined mammalian cell line - Rat 6 rodent fibroblast was employed in the study. The SEOC extracts of air particulate matters were sub divided into two equal parts. One part was dissolved in DMSO, the other in KOH/hexane and then conjugated with bovine serum albumin to produce a lipid-soluble fraction for testing. The DMSO fraction would contain mainly the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alkanes and alkanols, while the lipid-soluble fraction would be enriched with fatty acids. The results from MTT assay showed that cytotoxicity of the PM(2.5) was much more severe than the PM(2.5-10), suggesting that toxic SEOC were confined to the fine particles. By and large, the DMSO solubles were much more toxic than the lipid solubles. The degree of cytotoxicity of the DMSO soluble samples is positively correlated to the amount of particulates present in the ambient air. For the PM(2.5), the winter samples were significantly more toxic than the summer samples in terms of cell killing, which seemed to be a direct reflection of the total loading of organic matter in the samples. Results from

  7. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-06-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μg m-3 PM2.5). This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was estimated to account

  8. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  9. Glass-forming ability and magnetic properties of bulk Fe61Co10Zr2.5Hf2.5W4-yMeyB20 ( y=0 or 2, Me=Mo, Nb, Ti) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbroszczyk, J.; Olszewski, J.; Ciurzyńska, W.; Nabiałek, M.; Pawlik, P.; Hasiak, M.; Łukiewska, A.; Perduta, K.

    2006-09-01

    Using a suction-casting method the bulk amorphous Fe61Co10Zr2.5Hf2.5W4-yMeyB20 ( y=0 or 2, Me=Mo, Nb, Ti) alloys in the shape of rods (1 mm diameter), tubes and rings (4 and 8 mm outer diameter, respectively) have been obtained. Those alloys show relatively high Curie temperatures (about 500 K) and crystallization temperatures (about 860 K). Moreover, we have found that those alloys show good soft magnetic properties.

  10. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC superstation and their ratios as source signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kang, K.

    2011-07-01

    PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method, which produced five organic carbon (OC) fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP), and three elemental carbon (EC) fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.72 μg m-3, 17.24 μg m-3, and 28.37 μg m-3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0 % and 10.4 % for PM1.0, 22.9 % and 9.8 % for PM2.5, and 16.4 % and 6.0 % for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC) measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion. In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP) to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was heavily influenced by

  11. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC Superstation and their ratios as source signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kang, K.

    2012-02-01

    PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method, which produced five organic carbon (OC) fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP), and three elemental carbon (EC) fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.7 μg m-3, 17.2 μg m-3, and 28.4 μg m-3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0% and 10.4% for PM1.0, 22.9% and 9.8% for PM2.5, and 16.4% and 6.0% for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC) measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010). In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP) to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was heavily influenced

  12. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  13. A Study of metabolic transformation of organic and inorganic components in PM2.5 and PM10, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Yoon, H.; Lee, M.

    2012-12-01

    The important factors of atmospheric particle matter (PM) are size, concentration, composition and toxicity which can considerably affect the possible human health problem, especially respiratory diseases, visibility reduction and climate change. PM2.5 and PM10 are complex mixture of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, organic carbon, inorganic carbon and inorganic constituents. Recently, most researches of source attribution and assessments of the relationship between health effects and particle concentrations have not taken advantage of the development in analytical tools measuring the detailed molecular structure and microstructure of particles and of the knowledge of particle formation mechanisms in combustion system. This study will combine variety analytical techniques that can provide structural and compositional information to determine the correlation between sources of hazardous material and physicochemical properties in aerosol particle. Inorganic metal can be rapidly quantifying to filter base using ED-XRF (Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence). Speciation and quantification of water soluble components applied HPLC-ICP-MS and LC-MS NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Afterward, we investigate metabolic transformations of atmospheric particle matter also using FE-TEM (Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy).

  14. Characterization of water-soluble species of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols in urban area in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Huang, Liming; Gao, Shixiang; Gao, Songting; Wang, Liansheng

    The characterization for water-soluble species of PM10 (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <10 μm) and PM2.5 (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 μm) in five sites of Nanjing, China was carried out during February-May 2001.The pH and conductivity K of water-soluble matters of PM10 and PM2.5 were determined, and the water-soluble fraction of the sample was followed to identify the total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon (IC), elements, NO 3-, SO 42- and NH 3-N.The experimental results show that water-soluble matters of PM10 and PM2.5 in Nanjing are acidic, and the pH of PM2.5 is lower than PM10. Conductivity of water-soluble species of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols varied over a wide range from 1087 to 225 μs/cm. Conductivity between PM10 and PM2.5 has a linear correlationship, and the equation is Y=0.8459 X+44.74, r2=0.9376 ( Y: conductivity of PM2.5, X: conductivity of PM10). TOC make up the majority of TC and accounts for 3.17-14.13% of PM10 and/or PM2.5 loadings, while IC only accounts for 0.12-0.47% of PM10 and/or PM2.5 mass. Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn, 17 elements were detected in water-soluble matters of PM10 and/or PM2.5. Ca, K and Na are the most abundant chemical components, which account for more than 95% of total water-soluble elements (TWSE). Of all the five sites, TWSE accounts for 1.80-6.13% of the particle mass and 61.28-72.73% of TWSE of PM10 is enriched in fine particles (<2.5 μm in diameter). Nitrate (NO 3-), sulfate (SO 42-), ammonia and ammonium (NH 3-N) were determined. The highest level of nitrate was 15.49 μg/m 3 for PM10 and 12.66 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 at site FZ. As was the case for nitrate, the highest level of sulfate was also presented at the same site, which was 28.22 μg/m 3 for PM10 and 21.48 μg/m 3 for PM2.5. However, a higher level of ammonia and ammonium was presented at site ZS, which was 36.05 μg/m 3 for PM10 and 22.06 μg/m 3 for PM2.5.

  15. Exposure of Particulate Matters PM10 and PM2.5 to Pregnant Ladies during First Trimester and its Impact on Adverse Birth Outcomes in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant exposure to criteria air pollutants at different level of concentrations is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The present study advocates the importance of the early period of pregnancy (first trimester) for association between growth in term of small gestational age (SGA) and birth weight (BW) with PM2.5 and PM10 for megacity Delhi. The association of PM10 and PM2.5 average concentration, SGA, pre term birth (PTB) and lower birth weight (LBW < 2500g or 5.5 pounds) outcomes have been investigated among 1749 live births in a large hospital during the year 2012 New Delhi, India. The air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in single pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes. Growth in term of SGA is associated with PM2.5 levels (OR = 0.99, confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 - 1.0) and PM10 levels (OR= 0.99, CI= 0.99 - 1.001) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight outcome in terms of lower birth weight (LBW) has been found to be significantly associated with PM2.5 (OR= 0.99, CI = 0.98 - 1.00) exposure in the first trimester. A very significant decrease of 0.1% has been observed in growth of infant in terms of SGA with per 10 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Also, 0.1 % statistically significant adverse association of BW in terms of LBW has been found with per 10 mg/m3 increased vulnerability of PM2.5 during first trimester of gestation.

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and Gas Phase in Office Environment in Shanghai, China: Occurrence and Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Chen, Ling; Ngoc, Duong Minh; Duan, Yan-Ping; Lu, Zhi-Bo; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate risk via inhalation exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in office environment, thirty-six pairs air samples including PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total suspended particles (TSP) with matching gas phase were collected in office environment in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were 20.4, 27.2 and 50.3 μg/m3, respectively. Σ15PBDEs mean concentrations in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase were 51.8, 110.7, 148 and 59.6 pg/m3, respectively. Much more PBDEs distributed in fine fractions than coarse ones. PBDEs congener profiles found in PM2.5, PM10 and TSP (dominated by BDE-209) were different from that in gas phase (dominated by the tri- to penta-BDEs). Approximately 3.20 pg/kg/d PM2.5 bound PBDEs can be inhaled into the lung; 3.62 pg/kg/d PM10-PM2.5(particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 μm) bound PBDEs tended to be deposited in the upper part of respiratory system, and the intake of PBDEs via gas-phase was 2.74 pg/kg/d. The exposure of PBDEs was far below the minimal risk levels (MRLs), indicating lower risk from PBDEs via inhalation in the studied office in Shanghai. PMID:25793925

  17. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyro, S. G.

    2004-09-01

    Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe) aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass and chemical

  18. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyro, S. G.

    2005-02-01

    Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe) aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass and chemical

  19. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    95% of the material entering the colon. Absorbed plant phytosterols are transported to the blood. Although there are some data suggesting that sulfates of beta-sitosterol can act as abortifacients in rats and rabbits, other studies of well-characterized plant phytosterols and phytosterol esters demonstrated no effect in an estrogen-binding study, a recombinant yeast assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity, or a juvenile rat uterotrophic assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity. In a two-generation reproduction study using rats, plant phytosterol esters in the diet had no effect on any parameter of reproduction or fertility. Subcutaneous injections of beta-sitosterol did reduce sperm concentrations and fertility in rats. Sitosterol inhibited tumor promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and reduced the tumors produced by N-methylnitrosourea in rats. Phytosterols were not genotoxic in several bacterial, mammalian, and in vitro assay systems. Phytosterols decreased epithelial cell proliferation in the colon of mice and rats, and were cytotoxic for human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PEGs Soy Sterols: The acute oral LD50 in rats of PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was >10 g/kg. The acute dermal LD50 of a liquid eyeliner containing 2%PEG-5 Soy Sterol was >2 g/kg in rabbits. PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was not a primary irritant in rabbits when applied undiluted. Undiluted PEG-5 Soy Sterol did not cause sensitization in guinea pigs. PEGs Soy Sterol did not produce ocular toxicity in rabbits. PEG-5 Soy Sterol was negative in the Ames mutagenicity test, with or without metabolic activation. PEG-5 Soy Sterol, at concentrations up to 2%in formulation, did not cause dermal or ocular irritation, dermal sensitization, or photosensitization in clinical studies. Because of the possible presence of 1,4-dioxane reaction product and unreacted ethylene oxide residues, it was considered

  20. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    95% of the material entering the colon. Absorbed plant phytosterols are transported to the blood. Although there are some data suggesting that sulfates of beta-sitosterol can act as abortifacients in rats and rabbits, other studies of well-characterized plant phytosterols and phytosterol esters demonstrated no effect in an estrogen-binding study, a recombinant yeast assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity, or a juvenile rat uterotrophic assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity. In a two-generation reproduction study using rats, plant phytosterol esters in the diet had no effect on any parameter of reproduction or fertility. Subcutaneous injections of beta-sitosterol did reduce sperm concentrations and fertility in rats. Sitosterol inhibited tumor promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and reduced the tumors produced by N-methylnitrosourea in rats. Phytosterols were not genotoxic in several bacterial, mammalian, and in vitro assay systems. Phytosterols decreased epithelial cell proliferation in the colon of mice and rats, and were cytotoxic for human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PEGs Soy Sterols: The acute oral LD50 in rats of PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was >10 g/kg. The acute dermal LD50 of a liquid eyeliner containing 2%PEG-5 Soy Sterol was >2 g/kg in rabbits. PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was not a primary irritant in rabbits when applied undiluted. Undiluted PEG-5 Soy Sterol did not cause sensitization in guinea pigs. PEGs Soy Sterol did not produce ocular toxicity in rabbits. PEG-5 Soy Sterol was negative in the Ames mutagenicity test, with or without metabolic activation. PEG-5 Soy Sterol, at concentrations up to 2%in formulation, did not cause dermal or ocular irritation, dermal sensitization, or photosensitization in clinical studies. Because of the possible presence of 1,4-dioxane reaction product and unreacted ethylene oxide residues, it was considered

  1. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in the western coastal area of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated seasonal variations in PM10 and PM2.5 mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM10 and PM2.5 were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM10 in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m(-3), respectively, while mean levels of PM2.5 in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m(-3), respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM10 and PM2.5 exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM10 and PM2.5 were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM10 and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM2.5. Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health.

  2. Efficiency of Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook (MWAC) samplers to collect PM10, PM2.5 and PM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Mariano J.; Funk, Roger; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    The internal efficiency of Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook (MWAC) samplers for trapping PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were tested in a wind tunnel, at two wind speeds (3.0 and 6.8 m s-1) in the saltation zone (SAZ) and the suspension zone (SAZ). PM concentrations measured in the inlet and the outlet of both samplers were correlated and the slopes of fitting equations were used for calculating sampling efficiencies. Results showed that BSNE efficiencies ranged from 12% to 32% for PM10, from 0% to 19% for PM2.5 and from 0% to 12% for PM1. The BSNE's efficiency decreased with decreasing particle sizes in SAZ and SUZ at both wind speeds as a consequence of the very low deposition velocity of the finest size particles. The BSNE's efficiency increased with increasing wind speed in SAZ for PM10 and PM2.5 and in SUZ for PM2.5. The MWAC's efficiency ranged from 1% to 20% for PM10, from 0% to 15% for PM2.5 and from 0% to 16% for PM1. The MWAC efficiency was 0% for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the SUZ at 3 m s-1 and for PM2.5 and PM1 in the SUZ at 6.8 m s-1. These results provide evidence that the efficiency of BSNE and MWAC for trapping PM10 change with wind speed and position of the sampler. Results also show that BSNEs and MWACs can potentially be used for PM10 emission studies but more research is needed in order to understand and improve their efficiency.

  3. Bioequivalence and food effect of heat-stressed and non-heat-stressed dapagliflozin 2.5- and 10-mg tablets.

    PubMed

    LaCreta, Frank; Griffen, Steven C; Liu, Xiaoni; Smith, Charles; Hines, Carey; Volk, Kevin; Tejwani, Ravindra; Boulton, David W

    2016-09-10

    Physical storage of formulations may result in physical composition changes that affect pharmacokinetics. Dapagliflozin, an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor used for type 2 diabetes mellitus, stored under prolonged exposure to heat converts crystalline dapagliflozin to an amorphous form. Bioequivalence of the amorphous to crystalline form and food effects of each form in the 2.5-mg formulation are unknown. Two open-label, crossover, single-dose studies in healthy participants assessed pharmacokinetics for heat-stressed (HS) and non-heat-stressed (NH) dapagliflozin 10-mg (study 1, N=29, fasted+HS food effect) and 2.5-mg (study 2, N=28, fasted+HS and NH food effect) tablets. The 90% confidence intervals for geometric mean ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration (Cmax) for HS 2.5- and 10-mg tablets were within 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence. In the fed vs. fasted state for 2.5-mg and 10-mg HS tablets, AUCs were similar, time to Cmax was prolonged by 1.25h, and Cmax decreased by approximately 50%. No serious adverse events were reported. Given that dapagliflozin's efficacy is dependent upon AUC, it was concluded that HS and NH dapagliflozin tablets are bioequivalent in 2.5- and 10-mg doses with no clinically meaningful food effect for either form. PMID:27418571

  4. Ion concentrations of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region: seasonal variation and source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, H.; Saliba, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    The annual averages of particulate matters (PM10, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine)) in a densely populated area of Beirut were measured and found to be 84±27, 53±20 and 31±9 μg m-3, respectively. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis of the collected PM Teflon filters showed that NaCl, CaSO4 and Ca(NO3)2 were predominant in the coarse particles, while (NH4)2SO4 was the main salt in the fine particles. Using the non destructive Fourier Transform Infra Red-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique, CaCO3 was determined in the coarse filter. In addition, ATR measurements showed that inorganic salts present in the coarse particles are mostly water insoluble while salts found in fine particles are soluble. Concentrations of nitrates and calcium higher than the ones reported in neighboring Mediterranean countries were good indication of high traffic density and crustal dust abundance in Beirut, respectively. The study of the seasonal variation showed that long-range transport of SO2 from Eastern and Central Europe, sandy storms coming from Africa and marine aerosols are considered major sources of the determined inorganic ions. Considering the importance of the health and climate impacts of aerosols locally and regionally, this study constitutes a point of reference for eastern Mediterranean transport modeling studies and local regulatory and policy makers.

  5. Concentrations, correlations and chemical species of PM2.5/PM10 based on published data in China: Potential implications for the revised particulate standard.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuehua; Cao, Zhaoyu; Ma, Yujie; Wang, Linpeng; Wu, Ruidong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been of great concern in China due to the increasing haze pollution in recent years. In 2012, the Chinese national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) was amended with a "more strict" regulation on the PM concentrations, i.e., 35 and 70 µg/m(3) for annual PM2.5 and PM10 averages, respectively (Grade-Ⅱ, GB3095-2012). To evaluate the potential of China to attain such new NAAQS and provide a more generalized chemical profile of PM in China, a comprehensive statistical analysis was carried out based on the published data of parallel PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 and PM10. The results show that most of the measured concentrations far exceed the new NAAQS. PM2.5 and PM10 show a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.87, p < 0.01) with PM2.5 accounting for about 65% of PM10, suggesting that the abatement of PM2.5 is crucial for reducing PM pollution and hence improving air quality in China. Organic carbon (OC), sulfate and crustal species are the three major components of PM. The NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratios are 0.43 ± 0.26 in PM2.5 and 0.56 ± 0.29 in PM10, and the OC/EC ratios are 3.63 ± 1.73 in PM2.5 and 4.17 ± 2.09 in PM10, signifying that the stationary emissions from coal combustion remain the main PM source. An evaluation of PM2.5 situation in current China was carried out and the results show that it would take about 27 years to meet the limit value of 35 µg/m(3) in the revised standard, implying a rigorous challenge in PM2.5 control in China in the future.

  6. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  7. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws § 93... applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  8. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Programs, and Projects Developed, Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws § 93... applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  9. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China.

  10. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM(2.5) at Tocopilla, Chile (22 degrees 05' S, 70 degrees 12' W).

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Héctor

    2009-06-01

    Tocopilla is located on the coast of Northern Chile, within an arid region that extends from 30 degrees S to the border with Perú. The major industrial activities are related to the copper mining industry. A measurement campaign was conducted during March and April 2006 to determine ambient PM10 and PM(2.5) concentrations in the city. The results showed significantly higher PM10 concentrations in the southern part of the city (117 microg/m3) compared with 79 and 80 (microg/m3) in the central and northern sites. By contrast, ambient PM2.5 concentrations had a more uniform spatial distribution across the city, around 20 (microg/m3). In order to conduct a source apportionment, daily PM10 and PM(2.5) samples were analyzed for elements by XRF. EPA's Positive Matrix Factorization software was used to interpret the results of the chemical compositions. The major source contributing to PM(2.5) at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively are: (a) sulfates, with approximately 50% of PM2.5 concentrations at the three sites; (b) fugitive emissions from fertilizer storage and handling, with 16%, 21% and 10%; (c) Coal and residual oil combustion, with 15%, 15% and 4%; (d) Sea salt, 5%, 6% and 16%; (e) Copper ore processing, 4%, 5% and 15%; and (f) a mixed dust source with 11%, 7% and 4%. Results for PM10--at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively--show that the major contributors are: (a) sea salt source with 36%, 32% and 36% of the PM10 concentration; (b) copper processing emissions mixed with airborne soil dust with 6.6%, 11.5% and 41%; (c) sulfates with 31%, 31% and 12%; (d) a mixed dust source with 16%, 12% and 10%, and (e) the fertilizer stockpile emissions, with 11%, 14% and 2% of the PM10 concentration. The high natural background of PM10 implies that major reductions in anthropogenic emissions of PM10 and SO2 would be required to attain ambient air quality standards for PM10; those reductions would curb down ambient PM(2.5) concentrations as well. PMID:18512124

  11. Concentrations and light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in PM2.5 and PM10 of Lhasa city, the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoliu; Chen, Pengfei; Kang, Shichang; Yan, Fangping; Hu, Zhaofu; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol strongly influence the Earth's radiative balance, yet the related knowledge is limited for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world. In this study, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of PM2.5 and PM10 of Lhasa collected from May 2013 to March 2014 were studied. It showed that daily-average concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC of PM2.5 and PM10 were lower than those of other megacities. Lhasa PM2.5 was characterized by low OC/EC ratio (1.46 ± 0.55), which was similar to that of Lhasa roadside PM2.5 (1.25 ± 0.45), reflecting mainly direct influence of primary emissions and less secondary formation. Hence, although Lhasa atmosphere is relatively clean, it is intensively influenced by local vehicle emissions. Mass absorption cross-section of EC (MACEC) for both PM2.5 and PM10 at 632 nm were 7.19 ± 1.19 m2 g-1 and 7.98 ± 2.32 m2 g-1, respectively, both of which had similar variation patterns to OC/EC and secondary OC (SOC)/OC, indicating that the increase of MACEC might be caused by coating with organic aerosol. Additionally, the loading of EC for both PM2.5 and PM10 showed logarithmic relationships with those of optical attenuation (ATN) of EC, implying that the shadowing effect enhanced logarithmic with increased EC concentration. MAC of WSOC at 365 nm for PM2.5 (0.74 ± 0.22 m2 g-1) and PM10 (0.78 ± 0.21 m2 g-1) were also close to reported values of other cities mainly influenced by fossil combustion. Additionally, attenuation at 365 nm of WSOC of both PM2.5 and PM10 showed the same relationship with their WSOC concentrations, implying no difference for light absorption properties of WSOC for these two grain sizes.

  12. Emission and profile characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM10 from stationary sources based on dilution sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng

    2013-10-01

    The mass concentrations and profile characteristic for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 from stack gases for six types of stationary sources in Shandong Province, China were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method from February to March in 2010. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 from the six types of stationary sources varied in 8.2-79.4 mg m-3 and 23.3-156.7 mg m-3, respectively. The total mass concentrations of analyzed PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10 were in the ranges of 0.40-94.35 μg m-3 and 9.16-122.91 μg m-3. The most toxic ashes were from sinter and coke oven for both PM2.5 and PM10 with high carcinogenic PAHs concentrations. BbF, Phe, NaP, BghiP, Pyr, BaP and BeP were abundant which was different from formers and one of the key reasons may be the differences of sampling methods. Diversities in PAHs compositions existed between fly ashes within PM2.5 and PM10 fractions for coke oven according to coefficient of divergence (CD) values. PAHs profiles for PM10 emitted from coke oven were different from those of other stationary sources (with CD values higher than 0.35) and for PM2.5, it was the same for sinter (with most CD values close to 0.30). There existed similar PAHs markers for fine particles emitted from stationary sources excepted for the sinter. For PM10, PAHs markers were primary 3-ring PAHs except for the coke oven with BbF, IND and BghiP as its signatures. Diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + Chr), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaP/(BaP + BeP), BeP/BghiP and IND/(IND + BghiP) could be not well distinguished for the six types of stationary sources with the maximum/minimum ratios lower than 2 for both PM2.5 and PM10 of fly ashes which should be not used for source identification studies. The mass concentrations and source profiles of PAHs should be updated timely for size-differentiated fly ashes from various stationary sources by dilution sampling method.

  13. Characterizing Spatial Patterns of Airborne Coarse Particulate (PM102.5) Mass and Chemical Components in Three Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Timothy V.; Gassett, Amanda; Szpiro, Adam A.; Daviglus, Martha; Burke, Gregory L.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term health effects of coarse particular matter (PM102.5) are challenging to assess because of a limited understanding of the spatial variation in PM102.5 mass and its chemical components. Objectives: We conducted a spatially intensive field study and developed spatial prediction models for PM102.5 mass and four selected species (copper, zinc, phosphorus, and silicon) in three American cities. Methods: PM102.5 snapshot campaigns were conducted in Chicago, Illinois; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Winston-Salem, North Carolina, in 2009 for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Coarse Airborne Particulate Matter (MESA Coarse). In each city, samples were collected simultaneously outside the homes of approximately 40 participants over 2 weeks in the winter and/or summer. City-specific and combined prediction models were developed using land use regression (LUR) and universal kriging (UK). Model performance was evaluated by cross-validation (CV). Results: PM102.5 mass and species varied within and between cities in a manner that was predictable by geographic covariates. City-specific LUR models generally performed well for total mass (CV R2, 0.41–0.68), copper (CV R2, 0.51–0.86), phosphorus (CV R2, 0.50–0.76), silicon (CV R2, 0.48–0.93), and zinc (CV R2, 0.36–0.73). Models pooled across all cities inconsistently captured within-city variability. Little difference was observed between the performance of LUR and UK models in predicting concentrations. Conclusions: Characterization of fine-scale spatial variability of these often heterogeneous pollutants using geographic covariates should reduce exposure misclassification and increase the power of epidemiological studies investigating the long-term health impacts of PM102.5. Citation: Zhang K, Larson TV, Gassett A, Szpiro AA, Daviglus M, Burke GL, Kaufman JD, Adar SD. 2014. Characterizing spatial patterns of airborne coarse particulate (PM102.5) mass and chemical

  14. Microarray delineation of familial chromosomal imbalance with deletion 5q35 and duplication 10q25 in a child showing multiple anomalies and dysmorphism.

    PubMed

    Masri, Amira; Gimelli, Stefania; Hamamy, Hanan; Sloan-Béna, Frédérique

    2014-05-01

    We describe a 6-month-old female with developmental delay, hypotonia, supernumerary nipples, and distinct craniofacial features. Postnatal chromosome analysis revealed an unbalanced karyotype involving a der (5) and array-CGH defined two unbalanced regions with partial 2.3 Mb deletion of 5q35.3 in combination with a large 19.5 Mb duplication of chromosome 10 from q25.3 to q26.3. Parental karyotyping analysis showed that the father was carrier of a balanced t(5;10)(q35;q25). Two cousins of the proband with similar facial features had the same unbalanced karyotype with presence of the der (5) inherited from the malsegregation of the familial translocation. Additionally, three siblings (two deceased and one abortion) manifested a more severe phenotype including congenital heart defect, cleft palate, and agenesis of the corpus callosum and were diagnosed with unbalanced karyotypes inherited from the familial balanced translocation. PMID:24478242

  15. 40 CFR 53.34 - Test procedure for methods for PM10 and Class I methods for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Class I methods for PM2.5 when the relationship between: (1) Measurements made by a candidate method, and (2) Measurements made by a corresponding reference method on simultaneously collected samples... meet the requirements specified in table C-4 of this subpart. (b) Methods for PM 10. Test...

  16. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 93.116 may be based on either: (i) Quantitative methods that represent reasonable and common...) Where quantitative analysis methods are not available, the demonstration required by § 93.116 for... (“Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations”) must be based on quantitative analysis using the applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 93.116 may be based on either: (i) Quantitative methods that represent reasonable and common...) Where quantitative analysis methods are not available, the demonstration required by § 93.116 for... (“Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations”) must be based on quantitative analysis using the applicable...

  18. Linear Magnetoresistance of Ca10 Ptn As8 (Fe2 As2)5 (n = 3 and 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayun; Karki, Amar; Jin, Rongying

    We report the normal-state magnetoresistance (MR) of superconducting Ca10 Ptn As8(Fe2 As2) 5 (n = 3 and 4) as a function of temperature (50 - 300 K) and magnetic field (0 - 14 Tesla). It is found that MR is positive in a wide temperature range in both transverse (H ⊥ I) and longitudinal (H ∥ I) cases. At a fixed temperature and field, we observe MR (H ⊥ I) > MR (H ∥ I), suggesting spin-orbital coupling in addition to charge-spin interaction. Remarkably, MR shows linear field dependence between 0 and 14 Tesla in a wide temperature range for both n = 3 and 4. The implication of such unusual field dependence of MR will be discussed.

  19. Construction of a 5-Mb YAC contig from the putative 10q25 tumor-suppressor region for glioblastomas

    SciTech Connect

    Albarosa, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Chiariello, E.

    1997-05-01

    During the final step of the malignant progression to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and malignant of primary brain tumors, more than 90% of the cases exhibit loss of genetic material on chromosome 10. We previously identified a 4-cM deletion interval in the 10q24-qter region that is common to all the GBM we have examined. A contig of 20 YACs spanning the 5 Mb of chromosomal DNA in the region has been assembled. Overlaps between YACs have been verified by STS content, fingerprinting analysis, and/or Alu-Alu PCR. The contig contains 17 known microsatellite markers, 15 new STSs derived from the insert ends of YACs, 9 ESTs, and 11 other STSs, for a total of 52 STSs (average marker density 1/100 kb). The physical map of this region will facilitate the search for a candidate tumor-suppressor gene(s) that is inactivated during the formation of GBM. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The sulphur stable isotope compositions of urban sources and atmospheric particles (PM2.5 & PM10) from Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Landry, J.; Helie, J.; Ravelomanantsoa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulphur (S) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and its vicinity, we are investigating the suitability of sulphur stable isotope compositions (δ34S) as tracers of origins and processes affecting the atmospheric S budget. Characterization of S isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic and heating sources) shows these are clearly discriminated by specific coupled S-δ34S isotope signatures. While S concentrations vary from 0.7 to 11.5%, δ34S display a large range of values from -2.2 and 13.4‰. PM10 samples from Paris and its vicinity show that S is usually present at low levels, around 1 μg.m-3 in average, but that concentrations as high as 100 μg.m-3 can punctually be observed. By the time of the conference, we will have analysed and interpreted the corresponding δ34S in order to help elucidate the origin(s) of sulphur in the atmosphere of the city.

  1. Homo- and heterobismetal complexes of 5-Hydroxy-10,15,25,30-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-substituted [26]hexaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1).

    PubMed

    Koide, Taro; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Furukawa, Ko; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Metalation of meso-free 5,10,20,25-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-substituted [26]hexaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.1) (4) with Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions afforded homodinuclear complexes 6 and 7, respectively. A demetalation-remetalation protocol provided monozinc(II) complex 9 selectively, from which copper(II)-zinc(II) heterodinuclear complex 10 was prepared effectively.

  2. Seasonal trends of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air and their correlation in ambient air of Lucknow city, India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Khan, Altaf Husain; Verma, Ambrish Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Anand; Mathur, Neeraj; Kisku, Ganesh Chandra; Barman, Shyamal Chandra

    2012-02-01

    The PM(10) concentration (μg/m(3)) in Lucknow city at 4 locations in three different seasons ranged between 148.6-210.8 (avg. 187.2 ± 17.1) during summer, 111.8-187.6 (avg. 155.7 ± 22.7) during monsoon and 199.3-308.8 (avg. 269.3 ± 42.9) during winter while PM(2.5) ranged between 32.4-67.2 (avg. 45.6 ± 10.9), 25.6-68.9 (avg. 39.8 ± 4.6) and 99.3-299.3 (avg. 212.4 ± 55.0) during respective seasons. The mass fraction ratio of PM(2.5) ranged between 0.22-0.92 (avg. 0.42 ± 0.26) and was significantly high during winter season indicating their composition. PMID:22105933

  3. Cycling Stability Performance of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 Hydrogen Storage Alloy in Discharge-Charge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojiang; Huang, Lei; Wan, Qi; Li, Xu; Guang, Ma; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 hydrogen storage alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting furnace and subsequently heated treatment at 940°C for 8 h and cooled to room temperature in the oven. The electrochemical properties of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 compound were measured by LAND CT2001A battery test system. The morphologies of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface state of samples was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the charge-discharge rate plays the key impact on the cycling stability of the alloy. During the cycle test, the prepared La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 compound presented an excellent capacity retention at the charge-discharge of 1 C while the capacity of sample declined rapidly at 0.2 C. The excellent cycling stability performance of La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 electrode at 1 C could be attributed to the less powder and less oxidation of surface effective active elements. The pulverization inevitably leads to the separation of the part of the cracking alloy and the electrode, resulting in reduction of the effective active substance and increasing attenuation of the capacity per cycle. In addition, on the analysis of the different cut-off potential effects on the electrode, it was found that the La0.75Mg0.25Ni3.5Si0.10 electrode shows good comprehensive electrochemical properties at 1 C cut-off 0.6-0.7 V. During charging, heavy overcharge will not be conducive to cycling stability performance during the charging test.

  4. Assessment of the long-term impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from construction works on surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Marsh, Daniel; Fuller, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Construction activities are common across cities; however, the studies assessing their contribution to airborne PM10 (≤10 μm) and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) particles on the surrounding air quality are limited. Herein, we assessed the impact of PM10 and PM2.5 arising from construction works in and around London. Measurements were carried out at 17 different monitoring stations around three construction sites between January 2002 and December 2013. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM 1400) and OSIRIS (2315) particle monitors were used to measure the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions in the 0.1-10 μm size range along with the ambient meteorological data. The data was analysed using bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 were found to exceed the European Union target limit value of 50 μg m(-3) at 11 monitoring stations but remained within the allowable 35 exceedences per year, except at two monitoring stations. In general, construction works were found to influence the downwind concentrations of PM10 relatively more than PM2.5. Splitting of the data between working (0800-1800 h; local time) and non-working (1800-0800 h) periods showed about 2.2-fold higher concentrations of PM10 during working hours when compared with non-working hours. However, these observations did not allow to conclude that this increase was from the construction site emissions. Together, the polar concentration plots and the k-means cluster analysis applied to a pair of monitoring stations across the construction sites (i.e. one in upwind and the other in downwind) confirmed the contribution of construction sources on the measured concentrations. Furthermore, pairing the monitoring stations downwind of the construction sites showed a logarithmic decrease (with R(2) about 0.9) in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration with distance. Our findings clearly indicate an impact of construction activities on the nearby downwind areas and a need

  5. 44 CFR 5.25 - Available materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Available materials. 5.25... Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.25 Available materials. FEMA materials which are available under this subpart are as follows: (a) Final opinions and orders made in...

  6. 44 CFR 5.25 - Available materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Available materials. 5.25... Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.25 Available materials. FEMA materials which are available under this subpart are as follows: (a) Final opinions and orders made in...

  7. 44 CFR 5.25 - Available materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Available materials. 5.25... Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.25 Available materials. FEMA materials which are available under this subpart are as follows: (a) Final opinions and orders made in...

  8. 44 CFR 5.25 - Available materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Available materials. 5.25... Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.25 Available materials. FEMA materials which are available under this subpart are as follows: (a) Final opinions and orders made in...

  9. 44 CFR 5.25 - Available materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Available materials. 5.25... Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.25 Available materials. FEMA materials which are available under this subpart are as follows: (a) Final opinions and orders made in...

  10. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS....7 of NFPA NEC 2002 or clause 16 of IEC 60092-301 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  11. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS....7 of NFPA NEC 2002 or clause 16 of IEC 60092-301 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  12. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS....7 of NFPA NEC 2002 or clause 16 of IEC 92-301 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  13. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS....7 of NFPA NEC 2002 or clause 16 of IEC 92-301 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  14. 46 CFR 111.25-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 111.25-5 Section 111.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS....7 of NFPA NEC 2002 or clause 16 of IEC 92-301 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  15. The Exposure Uncertainty Analysis: The Association between Birth Weight and Trimester Specific Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5 vs. PM10)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) on birth weight (BW) and low birth weight (LBW), i.e., birth weight <2500 g in Chicago (IL, USA), accounting for exposure uncertainty. Two important findings emerge from this paper. First, uncertainty in PM exposure increases significantly with the increase in distance from the monitoring stations, e.g., 50.6% and 38.5% uncertainty in PM10 and PM2.5 exposure respectively for 0.058° (~6.4 km) distance from the monitoring stations. Second, BW was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure, and PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester and entire gestation period showed a stronger association with BW than the exposure during the second and third trimesters. But PM10 did not show any significant association with BW and LBW. These findings suggest that distance and time intervals need to be chosen with care to compute exposure, and account for the uncertainty to reliably assess the adverse health risks of exposure. PMID:27649214

  16. The Exposure Uncertainty Analysis: The Association between Birth Weight and Trimester Specific Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5 vs. PM10).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) on birth weight (BW) and low birth weight (LBW), i.e., birth weight <2500 g in Chicago (IL, USA), accounting for exposure uncertainty. Two important findings emerge from this paper. First, uncertainty in PM exposure increases significantly with the increase in distance from the monitoring stations, e.g., 50.6% and 38.5% uncertainty in PM10 and PM2.5 exposure respectively for 0.058° (~6.4 km) distance from the monitoring stations. Second, BW was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure, and PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester and entire gestation period showed a stronger association with BW than the exposure during the second and third trimesters. But PM10 did not show any significant association with BW and LBW. These findings suggest that distance and time intervals need to be chosen with care to compute exposure, and account for the uncertainty to reliably assess the adverse health risks of exposure. PMID:27649214

  17. 10 Yr Spatial and Temporal Trends of PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern US Estimated Using High-resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 g m3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 g m3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 g m3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 g m3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The results showed

  18. A study of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the atmosphere of large cities in Gansu Province, China, in summer period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonchyk, Mikalai; Yan, Haowen; Yang, Shuwen; Hurynovich, Volha

    2016-08-01

    Due to rapid economic growth of the country in the last 25 years, particulate matter (PM) has become a topic of great interest in China. The rapid development of industry has led to an increase in the haze created by pollution, as well as by high levels of urbanization. In 2012, the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) imposed `more strict' regulation on the PM concentrations, i.e., 35 and 70 μg/m3 for annual PM2.5 and PM10 in average, respectively (Grade-II, GB3095-2012). The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear relationship of pollution between pollution levels and weather conditions as well as the temporal and spatial variability among neighbouring cities. The goal of this paper was to investigate hourly mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 from June 1 to August 31, 2015 collected in the 11 largest cities of Gansu Province. This study has shown that the overall average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the study area were 26 and 66 μg/m3. In PM2.5 episode days (when concentration was more than 75 μg/m3 for 24 hrs), the average concentrations of PM2.5 was 2-3 times higher as compared to non-episode days. There were no observed clear differences during the weekday/weekend PM and other air pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO and O3) in all the investigated cities.

  19. 10-year spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern US estimated using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of the spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are important. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been increasingly used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, previous studies indicated that an inherent disadvantage of many AOD products is their coarse spatial resolution. For instance, the available spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) AOD products are 10 and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm based on MODIS measurements was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US centered at the Atlanta metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted annually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, mean prediction error (MPE) from 1.73 to 2.50 μg m-3, and root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) from 2.75 to 4.10 μg m-3. In addition, we found cross-validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 μg m-3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 μg m-3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends showed that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. Our time

  20. Comparative PM10-PM2.5 source contribution study at rural, urban and industrial sites during PM episodes in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, María-Mar; Alarcón, Marta; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, C R

    2004-07-26

    In this study a set of 340 PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected throughout 16 months at rural, an urban kerbside and an industrial background site (affected by the emissions from the ceramic manufacture and other activities) were interpreted. On the regional scale, the main PM10 sources were mineral dust (mainly Al2O3, Fe, Ti, Sr, CaCO3, Mg, Mn and K), emissions derived from power generation (SO4=, V, Zn and Ni), vehicle exhausts (organic and elemental carbon, NO3- and trace elements) and marine aerosol (Na, Cl and Mg). The latter was not identified in PM2.5. At the industrial site, additional PM10 sources were identified (tile covering in the ceramic production, petrochemical emissions and bio-mass burning from a large orange tree cultivation area). The contribution of each PM source to PM10 and PM2.5 levels experiences significant variations depending on the type of PM episode (Local-urban mainly in autumn-winter, regional mainly in summer, African or Atlantic episode), which are discussed in this study. The results show that it would be very difficult to meet the EU limit values for PM10 established for 2010. The annual mean PM levels are 22.0 microg PM10/m3 at the rural and 49.5 microg PM10/m3 and 33.9 microg PM2.5/m3 at the urban site. The natural contribution in this region, estimated at 6 microg/m3 of natural mineral dust (resulting from the African events and natural resuspension) and 2 microg/m3 of marine aerosol, accounts for 40% of the 2010 EU annual limit value (20 microg PM10/m3). Mineral dust concentrations at the urban and industrial sites are higher than those at the rural site because of the urban road dust and the ceramic-production contributions, respectively. At the urban site, the vehicle exhaust contribution (17 microg/m3) alone is very close to the 2010 EU PM10 limit value. At the rural site, the African dust is the main contributor to PM10 levels during the highest daily mean PM10 events (100th-97th percentile range). At the urban site, the

  1. A dual site study of PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosol chemistry in the larger region of Vienna, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxbaum, H.; Gomiscek, B.; Kalina, M.; Bauer, H.; Salam, A.; Stopper, S.; Preining, O.; Hauck, H.

    The measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 at two sites—an urban site in Vienna (AUPHEP-1) and a rural site considered local background (AUPHEP-2)—indicated only low aerosol generation activity in the city on an annual basis. Defining the term "urban impact" as the difference between observations at the urban and the local background site we find an annually averaged urban impact for PM 2.5 of 3.4 μg m -3 and for PM C of 3.3 μg m -3 (the coarse fraction PM C=PM 10-PM 2.5). The relative increase of the particulate matter (PM) concentration at the urban site compared to the background site (AUPHEP-2) is annually averaged only 19% for PM 2.5, but 60% for PM C. The chemical main constituents of the PM 2.5 urban impact are black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate; the main constituents of the PM C urban impact are OC and indicators for mineralic aerosol (Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K). The BC/TC ratio of the PM 2.5 urban impact is typical as for combustion sources, e.g. automotive traffic, oil or coal combustion. Urban coarse OC is considered to originate from non-pyrogenic sources. From the trace metals investigated (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) only Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhibited a slight cold season enrichment in the urban airshed. From the weak signal of a seasonality of oil or coal combustion indicators we conclude that local domestic heating sources are using "clean fuels".

  2. Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Gerard; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Fischer, Paul; van Bree, Leendert; ten Brink, Harry; Keuken, Menno; Atkinson, Richard W.; Anderson, H. Ross; Brunekreef, Bert; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) use the PM mass concentration [PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] as a metric. It has been suggested that particles from combustion sources are more relevant to human health than are particles from other sources, but the impact of policies directed at reducing PM from combustion processes is usually relatively small when effects are estimated for a reduction in the total mass concentration. Objectives: We evaluated the value of black carbon particles (BCP) as an additional indicator in air quality management. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of health effects of BCP compared with PM mass based on data from time-series studies and cohort studies that measured both exposures. We compared the potential health benefits of a hypothetical traffic abatement measure, using near-roadway concentration increments of BCP and PM2.5 based on data from prior studies. Results: Estimated health effects of a 1-μg/m3 increase in exposure were greater for BCP than for PM10 or PM2.5, but estimated effects of an interquartile range increase were similar. Two-pollutant models in time-series studies suggested that the effect of BCP was more robust than the effect of PM mass. The estimated increase in life expectancy associated with a hypothetical traffic abatement measure was four to nine times higher when expressed in BCP compared with an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. Conclusion: BCP is a valuable additional air quality indicator to evaluate the health risks of air quality dominated by primary combustion particles. PMID:21810552

  3. Developing Street-Level PM2.5 and PM10 Land Use Regression Models in High-Density Hong Kong with Urban Morphological Factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring street-level particulates is essential to air quality management but challenging in high-density Hong Kong due to limitations in local monitoring network and the complexities of street environment. By employing vehicle-based mobile measurements, land use regression (LUR) models were developed to estimate the spatial variation of PM2.5 and PM10 in the downtown area of Hong Kong. Sampling runs were conducted along routes measuring a total of 30 km during a selected measurement period of total 14 days. In total, 321 independent variables were examined to develop LUR models by using stepwise regression with PM2.5 and PM10 as dependent variables. Approximately, 10% increases in the model adjusted R(2) were achieved by integrating urban/building morphology as independent variables into the LUR models. Resultant LUR models show that the most decisive factors on street-level air quality in Hong Kong are frontal area index, an urban/building morphological parameter, and road network line density and traffic volume, two parameters of road traffic. The adjusted R(2) of the final LUR models of PM2.5 and PM10 are 0.633 and 0.707, respectively. These results indicate that urban morphology is more decisive to the street-level air quality in high-density cities than other cities. Air pollution hotspots were also identified based on the LUR mapping. PMID:27381187

  4. Developing Street-Level PM2.5 and PM10 Land Use Regression Models in High-Density Hong Kong with Urban Morphological Factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring street-level particulates is essential to air quality management but challenging in high-density Hong Kong due to limitations in local monitoring network and the complexities of street environment. By employing vehicle-based mobile measurements, land use regression (LUR) models were developed to estimate the spatial variation of PM2.5 and PM10 in the downtown area of Hong Kong. Sampling runs were conducted along routes measuring a total of 30 km during a selected measurement period of total 14 days. In total, 321 independent variables were examined to develop LUR models by using stepwise regression with PM2.5 and PM10 as dependent variables. Approximately, 10% increases in the model adjusted R(2) were achieved by integrating urban/building morphology as independent variables into the LUR models. Resultant LUR models show that the most decisive factors on street-level air quality in Hong Kong are frontal area index, an urban/building morphological parameter, and road network line density and traffic volume, two parameters of road traffic. The adjusted R(2) of the final LUR models of PM2.5 and PM10 are 0.633 and 0.707, respectively. These results indicate that urban morphology is more decisive to the street-level air quality in high-density cities than other cities. Air pollution hotspots were also identified based on the LUR mapping.

  5. Monthly application of 10 per cent moxidectin and 2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on to prevent relapses in generalised demodicosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Leone, F; Vercelli, A; Cornegliani, L

    2012-09-15

    Canine generalised demodicosis (GD) can be difficult to cure, with some dogs requiring life-long treatment. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of monthly 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on in maintaining long-term (12 months) clinical and parasitological remission in dogs with relapsing GD. Fourteen dogs were included: 10 with juvenile-onset GD (JOGD) and four with adult-onset GD (AOGD). All dogs had been treated previously and relapsed (1-4 times). Each dog was treated again with either milbemycin oxime 2 mg/kg or ivermectin 400 μg/kg orally once daily, until two consecutive negative skin scrapings at one-month intervals (total 4-7 months of treatment). After treatment discontinuation, 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on was applied monthly for 12 months. Dogs were rechecked after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months, and multiple skin scrapings were taken. Twelve dogs completed the study and were clinically normal and parasitologically negative at each recheck (four dogs with AOGD and eight with JOGD). One dog died suddenly for unrelated reasons, and one dog relapsed. Results of this pilot study suggest that monthly application of 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on may be effective as maintenance therapy in relapsing cases of GD.

  6. Estimation of the direct and indirect impacts of fireworks on the physicochemical characteristics of atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y. Z.; Wang, J.; Peng, X.; Shi, G. L.; Feng, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    To quantify the total, direct and indirect impacts of fireworks individually, size-resolved PM samples were collected before, during and after a Chinese folk festival (Chinese New Year) in a megacity in China. Through chemical analysis and morphological characterisation, a strong influence of fireworks on the physicochemical characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was observed. The concentrations of many species exhibited an increasing trend during the heavy-firework period, especially for K+, Mg2+ and Cr; the results of the non-sea-salt ions demonstrated an anthropogenic influence on K+ and Mg2+. Then, source apportionment was conducted by receptor models and peak analysis (PA). The total influence of the fireworks was quantified by positive matrix factorisation (PMF), showing that the fireworks contributed higher fractions (23.40% for PM10 and 29.66% for PM2.5) during the heavy-firework period than during the light-firework period (4.28% for PM10 and 7.18% for PM2.5). The profiles of the total fireworks obtained by two independent methods (PMF and peak analysis) were consistent, with higher abundances of K+, Al, Si, Ca and organic carbon (OC). Finally, the individual contributions of the direct and indirect impacts of fireworks were quantified by chemical mass balance (CMB). The percentage contributions of resuspended dust, biomass combustion and direct fireworks were 36.8 ± 8.37%, 14.1 ± 2.82% and 44.4 ± 8.26%, respectively, for PM10 and 34.9 ± 4.19%, 16.6 ± 3.05% and 52.5 ± 9.69%, respectively, for PM2.5, in terms of the total fireworks. The quantification of the total, direct and indirect impacts of fireworks in the ambient PM gives a original contribution for understanding the physicochemical characteristics and mechanisms of such high-intensity anthropogenic activities.

  7. PM10 and PM2.5 and health risk assessment for heavy metals in a typical factory for cathode ray tube television recycling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-01-01

    The representative waste television recycling process was chosen as the object of this study, including manual dismantling and mechanical separation of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in two independent workshops. During these recycling processes, fine particulate matter and heavy metals will be released into the air to impact the environment and the health of the workers. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 (particles below 2.5 μm diameter) in mechanical and dismantling workshops ranged from 252.6 to 290.8 μg/m(3) and from 112.7 to 169.4 μg/m(3), respectively. The average concentration of PM2.5 around the workshop was 98.5 μg/m(3). Meanwhile, the contents of PM10 (particles below 10 μm diameter) were all below the risk threshold, except that (360.4 μg/m(3)) monitored in the mechanical workshop. In two workshops, Pb (20.46 and 6.935 mg/g) was the most enriched metal in the PM2.5 samples, while in PM10, the concentration of Cu (27.76 and 31.80 mg/g) was the largest. The concentration of Cd was the least in both PM10 and PM2.5. Health risk assessment showed that the total hazard indexes for non-carcinogenic metal in PM2.5 monitored in mechanical and dismantling workshops and in the southeast of the workshops were 7.61, 3.01, and 1.57, respectively, all above the safety level. Furthermore, Pb (7.28 and 3.01) might possibly have a non-carcinogenic effect on the workers in two workshops, and the sequence of the hazard quotient (HQ) through the three exposure ways was ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The lifetime cancer risk of four targeted metals was Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd, which could be proven in all monitoring samples. This study aims to provide a large amount of valid data for the State Environmental Protection Department to develop relevant environmental standards and for companies to improve the waste television recycling system to be more efficiently and environmentally friendly.

  8. Total and water-soluble trace metal content of urban background PM 10, PM 2.5 and black smoke in Edinburgh, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heal, Mathew R.; Hibbs, Leon R.; Agius, Raymond M.; Beverland, Iain J.

    Toxicological studies have implicated trace metals in airborne particles as possible contributors to respiratory and/or cardiovascular inflammation. As part of an epidemiological study, co-located 24 h samples of PM 10, PM 2.5 and black smoke (BS) were collected for 1 year at an urban background site in Edinburgh, and each sample sequentially extracted with ultra-pure water, then concentrated HNO 3/HCl, and analysed for Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. This yields a comprehensive data set for UK urban airborne trace metal. The median ( n>349) daily water-soluble metal concentration in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.05 ng m -3 for Ti to 5.1 ng m -3 for Pb; and in PM 10 from 0.18 ng m -3 for Ti to 11.7 ng m -3 for Fe. Median daily total (i.e. water+acid-extractable) metal concentration in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.3 ng m -3 for As to 27.6 ng m -3 for Fe; and in PM 10 from 0.37 ng m -3 for As to 183 ng m -3 for Fe. The PM 2.5:PM 10 ratio varied considerably with metal, from <17%, on average, for Ti and Fe, to >70% for V, As, Cd and Pb. The 11 trace metals constituted proportionally more of the PM 10-2.5 fraction than of the PM 2.5 fraction (0.9%). The proportion of water-soluble metal in each size-fraction varied considerably, from <10% water-soluble Fe and Ti in PM 10-2.5, to >50% water-soluble V, Zn, As and Cd in PM 2.5. Although Fe generally dominated the trace metal, water-soluble metal also contained significant Zn, Pb and Cu, and for all size and solubility fractions >90% of trace metal was comprised of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu. Statistical analyses suggested three main sources: traffic; static combustion; and crustal. The association of metals with traffic (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) was consistent with traffic-induced non-exhaust "resuspension" rather than direct exhaust emission. Meteorology contributed to the wide variation in daily trace metal concentration. The proportion of trace metal in particles varied significantly with the air mass source and was highest on days for

  9. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters <2.5 μm (PM2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  12. Source apportionment of visual impairment during the California regional PM 10/PM 2.5 air quality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Ying, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2009-12-01

    Gases and particulate matter predictions from the UCD/CIT air quality model were used in a visibility model to predict source contributions to visual impairment in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), the southern portion of California's Central Valley, during December 2000 and January 2001. Within the SJV, daytime (0800-1700 PST) light extinction was dominated by scattering associated with airborne particles. Measured daytime particle scattering coefficients were compared to predicted values at approximately 40 locations across the SJV after correction for the increased temperature and decreased relative humidity produced by "smart heaters" placed upstream of nephelometers. Mean fractional bias and mean fractional error were -0.22 and 0.65, respectively, indicating reasonable agreement between model predictions and measurements. Particulate water, nitrate, organic matter, and ammonium were the major particulate species contributing to light scattering in the SJV. Daytime light extinction in the SJV averaged between December 25, 2000 and January 7, 2001 was mainly associated with animal ammonia sources (28%), diesel engines (18%), catalyst gasoline engines (9%), other anthropogenic sources (9%), and wood smoke (7%) with initial and boundary conditions accounting for 13%. The source apportionment results from this study apply to wintertime conditions when airborne particulate matter concentrations are typically at their annual maximum. Further study would be required to quantify source contributions to light extinction in other seasons.

  13. The variation of chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 and formation causes during two haze pollution events in urban Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Tian, Hezhong; Cheng, Ke; Lu, Long; Zheng, Mei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Kun; Hua, Shenbing; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particles in urban Beijing during haze days and normal days were collected and analyzed in the autumn and winter seasons to reveal the chemical characteristics variations of air pollution. The air quality in haze days was substantially worse than that in normal days. Both the relatively low wind speed and high relative humidity were in favor of the accumulation of pollution species and new formation of secondary PM2.5 in the atmosphere. Elevated concentrations of elements and water-soluble inorganic ions were found on haze days for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particularly, the crustal element, such as Fe, in both PM10 and PM2.5 were substantially higher in autumn normal days and winter haze days than those in autumn haze days and winter normal days, indicating that the abundance of Fe in autumn haze days mainly be originated from crustal dust while in winter haze days it might be primarily emitted from anthropogenic sources (iron and steel smelting) instead of road dust. Secondary ion species (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) in particles were generated much more during haze episodes, and contributed a higher proportion in PM2.5 than in PM10 during the two sampling periods. Moreover, HYSPLIT model was used to explain the possible transport of airborne particles from distant sources. By comparing with south-type trajectory, west-type trajectory entrained larger amounts of primary crustal pollutants, while, south-type trajectory was comprised of a higher mass of anthropogenic pollution species. The results of back trajectory analysis indicated that the elevated concentration of aerosol and its chemical components during haze days might be caused by the integrated effects of accumulation under stagnant meteorological condition and the transport emissions of pollutants from anthropogenic sources surrounding Beijing city.

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  20. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  2. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  3. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore....

  4. Performance evaluation of air quality models for predicting PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at urban traffic intersection during winter period.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sharad; Raokhande, Namita

    2008-05-01

    There are several models that can be used to evaluate roadside air quality. The comparison of the operational performance of different models pertinent to local conditions is desirable so that the model that performs best can be identified. Three air quality models, namely the 'modified General Finite Line Source Model' (M-GFLSM) of particulates, the 'California Line Source' (CALINE3) model, and the 'California Line Source for Queuing & Hot Spot Calculations' (CAL3QHC) model have been identified for evaluating the air quality at one of the busiest traffic intersections in the city of Guwahati. These models have been evaluated statistically with the vehicle-derived airborne particulate mass emissions in two sizes, i.e. PM10 and PM2.5, the prevailing meteorology and the temporal distribution of the measured daily average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in wintertime. The study has shown that the CAL3QHC model would make better predictions compared to other models for varied meteorology and traffic conditions. The detailed study reveals that the agreements between the measured and the modeled PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations have been reasonably good for CALINE3 and CAL3QHC models. Further detailed analysis shows that the CAL3QHC model performed well compared to the CALINE3. The monthly performance measures have also led to the similar results. These two models have also outperformed for a class of wind speed velocities except for low winds (<1 m s(-1)), for which, the M-GFLSM model has shown the tendency of better performance for PM10. Nevertheless, the CAL3QHC model has outperformed for both the particulate sizes and for all the wind classes, which therefore can be optional for air quality assessment at urban traffic intersections. PMID:18289641

  5. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  6. Wide-band (2.5 - 10.5 µm), high-frame rate IRFPAs based on high-operability MCT on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosbie, Michael J.; Giess, Jean; Gordon, Neil T.; Hall, David J.; Hails, Janet E.; Lees, David J.; Little, Christopher J.; Phillips, Tim S.

    2010-04-01

    We have previously presented results from our mercury cadmium telluride (MCT, Hg1-xCdxTe) growth on silicon substrate technology for different applications, including negative luminescence, long waveband and mid/long dual waveband infrared imaging. In this paper, we review recent developments in QinetiQ's combined molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) MCT growth on silicon; including MCT defect density, uniformity and reproducibility. We also present a new small-format (128 x 128) focal plane array (FPA) for high frame-rate applications. A custom high-speed readout integrated circuit (ROIC) was developed with a large pitch and large charge storage aimed at producing a very high performance FPA (NETD ~10mK) operating at frame rates up to 2kHz for the full array. The array design allows random addressing and this allows the maximum frame rate to be increased as the window size is reduced. A broadband (2.5-10.5 μm) MCT heterostructure was designed and grown by the MBE/MOVPE technique onto silicon substrates. FPAs were fabricated using our standard techniques; wet-etched mesa diodes passivated with epitaxial CdTe and flip-chip bonded to the ROIC. The resulting focal plane arrays were characterized at the maximum frame rate and shown to have the high operabilities and low NETD values characteristic of our LWIR MCT on silicon technology.

  7. Stochastic univariate and multivariate time series analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 air pollution: A comparative case study for Plovdiv and Asenovgrad, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Stoimenova, M.; Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Iliev, I.

    2016-10-01

    Fine particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 air pollutants are a serious problem in many urban areas affecting both the health of the population and the environment as a whole. The availability of large data arrays for the levels of these pollutants makes it possible to perform statistical analysis, to obtain relevant information, and to find patterns within the data. Research in this field is particularly topical for a number of Bulgarian cities, European country, where in recent years regulatory air pollution health limits are constantly being exceeded. This paper examines average daily data for air pollution with PM2.5 and PM10, collected by 3 monitoring stations in the cities of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad between 2011 and 2016. The goal is to find and analyze actual relationships in data time series, to build adequate mathematical models, and to develop short-term forecasts. Modeling is carried out by stochastic univariate and multivariate time series analysis, based on Box-Jenkins methodology. The best models are selected following initial transformation of the data and using a set of standard and robust statistical criteria. The Mathematica and SPSS software were used to perform calculations. This examination showed measured concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the region of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad regularly exceed permissible European and national health and safety thresholds. We obtained adequate stochastic models with high statistical fit with the data and good quality forecasting when compared against actual measurements. The mathematical approach applied provides an independent alternative to standard official monitoring and control means for air pollution in urban areas.

  8. Influence of doping on the physical properties of Ca10-xRExPt3As8(Fe2-yPtyAs2)5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayun; Karki, Amar; Jin, Rongying

    2015-03-01

    Ca10-xRExPt3As8(Fe2-yPtyAs2)5 is a new FeAs-based superconductor. We report the change of its superconducting transition temperature Tc and physical properties upon chemical doping in either Ca (using La or Gd) or Fe (using Pt) site. While partial replacement of Fe by Pt results in Tc up to 21 K , we find that the substitution of Ca by La is most effective pushing Tc to 30 K. The doping in both sites reduces the in-plane resistivity and anisotropy. The doping dependance of electrical transport properties will be presented and discussed.

  9. Magnetic and transport properties of iron-platinum arsenide Ca10(Pt4-δAs8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qing-Ping; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Mohan, Shyam; Taen, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We report superconducting properties of single crystalline Ca10(Pt4-δAs8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 by x-ray diffraction, magnetization, resistivity, and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The magnetization measurements reveal a fish-tail hysteresis loop and relatively high critical current density Jc ˜ 0.8 × 105 A/cm2 at low temperatures. The exponential temperature dependence of Jc, which arises from the nonlinear effective flux-creep activation energy, has been observed. The upper critical field determined by resistive transition shows a relatively large anisotropy. The magneto-optical images reveal a homogenous current flow within the crystal.

  10. Impact of harbour emissions on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 in Barcelona (Spain): Evidences of secondary aerosol formation within the urban area.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Noemí; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Cortés, Joaquim; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-11-15

    With the objective of estimating the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 levels at the urban area of Barcelona, a one year long monitoring campaign was carried out in the context of the European APICE project (MED-FEDER-EC). This campaign was simultaneously conducted at the port and a central urban background site. A detailed PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation analysis was carried out with samples from both sites. Subsequently, a source apportionment analysis by means of the PMF receptor model was performed. Six common factors were identified, explaining local to regional emission sources (fuel oil combustion, industrial emissions, mineral-road dust resuspension, and road traffic emissions) and aerosol formation/transformation processes (secondary aerosols including ammonium sulphate and organic aerosols, and a mixed source accounting for aged sea spray and secondary nitrate). Around 50-55% PM10 and PM2.5 measured at the port was attributed to harbour activities: mineral matter from road dust and construction works of a new port area, vehicle traffic and fuel oil combustion. The estimated contribution of harbour emissions to the urban background reached 9-12% for PM10 and 11-15% for PM2.5 and is linked to primary emissions from fuel oil combustion but also to the formation of secondary aerosols. It becomes relevant to highlight the significantly higher contribution of secondary aerosols at the urban background when compared with the harbour site. Our hypothesis points to the fast formation of secondary ammonium sulphate within the city, after the reaction of SO2/H2SO4 transported by sea breezes with NH3, which is emitted in large amounts in Barcelona; and also to the enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols within the city. This study broadens our knowledge on atmospheric phenomenology in urban Mediterranean cities and claims for effective abatement strategies focused on maritime practises, in agreement with the driving axis of the APICE

  11. Superconductivity in Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2As2)5 with Square-Planar Coordination of Iridium

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kazutaka; Mitsuoka, Daisuke; Takasuga, Masaya; Sugiyama, Yuki; Sugawara, Kento; Katayama, Naoyuki; Sawa, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hiroaki S.; Takamori, Kenta; Ichioka, Masanori; Fujii, Tatsuo; Mizokawa, Takashi; Nohara, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    We report the unprecedented square-planar coordination of iridium in the iron iridium arsenide Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2As2)5. This material experiences superconductivity at 16 K. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles band calculation suggest Ir(II) oxidation state, which yields electrically conductive Ir4As8 layers. Such metallic spacer layers are thought to enhance the interlayer coupling of Fe2As2, in which superconductivity emerges, thus offering a way to control the superconducting transition temperature. PMID:24173038

  12. Correlating bioaerosol load with PM2.5 and PM10cf concentrations: a comparison between natural desert and urban-fringe aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreson, Justin; Dillner, Ann M.; Peccia, Jordan

    2004-11-01

    Seasonal allergies and microbial mediated respiratory diseases, can coincide with elevated particulate matter concentrations, often when dry desert soils are disturbed. In addition to effects from the allergens, allergic and asthmatic responses may be enhanced when chemical and biological constituents of particulate matter (PM) are combined together. Because of these associations and also the recent regulatory and health-related interests of monitoring PM2.5, separately from total PM10, the biological loading between the fine (dp<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 μm10 μm) size ranges of PM was studied. To investigate spatial and seasonal differences of biological loading within PM, 24-h fine and coarse PM fractions were collected at a natural desert area and an urban fringe site located in the expanding Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area during winter, spring, and summer seasons. Elemental carbon and inorganic ions were measured to determine the relative influence that anthropogenic sources, such as traffic, had on the aerosol composition. Total protein concentration was used as a surrogate measure of total biological concentration within the PM2.5 and PM10cf (coarse fraction) size ranges. In all seasons, coarse protein at the urban fringe was consistently higher than the natural desert. When high-anthropogenic PM events were separated from the data set, a positive significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between protein and coarse PM fraction, but not in the fine fraction. An 18S rDNA clone library was developed from PM10 aerosol samples to characterize the type and phylogenetic diversity of airborne eukaryotic (non-bacterial) microorganisms existing in ambient PM for the urban fringe and natural desert. Both sites contained allergenic organisms. Some groups of eukaryotic species were exclusive to only one of the sites. The natural desert contained more species of Basidiomycota fungi and the urban fringe contained more species of green plants, suggesting that the

  13. Impact of harbour emissions on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 in Barcelona (Spain): Evidences of secondary aerosol formation within the urban area.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Noemí; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Cortés, Joaquim; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2016-11-15

    With the objective of estimating the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM10 and PM2.5 levels at the urban area of Barcelona, a one year long monitoring campaign was carried out in the context of the European APICE project (MED-FEDER-EC). This campaign was simultaneously conducted at the port and a central urban background site. A detailed PM10 and PM2.5 chemical speciation analysis was carried out with samples from both sites. Subsequently, a source apportionment analysis by means of the PMF receptor model was performed. Six common factors were identified, explaining local to regional emission sources (fuel oil combustion, industrial emissions, mineral-road dust resuspension, and road traffic emissions) and aerosol formation/transformation processes (secondary aerosols including ammonium sulphate and organic aerosols, and a mixed source accounting for aged sea spray and secondary nitrate). Around 50-55% PM10 and PM2.5 measured at the port was attributed to harbour activities: mineral matter from road dust and construction works of a new port area, vehicle traffic and fuel oil combustion. The estimated contribution of harbour emissions to the urban background reached 9-12% for PM10 and 11-15% for PM2.5 and is linked to primary emissions from fuel oil combustion but also to the formation of secondary aerosols. It becomes relevant to highlight the significantly higher contribution of secondary aerosols at the urban background when compared with the harbour site. Our hypothesis points to the fast formation of secondary ammonium sulphate within the city, after the reaction of SO2/H2SO4 transported by sea breezes with NH3, which is emitted in large amounts in Barcelona; and also to the enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols within the city. This study broadens our knowledge on atmospheric phenomenology in urban Mediterranean cities and claims for effective abatement strategies focused on maritime practises, in agreement with the driving axis of the APICE

  14. Elemental characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 emitted from light duty vehicles in the Washburn Tunnel of Houston, Texas: release of rhodium, palladium, and platinum.

    PubMed

    Bozlaker, Ayşe; Spada, Nicholas J; Fraser, Matthew P; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2014-01-01

    We report the elemental composition, including Rh, Pd, and Pt, of total (i.e., tailpipe and nontailpipe) PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from predominantly gasoline-driven light-duty vehicles (LDVs) traversing the Washburn Tunnel in Houston, Texas during November and December, 2012. Using a novel sample preparation and dynamic reaction cell-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique, we quantify the emission of numerous representative, transition, and lanthanoid elements. Two sets of time integrated PM samples were collected over 3-4week duration both inside the tunnel as well as from the tunnel ventilation air supply to derive accurate LDV source profiles incorporating three platinum group elements (PGEs) for the first time. Average Rh, Pd, and Pt concentrations from the tunnel ventilation air supply were 1.5, 11.1, and 4.5pgm(-3) in PM2.5 and 3.8, 23.1, and 15.1pgm(-3) in PM10, respectively. Rh, Pd, and Pt levels were elevated inside the Washburn Tunnel reaching 12.5, 91.1, and 30.1pgm(-3) in PM2.5 and 36.3, 214, and 61.1pgm(-3) in PM10, respectively. Significantly higher enrichment factors of Cu, Zr, Rh, Pd, Sb, and Pt (referenced to Ti in the upper continental crust) inside the tunnel compared with the ventilation air supply suggested that they are unique elemental tracers of PM derived from gasoline-driven LDVs. This highlights the importance of advancing methods to quantify the trace level PGE emissions as a technique to more accurately estimate LDVs' contributions to airborne PM. Using the emission profile based on PGEs and ambient quantification, mass balancing revealed that approximately half the fine PM mass in the tunnel could be attributed to tailpipe emissions, approximately one-quarter to road dust, with smaller contributions from brake (7%) and tire (3%) wear. On the other hand, PM10 mostly originated from resuspended road dust (∼50%), with progressively lower contributions from tailpipe emissions (14%), brake wear (9%), and tire

  15. 10 CFR 10.25 - NRC Hearing Counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRC Hearing Counsel. 10.25 Section 10.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.25 NRC Hearing Counsel....

  16. Variability of aerosols and chemical composition of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on a platform of the Prague underground metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Talbot, N.; Ondráček, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Martins, V.; Klouda, K.; Schwarz, J.; Ždímal, V.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 and particle number concentration and size distribution were measured for 24 h on a platform of the Prague underground metro in October 2013. The three PM fractions were analysed for major and minor elements, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and total carbon (TC). Measurements were performed both when the metro was inoperative and closed to the public (referred to as background), and when the metro was in operation and open to passengers. PM concentrations were elevated during both periods, but were substantially increased in the coarse fraction during hours when the metro was in operation. Average PM concentrations were 214.8, 93.9 and 44.8 μg m-3 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively (determined gravimetrically). Average particle number concentrations were 8.5 × 103 cm-3 for background hours and 11.5 × 103 cm-3 during operational hours. Particle number concentrations were found to not vary as significantly as PM concentrations throughout the day. Variations in PM were strongly governed by passing trains, with highest concentrations recorded during rush hour. When trains were less frequent, PM concentrations were shown to fluctuate in unison with the entrance and exit of trains (as shown by wind velocity measured on the platform). PM was found to be highly enriched with iron, especially in the coarse fraction, comprising 46% of PM10 (98.9 μg m-3). This reduces to 6.7 μg m-3 during background hours, proving that the trains themselves were the main source of iron, most probably from wheel-rail mechanical abrasion. Other enriched elements relative to background hours included Ba, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni and Co, among others. Many of these elements exhibited a similar size distribution, further indicating their sources were common and were attributed to train operations.

  17. Levels, sources and seasonality of coarse particles (PM10-PM2.5) in three European capitals - Implications for particulate pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassomenos, P.; Vardoulakis, S.; Chaloulakou, A.; Grivas, G.; Borge, R.; Lumbreras, J.

    2012-07-01

    Coarse particles of aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMc) are produced by a range of natural (windblown dust and sea sprays) and anthropogenic processes (non-exhaust vehicle emissions, industrial, agriculture, construction and quarrying activities). Although current ambient air quality regulations focus on PM2.5 and PM10, coarse particles are of interest from a public health point of view as they have been associated with certain mortality and morbidity outcomes. In this paper, an analysis of coarse particle levels in three European capitals (London, Madrid and Athens) is presented and discussed. For all three cities we analysed data from both traffic and urban background monitoring sites. The results showed that the levels of coarse particles present significant seasonal, weekly and daily variability. Their wind driven and non-wind driven resuspension as well as their roadside increment due to traffic were estimated. Both the local meteorological conditions and the air mass history indicating long-range atmospheric transport of particles of natural origin are significant parameters that influence the levels of coarse particles in the three cities especially during episodic events.

  18. The impact of a Bus Rapid Transit system on commuters' exposure to Benzene, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; Zuk, Miriam; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Cerón, Julia; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    Carbon monoxide (CO), benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and suspended particles PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured inside public transportation vehicles, before and after a new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was implemented in Mexico City in June 2005. The objective was to evaluate the BRT system's impact on commuters' exposure to these air pollutants. The BRT system replaced conventional transport modes along 20 km of Insurgentes Avenue, and features confined corridors and new articulated diesel buses. We assessed the impact of the transportation mode on commuters' exposure using least squares regression models. We also analyzed the chemical composition of VOCs to evaluate the possible origin of these species. The implementation of the BRT system resulted in reductions in commuters' exposure to CO, benzene and PM 2.5 ranging between 20% and 70%. No significant reductions in PM 10 exposure were observed. Lower commuting times further reduced total commuters' exposure. Major sources affecting VOCs inside all transport modes are likely to be related to traffic and to emissions from the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. The results suggest that BRT systems could in general be an effective means of reducing human exposure to traffic related air pollutants and associated health impacts.

  19. Anisotropy of iron-platinum-arsenide Ca10(PtnAs8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F. F.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, W.; Zhou, X.; Ding, Q. P.; Iida, K.; Hühne, R.; Schultz, L.; Tamegai, T.; Shi, Z. X.

    2015-07-01

    The upper critical field Hc2 anisotropy of Ca10(PtnAs8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 (n = 3, 4) single crystals with long FeAs interlayer distance (d) was studied by angular dependent resistivity measurements. A scaling of the angular dependent resistivity was realized for both single crystals using the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau (AGL) approach with an appropriate anisotropy parameter γ. The AGL scaling parameter γ increases with decreasing temperature and reaches a value of about 10 at 0.8Tc for both single crystals. These values are much larger than those of other iron-based superconductors (FeSCs). Remarkably, the values of γ2 show an almost linear increase with the FeAs/FeSe interlayer distance d for FeSCs. Compared to cuprates, FeSCs are less anisotropic, indicating that two dimensionality of the superconductivity is intrinsically weak.

  20. 10-25 GHz frequency reconfigurable MEMS 5-bit phase shifter using push-pull actuator based toggle mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a frequency tunable 5-bit true-time-delay digital phase shifter using radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) technology. The phase shifter is based on the distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) concept utilizing a MEMS varactor. The main source of frequency tuning in this work is a bridge actuation mechanism followed by capacitance variation. Two stages of actuation mechanisms (push and pull) are used to achieve a 2:1 tuning ratio. Accurate control of the actuation voltage between the pull to push stages contributes differential phase shift over the band of interest. The functional behavior of the push-pull actuation over the phase shifter application is theoretically established, experimentally investigated and validated with simulation. The phase shifter is fabricated monolithically using a gold based surface micromachining process on an alumina substrate. The individual primary phase-bits (11.25°/22.5°/45°/90°/180°) that are the fundamental building blocks of the complete 5-bit phase shifter are designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized from 10-25 GHz for specific applications. Finally, the complete 5-bit phase shifter demonstrates an average phase error of 4.32°, 2.8°, 1° and 1.58°, an average insertion loss of 3.76, 4.1, 4.2 and 4.84 dB and an average return loss of 11.7, 12, 14 and 11.8 dB at 10, 12, 17.2 and 25 GHz, respectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported band tunable stand alone 5-bit phase shifter in the literature which can work over the large spectrum for different applications. The total area of the 5-bit phase shifter is 15.6 mm2. Furthermore, the cold-switched reliability of the unit cell and the complete 5-bit MEMS phase shifter are extensively investigated and presented.

  1. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin topical solution for the treatment of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Arther, R G; Davis, W L; Jacobsen, J A; Lewis, V A; Settje, T L

    2015-05-30

    A clinical field investigation was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin for the treatment of ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) in dogs. The study was a multi-centered, blinded, positive controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted under field conditions with privately owned pets. A total of 17 veterinary clinics enrolled cases for the study. An otoscopic examination was performed to confirm the presence of O. cynotis residing in the ear of the dog prior to enrollment. A single-dog household was enrolled in the study if the dog had 5 or more ear mites and an acceptable physical examination. A multi-dog household was eligible if at least one dog in the household had 5 or more mites and all dogs in the household had acceptable physical exams and met the inclusion criteria. Qualified households were randomly assigned to treatments to receive either 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin topical solution or topical selamectin solution (positive control product) according to a pre-designated enrollment ratio of 2:1, respectively. If more than one dog in a multiple dog household had adequate numbers of ear mites, one dog was randomly selected to represent the household for efficacy evaluation prior to treatment. Treatments were administered twice per label and dose banding directions for each product approximately 28 days apart (Days 0 and 28), by the dog's owner at the study site. All dogs in a household were treated on the same day and with the same product. The owners completed a post-treatment observation form one day after each treatment. Post-treatment otoscopic examinations were performed by the investigators or attending veterinarian on Days 28 and 56. Physical examinations were performed on Days 0 and 56. One hundred and four (104) households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 28, and 102 households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 56. The dogs' ages ranged from 2 months to 16 years. A total of 247 dogs were evaluated for

  2. Characterizing metal(loid) solubility in airborne PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in Frankfurt, Germany using simulated lung fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Clare L. S.; Zereini, Fathi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the solubility of traffic-related metal(loid)s associated with airborne PM of human health concern, employing a physiologically-based extraction test with simulated lung fluids (artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution). Airborne PM (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) samples were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using a high volume sampler. Following extraction of the soluble metal(loid) fractions, sample filters were digested with a high pressure asher. Metal(loid) concentrations (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V) were determined in extracts and digests per ICP-Q-MS. All metal(loid)s occurred at detectable concentrations in the three airborne PM fractions. Copper was the most abundant element in mass terms, with mean concentrations of 105 and 53 ng/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Many of the metal(loid)s were observed to be soluble in simulated lung fluids, with Cu, As, V and Sb demonstrating the highest overall mobility in airborne PM. For instance, all four elements associated with PM10 had a solubility of >80% in ALF (24 h). Clearly, solubility is strongly pH dependent, as reflected by the higher relative mobility of samples extracted with the acidic ALF. Given their demonstrated solubility, this study provides indirect evidence that a number of toxic metal(loid)s are likely to possess an enhanced pulmonary toxic potential upon their inhalation. The co-presence of many toxic elements of concern in airborne PM suggests an assessment of health risk must consider the possible interactive impacts of multi-element exposures.

  3. Efficacy of moxidectin 2.5% and imidacloprid 10% in the treatment of ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Colella, Vito; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Solari Basano, Fabrizio; Nazzari, Roberto; Capelli, Gioia; Petry, Gabriele; Schaper, Roland; Pollmeier, Matthias; Mallia, Egidio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo

    2016-08-30

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) has been documented as agent of ocular infection in domestic animals (dogs and cats), wildlife (e.g., foxes, hares, rabbits), and humans. In the last two decades, this parasitosis has been increasingly reported in several European countries. Both adult and larval stages of the eyeworm are responsible for symptoms ranging from mild (e.g., lacrimation, ocular discharge, epiphora) to severe (e.g., conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal opacity or ulcers). The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10% and moxidectin 2.5% spot on (Advocate(®), Bayer Animal Health) in comparison to milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax(®), Novartis-Animal Health), as positive control, in the treatment of canine thelaziosis in naturally infected dogs and, a third group was used as an untreated control. Forty-seven dogs (27 females and 20 males) harbouring at least one live adult worm of T. callipaeda in one eye were enrolled from an endemic area of southern Italy. Each dog was then weighed and assigned in accordance with a random treatment allocation plan to one of the treatment groups (G1: imidacloprid 10% and moxidectin 2.5% spot on, G2: Untreated control and G3: milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets). On Day (D) 7, 14, 28 and 35 dogs were physically examined and the infection level was assessed by examination of both eyes, including conjunctival pouch and third eyelid for live adult T. callipaeda count and clinical scores. Dogs in G1 were treated on D0 and D28, whereas those in G3 on D0 and D7. Efficacy in G1 was 100% at each day post treatment (p<0.01). For the G3 group efficacy was 57.39% on D7 (p<0.05), 92.79% on D14 and 100% on D28 and D35 (p<0.01). The application of the spot on formulation moxidectin 2.5% and imidacloprid 10% was highly effective in the treatment of canine thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda. Advocate(®) spot on can be recommended for the control of T. callipaeda

  4. Estimation and validation of PM 2.5/PM 10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Omstedt, Gunnar; Johansson, Christer; Düring, Ingo; Pohjola, Mia; Oettl, Dietmar; Gidhagen, Lars; Wåhlin, Peter; Lohmeyer, Achim; Haakana, Mervi; Berkowicz, Ruwim

    In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM 10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130 mg km -1 for PM 10, 30-60 mg km -1 for PM 2.5 and 20-50 mg km -1 for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German" model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear

  5. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  6. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2,5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2,5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  7. Mass and chemical composition of size-segregated aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) over Athens, Greece: local versus regional sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodosi, C.; Grivas, G.; Zarmpas, P.; Chaloulakou, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-03-01

    To identify the relative contribution of local versus regional sources of particulate matter (PM) in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), simultaneous mass and chemical composition measurements of size segregated particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) were carried out from September 2005 to August 2006 at three locations: one urban (Goudi, Central Athens) and one suburban (Lykovrissi, Athens) in GAA and the third in a regional background site (Finokalia, Crete). The two stations in GAA exceeded the EU-legislated PM10 limit values, both in terms of annual average (59.0 and 53.6 μg m-3 for Lykovrissi and Goudi, respectively) and of 24-h value, while the concentration levels at the remote site of Finokalia indicated an elevated background. High levels of PM2.5 and PM1 were also found at all locations (23.5 and 18.6 for Lykovrissi, while 29.4 and 20.2 μg m-3 for Goudi, respectively). Significant correlations were observed between same PM fractions at both GAA sites indicating important spatial homogeneity within GAA. During the warm season, the PM1 ratio between the GAA and the background site ranged from 1.1 to 1.3. On the other hand this ratio was significantly higher (1.6-1.7) during the cold season highlighting the role of long-range transport and local sources during the warm and cold seasons respectively. Similar seasonal and geographical patterns were observed for nss-SO42-, a secondary compound characteristic of regional sources, confirming the above hypothesis. Regarding the coarse fraction no such seasonal trend was observed for both GAA sites with their ratio (GAA site/Finokalia) being higher than 2 indicating significant contribution from local sources such as road dust and/or constructions as confirmed by Ca2+ measurements. Chemical speciation data showed that on a yearly basis, ionic and crustal mass represent up to 78% of the gravimetrically determined mass for PM10 samples in GAA. The unidentified mass might be attributed to organic carbon (OC) and

  8. Characteristics and sources of formic, acetic and oxalic acids in PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhuang, Guoshun; Chen, Shuang; An, Zhisheng; Zheng, Aihua

    2007-04-01

    Chemistry of formic, acetic and oxalic acids was studied at four sites representing the urban and rural conditions in Beijing from March 2002 to October 2003. The investigation was based on the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols collected with virtual samplers. The total concentrations of these carboxylic acids averaged at 541 ng m - 3 in PM 2.5 and 615 ng m - 3 in PM 10, contributing 0.4% and 0.3% to the total mass of the aerosol, respectively. Oxalic acid was the most abundant carboxylic acids in aerosols. Formic and acetic acids displayed different seasonal variations (formic: spring < summer < autumn < winter; acetic: spring > summer > autumn > winter), and the variations of these acids were consistent among different sites in urban area. Formic and oxalic acids had a diurnal variation of nighttime < daytime. Formic and acetic acids had mass both in the fine and in the coarse modes, while oxalic acid predominated in the fine mode. The coarse mode fraction of these acids was elevated in summer. The traffic/dust/soil/vegetation emissions, coal/waste/biomass burnings, cooking and secondary formation from anthropogenic or natural gas-phase precursors could be the major sources of these acids. Acetic-to-formic acid ratio (A/F) was used to distinguish the primary sources and the secondary sources, and it indicated that the contribution of the primary sources was higher at rural site than at urban sites. A new method was developed to study the contribution of the biomass burning to these acids, which was estimated to be 30-60% for formic and oxalic acids in aerosols.

  9. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  10. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health.

  11. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM10-PM2.5-PM1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM10. Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM1, one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM1.

  12. 10 CFR 25.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 25.9 Section 25.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.9 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to...

  13. 10 CFR 25.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 25.9 Section 25.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.9 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to...

  14. 10 CFR 25.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 25.9 Section 25.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.9 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to...

  15. 10 CFR 25.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 25.9 Section 25.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.9 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to...

  16. 10 CFR 61.25 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes. 61.25 Section 61.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.25 Changes. (a) Except as provided for in specific license conditions, the licensee shall not make changes in...

  17. 10 CFR 61.25 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes. 61.25 Section 61.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.25 Changes. (a) Except as provided for in specific license conditions, the licensee shall not make changes in...

  18. 10 CFR 61.25 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes. 61.25 Section 61.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.25 Changes. (a) Except as provided for in specific license conditions, the licensee shall not make changes in...

  19. 10 CFR 61.25 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes. 61.25 Section 61.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.25 Changes. (a) Except as provided for in specific license conditions, the licensee shall not make changes in...

  20. 10 CFR 61.25 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes. 61.25 Section 61.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.25 Changes. (a) Except as provided for in specific license conditions, the licensee shall not make changes in...

  1. 10 CFR 25.37 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 25.37 Section 25.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Violations § 25.37 Violations. (a) An injunction or other court order may be obtained to prohibit a violation of any provision of: (1) The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended;...

  2. 10 CFR 25.37 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations. 25.37 Section 25.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Violations § 25.37 Violations. (a) An injunction or other court order may be obtained to prohibit a violation of any provision of: (1) The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended;...

  3. 10 CFR 25.37 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations. 25.37 Section 25.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Violations § 25.37 Violations. (a) An injunction or other court order may be obtained to prohibit a violation of any provision of: (1) The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended;...

  4. 10 CFR 25.37 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 25.37 Section 25.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Violations § 25.37 Violations. (a) An injunction or other court order may be obtained to prohibit a violation of any provision of: (1) The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended;...

  5. 10 CFR 25.37 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Violations. 25.37 Section 25.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Violations § 25.37 Violations. (a) An injunction or other court order may be obtained to prohibit a violation of any provision of: (1) The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended;...

  6. 10 CFR 1003.25 - OHA evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false OHA evaluation. 1003.25 Section 1003.25 Energy DEPARTMENT... § 1003.25 OHA evaluation. (a)(1) OHA may initiate an investigation of any statement in an application and utilize in its evaluation any relevant facts obtained by such investigation. The OHA may solicit...

  7. 10 CFR 1003.25 - OHA evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OHA evaluation. 1003.25 Section 1003.25 Energy DEPARTMENT... § 1003.25 OHA evaluation. (a)(1) OHA may initiate an investigation of any statement in an application and utilize in its evaluation any relevant facts obtained by such investigation. The OHA may solicit...

  8. 10 CFR 25.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 25.9 Section 25.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.9 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, communications and reports concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to...

  9. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may...

  10. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may...

  13. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may...

  14. 40 CFR 25.10 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rulemaking. 25.10 Section 25.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS UNDER THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT §...

  15. Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos Paulino, Silvia; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Loyola, Josiane; Minho, Alan Silva; Arbilla, Graciela; Quiterio, Simone Lorena; Escaleira, Viviane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used.

  16. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM102.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM102.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  17. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    PubMed

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  18. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    PubMed

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  19. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  20. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  1. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  2. Source identification and apportionment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in iron and steel scrap smelting factory environment using PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Olise, Felix S; Hopke, Philip K

    2016-10-01

    To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2.5-10 for the production, outside M1 and outside M2 sites, respectively. The same size resolved data set were used as input for the positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component factor analysis (PCFA), and Unmix (UNMIX) receptor modeling in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter and their contribution. The PMF resolved four sources with their respective contributions were metal processing (33 %), e-waste (33 %), diesel emission (22 %) and soil (12 %) for PM2.5, and coking (50 %), soil (29 %), metal processing (16 %) and diesel combustion (5 %) for PM2.5-10. PCFA identified soil, metal processing, Pb source, and diesel combustion contributing 45, 41, 9, and 5 %, respectively to PM2.5 while metal processing, soil, coal combustion and open burning contributed 43, 38, 12, and 7 %, respectively to the PM2.5-10. Also, UNMIX identified metal processing, soil, and diesel emission with 43, 42 and 15 % contributions, respectively for the fine fraction, and metal processing (71 %), soil (21 %) and unidentified source (1 %) for the coarse fraction. The study concluded that metal processing and e-waste are the major sources contributing to the fine fraction while coking and soil contributed to the coarse fraction within the factory environment. The application of PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models improved the source identification and apportionment of particulate matter drive in the study area. PMID:27645143

  3. Source identification and apportionment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in iron and steel scrap smelting factory environment using PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Olise, Felix S; Hopke, Philip K

    2016-10-01

    To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2.5-10 for the production, outside M1 and outside M2 sites, respectively. The same size resolved data set were used as input for the positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component factor analysis (PCFA), and Unmix (UNMIX) receptor modeling in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter and their contribution. The PMF resolved four sources with their respective contributions were metal processing (33 %), e-waste (33 %), diesel emission (22 %) and soil (12 %) for PM2.5, and coking (50 %), soil (29 %), metal processing (16 %) and diesel combustion (5 %) for PM2.5-10. PCFA identified soil, metal processing, Pb source, and diesel combustion contributing 45, 41, 9, and 5 %, respectively to PM2.5 while metal processing, soil, coal combustion and open burning contributed 43, 38, 12, and 7 %, respectively to the PM2.5-10. Also, UNMIX identified metal processing, soil, and diesel emission with 43, 42 and 15 % contributions, respectively for the fine fraction, and metal processing (71 %), soil (21 %) and unidentified source (1 %) for the coarse fraction. The study concluded that metal processing and e-waste are the major sources contributing to the fine fraction while coking and soil contributed to the coarse fraction within the factory environment. The application of PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models improved the source identification and apportionment of particulate matter drive in the study area.

  4. 42 CFR 2.5 - Reports of violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of violations. 2.5 Section 2.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.5 Reports of violations. (a) The report...

  5. 46 CFR 62.25-5 - All control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All control systems. 62.25-5 Section 62.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-5 All control systems. (a) Local and...

  6. 46 CFR 62.25-5 - All control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false All control systems. 62.25-5 Section 62.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-5 All control systems. (a) Local and...

  7. 46 CFR 62.25-5 - All control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false All control systems. 62.25-5 Section 62.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-5 All control systems. (a) Local and...

  8. 46 CFR 62.25-5 - All control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false All control systems. 62.25-5 Section 62.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-5 All control systems. (a) Local and...

  9. 46 CFR 62.25-5 - All control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false All control systems. 62.25-5 Section 62.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-5 All control systems. (a) Local and...

  10. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  11. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  12. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  13. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  14. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of...

  15. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of...

  16. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of...

  17. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of...

  18. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of...

  19. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  20. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2−xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A. B.; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity. PMID:27739517

  1. Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Ni-25Al-27.5Fe-1.0Nb Intermetallic Alloy after Thermal Mechanical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chih-Chiang; Jang, Jason Shian-Ching; Tsai, Han-Chang; Li, Tsung-Hsiung

    The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ni-25Al-27.5Fe-1.0Nb intermetallic alloy after thermal mechanical treatment (TMT) was systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron dispersive spectrum (EDS) capability, and atmosphere-controlled tensile test at room temperature with different strain rate. The results of XRD reveals that a matrix of β' phase [(Ni, Fe) Al type ordered bcc structure] and a precipitated γ phase (Ni3Fe fcc solid solution) co-exist in this alloy after TMT. The dendritic microstructure of the as-cast alloy was eliminated after TMT process. In parallel, a refined and homogeneous distributed lath precipitates can be obtained after annealing at 820 for 4 hr. Additionally, this alloy presents a relative high strength as well as ductile mechanical behavior (UTS~1320 MPa and ɛ~8%, respectively) at room temperature in air. A 30% improvement in yield strength is suggested to be contributed by the refined microstructure from the TMT. Moreover, the tensile strength and ductility of this alloy exhibit insensitive response with respect to the loading strain rate at room temperature.

  2. Effect of aerodynamic and angle-of-attack uncertainties on the blended entry flight control system of the Space Shuttle from Mach 10 to 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom simulation analysis has been performed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry from Mach 10 to 2.5 with realistic off-nominal conditions using the entry flight control system specified in May 1978. The off-nominal conditions included the following: (1) aerodynamic uncertainties, (2) an error in deriving the angle of attack from onboard instrumentation, (3) the failure of two of the four reaction control-system thrusters on each side, and (4) a lateral center-of-gravity offset. With combinations of the above off-nominal conditions, the control system performed satisfactorily with a few exceptions. The cases that did not exhibit satisfactory performance displayed the following main weaknesses. Marginal performance was exhibited at hypersonic speeds with a sensed angle-of-attack error of 4 deg. At supersonic speeds the system tended to be oscillatory, and the system diverged for several cases because of the inability to hold lateral trim. Several system modifications were suggested to help solve these problems and to maximize safety on the first flight: alter the elevon-trim and speed-brake schedules, delay switching to rudder trim until the rudder effectiveness is adequate, and reduce the overall rudder loop gain. These and other modifications were incorporated in a flight-control-system redesign in May 1979.

  3. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2‑xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A. B.; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.

  4. Final Report on EURAMET key comparison (EURAMET.M.M-K2.5) of 10 kg mass standards in stainless steel (Project code: EURAMET 1222)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vámossy, Csilla; Bulku, Defrim; Borys, Michael; Alisic, Sejla; Boskovic, Tamara; Zelenka, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The report describes a European regional key comparison of a stainless steel 10 kg standard as a multiple of the kilogram carried out under the auspices of EURAMET and designated Project 1222. This comparison is also a KCDB Regional Key Comparison, registered as EURAMET.M.M-K2.5. The objectives of this comparison are to check the measurement capabilities in the field of mass of the participating national laboratories, to facilitate the demonstration of metrological equivalence between the laboratories in Europe, and to check or support the validity of quoted calibration measurement capabilities (CMC). This comparison provides a link to CCM.M-K2. BEV (Austria) was the pilot laboratory and the provider of the transfer standard. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  7. 25 CFR 46.10 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible activities. 46.10 Section 46.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 46.10 Eligible activities. (a) Subject to availability of funds, funds appropriated for the BIA's Adult Education Program may be used to support...

  8. 25 CFR 515.10 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties. 515.10 Section 515.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 515.10... amendment thereto, under this part, is subject to the penalties prescribed in 18 U.S.C. 494 and 495....

  9. 25 CFR 515.10 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalties. 515.10 Section 515.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 515.10... amendment thereto, under this part, is subject to the penalties prescribed in 18 U.S.C. 494 and 495....

  10. 25 CFR 502.10 - Gaming operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gaming operation. 502.10 Section 502.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.10 Gaming operation. Gaming operation means each economic entity that is licensed by a...

  11. 25 CFR 502.10 - Gaming operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gaming operation. 502.10 Section 502.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.10 Gaming operation. Gaming operation means each economic entity that is licensed by a...

  12. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at...

  13. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at...

  14. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at...

  15. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at...

  16. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at...

  17. Enhancing plasticity of Zr{sub 46.75}Ti{sub 8.25}Cu{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 27.5} bulk metallic glass by precompression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J. L.; Lu, J. X.; Shek, C. H.; Yu, H. B.; Bai, H. Y.

    2009-08-17

    Precompression treatments on Zr{sub 46.75}Ti{sub 8.25}Cu{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 27.5} bulk metallic glass rods with tapered ends induced controllable stress distributions and resulted in residual stress accompanied with a few tiny shear bands after unloading. The built-in stress state increased macroscopic plasticity dramatically and produced predictable distributions of shear bands in the cylindrical samples cut from the taper-ended samples. The macroscopic plasticity was interpreted in terms of the competition among different types of shear bands.

  18. 10 CFR 503.25 - Public interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public interest. 503.25 Section 503.25 Energy DEPARTMENT... Public interest. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(c) of the Act provides for a temporary public interest... exemption would be in accord with the purposes of the Act and would be in the public interest; and (3)...

  19. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... either: (i) Quantitative methods that represent reasonable and common professional practice; or (ii) A...) The hot-spot demonstration required by § 93.116 must be based on quantitative analysis methods for the... PM2.5 violations”) must be based on quantitative analysis using the applicable air quality...

  20. Development of a source oriented version of the WRF/Chem model and its application to the California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; DeNero, S. P.; Joe, D. K.; Lee, H.-H.; Chen, S.-H.; Michalakes, J.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    A source-oriented representation of airborne particulate matter was added to the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with chemistry (WRF/Chem). The source-oriented aerosol separately tracks primary particles with different hygroscopic properties rather than instantaneously combining them into an internal mixture. The source-oriented approach avoids artificially mixing light absorbing black + brown carbon particles with materials such as sulfate that would encourage the formation of additional coatings. Source-oriented particles undergo coagulation and gas-particle conversion, but these processes are considered in a dynamic framework that realistically "ages" primary particles over hours and days in the atmosphere. The source-oriented WRF/Chem model more accurately predicts radiative feedbacks from anthropogenic aerosols compared to models that make internal mixing or other artificial mixing assumptions. A three-week stagnation episode (15 December 2000 to 6 January 2001) during the California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) was chosen for the initial application of the new modeling system. Emissions were obtained from the California Air Resources Board. Gas-phase reactions were modeled with the SAPRC90 photochemical mechanism. Gas-particle conversion was modeled as a dynamic process with semi-volatile vapor pressures at the particle surface calculated using ISORROPIA. Source oriented calculations were performed for 8 particle size fractions ranging from 0.01-10 μm particle diameters with a spatial resolution of 4 km and hourly time resolution. Primary particles emitted from diesel engines, wood smoke, high sulfur fuel combustion, food cooking, and other anthropogenic sources were tracked separately throughout the simulation as they aged in the atmosphere. Results show that the source-oriented representation of particles with meteorological feedbacks in WRF/Chem changes the aerosol extinction coefficients, downward shortwave flux, and primary

  1. [Temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution status and the correlation of particulate matters and meteorological factors during winter and spring in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Xi; Wang, Yun-Qi; Wang, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Bing-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Fogs and hazes broke out many times in winter and spring of 2012-2013 in Beijing, inducing severe pollution of respirable particulate matters (PM10). As a fine particle component in PM10, PM2.5 would cause more severe air pollution if the proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 is high. Based on this, 30 monitoring stations recording the concentration of PM2.5 and PM1.0 all over Beijing were selected, and the contamination characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed, which further served to determine the characteristics of temporal and spatial pollution variations of PM2.5 and PM10. The distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration in winter and spring in Beijing were derived by the Original Kriging interpolation method, and it was depicted from the figure that the concentration of particulate matters gradually increased from the northern mountain area to the southern part of Beijing; in the central urban area, the particulate concentration of the western region was generally higher than that of the eastern region, with certain differences between urban and rural area within some local areas. Monthly variation curve of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration showed single peak-valley pattern: the maximum was in January and the minimum was in April; daily variation indicated a good correlation between PM2.5 and PM10, both of which were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions; diurnal variation curve showed a double peak-valley type. Meteorological factors such as daily average temperature (degrees C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (wind scale), precipitation (mm) were chosen and their individual relationships with concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated using Spearman rank correlation analyses. It was demonstrated that the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, respectively, and strongly negatively correlated with wind speed; wind speed and relative humidity were two key factors

  2. 25 CFR 63.10 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 63.10 Section 63.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE... service as mandated by the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act; and (b)...

  3. 25 CFR 63.10 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purpose. 63.10 Section 63.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE... service as mandated by the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act; and (b)...

  4. 25 CFR 63.10 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 63.10 Section 63.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE... service as mandated by the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act; and (b)...

  5. 25 CFR 63.10 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 63.10 Section 63.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE... service as mandated by the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act; and (b)...

  6. 25 CFR 63.10 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 63.10 Section 63.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE... service as mandated by the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act; and (b)...

  7. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL... Information Officer, is eligible for a security clearance for access to Restricted Data or National...

  8. Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and associated heavy metals at the crossroads and urban background site in Zabrze, Upper Silesia, Poland, during the smog episodes.

    PubMed

    Pastuszka, Jozef S; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2010-09-01

    The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb) associated with PM10 and PM2.5 at the crossroads and the background sites have been studied in Zabrze, Poland, during smog episodes. Although the background level was unusually elevated due to both high particulate emission from the industrial and municipal sources and smog favorable meteorological conditions, significant increase of the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as associated heavy metals in the roadside air compared to the urban background has been documented. The average daily difference between the roadside and corresponding urban background aerosol concentration was equal to 39.5 microg m(-3) for PM10 and 41.2 microg m(-3) for PM2.5. The highest levels of the studied metals in Zabrze appeared for iron carried by PM10 particles: 1,706 (background) and 28,557 ng m(-3) (crossroads). The lowest concentration level (in PM10) has been found for cadmium: 7 and 77 ng m(-3) in the background and crossroads site, respectively. Also the concentrations of heavy metals carried by the fine particles (PM2.5) were very high in Zabrze during the smog episodes. Concentrations of all studied metals associated with PM10 increased at the roadside compared to the background about ten times (one order) while metals contained in PM2.5 showed two to three times elevated concentrations (except Fe-five times and Cr-no increase).

  9. 6 CFR 5.25 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals. 5.25 Section 5.25 Domestic Security... § 5.25 Appeals. (a) Appeals. If you are dissatisfied with a component's response to your request for access to records, you may appeal an adverse determination denying your request in any respect to...

  10. 7 CFR 25.5 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waivers. 25.5 Section 25.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES General Provisions § 25.5 Waivers. The Secretary may waive any provision of this part in any particular case for good cause,...

  11. 7 CFR 25.5 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waivers. 25.5 Section 25.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES General Provisions § 25.5 Waivers. The Secretary may waive any provision of this part in any particular case for good cause,...

  12. 7 CFR 25.5 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waivers. 25.5 Section 25.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES General Provisions § 25.5 Waivers. The Secretary may waive any provision of this part in any particular case for good cause,...

  13. 7 CFR 25.5 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waivers. 25.5 Section 25.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES General Provisions § 25.5 Waivers. The Secretary may waive any provision of this part in any particular case for good cause,...

  14. 7 CFR 25.5 - Waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waivers. 25.5 Section 25.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES General Provisions § 25.5 Waivers. The Secretary may waive any provision of this part in any particular case for good cause,...

  15. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  16. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  17. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  18. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  19. 6 CFR 5.25 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 5.25 Section 5.25 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.25 Appeals. (a) Appeals. If you are dissatisfied with a component's response to your request...

  20. 40 CFR 25.5 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public hearings. 25.5 Section 25.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS UNDER THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.5...

  1. 28 CFR 2.5 - Sentence aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sentence aggregation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.5...

  2. Development of a source oriented version of the WRF/Chem model and its application to the California regional PM10 / PM2.5 air quality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; DeNero, S. P.; Joe, D. K.; Lee, H.-H.; Chen, S.-H.; Michalakes, J.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A source-oriented version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (SOWC, hereinafter) was developed. SOWC separately tracks primary particles with different hygroscopic properties rather than instantaneously combining them into an internal mixture. This approach avoids artificially mixing light absorbing black + brown carbon particles with materials such as sulfate that would encourage the formation of additional coatings. Source-oriented particles undergo coagulation and gas-particle conversion, but these processes are considered in a dynamic framework that realistically "ages" primary particles over hours and days in the atmosphere. SOWC more realistically predicts radiative feedbacks from anthropogenic aerosols compared to models that make internal mixing or other artificial mixing assumptions. A three-week stagnation episode (15 December 2000 to 6 January 2001) in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during the California Regional PM10 / PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) was chosen for the initial application of the new modeling system. Primary particles emitted from diesel engines, wood smoke, high-sulfur fuel combustion, food cooking, and other anthropogenic sources were tracked separately throughout the simulation as they aged in the atmosphere. Differences were identified between predictions from the source oriented vs. the internally mixed representation of particles with meteorological feedbacks in WRF/Chem for a number of meteorological parameters: aerosol extinction coefficients, downward shortwave flux, planetary boundary layer depth, and primary and secondary particulate matter concentrations. Comparisons with observations show that SOWC predicts particle scattering coefficients more accurately than the internally mixed model. Downward shortwave radiation predicted by SOWC is enhanced by ~1% at ground level chiefly because diesel engine particles in the source-oriented mixture are not artificially coated with material that increases their

  3. 40 CFR 25.10 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.10... of paragraph (a) of this section or with the State's administrative procedures act, if one exists... a State's administrative procedures act, the State's law shall apply....

  4. 40 CFR 25.10 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.10... of paragraph (a) of this section or with the State's administrative procedures act, if one exists... a State's administrative procedures act, the State's law shall apply....

  5. 40 CFR 25.10 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.10... of paragraph (a) of this section or with the State's administrative procedures act, if one exists... a State's administrative procedures act, the State's law shall apply....

  6. 40 CFR 25.10 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.10... of paragraph (a) of this section or with the State's administrative procedures act, if one exists... a State's administrative procedures act, the State's law shall apply....

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  10. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  11. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  12. Sub-Area. 2.5 Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies Project Type. Flywheel Energy Storage Demonstration Revision: V1.0

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-30

    In this program, Amber Kinetics designed, built, and tested a sub-­scale 5 kWh engineering prototype flywheel system. Applying lessons learned from the engineering prototype, Amber Kinetics then designed, built and tested full-­size, commercial-­scale 25 kWh flywheel systems. The systems underwent basic functional qualification testing before being installed, sequentially, at the company’s outdoor test site in Alameda, CA for full-­speed field-testing. The primary considerations in testing the prototype units were to demonstrate the functionality of the system, verify the frequencies of resonant modes, and quantify spinning losses and motor/generator efficiency.

  13. Activation volume in heterogeneous deformation of Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 12.5}(Ce{sub 75}La{sub 25}){sub 10} metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Thurieau, Nicolas; Perrière, Loïc; Laurent-Brocq, Mathilde; Champion, Yannick

    2015-11-28

    Depth variation at constant load in instrumented nano-indentation was used to measure activation volume controlling shear band formation in the Mg{sub 65}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 12.5}(Ce{sub 75}La{sub 25}){sub 10} metallic glass. A series of measurements revealed a large scattering of the data spanning from 100 Å{sup 3} to 800 Å{sup 3}. The distribution of values, which is not following a normal one, may be attributed to the atomic structure of metallic glasses with the absence of long range order, leading to different volume fraction of shear bands for independent experiments. Activation volume is analyzed considering the variation of shear band volume fraction leading to a unique value of a true activation volume. An interpretation for the distribution of values is proposed.

  14. Experimental and Calculated Characteristics of Several NACA 44-series Wings with Aspect Ratios of 8, 10, and 12 and Taper Ratios of 2.5 and 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, Robert H; Bollech, Thomas V; Westrick, Gertrude C

    1947-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of seven unswept tapered wings were determined by calculation from two-dimensional data and by wind-tunnel tests in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the calculations and to show some of the effects of aspect ratio, taper ratio, and root thickness-chord ratio. The characteristics were calculated by the usual application of the lifting-line theory which assumes linear section lift curves and also by an application of the theory which allows the use of nonlinear lift curves. A correction to the lift for the effect of chord was made by using the Jones edge-velocity factor. The wings had aspect ratios of 8, 10, and 12, taper ratios of 2.5 and 3.5, and NACA 44-series airfoils.

  15. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  16. Nonsteroidal selective glucocorticoid modulators: the effect of C-10 substitution on receptor selectivity and functional potency of 5-allyl-2,5-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-1H-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-f]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Kym, Philip R; Kort, Michael E; Coghlan, Michael J; Moore, Jimmie L; Tang, Rui; Ratajczyk, James D; Larson, Daniel P; Elmore, Steven W; Pratt, John K; Stashko, Michael A; Falls, H Douglass; Lin, Chun W; Nakane, Masake; Miller, Loan; Tyree, Curtis M; Miner, Jeffery N; Jacobson, Peer B; Wilcox, Denise M; Nguyen, Phong; Lane, Benjamin C

    2003-03-13

    The preparation and characterization of a series of C-10 substituted 5-allyl-2,5-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-1H-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-f]quinolines as a novel class of selective ligands for the glucocorticoid receptor is described. Substitution at the C-10 position of the tetracyclic core with linear, two-atom appendages (OCH(3), OCF(2)H, NHMe, SMe, CH=CH(2), Ctbd1;CH, CH(2)OH) provided molecules of high affinity (K(i) = 2-8 nM) for the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) with limited cross-reactivity with other steroid receptors (PR, MR, AR, ER). Optimal analogues showed slightly less potent but highly efficacious E-selectin repression with reduced levels of GRE activation efficacy in reporter gene assays relative to prednisolone. Preliminary SAR of analogues containing substitution at the C-9 and C-10 positions identified the 9-OH, 10-OMe analogue 50 and the 9-OH, 10-Cl analogue 58 as compounds that demonstrated potent, GR-mediated inhibition in a conconavalin A stimulated T-cell proliferation assay in both rodent and human whole blood monocytes. When evaluated for their in vivo effects in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, 50, 58, and 10-OCF(2)H analogue 35 showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects (50, ED(50) = 16 mg/kg; 58, ED(50) = 15 mg/kg; 35, ED(50) = 21 mg/kg vs ED(50) = 15 mg/kg for 18 and ED(50) = 4 mg/kg for prednisolone).

  17. Multicolor (Vis-NIR) mesoporous silica nanospheres linked with lanthanide complexes using 2-(5-bromothiophen)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline for in vitro bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Lining; Liu, Jinliang; Peng, Yu-Xin; Ge, Xiaoqian; Shi, Liyi; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A novel mesoporous nanosphere functionalized with 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 2-(5-bromothiophen)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (5-Br-Tip) was synthesized (denoted as Tip-MSS). With the coordinating function of the 5-Br-Tip to lanthanide (Ln) ions, for the first time, LnL3(5-Br-Tip) complexes were linked to the mesoporous nanospheres. The derived materials, named Ln-Tip-MSS (Ln = Eu, Tb, Sm, Nd, Yb), were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, TEM, XRD (wide-angle and small-angle), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Upon excitation in the ligand absorption, the Ln-Tip-MSS nanomaterials show characteristic visible (Eu, Tb, Sm) and NIR (Sm, Nd, Yb) luminescence (multicolor emission covered from 450 nm to 1400 nm spectral region). Of importance is that, with low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility given by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the Eu-Tip-MSS was successfully applied to cell imaging in vitro based on the Eu(3+) luminescence (under 405 nm excitation).

  18. Structure, glass transition temperature and spectroscopic properties of 10Li2O-xP2O5-(89-x)TeO2-1CuO (5≤x≤25 mol%) glass system.

    PubMed

    Upender, G; Babu, J Chinna; Mouli, V Chandra

    2012-04-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies on 10Li2O-xP2O5-(89-x)TeO2-1CuO glasses (where x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%) have been carried out. The amorphous nature of the glasses was confirmed using XRD and FESEM measurements. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of glass samples have been estimated from DSC traces and found that the Tg increases with increasing P2O5 content. Both the IR and Raman studies have been showed that the present glass system consists of [TeO3], [TeO4], [PO3] and [PO4] units. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters such as g∥, g⊥, and A∥ have been determined from EPR spectra and it was found that the Cu2+ ion is present in tetragonal distorted octahedral site with [Formula: see text] as the ground state. Bonding parameters and bonding symmetry of Cu2+ ions have been calculated by correlating EPR and optical data and were found to be composition dependent.

  19. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  20. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  1. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  2. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 at a coal-based industrial city: Implication for PAH control at industrial agglomeration regions, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Jianhua; Kong, Shaofei; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Hongbing; Shao, Guofan; Wu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 are identified and quantified at five sites of E'erduosi in 2005 by GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 are in the ranges of 0.58-145.01 ng m- 3 and 5.80-180.32 ng m- 3 for the five sites, decreasing as coal-chemical base site (ZGE) > heavy industrial site (QPJ) > residential site with heavy traffic (DS) > suburban site surrounded by grassland (HJQ) > background site (QGN) for both PM2.5 and PM10. PAH concentrations in the coal-chemical base site are 250 and 31.1 times of those in the background site. Flu, Pyr, Chr, BbF, BeP, IND and BghiP are abundant for the coal-chemical base site, totally accounting for 75% of the PAH concentrations. 4, 5 and 6 rings PAHs are dominant, accounting for 88.9-94.2% and 90.5-94.1% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Combustion-derived PAH concentrations cover 42%-84% and 75%-82% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating large amounts of combustion sources existed for them in E'erduosi. PAH compositions between PM2.5 and PM10 are quite different from each other for sites with few human activities (HJQ and QGN) by coefficient of divergence analysis. Results obtained from principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios indicate that coal combustion, vehicle emission, wood combustion and industrial processes are the main sources for PAHs in E'erduosi. According to BaP equivalent concentration, the potential health risk of PAHs in PM2.5 at the two industrial sites ZGE and QPJ are 537 and 460 times of those for the background site. And they are 4.3 and 3.7 times of those for the residential site. The potential PAH pollution in particles at other industrial agglomeration regions that occurred in China in recent years should be paid attention by the local government.

  4. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  5. 28 CFR 2.5 - Sentence aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sentence aggregation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... by the Commission pursuant to these rules, and the prisoner has a single parole eligibility date...

  6. 28 CFR 2.5 - Sentence aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sentence aggregation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... by the Commission pursuant to these rules, and the prisoner has a single parole eligibility date...

  7. 28 CFR 2.5 - Sentence aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sentence aggregation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... by the Commission pursuant to these rules, and the prisoner has a single parole eligibility date...

  8. 28 CFR 2.5 - Sentence aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sentence aggregation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... by the Commission pursuant to these rules, and the prisoner has a single parole eligibility date...

  9. 25 CFR 286.5 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information collection. 286.5 Section 286.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... priority criteria listed at 25 CFR 286.8. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit...

  10. 25 CFR 286.5 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information collection. 286.5 Section 286.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... priority criteria listed at 25 CFR 286.8. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit...

  11. The Internet Time Lag: Anticipating the Long-Term Consequences of the Information Revolution. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (10th, Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Evan I.

    This is a report of the 10th annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001). Participants were also polled after the events of September 11, and these comments have been integrated into the report. The mission of this report is to take a wide-ranging look at the trends that are defining the next new…

  12. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  13. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM102.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  14. 46 CFR 25.25-5 - Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 160 of this chapter (see 46 CFR chapter I, revised as of October 1, 1979), which may be used as long... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment required... REQUIREMENTS Life Preservers and Other Lifesaving Equipment § 25.25-5 Life preservers and other...

  15. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING... service, or at least once a year. Knowledge of combinations will be limited to the minimum number...

  16. 40 CFR 25.5 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.5 Public... the three Acts shall meet the following minimum requirements. These requirements are subordinate...

  17. 40 CFR 25.5 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.5 Public... the three Acts shall meet the following minimum requirements. These requirements are subordinate...

  18. 40 CFR 25.5 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.5 Public... the three Acts shall meet the following minimum requirements. These requirements are subordinate...

  19. 40 CFR 25.5 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT, THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.5 Public... the three Acts shall meet the following minimum requirements. These requirements are subordinate...

  20. Study of the chemical elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the urban and rural areas of South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallarosa, Juliana; Calesso Teixeira, Elba; Meira, Lindolfo; Wiegand, Flavio

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the chemical elements and PAHs associated with atmospheric particulate in samples of PM 10 collected in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre—MAPA, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In addition, to study the chemical elements associated with particles of different fractions of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 using dichotomous sampling, in urban (MAPA) and rural areas. Two types of samplers were used: HV PM 10 and Dichotomous (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5). Samples were collected during 2002 and 2005. The concentration of the elements Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn was determined by PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission), while the concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GS/MS). Results showed that elements of anthropogenic origin (V, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, and S) were mainly associated with the fraction PM 2.5, while the soil dust (Si, Al, Ti and Fe) were found mainly on fraction PM 10-2.5. In samples of PM 10, the most frequent PAHs found were Bgp, Flt, BaA, Chr, B(b + k)F, BaP and Dba. The types of emission and their association with the atmospheric parameters were studied applying the statistical analysis of the principal component method. The main sources found in the area under study were vehicles, industries (steel mills and a coal-fired power station), dust, sea breeze, and burning.

  1. 25 CFR 175.5 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Operations manual. 175.5 Section 175.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.5 Operations manual. (a) The Area Director shall establish an operations manual for...

  2. 25 CFR 175.5 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operations manual. 175.5 Section 175.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.5 Operations manual. (a) The Area Director shall establish an operations manual for...

  3. 25 CFR 175.5 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operations manual. 175.5 Section 175.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.5 Operations manual. (a) The Area Director shall establish an operations manual for...

  4. 25 CFR 175.5 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operations manual. 175.5 Section 175.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.5 Operations manual. (a) The Area Director shall establish an operations manual for...

  5. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  6. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  7. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  8. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  9. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  10. 25 CFR 5.4 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information collection. 5.4 Section 5.4 Indians BUREAU OF... Information collection. The Office of Management and Budget has informed the Department of the Interior that the information collection requirements contained in part 5 need not be reviewed by them under...

  11. 25 CFR 175.5 - Operations manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operations manual. 175.5 Section 175.5 Indians BUREAU OF... Provisions § 175.5 Operations manual. (a) The Area Director shall establish an operations manual for the... Director shall amend the operations manual as needed. (b) The public shall be notified by the Area...

  12. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  13. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  14. 25 CFR 135.5 - Penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty. 135.5 Section 135.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.5 Penalty. To all assessments not paid...

  15. 25 CFR 111.5 - Future payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Future payments. 111.5 Section 111.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.5 Future payments. Indians who have received or applied for their pro rata shares of an...

  16. 25 CFR 111.5 - Future payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Future payments. 111.5 Section 111.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.5 Future payments. Indians who have received or applied for their pro rata shares of an...

  17. 25 CFR 111.5 - Future payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Future payments. 111.5 Section 111.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.5 Future payments. Indians who have received or applied for their pro rata shares of an...

  18. 25 CFR 111.5 - Future payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Future payments. 111.5 Section 111.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.5 Future payments. Indians who have received or applied for their pro rata shares of an...

  19. 25 CFR 111.5 - Future payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Future payments. 111.5 Section 111.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.5 Future payments. Indians who have received or applied for their pro rata shares of an...

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM102.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  1. 25 CFR 217.5 - Management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Management decisions. 217.5 Section 217.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE... Management decisions. In arriving at management decisions concerning the assets, the business committee...

  2. 25 CFR 217.5 - Management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management decisions. 217.5 Section 217.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE... Management decisions. In arriving at management decisions concerning the assets, the business committee...

  3. 25 CFR 217.5 - Management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management decisions. 217.5 Section 217.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE... Management decisions. In arriving at management decisions concerning the assets, the business committee...

  4. 25 CFR 217.5 - Management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management decisions. 217.5 Section 217.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE... Management decisions. In arriving at management decisions concerning the assets, the business committee...

  5. 25 CFR 217.5 - Management decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management decisions. 217.5 Section 217.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE... Management decisions. In arriving at management decisions concerning the assets, the business committee...

  6. Climatological classification of five sectors in the Iberian Peninsula using columnar (AOD, α) and surface (PM10, PM2.5) aerosol data supported by air mass apportioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachorro, Victoria; Mateos, David; Toledano, Carlos; Burgos, Maria A.; Bennouna, Yasmine; Torres, Benjamín; Fuertes, David; González, Ramiro; Guirado, Carmen; Román, Roberto; Velasco-Merino, Cristian; Marcos, Alberto; Calle, Abel; de Frutos, Angel M.

    2015-04-01

    The study of atmospheric aerosol over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) under a climatologic perspective is an interesting and meaningful aim due to the wide variety of conditions (geographical position, air masses, topography, among others) which cause a complex role of the distribution of aerosol properties. In the deeply investigation on the annual cycle and time evolution of the particulate matter lower than 10 µm (PM10, surface) and aerosol optical depth (AOD, columnar) in a large number of sites covering the period 2000-2013, five sectors can be distinguished in the IP. Both set of data belong to EMEP and AERONET networks respectively, as representative of aerosol air quality and climate studies, are complementary elements for a global aerosol research. The prevalence of fine-coarse particles is also analyzed over each sector. Seasonal bimodality of the PM10 annual cycle with a strong North-South gradient is observed in most sites, but this is only reported in the AOD climatology for the southern IP. The northern coast is clearly governed by the Atlantic Ocean influence, while the northeastern area is modulated by the Mediterranean Sea. The southern area, very close to the African continent, presents a large influence of desert dust intrusions. However, the southern Atlantic and Mediterranean coast present discrepancies and two sectors have been defined in this area. Finally, the center of the Peninsula is a mix of conditions, with north-south and east-west gradients of different magnitude. Overall, there is a relationship between PM10 and AOD with a proportional factor varying from 20 to 90, depending on the sector. The particular characteristic of PM10-AOD annual cycle of each geographical sector can be understood by the different climatology of the air mass origins observed at 500 and 1500 m (a.s.l.) and its apportioning to PM10 and AOD, respectively.

  7. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  8. 43 CFR 2522.5 - Act of February 25, 1925.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Act of February 25, 1925. 2522.5 Section 2522.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Extensions of...

  9. 43 CFR 2522.5 - Act of February 25, 1925.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Act of February 25, 1925. 2522.5 Section 2522.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Extensions of...

  10. 43 CFR 2522.5 - Act of February 25, 1925.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Act of February 25, 1925. 2522.5 Section 2522.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Extensions of...

  11. 43 CFR 2522.5 - Act of February 25, 1925.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Act of February 25, 1925. 2522.5 Section 2522.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Extensions of...

  12. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  13. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  14. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  15. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  16. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control...

  17. 46 CFR 34.25-10 - Controls-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controls-T/ALL. 34.25-10 Section 34.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-10 Controls—T/ALL. (a) There shall be one control valve for the operation of...

  18. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  19. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  20. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  2. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  3. 46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters...

  4. 46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters...

  5. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  6. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  7. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  8. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  9. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  10. 46 CFR 34.25-10 - Controls-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controls-T/ALL. 34.25-10 Section 34.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-10 Controls—T/ALL. (a) There shall be one control valve for the operation of...

  11. 46 CFR 34.25-10 - Controls-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controls-T/ALL. 34.25-10 Section 34.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-10 Controls—T/ALL. (a) There shall be one control valve for the operation of...

  12. 46 CFR 34.25-10 - Controls-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controls-T/ALL. 34.25-10 Section 34.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-10 Controls—T/ALL. (a) There shall be one control valve for the operation of...

  13. 46 CFR 34.25-10 - Controls-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controls-T/ALL. 34.25-10 Section 34.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-10 Controls—T/ALL. (a) There shall be one control valve for the operation of...

  14. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  15. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  16. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  17. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  18. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  19. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  20. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  1. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  2. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  3. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on...

  4. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of each kind of livestock which may be grazed on...

  5. 21 CFR 25.10 - Policies and NEPA planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 1502.25 and the HHS General Administration Manual, part 30: Environmental Protection. ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policies and NEPA planning. 25.10 Section 25.10... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS General Provisions § 25.10 Policies and NEPA planning. (a) All...

  6. Palladium-catalyzed 2,5-diheteroarylation of 2,5-dibromothiophene derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Belkessam, Fatma; Mohand, Aidene; Soulé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Summary Conditions allowing the one pot 2,5-diheteroarylation of 2,5-dibromothiophene derivatives in the presence of palladium catalysts are reported. Using KOAc as the base, DMA as the solvent and only 0.5–2 mol % palladium catalysts, the target 2,5-diheteroarylated thiophenes were obtained in moderate to good yields and with a wide variety of heteroarenes such as thiazoles, thiophenes, furans, pyrroles, pyrazoles or isoxazoles. Moreover, sequential heteroarylation reactions allow the access to 2,5-diheteroarylated thiophenes bearing two different heteroaryl units. PMID:25550758

  7. Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.

    PubMed Central

    Leaderer, B P; Naeher, L; Jankun, T; Balenger, K; Holford, T R; Toth, C; Sullivan, J; Wolfson, J M; Koutrakis, P

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with

  8. Experimental Determination of the Phase Diagram of the CaO-SiO2-5 pctMgO-10 pctAl2O3-TiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjie; Sun, Lifeng; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xuqiang; Qiu, Jiyu; Wang, Zhaoyun; Jiang, Maofa

    2016-02-01

    Ti-bearing CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 slags are important for the smelting of vanadium-titanium bearing magnetite. In the current study, the pseudo-melting temperatures were determined by the single-hot thermocouple technique for the specified content of 5 to 25 pct TiO2 in the CaO-SiO2-5 pctMgO-10 pctAl2O3-TiO2 phase diagram system. The 1573 K to 1773 K (1300 °C to 1500 °C) liquidus lines were first calculated based on the pseudo-melting temperatures according to thermodynamic equations in the specific primary crystal field. The phase equilibria at 1573 K (1300 °C) were determined experimentally using the high-temperature equilibrium and quench method followed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis; the liquid phase, melilite solid solution phase (C2MS2,C2AS)ss, and perovskite phase of CaO·TiO2 were found. Therefore, the phase diagram was constructed for the specified region of the CaO-SiO2-5 pctMgO-10 pctAl2O3-TiO2 system.

  9. 36 CFR 2.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 2.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... outside of the park area and the primary purpose of the collection is to enhance the protection or... has the potential for improving the management and protection of park resources. (e) In park...

  10. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank... turn over to the bank as compensation all income received from the sale of the credit life insurance to the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers...

  11. 46 CFR 56.25-5 - Flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2..., Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-5 Flanges. Each flange must conform to the design... part and the requirements of this subpart. For flange facing gasket combinations other than...

  12. 46 CFR 56.25-5 - Flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2..., Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-5 Flanges. Each flange must conform to the design... part and the requirements of this subpart. For flange facing gasket combinations other than...

  13. Kerb and urban increment of highly time-resolved trace elements in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 winter aerosol in London during ClearfLo 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, S.; Slowik, J. G.; Furger, M.; Zotter, P.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dressler, R.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Green, D. C.; Tremper, A. H.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Allan, J. D.; Herndon, S. C.; Williams, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Detournay, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Fleming, Z. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient concentrations of trace elements with 2 h time resolution were measured in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 size ranges at kerbside, urban background and rural sites in London during winter 2012. Samples were collected using rotating drum impactors (RDIs) and subsequently analysed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Quantification of kerb and urban increments (defined as kerb-to-urban and urban-to-rural concentration ratios, respectively), and assessment of diurnal and weekly variability provided insight into sources governing urban air quality and the effects of urban micro-environments on human exposure. Traffic-related elements yielded the highest kerb increments, with values in the range of 11.6 to 18.5 for SW winds (3.6-9.4 for NE) observed for elements influenced by brake wear (e.g. Cu, Sb, Ba) and 5.6 to 8.0 for SW (2.6-6.5 for NE) for other traffic-related processes (e.g. Cr, Fe, Zn). Kerb increments for these elements were highest in the PM10-2.5 mass fraction, roughly 3 times that of the PM1.0-0.3 fraction. These elements also showed the highest urban increments (∼3.0), although no difference was observed between brake wear and other traffic-related elements. Traffic-related elements exhibited higher concentrations during morning and evening rush hour, and on weekdays compared to weekends, with the strongest trends observed at the kerbside site, and additionally enhanced by winds coming directly from the road, consistent with street canyon effects. Elements related to mineral dust (e.g. Al, Ca, Sr) showed significant influences from traffic-induced resuspension, as evidenced by moderate kerb (2.0-4.1 for SW, 1.4-2.1 for NE) and urban (1.7-2.3) increments and increased concentrations during peak traffic flow. Elements related to regional transport showed no significant enhancement at kerb or urban sites, with the exception of PM10-2.5 sea salt (factor of 1.5-2.0), which may be influenced by traffic

  14. Kerb and urban increment of highly time-resolved trace elements in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 winter aerosol in London during ClearfLo 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, S.; Slowik, J. G.; Furger, M.; Zotter, P.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dressler, R.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Green, D. C.; Tremper, A. H.; Young, D. E.; Williams, P. I.; Allan, J. D.; Herndon, S. C.; Williams, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Detournay, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Fleming, Z. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Ambient concentrations of trace elements with 2 h time resolution were measured in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 size ranges at kerbside, urban background and rural sites in London during winter 2012. Samples were collected using rotating drum impactors (RDIs) and subsequently analysed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Quantification of kerb and urban increments (defined as kerb-to-urban and urban-to-rural concentration ratios, respectively), and assessment of diurnal and weekly variability provided insight into sources governing urban air quality and the effects of urban micro-environments on human exposure. Traffic-related elements yielded the highest kerb increments, with values in the range of 10.4 to 16.6 for SW winds (3.3-6.9 for NE) observed for elements influenced by brake wear (e.g. Cu, Sb, Ba) and 5.7 to 8.2 for SW (2.6-3.0 for NE) for other traffic-related processes (e.g. Cr, Fe, Zn). Kerb increments for these elements were highest in the PM10-2.5 mass fraction, roughly twice that of the PM1.0-0.3 fraction. These elements also showed the highest urban increments (~ 3.0), although no difference was observed between brake wear and other traffic-related elements. All elements influenced by traffic exhibited higher concentrations during morning and evening rush hours, and on weekdays compared to weekends, with the strongest trends observed at the kerbside site, and additionally enhanced by winds coming directly from the road, consistent with street canyon effects. Elements related to mineral dust (e.g. Al, Si, Ca, Sr) showed significant influences from traffic-induced resuspension, as evidenced by moderate kerb (3.4-5.4 for SW, 1.7-2.3 for NE) and urban (~ 2) increments and increased concentrations during peak traffic flow. Elements related to regional transport showed no significant enhancement at kerb or urban sites, with the exception of PM10-2.5 sea salt (factor of up to 2), which may be influenced by

  15. Chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 collected at ground level and 100 meters during a strong winter-time pollution episode in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Liu, Suixin; Zhu, Chongshu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Hongmei; Hu, Tafeng

    2011-11-01

    An intensive sampling of aerosol particles from ground level and 100 m was conducted during a strong pollution episode during the winter in Xi'an, China. Concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous compounds, and trace elements were determined to compare the composition of particulate matter (PM) at the two heights. PM mass concentrations were high at both stations: PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter < or =10 microm) exceeded the China National Air Quality Standard Class II value on three occasions, and PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter < or =2.5 microm) exceeded the daily U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard more than 10 times. The PM10 organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were slightly lower at the ground than at 100 m, both in terms of concentration and percentage of total mass, but OC and EC in PM2.5 exhibited the opposite pattern. Major ionic species, such as sulfate and nitrate, showed vertical variations similar to the carbonaceous aerosols. High sulfate concentrations indicated that coal combustion dominated the PM mass both at the ground and 100 m. Correlations between K+ and OC and EC at 100 m imply a strong influence from suburban biomass burning, whereas coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust had a greater influence on the ground PM. Stable atmospheric conditions apparently led to the accumulation of PM, especially at 100 m, and these conditions contributed to the similarities in PM at the two elevations. Low coefficient of divergence (CD) values reflect the similarities in the composition of the aerosol between sites, but higher CDs for fine particles compared with coarse ones were consistent with the differences in emission sources between the ground and 100 m.

  16. 10 CFR 429.25 - Television sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... B of 10 CFR Part 430 to the represented values of power consumption as calculated pursuant to... requirements specified in section 3.3.3 of Appendix H to subpart B of 10 CFR Part 430. (B) For annual energy... section 8.3 of Appendix H to subpart B of 10 CFR Part 430. (b)...

  17. Characteristics of trace metals in fine (PM2.5) and inhalable (PM10) particles and its health risk assessment along with in-silico approach in indoor environment of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsangi, P. Gursumeeran; Yadav, Suman; Pipal, Atar Singh; Kumbhar, Navanath

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of fine (PM2.5: aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5) and inhalable (PM10: aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) particles and its associated toxic metals are of concern now-a-days due to its effects on human health and environment. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected from indoor microenvironments on glass fiber and PTFE filter paper using low volume air sampler in Pune. The average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 were 89.7 ± 43.2 μg m-3 and 138.2 ± 68.2 μg m-3 at urban site while it was 197.5 ± 84.3 and 287 ± 92 μg m-3 at rural site. Trace metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn in particulate matter were estimated by ICP-AES. Concentrations of crustal metals were found to be higher than the carcinogenic metals in both the microenvironments. On the contrary the soluble and bio-availability fraction of carcinogenic metals were found higher thus it may cause the higher risk to human health. Therefore, cancer risk assessment of carcinogenic metals; Cr, Ni and Cd was calculated. Among the carcinogenic metals, Ni showed highest cancer risk in indoor PM. The higher cancer risk assessment of Ni has been supported by In-silico study which suggested that Ni actively formed co-ordination complex with histone proteins (i.e. H3-Ni/H4-Ni) by maintaining strong hydrogen bonding interactions with Asp and Glu residues of nucleosomal proteins. Present In-silico study of Ni-histone complexes will help to emphasize the possible role of Asp and Glu residues in DNA methylation, deacetylation and ubiquitinations of nucleosomal proteins. Hence, this study could pave the way to understand the structural consequence of Ni in nucleosomal proteins and its impact on epigenetic changes which ultimately cause lung and nasal cancer.

  18. 21 CFR 25.10 - Policies and NEPA planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policies and NEPA planning. 25.10 Section 25.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS General Provisions § 25.10 Policies and NEPA planning. (a) All...

  19. 21 CFR 25.10 - Policies and NEPA planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policies and NEPA planning. 25.10 Section 25.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS General Provisions § 25.10 Policies and NEPA planning. (a) All...

  20. Ambient Particulate Matter (PM2.5/PM10) Exposure and Emergency Department Visits for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Chaoyang District, Beijing, China During 2014: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Qi, Weipeng; Yao, Wei; Wang, Mei; Chen, Yiyong; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiology studies have shown a consistently increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) correlated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. However, little is known about the association with specific AMI subtypes. In this work, we investigated the association between short-term PM exposure and emergency department visits (EDVs) for AMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods We based this case-crossover study on 2749 patients from Chaoyang District hospitalized with AMI in Anzhen Hospital during 2014. Meteorological and air pollution data were collected during this period. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design with lag model, adjusted for meteorological conditions and/or other gaseous pollutants, to estimate risk of EDVs for AMI, STEMI, and NSTEMI. We conducted stratified analyses by gender, age, season, and comorbid conditions to examine potential effect modification. Results We found that each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5 concentration (1-day lagged) was associated with an increased risk of EDVs for STEMI (OR 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.11). We found no association of PM2.5 concentration with overall AMI or NSTEMI. No effect modification was found when stratified by gender, season, or comorbid conditions, even though the effect size was larger in patients who were male, smokers, and comorbid with hypertension. Patients aged ≥65 years showed a significantly increased risk of STEMI associated with PM2.5 in the previous day than those aged <65 years. Conclusions Our study indicated a transient effect of short-term PM2.5 exposure on EDVs for STEMI. Patients aged ≥65 years appeared to be particularly susceptible. Our findings suggest that studies of the association between PM exposure and AMI should consider AMI subtypes, lag times, and individual characteristics. PMID:27064131

  1. 25 CFR 214.10 - Royalty rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.10 Royalty rates. Royalties will be required as follows...) For gold, silver, or copper lessee shall pay quarterly a royalty of 10 percent to be computed on the... crude material, and 60 cents per ton on refined substances. (d) For substances other than gold,...

  2. 25 CFR 214.10 - Royalty rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.10 Royalty rates. Royalties will be required as follows...) For gold, silver, or copper lessee shall pay quarterly a royalty of 10 percent to be computed on the... crude material, and 60 cents per ton on refined substances. (d) For substances other than gold,...

  3. 25 CFR 214.10 - Royalty rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.10 Royalty rates. Royalties will be required as follows...) For gold, silver, or copper lessee shall pay quarterly a royalty of 10 percent to be computed on the... crude material, and 60 cents per ton on refined substances. (d) For substances other than gold,...

  4. 25 CFR 214.10 - Royalty rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.10 Royalty rates. Royalties will be required as follows...) For gold, silver, or copper lessee shall pay quarterly a royalty of 10 percent to be computed on the... crude material, and 60 cents per ton on refined substances. (d) For substances other than gold,...

  5. PATRAN 2.5/EAL interface guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldhaus, Winifred S.

    1994-01-01

    The PATRAN/EA interface guide describes two programs, EALPAT and PATEAL. EALPAT reads an EAL LO1 file and translates the model and results into a PATRAN 2.5 neutral file, element results file, and nodal results file. An EAL model can be color coded in PATRAN, and geometry, loads, boundary conditions, section and material properties, rigid masses, springs, and beam orientations can be plotted and debugged. EAL results can be brought into PATRAN as element or nodal quantities and displayed as deformed plots, animated shapes, color coded elements, or color filled contour plots. PATEAL converts a PATRAN 2.5 data base into an EAL runstream. Geometry, including all element types, alternate coordinate systems, material properties, section properties, loads and boundary conditions are all converted. EALPAT and PATEAL can also be used together with the PATNAS translator from PDA Engineering to convert an EAL runstream to an MSC/NASTRAN bulk data file.

  6. MCNPX version 2.5.c

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    MCNPX is a Fortran 90 Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code that transports all particles at all energies. It is a superset of MCNP4C3, and has many capabilities beyond MCNP4C3. These capabilities are summarized along with their quality guarantee and code availability. Then the user interface changes from MCNP are described. Finally, the n.ew capabilities of the latest version, MCNPX 2.5.c, are documented. Future plans and references are also provided.

  7. Monitoing PM2.5 from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D.; Remer, L.; Szykman, J.; Kaumfan, Y.; Neil, D.; Pierce, B.

    2003-12-01

    MODIS sensors onboard the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites launched in 1999 and 2002 provide the revolutionized perspectives to study the Earth systems. MODIS ability to derive the first aerosol product over land has advanced our understanding of aerosols into the source regions. The analysis of MODIS-derived columnar aerosol loading has shown good correlation (correlation coefficient ~0.8-0.9) with EPA PM2.5 (particulate matter with particle size less than 2.5 mm) at surface in metropolitan areas (e.g., New York City, Chicago, Houston, etc.) and also over broad regions including 11 states and Washington DC. At present, the EPA, along with Regional Planning Organizations, and state and local governments use a multitude of decision support tools to assess, control, and report the nature of air pollution related to PM. However, the current existing air quality decision processes solely rely on urban scale model and ground-based network. Using MODIS aerosol data can aid significantly in tracking the movement of pollutants, which can be used as a proxy of PM2.5 for regions without ground measurements. NASA (GSFC and LaRC) is collaborating with EPA and NOAA in providing MODIS aerosol data to benchmark PM2.5 forecast in the East US in the summer 2003. This activity is to prototype similar activities in the following years using MODIS direct broadcasting to study transport (national, international, or intercontinental) issues and assess performance effectiveness of existing air quality regulations. Improvements of MODIS aerosol algorithm are planned to achieve better spatial resolution for urban pollution and health-related studies.

  8. Structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}, a new 10H-polytype in the Ba-Ce-Mn-O system

    SciTech Connect

    Macias, Mario A.; Mentre, Olivier; Cuello, Gabriel J.; Gauthier, Gilles H.

    2013-02-15

    Based on the peculiar magnetic properties that are observed in pseudo one-dimensional manganites, we decided to synthesize the new Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} compound. The preparation was performed by solid state reaction in air at about 1350 Degree-Sign C, for which we found that the compound crystallizes in a hexagonal symmetry with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (No-194) and cell parameters a=b=5.7861(2) A and c=23.902(1) A. The structural description was correlated with neutron diffraction and bond valence calculations, confirming the presence of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} segregated in the different crystallographic positions. Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} displays evidence for strong AFM couplings already set at room temperature. The main arrangement of Mn{sup 4+} in magnetically isolated tetramers of face-sharing octahedra is responsible for a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. - Graphical abstract: The new Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} polytype shows strong AFM couplings in magnetically isolated [Ce{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}] tetramers of face-sharing octahedral, resulting in a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}, a new 10H polytype, has been prepared in the Ba-Ce-Mn-O system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound crystallizes in the P6{sub 3}/mmc space group with (cchhh){sub 2} stacking sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ce{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}] tetramers are separated by [CeO{sub 6}] octahedra in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instead of robust AFM ordering, a metamagnetic-like transition is found around 50 K.

  9. 25 CFR 41.10 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.10 Technical assistance... any Community College requesting it. Such assistance shall be initiated within thirty (30) days of a Community College's request in writing. In any case, where the type and source of technical assistance...

  10. 25 CFR 41.10 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.10 Technical assistance... any Community College requesting it. Such assistance shall be initiated within thirty (30) days of a Community College's request in writing. In any case, where the type and source of technical assistance...

  11. 25 CFR 46.10 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 46.10 Eligible activities. (a) Subject to availability of funds, funds appropriated for the BIA's Adult Education Program may be used to support local projects or programs designed to: (1) Enable Indian adults to...

  12. General 2.5 power law of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Yijin; Zeng, Zhidan; Shi, Crystal Y; Zhang, Bo; Lou, Hongbo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Weihua; Sheng, Hongwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L

    2016-02-16

    Metallic glass (MG) is an important new category of materials, but very few rigorous laws are currently known for defining its "disordered" structure. Recently we found that under compression, the volume (V) of an MG changes precisely to the 2.5 power of its principal diffraction peak position (1/q1). In the present study, we find that this 2.5 power law holds even through the first-order polyamorphic transition of a Ce68Al10Cu20Co2 MG. This transition is, in effect, the equivalent of a continuous "composition" change of 4f-localized "big Ce" to 4f-itinerant "small Ce," indicating the 2.5 power law is general for tuning with composition. The exactness and universality imply that the 2.5 power law may be a general rule defining the structure of MGs. PMID:26831105

  13. General 2.5 power law of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Yijin; Zeng, Zhidan; Shi, Crystal Y.; Zhang, Bo; Lou, Hongbo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Weihua; Sheng, Hongwei; Mao, Ho-kwang; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass (MG) is an important new category of materials, but very few rigorous laws are currently known for defining its “disordered” structure. Recently we found that under compression, the volume (V) of an MG changes precisely to the 2.5 power of its principal diffraction peak position (1/q1). In the present study, we find that this 2.5 power law holds even through the first-order polyamorphic transition of a Ce68Al10Cu20Co2 MG. This transition is, in effect, the equivalent of a continuous “composition” change of 4f-localized “big Ce” to 4f-itinerant “small Ce,” indicating the 2.5 power law is general for tuning with composition. The exactness and universality imply that the 2.5 power law may be a general rule defining the structure of MGs. PMID:26831105

  14. 46 CFR 112.25-10 - Transfer of emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer of emergency loads. 112.25-10 Section 112.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine...

  15. 46 CFR 112.25-10 - Transfer of emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of emergency loads. 112.25-10 Section 112.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine...

  16. 46 CFR 112.25-10 - Transfer of emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer of emergency loads. 112.25-10 Section 112.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine...

  17. 46 CFR 112.25-10 - Transfer of emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of emergency loads. 112.25-10 Section 112.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine...

  18. 46 CFR 112.25-10 - Transfer of emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfer of emergency loads. 112.25-10 Section 112.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Systems Having an Automatic Starting Diesel Engine or Gas Turbine...

  19. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  20. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  1. 46 CFR 12.25-10 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements. 12.25-10 Section 12.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING... department.) (b) When the holder of an endorsement is qualified as a food handler, the steward's...

  2. 46 CFR 12.25-10 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements. 12.25-10 Section 12.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING... department.) (b) When the holder of an endorsement is qualified as a food handler, the steward's...

  3. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  4. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  5. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  6. Dependence of the flux-creep activation energy on current density and magnetic field for a Ca10(Pt3As8)[(Fe1-xPtx)2As2]5 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Gutierrez, J.; Li, J.; Yuan, J.; Wang, H.-B.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    We have performed detailed ac susceptibility measurements to investigate the vortex dynamics in a Ca10(Pt3As8)[(Fe1-xPtx)2As2]5 single crystal as a function of temperature, frequency, ac amplitude, and dc field. The field dependence of the activation energy U is derived in the framework of thermally activated flux creep theory, yielding a power law dependence of U ˜ Hα with α ≈ -1.0 for H above 0.30 T, while below 0.3 T U is independent of the field. The activation energy reaches 104 K at low fields, suggesting strong pinning in the material. The nonlinear function of the activation energy vs. the current density is determined, which shows logarithmic dependence U(J)∝lnJ.

  7. 10MeV 25KW industrial electron LINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamino, Y.

    1998-06-01

    A 10MeV 25KW plus class electron LINAC was developed for sterilisation of medical devices. The LINAC composed of a standing wave type single cavity prebuncher and a 2m electro-plated travelling wave guide uses a 5MW 2856MHz pulse klystron as an RF source and provides 25KW beam power at the Ti alloy beam window stably after the energy analysing magnet with 10MeV plus-minus 1 MeV energy slit. The practical maximum beam power reached 29 KW and this demonstrated the LINAC as one of the most powerful S-band electron LINACs in the world. The control of the LINAC is fully automated and the "One-Button Operation" is realised, which is valuable for easy operation as a plant system. 2 systems have been delivered and are being operated stably.

  8. 46 CFR 2.10-25 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for hire; (2) That is chartered and carrying more than 12 passengers; (3) That is a submersible vessel...-submersible MODU means a mobile offshore drilling unit with the main deck connected to an underwater hull by...) That is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or (5) That is a ferry...

  9. Field study and source attribution for PM2.5 and PM10 with resulting reduction in concentrations in the neighborhood north of the Houston Ship Channel based on voluntary efforts.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, David W; Price, James H; Lambeth, Bryan; Sheedy, Keith A; Savanich, Kasey; Tropp, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    When annual average PM2.5 (fine particulate matter sized 2.5 microns and less) data for 2005 became available in April 2006 and the 3-yr average PM2.5 concentration in an area just north of the Houston Ship Channel reached 15.0 microg/m3, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) initiated daily collection of quartz fiber as well as Teflon PM2.5 filter samples for chemical speciation analysis. The purpose of the chemical speciation analysis was to use the speciation data, together with meteorological data and hourly TEOM (tapered element oscillating microbalance) PM2.5 mass data, to identify the causes of the high PM2.5 concentrations affecting the monitoring site and the neighborhood. The ultimate purpose was to target emission reduction efforts to sources contributing to the high measured PM2.5 concentrations. After a year of data collection, it was recognized that a specific source, unpaved driveways and loading areas along the Ship Channel and dirt tracked onto Clinton Drive, the main artery running east-west north of the Ship Channel, were the primary cause for the Clinton Drive site's measuring PM2.5 concentrations significantly higher than other sites in Houston. The source characterization and remediation steps that have led to sustained reduced concentrations are described in this paper.

  10. Large magnetic penetration depth and thermal fluctuations in a superconducting Ca10(Pt3As8)[(Fe1-xPtx)2As2]5 (x=0.097) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeehoon; Ronning, Filip; Haberkorn, N.; Civale, L.; Nazaretski, E.; Ni, Ni; Cava, R. J.; Thompson, J. D.; Movshovich, R.

    2012-05-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the absolute value of the magnetic penetration depth λ(T) in a Ca10(Pt3As8)[(Fe1-xPtx)2As2]5 (x=0.097) single crystal using a low-temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM). We obtain λab(0)≈1000 nm via extrapolating the data to T=0. This large λ and pronounced anisotropy in this system are responsible for large thermal fluctuations and the presence of a liquid vortex phase in this low-temperature superconductor with a critical temperature of 11 K, consistent with the interpretation of the electrical transport data. The superconducting parameters obtained from λ and coherence length ξ place this compound in the extreme type II regime. Meissner responses (via MFM) at different locations across the sample are similar to each other, indicating good homogeneity of the superconducting state on a submicron scale.

  11. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  12. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  13. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  14. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  15. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  16. 10 CFR 820.25 - Final notice of violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final notice of violation. 820.25 Section 820.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.25 Final notice of violation. (a) General rule. If, after reviewing the reply submitted by the respondent, the Director determines that a person violated or...

  17. 10 CFR 429.25 - Television sets. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Television sets. 429.25 Section 429.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.25 Television sets....

  18. 10 CFR 429.25 - Television sets. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Television sets. 429.25 Section 429.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.25 Television sets....

  19. 10 CFR 473.25 - Reviewability of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reviewability of certification. 473.25 Section 473.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.25 Reviewability of...

  20. 10 CFR 473.25 - Reviewability of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reviewability of certification. 473.25 Section 473.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.25 Reviewability of...

  1. 10 CFR 473.25 - Reviewability of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reviewability of certification. 473.25 Section 473.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.25 Reviewability of...

  2. 10 CFR 473.25 - Reviewability of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reviewability of certification. 473.25 Section 473.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.25 Reviewability of...

  3. 10 CFR 71.24-71.25 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 71.24-71.25 Section 71.24-71.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses §§ 71.24-71.25...

  4. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  5. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  6. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  7. 10 CFR 851.25 - Training and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and information. 851.25 Section 851.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.25 Training and information. (a) Contractors must develop and implement a worker safety and health training and information program to ensure that all...

  8. 10 CFR 25.13 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of records. 25.13 Section 25.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.13 Maintenance of records. (a) Each... authenticated by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout...

  9. 10 CFR 25.13 - Maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance of records. 25.13 Section 25.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.13 Maintenance of records. (a) Each... authenticated by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout...

  10. 4 CFR 25.10 - Posting and distributing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting and distributing materials. 25.10 Section 25.10... materials, such as pamphlets, handbills or flyers, on bulletin boards or elsewhere in the GAO Building or on... pamphlets, handbills or flyers is prohibited, unless conducted as part of authorized government...

  11. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  12. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  14. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 25 CFR 141.10 - License fees for reservation businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., the licensee shall pay twenty-five dollars ($25). (b) Each licensed business owner who is not a member... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false License fees for reservation businesses. 141.10 Section 141.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES...

  17. 25 CFR 141.10 - License fees for reservation businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., the licensee shall pay twenty-five dollars ($25). (b) Each licensed business owner who is not a member... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false License fees for reservation businesses. 141.10 Section 141.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES...

  18. 25 CFR 141.10 - License fees for reservation businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., the licensee shall pay twenty-five dollars ($25). (b) Each licensed business owner who is not a member... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false License fees for reservation businesses. 141.10 Section 141.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES...

  19. 25 CFR 141.10 - License fees for reservation businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., the licensee shall pay twenty-five dollars ($25). (b) Each licensed business owner who is not a member... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true License fees for reservation businesses. 141.10 Section 141.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES...

  20. 33 CFR 67.10-25 - Application for tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for tests. 67.10-25 Section 67.10-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  1. 33 CFR 67.25-10 - Sound signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.25-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements § 67.25-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “B” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated...

  2. 33 CFR 67.25-10 - Sound signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.25-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements § 67.25-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “B” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated...

  3. 33 CFR 67.25-10 - Sound signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.25-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements § 67.25-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “B” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated...

  4. 33 CFR 67.25-10 - Sound signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.25-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements § 67.25-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “B” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated...

  5. 33 CFR 67.25-10 - Sound signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.25-10 Section 67... AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Class âBâ Requirements § 67.25-10 Sound signal. (a) The owner of a Class “B” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated...

  6. Chemical PM2.5 Speciation in Major Cities Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark; Liu, Yang; Martins, Vanderlei; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall

    2016-04-01

    We examined the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) across 13 globally dispersed urban locations (including Atlanta, Buenos Aires, Beijing, Manila, and Dhaka), as part of the Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN). At each site sampling was conducted over 4 to 24 months for the years 2013 to 2015. Analysis of filter samples revealed that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammonium sulfate ranged from 2 μg m-3 (Ilorin) to 17 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 6.7 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Effective black carbon ranged from 0.4 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 5 μg m-3 (Dhaka and Kanpur). The all-site mean values of major PM2.5 constituents were ammonium sulfate (20 ± 10 %), crustal material (12 ± 6.5%), effective black carbon (10 ± 7.4 %), ammonium nitrate (3.7 ± 2.5%), sea salt (2.2 ± 1.5%), trace element oxides (0.9 ± 0.7 %), water (7.2 ± 3.0%) and residue materials (44 ± 24%). Based on the evaluation with collocated studies we treated residue material as mostly organic. Major ions generally agreed well with previous studies at the same urban locations (e.g. sulfate fractions agreed within 4% for eight out of 11 collocation comparisons). Enhanced crustal material (CM) concentrations with high Zn:Al ratios at large cities (e.g. Hanoi, Dhaka, Manila) imply significant anthropogenic CM contributions that deserve more attention. Detailed chemical speciation also aided our characterization of site-specific PM2.5 water retention. The expected water contribution to aerosols was calculated via the hygroscopicity parameter for each filter. Hourly PM2.5 at specified relative humidity (35%) was inferred from nephelometer measurements of light scatter at ambient relative humidity and 9-day filter measurements of PM2.5 mass. Our PM2.5 estimates compared favorably with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM) at the nearby US embassy in Beijing, with a coefficient of variation

  7. Reliability of Three-Dimensional Linear Kinematics and Kinetics of Swimming Derived from Digitized Video at 25 and 50 Hz with 10 and 5 Frame Extensions to the 4th Order Butterworth Smoothing Window

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Ross H.; Gonjo, Tomohiro; McCabe, Carla B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4th order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p < 0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p < 0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p < 0.01). Key points An inverse dynamics based on 3D position data digitized from multiple camera views above and below the water surface is sufficiently reliable to yield insights regarding force production in swimming additional to those of other approaches. The ability to link the force profiles to swimming actions and technique is

  8. Reliability of Three-Dimensional Linear Kinematics and Kinetics of Swimming Derived from Digitized Video at 25 and 50 Hz with 10 and 5 Frame Extensions to the 4(th) Order Butterworth Smoothing Window.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ross H; Gonjo, Tomohiro; McCabe, Carla B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4(th) order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p < 0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p < 0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p < 0.01). Key pointsAn inverse dynamics based on 3D position data digitized from multiple camera views above and below the water surface is sufficiently reliable to yield insights regarding force production in swimming additional to those of other approaches.The ability to link the force profiles to swimming actions and technique is

  9. 46 CFR 34.25-5 - Capacity and arrangement-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity and arrangement-T/ALL. 34.25-5 Section 34.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-5 Capacity and arrangement—T/ALL. (a) The capacity and arrangement...

  10. 46 CFR 91.25-5 - Application for a Certificate of Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for a Certificate of Inspection. 91.25-5 Section 91.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-5 Application for a...

  11. 46 CFR 91.25-5 - Application for a Certificate of Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for a Certificate of Inspection. 91.25-5 Section 91.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-5 Application for a...

  12. 46 CFR 91.25-5 - Application for a Certificate of Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for a Certificate of Inspection. 91.25-5 Section 91.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-5 Application for a...

  13. 2,5-diketopiperazines as neuroprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Cornacchia, C; Cacciatore, I; Baldassarre, L; Mollica, A; Feliciani, F; Pinnen, F

    2012-01-01

    2,5-diketopiperazines are the simplest cyclic peptides found in nature, commonly biosynthesized from amino acids by different organisms, and represent a promising class of biologically active natural products. Their peculiar heterocyclic structure confers high stability against the proteolysis and constitutes a structural requirement for the active intestinal absorption. Furthermore, the diketopiperazine-based motif is considered as a novel brain shuttle for the delivery of drugs with limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and can be proposed as an ideal candidate for the rational development of new therapeutic agents. Although these cyclic peptides have been known since the beginning of the 20th century, only recently have they attracted substantial interest with respect to the wide spectrum of their biological properties, including antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and antihyperglycemic activities. In addition to these, the most challenging function of the diketopiperazine derivatives is related with their remarkable neuroprotective and nootropic activity. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of the two major classes of diketopiperazines, the TRH-related and the unsaturated derivatives both characterized by a significant ability to protect against neurotoxicity in several experimental models. The neuroprotective profile of these compounds suggests that they may have a future utility in the therapy of neuronal degeneration in vivo, potentially through several different mechanisms.

  14. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....3. Sec. 7.4.4. Sec. 7.4.5. § 53.54 Power interruption test Sample flow rate1. Mean 2. Regulation 3. Meas. accuracy 4. CV accuracy 5. Occurrence time of power interruptions 6. Elapsed sample time 7... pressure drop to simulate loaded filter (d) 6 power interruptions of various durations Sec. 7.4.1.Sec....

  15. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....3. Sec. 7.4.4. Sec. 7.4.5. § 53.54 Power interruption test Sample flow rate1. Mean 2. Regulation 3. Meas. accuracy 4. CV accuracy 5. Occurrence time of power interruptions 6. Elapsed sample time 7... pressure drop to simulate loaded filter (d) 6 power interruptions of various durations Sec. 7.4.1.Sec....

  16. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... above ambient temp. for more than 30 min (a) 4-hour simulated solar radiation, sampling(b) 4-hour simulated solar radiation, non-sampling (c) Solar flux of 1000 ± 50 W/m 2 Sec. 7.4.8.Sec. 7.4.10. Sec....

  17. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above ambient temp. for more than 30 min (a) 4-hour simulated solar radiation, sampling(b) 4-hour simulated solar radiation, non-sampling (c) Solar flux of 1000 ± 50 W/m 2 Sec. 7.4.8.Sec. 7.4.10. Sec....

  18. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... above ambient temp. for more than 30 min (a) 4-hour simulated solar radiation, sampling(b) 4-hour simulated solar radiation, non-sampling (c) Solar flux of 1000 ±50 W/m 2 Sec. 7.4.8.Sec. 7.4.10. Sec....

  19. 25 CFR 91.10 - Renting of improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Renting of improvements. 91.10 Section 91.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.10 Renting of improvements. The Superintendent may issue a...

  20. 25 CFR 91.10 - Renting of improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting of improvements. 91.10 Section 91.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.10 Renting of improvements. The Superintendent may issue a...

  1. 25 CFR 91.10 - Renting of improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Renting of improvements. 91.10 Section 91.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.10 Renting of improvements. The Superintendent may issue a...

  2. 25 CFR 91.10 - Renting of improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Renting of improvements. 91.10 Section 91.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.10 Renting of improvements. The Superintendent may issue a...

  3. 25 CFR 91.10 - Renting of improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Renting of improvements. 91.10 Section 91.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.10 Renting of improvements. The Superintendent may issue a...

  4. 25 CFR 307.10 - Period of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period of license. 307.10 Section 307.10 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO ALL-WOOL WOVEN FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.10 Period of license. Each license shall be in effect from the date...

  5. 25 CFR 307.10 - Period of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of license. 307.10 Section 307.10 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO ALL-WOOL WOVEN FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.10 Period of license. Each license shall be in effect from the date...

  6. 25 CFR 307.10 - Period of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period of license. 307.10 Section 307.10 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO ALL-WOOL WOVEN FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.10 Period of license. Each license shall be in effect from the date...

  7. 25 CFR 307.10 - Period of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period of license. 307.10 Section 307.10 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO ALL-WOOL WOVEN FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.10 Period of license. Each license shall be in effect from the date...

  8. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  9. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  10. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  11. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  12. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  13. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10... Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary shall undertake forest land management activities on Indian forest land, either directly or through...

  14. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  15. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  16. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  17. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  18. 25 CFR 226.10 - Term of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Term of lease. 226.10 Section 226.10 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.10 Term of lease. Leases issued hereunder..., and so stated in the notice of sale of such leases and so long thereafter as the minerals...

  19. 25 CFR 167.10 - Special grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special grazing permits. 167.10 Section 167.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.10 Special grazing permits. The problem of special grazing permits shall be settled by the Bureau of...

  20. 25 CFR 81.10 - District Election Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false District Election Boards. 81.10 Section 81.10 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.10 District Election Boards. (a) Where voting districts have been established by the tribal constitution, ordinance, resolution, or by the election board, the election board shall...