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Sample records for 5-1 continued eye

  1. An Eye Toward the Future: Strategic Planning and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicere, Albert A.

    1985-01-01

    Strategic planning, a logical framework for organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling the work of an organization, spans three philosophies: "satisficing, optimizing, and adaptivizing." While higher education's traditional orientation is satisficing, continuing education agencies can lead the movement toward adaptivization of strategic…

  2. Keeping your eyes continuously on the ball while running for catchable and uncatchable fly balls.

    PubMed

    Postma, Dees B W; den Otter, A Rob; Zaal, Frank T J M

    2014-01-01

    When faced with a fly ball approaching along the sagittal plane, fielders need information for the control of their running to the interception location. This information could be available in the initial part of the ball trajectory, such that the interception location can be predicted from its initial conditions. Alternatively, such predictive information is not available, and running to the interception location involves continuous visual guidance. The latter type of control would predict that fielders keep looking at the approaching ball for most of its flight, whereas the former type of control would fit with looking at the ball during the early part of the ball's flight; keeping the eyes on the ball during the remainder of its trajectory would not be necessary when the interception location can be inferred from the first part of the ball trajectory. The present contribution studied visual tracking of approaching fly balls. Participants were equipped with a mobile eye tracker. They were confronted with tennis balls approaching from about 20 m, and projected in such a way that some balls were catchable and others were not. In all situations, participants almost exclusively tracked the ball with their gaze until just before the catch or until they indicated that a ball was uncatchable. This continuous tracking of the ball, even when running close to their maximum speeds, suggests that participants employed continuous visual control rather than running to an interception location known from looking at the early part of the ball flight. PMID:24670972

  3. Keeping Your Eyes Continuously on the Ball While Running for Catchable and Uncatchable Fly Balls

    PubMed Central

    Postma, Dees B. W.; den Otter, A. Rob; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    When faced with a fly ball approaching along the sagittal plane, fielders need information for the control of their running to the interception location. This information could be available in the initial part of the ball trajectory, such that the interception location can be predicted from its initial conditions. Alternatively, such predictive information is not available, and running to the interception location involves continuous visual guidance. The latter type of control would predict that fielders keep looking at the approaching ball for most of its flight, whereas the former type of control would fit with looking at the ball during the early part of the ball's flight; keeping the eyes on the ball during the remainder of its trajectory would not be necessary when the interception location can be inferred from the first part of the ball trajectory. The present contribution studied visual tracking of approaching fly balls. Participants were equipped with a mobile eye tracker. They were confronted with tennis balls approaching from about 20 m, and projected in such a way that some balls were catchable and others were not. In all situations, participants almost exclusively tracked the ball with their gaze until just before the catch or until they indicated that a ball was uncatchable. This continuous tracking of the ball, even when running close to their maximum speeds, suggests that participants employed continuous visual control rather than running to an interception location known from looking at the early part of the ball flight. PMID:24670972

  4. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  5. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  6. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  7. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  8. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  9. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  10. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  11. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  12. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  13. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  14. Eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  15. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  16. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  17. Longitudinal continuity of the subrhabdomeric cisternae in the photoreceptors of the compound eye of the drone, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Skalska-Rakowska, J M; Baumgartner, B

    1985-01-15

    It is shown that the subrhabdomeric cisternae of the honey bee drone photoreceptor cell constitute a single structure with a continuous lumen, that extends over at least 15 micron and perhaps the whole length of the cell. In this case, the structure of the cisternae might subserve the propagation of light adaptation along the cell.

  18. Predicting the continued use of overlays in school children--a comparison of the Developmental Eye Movement test and the Rate of Reading test.

    PubMed

    Northway, Nadia

    2003-09-01

    Coloured overlays have been advocated to enhance reading speed and ability in children with reading difficulty or dyslexia. Assessing the efficacy of overlays has to date been largely subjective. Objective assessment is presently carried out with the Rate of Reading test (RRT), where an increase in reading speed of more than 5% is considered to indicate a positive prognosis for continued use of the overlay. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is used to assess horizontal scanning behaviour in a number naming task. In this study both tests were utilised to determine whether coloured overlays could enhance reading performance or scanning. This article shows that for some children rate of reading is not improved with coloured overlays although performance on the DEM test does improve. Improvements to the DEM scores occurred in 88% of children who continued to use overlays for more than 3 months. This compared with 60% sensitivity in the RRT. The possible reasons for this phenomenon and the clinical implications are discussed. PMID:12950892

  19. 40 CFR 205.5-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing exemption. 205.5-1 Section 205.5-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS General Provisions § 205.5-1 Testing exemption. (a) A...

  20. 40 CFR 205.5-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing exemption. 205.5-1 Section 205.5-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS General Provisions § 205.5-1 Testing exemption. (a) A...

  1. 40 CFR 205.5-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Testing exemption. 205.5-1 Section 205.5-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS General Provisions § 205.5-1 Testing exemption. (a) A...

  2. 40 CFR 205.5-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing exemption. 205.5-1 Section 205.5-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS General Provisions § 205.5-1 Testing exemption. (a) A...

  3. 40 CFR 205.5-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 205.5-1 Section 205.5-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS General Provisions § 205.5-1 Testing exemption. (a) A...

  4. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  5. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  6. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  7. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  8. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  9. 40 CFR 204.5-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 204.5-1 Section 204.5-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS...) A new product intended to be used solely for research, investigations, studies, demonstrations...

  10. 43 CFR 3162.5-1 - Environmental obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental obligations. 3162.5-1 Section 3162.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Requirements for Operating Rights Owners and...

  11. 43 CFR 3585.5-1 - Exploration license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exploration license. 3585.5-1 Section 3585.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White...

  12. 43 CFR 3105.5-1 - Where filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where filed. 3105.5-1 Section 3105.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  13. 43 CFR 3105.5-1 - Where filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where filed. 3105.5-1 Section 3105.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  14. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  15. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  16. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  17. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  18. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  19. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  20. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  1. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967....

  2. 49 CFR 5.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 5.1 Section 5.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.1 Applicability. (a) This... Programs Administration, St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, or Federal Motor Carrier...

  3. 49 CFR 5.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5.1 Section 5.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.1 Applicability. (a) This... Programs Administration, St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, or Federal Motor Carrier...

  4. 49 CFR 5.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 5.1 Section 5.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.1 Applicability. (a) This... Programs Administration, St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, or Federal Motor Carrier...

  5. 49 CFR 5.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 5.1 Section 5.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.1 Applicability. (a) This... Programs Administration, St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, or Federal Motor Carrier...

  6. 49 CFR 5.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5.1 Section 5.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.1 Applicability. (a) This... Programs Administration, St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, or Federal Motor Carrier...

  7. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be... Merit Pay System, the pay of GAO employees shall be adjusted at the same time and to the same extent...

  8. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  9. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  10. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  11. 6 CFR 5.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 5.1 Section 5.1 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 5.1 General provisions. (a)(1) This subpart A contains the rules that...

  12. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  13. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication...: (1) Executive orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. (2) Documents required to...

  14. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting worse? What other symptoms do you have? A slit-lamp examination may be done. Blood testing for thyroid disease may be done. Treatments depend on the cause. Artificial tears may be given to lubricate the eye.

  15. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  16. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Supervise children carefully. Teach them how to be safe. Always wear protective eye gear when: Using power tools, hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and dusty ...

  17. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  18. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  4. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  5. 41 CFR 51-5.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination may be required. In order to assist in evaluating the suitability of an Office of Management and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 51-5.1 Section 51-5.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public...

  6. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5... AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be... or advertisement is of goods, services, or facilities available within the park area and such...

  7. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  8. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  9. Googly Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  10. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  11. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  17. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  18. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(5)-1 - Effect of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of termination. 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Effect of termination. (a) Termination of entire agreement. (1) If the...

  19. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(5)-1 - Effect of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of termination. 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Effect of termination. (a) Termination of entire agreement. (1) If the...

  20. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(5)-1 - Effect of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of termination. 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Effect of termination. (a) Termination of entire agreement. (1) If the...

  1. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(5)-1 - Effect of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of termination. 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Effect of termination. (a) Termination of entire agreement. (1) If the...

  2. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(5)-1 - Effect of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of termination. 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(5)-1 Effect of termination. (a) Termination of entire agreement. (1) If the...

  3. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  4. 45 CFR 5.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 5.1 Purpose. This part contains the rules that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... make a FOIA request; who can release records and who can decide not to release; how much time it should take to make a determination regarding release; what fees may be charged; what records are...

  5. Billie's eyes.

    PubMed

    Dunning, S E

    1993-03-01

    The author, a nurse, is personally opposed to abortion; however, her earlier encounter with a victim of an illegal abortion has prevented her from joining campaigns to reinstate bans on abortion rights. The woman, "Billie," presented to an inner-city Chicago hospital in 1970 with hemorrhaging. She had delayed going for treatment because she feared being imprisoned for having obtained an abortion. She rapidly entered septic shock, with hypotension, confusion, and hallucinations. Physicians removed her infected uterus and ovaries. Subsequent kidney failure necessitated the transfer of this young woman to another hospital where she could receive dialysis. The author was unable to obtain follow-up information on whether Billie survived. She remains haunted by the memory of Billie's wide, frightened eyes as she was placed in the ambulance. It is this memory, and the knowledge that desperate women like Billie will find someone, somewhere to perform an illegal abortion, that is behind the author's reluctant support for the right to choose.

  6. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information > Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific ...

  7. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision science and eye health fun with videos, optical illusions, and more. View the site Request for ... español NEI FAQs Eye Health Resources Studies, print materials and more. National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) ...

  8. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  10. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  11. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  12. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  17. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-12-12

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement.

  18. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  19. Effects on development, growth responses and thyroid-hormone systems in eyed-eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) continuously exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77).

    PubMed

    Arukwe, Augustine; Olufsen, Marianne; Cicero, Nicola; Hansen, Marianne D

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3; and thyroxine, T4) play significant roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism, homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and differentiation, for which the effects are mediated through thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ). Similarly, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is involved in growth and development through regulation of somatic growth. This study was designed to examine the effects of the dioxin-like 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) on responses related to growth and thyroid hormone system in eyed eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon. Salmon eggs were continuously exposed to two waterborne concentrations of PCB-77 (1 or 10 ng/L) over a period of 50 d covering hatching and through yolk-sac absorption stages. Sampling was performed regularly throughout the exposure period and at different time intervals. Gene expression patterns were performed on whole-body homogenate at age 500, 548, 632, 674, and 716 dd (dd: day degrees) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total T3 (TT3) and total T4 (TT4) were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data showed that 10 ng PCB-77 increased dioiodinase 2 (Dio2) at 500 dd and both PCB-77 concentrations decreased dio2 expression at 548 dd. PCB-77 elevated cellular TT3 at 500 dd and was lowered at 548 dd only at 10 ng. Otherwise, time-related reduction was not affected by PCB-77 exposure as observed for the rest of the exposure period. For TT4, 1 ng PCB-77 produced a rise at 500 dd, and an apparent concentration decrease at 548 dd, before a total inhibition at 632 dd. The IGF-1 and IGF-1R were variably affected by PCB-77. For IGF-2, PCB-77 produced a concentration-dependent increase at 548 dd, and thereafter an elevation (1 ng) and fall (10 ng) at 632 dd. TRβ mRNA demonstrated PCB-77 related increases during the exposure period, and this effect returned to control levels at 716 dd. For TRα, a rise was noted only after exposure to 10 ng PCB-77 at 500 dd

  20. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  1. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - care ... until the problem is very bad. Your health care provider can catch problems early if you get ... doctor (ophthalmologist). Choose an eye doctor who takes care of people with diabetes. Your eye exam may ...

  2. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ...

  5. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  6. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...

  7. 5 CFR 5.1 - Civil Service regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil Service regulations. 5.1 Section 5.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES REGULATIONS, INVESTIGATION, AND ENFORCEMENT (RULE V) § 5.1 Civil Service regulations. The Director, Office of...

  8. Corneal-Protective Effects of an Artificial Tear Containing Sodium Hyaluronate and Castor Oil on a Porcine Short-Term Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Takashi; AMAKO, Hideki; YAMAMOTO, Takeshi; TAZAWA, Mariko; SAKAMOTO, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear. PMID:24881653

  9. Corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate and castor oil on a porcine short-term dry eye model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Amako, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tazawa, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear.

  10. Eye injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grin, T R; Nelson, L B; Jeffers, J B

    1987-07-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted of all children with eye injuries admitted to Wills Eye Hospital to determine demographic, etiologic, and prophylactic factors. There were 278 cases, representing 22% of all ocular injuries in children requiring admission. The frequency of childhood ocular injuries is high, often resulting in serious visual impairment. Many of these injuries are preventable. The causes of pediatric eye injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  11. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  12. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  13. Binocular coordination of the eyes during reading.

    PubMed

    Liversedge, Simon P; Rayner, Keith; White, Sarah J; Findlay, John M; McSorley, Eugene

    2006-09-01

    Saccadic eye movements and fixations are the behavioral means by which we visually sample text during reading. Human oculomotor control is governed by a complex neurophysiological system involving the brain stem, superior colliculus, and several cortical areas. A very widely held belief among researchers investigating primate vision is that the oculomotor system serves to orient the visual axes of both eyes to fixate the same target point in space. It is argued that such precise positioning of the eyes is necessary to place images on corresponding retinal locations, such that on each fixation a single, nondiplopic, visual representation is perceived. Vision works actively through a continual sampling process involving saccades and fixations. Here we report that during normal reading, the eyes do not always fixate the same letter within a word. We also demonstrate that saccadic targeting is yoked and based on a unified cyclopean percept of a whole word since it is unaffected if different word parts are delivered exclusively to each eye via a dichoptic presentation technique. These two findings together suggest that the visual signal from each eye is fused at a very early stage in the visual pathway, even when the fixation disparity is greater than one character (0.29 deg), and that saccade metrics for each eye are computed on the basis of that fused signal.

  14. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  15. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  16. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  17. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  18. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  19. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-1 - System guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System guidelines. 960.5-1 Section 960.5-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... the applicable safety requirements set forth in 10 CFR part 20, 10 CFR part 60, and 40 CFR...

  1. 43 CFR 3162.5-1 - Environmental obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental obligations. 3162.5-1... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-1 Environmental obligations. (a) The operator shall... environmental quality. In that respect, the operator shall comply with the pertinent orders of the...

  2. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of.... (b) No offers for oil and gas leases covering wildlife refuge lands shall be accepted and no...

  3. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of.... (b) No offers for oil and gas leases covering wildlife refuge lands shall be accepted and no...

  4. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of.... (b) No offers for oil and gas leases covering wildlife refuge lands shall be accepted and no...

  5. 43 CFR 3101.5-1 - Wildlife refuge lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wildlife refuge lands. 3101.5-1 Section... § 3101.5-1 Wildlife refuge lands. (a) Wildlife refuge lands are those lands embraced in a withdrawal of.... (b) No offers for oil and gas leases covering wildlife refuge lands shall be accepted and no...

  6. 44 CFR 5.1 - Scope and purposes of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure of records and information held by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in accordance... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope and purposes of part. 5.1 Section 5.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.5-1 - Economic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic evaluation. 3141.5-1 Section 3141... in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-1 Economic evaluation. Prior to any lease sale for a combined hydrocarbon lease, the authorized officer shall request an economic evaluation of the total...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.5-1 - Economic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic evaluation. 3141.5-1 Section 3141... in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-1 Economic evaluation. Prior to any lease sale for a combined hydrocarbon lease, the authorized officer shall request an economic evaluation of the total...

  9. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  10. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (SUN3 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. The Silicon Graphics version of TAE Plus now has a font caching scheme and a color caching scheme to make color allocation more efficient. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides an extremely powerful means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif Toolkit 1.1 or 1.1.1. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus comes with InterViews and idraw, two software packages developed by Stanford University and integrated in TAE Plus. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.1 was released in 1991. TAE Plus is currently available on media suitable for eight different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS 5.3 or higher (TK

  11. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (DEC VAX ULTRIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. The Silicon Graphics version of TAE Plus now has a font caching scheme and a color caching scheme to make color allocation more efficient. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides an extremely powerful means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif Toolkit 1.1 or 1.1.1. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus comes with InterViews and idraw, two software packages developed by Stanford University and integrated in TAE Plus. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.1 was released in 1991. TAE Plus is currently available on media suitable for eight different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS 5.3 or higher (TK

  12. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (SUN3 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. The Silicon Graphics version of TAE Plus now has a font caching scheme and a color caching scheme to make color allocation more efficient. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides an extremely powerful means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif Toolkit 1.1 or 1.1.1. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus comes with InterViews and idraw, two software packages developed by Stanford University and integrated in TAE Plus. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.1 was released in 1991. TAE Plus is currently available on media suitable for eight different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS 5.3 or higher (TK

  13. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (DEC VAX ULTRIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. The Silicon Graphics version of TAE Plus now has a font caching scheme and a color caching scheme to make color allocation more efficient. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides an extremely powerful means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif Toolkit 1.1 or 1.1.1. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus comes with InterViews and idraw, two software packages developed by Stanford University and integrated in TAE Plus. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.1 was released in 1991. TAE Plus is currently available on media suitable for eight different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS 5.3 or higher (TK

  14. [Black spots in the eye].

    PubMed

    Märker, D A; Herrmann, W A; Helbig, H

    2011-10-01

    Senile scleral plaques are characterized by a calcification located at the insertion of the horizontal rectus muscles. As a possible cause for their development a combination of solar tissue damage and continuous mechanical stress is discussed. We present a case of a 76-year-old male whose wife noticed expulsion of a calcified scleral plaque while applying antiglaucoma eyedrops. The local antiglaucoma therapy was stopped and acetacolamide was administered. Local therapy consisted of hyaluronic acid eyedrop and calcium pantothenate and retinol palmiate eye ointment. This treatment led to a rapid reepithelialization. The expulsion of calcified senile scleral plaques is a described complication which can necessitate surgical treatment. PMID:21853216

  15. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  16. 21 CFR 886.3320 - Eye sphere implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye sphere implant. 886.3320 Section 886.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3320 Eye sphere implant. (a) Identification. An...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3320 - Eye sphere implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye sphere implant. 886.3320 Section 886.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3320 Eye sphere implant. (a) Identification. An...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3320 - Eye sphere implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye sphere implant. 886.3320 Section 886.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3320 Eye sphere implant. (a) Identification. An...

  19. 21 CFR 886.3320 - Eye sphere implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye sphere implant. 886.3320 Section 886.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3320 Eye sphere implant. (a) Identification. An...

  20. 21 CFR 886.3320 - Eye sphere implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye sphere implant. 886.3320 Section 886.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3320 Eye sphere implant. (a) Identification. An...

  1. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  2. Eye observation and corneal protection during endonasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, P J; Whittet, H

    2005-07-01

    Traumatic orbital complications of endonasal surgery, although rare, are a cause of significant morbidity. Although a variety of methods of monitoring eye function during surgery have been described, the best method remains direct perioperative observation of the eye. However, the eye must also be protected during surgery otherwise corneal drying will occur and corneal abrasion may result. This article describes and illustrates the use of Geliperm, a sterile, transparent, pliant hydrogel dressing, as a corneal protector allowing continuous observation of the eye during endonasal surgery.

  3. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly. This allows images to be focused on ...

  4. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  5. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  6. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... Once you have eye disease caused by diabetes, you need to see an ophthalmologist. ... feel stinging when the drops are first placed. You may have a ... using a bright light. The doctor can then see areas that may ...

  7. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  8. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  9. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  10. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  11. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  13. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  14. 43 CFR 3141.5-1 - Economic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-1 Economic evaluation. Prior to any lease sale for a...

  15. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  16. Eye position and eye velocity integrators reside in separate brainstem nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, A M; De la Cruz, R R; Baker, R

    1994-01-01

    Two types of central nervous system integrators are critical for oculomotor performance. The first integrates velocity commands to create position signals that hold fixation of the eye. The second stores relative velocity of the head and visual surround to stabilize gaze both during and after the occurrence of continuous self and world motion. We have used recordings from single neurons to establish that the "position" and "velocity" integrators for horizontal eye movement occupy adjacent, but nonoverlapping, locations in the goldfish medulla. Lidocaine inactivation of each integrator results in the eye movement deficits expected if horizontal eye position and velocity signals are processed separately. These observations also indicate that each brainstem compartment generates and stores these signals. Consequently, each integrator exhibits functional autonomy. Therefore, we propose that the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the constituent neurons in each brainstem subnucleus may be sufficient for producing integrator rhythmicity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8290604

  17. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  18. Eye movements in reading: some theoretical context.

    PubMed

    Radach, Ralph; Kennedy, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study of eye movements has proven to be one of the most successful approaches in research on reading. In this overview, it is argued that a major reason for this success is that eye movement measurement is not just a methodology--the control of eye movements is actually part and parcel of the dynamics of information processing within the task of reading itself. Some major developments over the last decade are discussed with a focus on the issue of spatially distributed word processing and its relation to the development of reading models. The survey ends with a description of two newly emerging trends in the field: the study of continuous reading in non-Roman writing systems and the broadening of the scope of research to encompass individual differences and developmental issues.

  19. Spectral and correlated timing behaviour of GX 5-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuulkers, E.; van der Klis, M.; Oosterbroek, T.; Asai, K.; Dotani, T.; van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1994-09-01

    We have analyzed the X-ray spectral and fast timing behavior of the Z-source GX 5-1 using X-ray color-color diagrams (CDs), hardness-intensity diagrams (HIDs) and power spectra. We used all EXOSAT ME data on GX 5-1, a total of seven observations during 1983-1985. We detect, for the first time in GX 5-1, secular motion of the well-known 'Z' pattern through the CDs and HIDs. This behavior resembles Cyg X-2, but in GX 5-1 has a smaller amplitude. We find that the power spectra do not change when the 'Z' moves, and are only dependent on the position inside the 'Z'. We also report, for the first time in GX 5-1, indications of flaring-branch (FB) like behavior, both during one of our EXOSAT observations, and during observations done with Ginga. As the secular changes of the position of the 'Z' pattern in the CD and HID are relatively small we investigated in detail the systematic changes in the EXOSAT ME detectors using the only bright and steady X-ray 'standard star', the Crab Nebula. Finally, we determined an intrinsic CD of GX 5-1 (i.e. a soft photon flux-ratio versus hard photon flux-ratio diagram) in a model independent way, by applying a first order correction for the detector efficiency. It is shown, using data of the Crab Nebula, that this method works reasonably well for the determination of intrinsic colors.

  20. Spectral and correlated timing behaviour of GX 5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuulkers, E.; Van Der Klis, M.; Oosterbroek, T.; Asai, K.; Dotani, T.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the X-ray spectral and fast timing behavior of the Z-source GX 5-1 using X-ray color-color diagrams (CDs), hardness-intensity diagrams (HIDs) and power spectra. We used all EXOSAT ME data on GX 5-1, a total of seven observations during 1983-1985. We detect, for the first time in GX 5-1, secular motion of the well-known 'Z' pattern through the CDs and HIDs. This behavior resembles Cyg X-2, but in GX 5-1 has a smaller amplitude. We find that the power spectra do not change when the 'Z' moves, and are only dependent on the position inside the 'Z'. We also report, for the first time in GX 5-1, indications of flaring-branch (FB) like behavior, both during one of our EXOSAT observations, and during observations done with Ginga. As the secular changes of the position of the 'Z' pattern in the CD and HID are relatively small we investigated in detail the systematic changes in the EXOSAT ME detectors using the only bright and steady X-ray 'standard star', the Crab Nebula. Finally, we determined an intrinsic CD of GX 5-1 (i.e. a soft photon flux-ratio versus hard photon flux-ratio diagram) in a model independent way, by applying a first order correction for the detector efficiency. It is shown, using data of the Crab Nebula, that this method works reasonably well for the determination of intrinsic colors.

  1. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh VU; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.; Mccoy, Daniel J.; Giarratano, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS 5.1 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming provides representation of knowledge by use of heuristics. Object-oriented programming enables modeling of complex systems as modular components. Procedural programming enables CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Working with CLIPS 5.1, one can develop expert-system software by use of rule-based programming only, object-oriented programming only, procedural programming only, or combinations of the three.

  2. Reading without saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G S; Turano, K

    1992-05-01

    To assess the limitation on reading speed imposed by saccadic eye movements, we measured reading speed in 13 normally-sighted observers using two modes of text presentations: PAGE text which presents an entire passage conventionally in static, paragraph format, and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) which presents text sequentially, one word at a time at the same location in the visual field. In Expt 1, subjects read PAGE and RSVP text orally across a wide range of letter sizes (2X to 32X single-letter acuity) and reading speed was computed from the number of correct words read per minute. Reading speeds were consistently faster for RSVP compared to PAGE text at all letter sizes tested. The average speeds for text of an intermediate letter size (8X acuity) were 1171 words/min for RSVP and 303 words/min for PAGE text. In Expt 2 subjects read PAGE and RSVP text silently and a multiple-choice comprehension test was administered after each passage. All subjects continued to read RSVP text faster, and 6 subjects read at the maximum testable rate (1652 words/min) with at least 75% correct on the comprehension tests. Experiment 3 assessed the minimum word exposure time required for decoding text using RSVP to minimize potential delays due to saccadic eye movement control. Successive words were presented for a fixed duration (word duration) with a blank interval (ISI) between words. The minimum word duration required for accurate oral reading averaged 69.4 msec and was not reduced by increasing ISI. We interpret these results as an indication that the programming and execution of saccadic eye movements impose an upper limit on conventional reading speed.

  3. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution.

  4. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  5. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  6. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  7. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.5-1 - Economic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-1 Economic evaluation. Prior to any lease sale for a combined... resource on each proposed lease tract exclusive of coal, oil shale, or gilsonite....

  9. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  10. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  11. Eye Movements and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Kenneth

    An explanation of visual perception is presented using physiological facts, analogies to digital computers, and analogies to the structure of written languages. According to the explanation, visual input is discontinuous, with the discontinuities mediated by and correlated with the jumps of the eye. This is analogous to the gated and buffer-stored…

  12. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  13. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  14. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  15. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    PubMed

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  16. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  17. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  18. An eye for inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  19. The Eyes Have It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards of working with the visual display systems of computers, in particular the eye problems associated with long-term use of video display terminals. Excerpts from and ordering information for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health report on such hazards are included. (JJD)

  20. The environment and the eye.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G J

    2004-12-01

    The use of the 'environment' has become extended to include population changes, the 'domestic' environment, and cultural factors, in addition to physical influences such as global warming and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The likely effects of each of these classes of agents on the eye and rates of blindness are illustrated by reference mainly to cataract and trachoma--two of the commonest causes of the world blindness.Trachoma infection and its blinding consequences could be eventually eliminated by environmental measures and changes in behaviour. While the threat of increased incidence of blindness from cataract due to ozone depletion and greater solar UVR has receded, global warming may become a factor in the early onset and rapid progression of cataract. Although we continue to need research into the physical and biological causes of cataract, elimination of world blindness will only be achieved when we understand the conceptual and cultural environments which are inhibiting the acceptance of cataract surgery.

  1. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  2. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and seek medical attention. In case of a chemical burn to the eye: Immediately flush the eye ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  3. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials ...

  4. New Criticality Safety Analysis Capabilities in SCALE 5.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M; DeHart, Mark D; Dunn, Michael E; Goluoglu, Sedat; Horwedel, James E; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Rearden, Bradley T; Williams, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Version 5.1 of the SCALE computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in 2006, contains several significant enhancements for nuclear criticality safety analysis. This paper highlights new capabilities in SCALE 5.1, including improved resonance self-shielding capabilities; ENDF/B-VI.7 cross-section and covariance data libraries; HTML output for KENO V.a; analytical calculations of KENO-VI volumes with GeeWiz/KENO3D; new CENTRMST/PMCST modules for processing ENDF/B-VI data in TSUNAMI; SCALE Generalized Geometry Package in NEWT; KENO Monte Carlo depletion in TRITON; and plotting of cross-section and covariance data in Javapeno.

  5. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of

  6. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  7. ADAPTIVE EYE MODEL - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.

    2008-01-01

    We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than λ/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

  8. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  9. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  10. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  11. GEMPAK 5.1 - A GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL PACKAGE (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    GEMPAK is a general meteorological software package developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, and gridded data, including model output. There are very general programs to list, edit, and plot data on maps, to display profiles and time series, to draw and fill contours, to draw streamlines, to plot symbols for clouds, sky cover, and pressure tendency, and draw cross sections in the case of gridded data and sounding data. In addition, there are Barnes objective analysis programs to grid surface and upper-air data. The programs include the capabilities to derive meteorological parameters from those found in the dataset, to perform vertical interpolations of sounding data to different coordinate systems, and to compute an extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities by specifying various nested combinations of scalars and vector arithmetic, algebraic, and differential operators. The GEMPAK 5.1 graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides device-independent graphics. GEMPLT also has the capability to display output in a variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. GEMPAK 5.1 is written in FORTRAN 77 and C-language and has been implemented on VAX computers under VMS and on computers running the UNIX operating system. During installation and normal use, this package occupies approximately 100Mb of hard disk space. The UNIX version of GEMPAK includes drivers for several graphic output systems including MIT's X Window System (X11,R4), Sun GKS, PostScript (color and monochrome), Silicon Graphics, and others. The VMS version of GEMPAK also includes drivers for several graphic output systems including PostScript (color and monochrome). The VMS version is delivered with the object code for the Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) program, version 4.1 which serves as a user interface. A color monitor is recommended for displaying maps on video display devices. Data for rendering

  12. The association of sleep quality with dry eye disease: the Osaka study

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of dry eye disease with sleep quality. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the employees, mainly young and middle-aged Japanese office workers, who used visual display technology, at a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range =26–64 years). The participants were classified according to the Japanese dry eye diagnosis criteria by dry eye examination results including the Schirmer test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining, tear film break-up time, and symptom questionnaire into three groups as follows: definite dry eye disease, probable dry eye disease, and no dry eye disease. To determine sleep quality, Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (global score) was implemented. The global score (range =0–21) was calculated by summing seven sleep variable scores (scale, 0–3); scores ≥5.5 indicated poor sleep. Results The total mean global score was 5.1±2.3 (completed N=383); 45% of the dry eye disease participants reported having poor sleep quality, while 34% of the no dry eye disease participants did so, with a significant difference found in the global score (P=0.002). Furthermore, a statistically significant association was observed between the global score and dry eye disease (P=0.005). Conclusion Poor sleep quality is associated with dry eye disease, especially with dry eye symptoms. PMID:27330271

  13. Nutrition and the eye.

    PubMed

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  14. [STD in the eye].

    PubMed

    Usui, Masahiko; Minoda, Hirosi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STD) involving the eye. Recently conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in children and adults is increasing, and that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to multiple antibiotics has attracted special attention in our country. Syphilis has many ocular manifestations such as keratitis, iridocyclitis, retinochorioiditis, and neuritis, etc. Ocular complications related to HIV infection, including HIV retinopathy, cytomegalovirus retinitis, zoster ophthalmics, and Kaposi s sarcoma in conjunctiva are increasing in Japan. Phthirus pubis infection of the eye lid, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated uveitis are occasionally reported. Furthermore conjunctival tumor associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, acute retinal necrosis(ARN) due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), as well as hepatitis B virus (HVB) and hepatitis C virus (HVC) retinopathy are also mentioned in this review. PMID:19177759

  15. Eye movements during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic changes in eye movements occurred during meditation with closed eyes in a proportion of subjects experienced in TM. The most common changes were an increase in slow, large-amplitude, 'rolling' eye movements and a concomitant decrease in rapid, low-amplitude, 'jerky' eye movements. Much variation occurred between individuals, however, some subjects showing no differences between TM and non-meditation. Any changes that occurred were not necessarily constant for the whole recording period nor consistent between sessions. The physiological effects of TM are far more variable than previously publicized. In general, the main changes in eye movements during TM are similar to those during passive hypnosis.

  16. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease.

  17. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  18. Head-Eye Coordination at a Microscopic Scale.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Martina; Aytekin, Murat; Rucci, Michele

    2015-12-21

    Humans explore static visual scenes by alternating rapid eye movements (saccades) with periods of slow and incessant eye drifts [1-3]. These drifts are commonly believed to be the consequence of physiological limits in maintaining steady gaze, resulting in Brownian-like trajectories [4-7], which are almost independent in the two eyes [8-10]. However, because of the technical difficulty of recording minute eye movements, most knowledge on ocular drift comes from artificial laboratory conditions, in which the head of the observer is strictly immobilized. Little is known about eye drift during natural head-free fixation, when microscopic head movements are also continually present [11-13]. We have recently observed that the power spectrum of the visual input to the retina during ocular drift is largely unaffected by fixational head movements [14]. Here we elucidate the mechanism responsible for this invariance. We show that, contrary to common assumption, ocular drift does not move the eyes randomly, but compensates for microscopic head movements, thereby yielding highly correlated movements in the two eyes. This compensatory behavior is extremely fast, persists with one eye patched, and results in image motion trajectories that are only partially correlated on the two retinas. These findings challenge established views of how humans acquire visual information. They show that ocular drift is precisely controlled, as long speculated [15], and imply the existence of neural mechanisms that integrate minute multimodal signals. PMID:26687623

  19. Dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  20. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  1. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  2. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  3. Pediatric Eye Screening Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.

    2001-11-01

    Computational evaluations are presented for binocular eye screening using the off-axis digital retinascope. The retinascope, such as the iScreen digital screening system, has been employed to perform pediatric binocular screening using a flash lamp and single-shot camera recording. The digital images are transferred electronically to a reading center for analysis. The method has been shown to detect refractive error, amblyopia, anisocoria, and ptosis. This computational work improves the performance of the system and forms the basis for automated data analysis. For this purpose, variouis published eye models are evaluated with simulated retinascope images. Two to ten million rays are traced in each image calculation. The poster will present the simulation results for a range of eye conditions of refractive error of -20 to +20 diopters with 0.5- to-1 diopter resolution, pupil size of 3 to 8 mm diameter (1-mm increment), and staring angle of 2 to 12 degree (2-degree increment). The variation of the results with the system conditions such as the off-axis distance of light source and the shutter size of camera are also evaluated. The quantitative analysis for each eye’s and system’s condition is then performed to obtain parameters for automatic reading. The summary of the system performance is given and performance-enhancement design modifications are presented.

  4. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  5. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  6. Pioneers of eye movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  7. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  8. On the reduction of eye-strain when reading.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, A J; Nimmo-Smith, I

    1984-01-01

    Successive lines of printed text form a pattern of stripes that may induce eye-strain and headache. Volunteers suffering eye-strain or headache from reading were asked to use a variety of aids, some of which merely guided the eye and some of which also attenuated the pattern of stripes above and below the passage of text being read. In two studies about one-third of the volunteers benefited from the latter acids to the extent that they wished to continue using them despite the inconvenience involved. These volunteers tended to report more visual illusions when they looked at a pattern of striped lines.

  9. Eye movements during reading: a theory of saccade initiation times.

    PubMed

    Yang, S N; McConkie, G W

    2001-01-01

    As people read continuous text, on occasional single eye fixations the text was replaced by one of six alternate stimulus patterns. Frequency distributions of the durations of these fixations were used to test predictions from four types of theories of saccadic eye movement control. Contrary to current cognitive theories, cognitive influences appeared to delay saccades rather than trigger them. Two saccade disruption times were identified, suggesting the existence of three distributions of saccades, labeled early, normal and late. The Competition-inhibition theory, an enhanced version of Findlay and Walker's (1999) theory, is proposed to account for eye movement control during reading.

  10. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  11. Eye movements: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Kowler, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

  12. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  13. Dry eye, blepharitis and chronic eye irritation: divide and conquer.

    PubMed

    Gilbard, J P

    1999-01-01

    Dry eye and posterior blepharitis are the two most common causes for chronic eye irritation. Dry eye is caused by loss of water from the tear film resulting from either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. The resultant increase in tear film osmolarity causes the changes on the eye surface responsible for the symptoms of dry eye. Posterior blepharitis causes eye irritation from inflammation, and leads to the development of meibomian gland dysfunction. The patient history is a powerful tool in narrowing the differential diagnosis of chronic eye irritation or even establishing the diagnosis. The exam adds power to the history, and sorts out the mechanisms causing dry eye symptoms. The primary goal of dry eye treatment is to lower elevated tear film osmolarity. This can be achieved with TheraTears treatment, either with or without punctal plugs. The primary goal of meibomitis treatment is to reduce inflammation. This can be achieved by hot compresses and lid massage and, when necessary, systemic treatment with low dose doxycycline. By determining the cause or causes of chronic eye irritation, effective treatments can be employed.

  14. The 5:1 Neptune Resonance: Dynamics and Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gladman, Brett; Petit, Jean-Marc; Alexandersen, Mike

    2014-11-01

    Based on 4 objects detected with semi-major axes near the 5:1 external resonance with Neptune, we estimate a substantial and previously unrecognized population of objects, perhaps more significant than the 3:2 (Plutino) resonance population. These external resonances are largely unexplored in both observations and dynamical simulations. However, understanding the characteristics and trapping history for objects in these populations is critical for constraining the dynamical history of the solar system. The 4 objects detected in the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) were classified using dynamical integrations. Three are resonant, and the last appears to be a resonant drop-off. The 3 objects are taken to be representative of the steady-state population, so by using these detections and the CFEPS characterization (pointings and detection limits) we calculate a population estimate for this resonance at ~3000(+5000 -2000) with Hg<8. This is at least as large as the Plutinos (3:2 resonance) at 90% confidence. The small number of detected objects results in such a large population estimate due to the numerous biases against detecting objects with semimajor axes at 88AU. Based on the dynamical behavior of the known objects, the trapping mechanism for the 5:1 resonance appears to be resonance sticking from the scattering objects. The long resonance lifetimes of some dynamical clones suggests that a steady state population could be maintained through periodic sticking.

  15. The Promise for Starry Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazmino, John

    2001-06-01

    In this slidetalk, supplemented by a poster exhibit, a status report on New York City's ongoing eradication of luminous graffiti as of the end of the 20th century was laid out. The focus was on Manhattan, the core of the Big Apple. Streetlamps are under global replacement in many parts of Manhattan, including Midtown, Greenwich Village, City Hall, and Lower Manhattan, with a variety of new lamps to give star-friendly illumination on the street. By the turn of the new millennium, the City achieved essentially complete evisceration of light pollution from store and facade lighting. This is a direct spinoff of the theme that stores on Manhattan must redo their frontages every three to five years to conform to the modern codes for illumination. Area and grounds lighting of immense corporate and commercial facilities stresses shielded, modest, occulted lamps. These include footlamps in parapets and sidewalls, lamppoles with large hoods, sconce lamps, ballards with concealed lamps. The World Trade Center, by a combination of these features, emits less light into the sky than a typcial rural truck stop, despite it being quite the equal in urban activity as all of downtown Boston. Astronomers in New York can monitor their progress toward a star-friendly cityscape from the tops of the towers. From here, they see New York from the eye of a star! Photographs from the Empire State Buidling showed that on the whole Manhattan--a conurabtion equal to the region around San Diego, Miami, or Boston, already sends fewer excess skyward photons than it suburbs across the rivers. With the accomplishments so far and with continuing work in progress, our profession set itself the goal that before this decade, the first in the new millennium, is over we will see the Milky Way from Manhattan--and see it with the bare eye.

  16. Saccadic eye movements and eye-head coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J; Anderson, M E

    1977-04-01

    The eye and head movements of nine children, ages 6 through 10, were measured in order to establish quantitative characteristics of eye movements and eye-head corrdination patterns of children with normal vision and reading levels. The relationship between saccade amplitude and duration was linear, but the slope of this relationship indicated that saccades in children may have higher velocities than they do in adults. One of three temporal patterns of head and saccadic eye movement occurred during shifts of gaze to visual targets, depending on the temporal and spatial predictability of the target. It is suggested that quantitative measurements such as these could be used to examine developmental characteristics of eye and eye-head movement control.

  17. Variability of eye movements when viewing dynamic natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Michael; Martinetz, Thomas; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Barth, Erhardt

    2010-01-01

    How similar are the eye movement patterns of different subjects when free viewing dynamic natural scenes? We collected a large database of eye movements from 54 subjects on 18 high-resolution videos of outdoor scenes and measured their variability using the Normalized Scanpath Saliency, which we extended to the temporal domain. Even though up to about 80% of subjects looked at the same image region in some video parts, variability usually was much greater. Eye movements on natural movies were then compared with eye movements in several control conditions. "Stop-motion" movies had almost identical semantic content as the original videos but lacked continuous motion. Hollywood action movie trailers were used to probe the upper limit of eye movement coherence that can be achieved by deliberate camera work, scene cuts, etc. In a "repetitive" condition, subjects viewed the same movies ten times each over the course of 2 days. Results show several systematic differences between conditions both for general eye movement parameters such as saccade amplitude and fixation duration and for eye movement variability. Most importantly, eye movements on static images are initially driven by stimulus onset effects and later, more so than on continuous videos, by subject-specific idiosyncrasies; eye movements on Hollywood movies are significantly more coherent than those on natural movies. We conclude that the stimuli types often used in laboratory experiments, static images and professionally cut material, are not very representative of natural viewing behavior. All stimuli and gaze data are publicly available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/gaze. PMID:20884493

  18. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  19. Optics of arthropod compound eye.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S R

    1969-07-01

    The extent to which light can escape from one ommatidium into its neighbors in the compound eye has been examined by recording from single receptors during stimulation of single facets. In the "apposition" eye of the drone honeybee and locust, optical interaction is extremely small. In the "superposition" eye of the crayfish, more than half the light captured by the average cell gets in through neighboring facets, even when screening pigments are in the fully lightadapted position.

  20. Irma 5.1 multisensor signature prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Coker, Charles; Edwards, Dave; Thai, Bea; Aboutalib, Omar; Chow, Anthony; Yamaoka, Neil; Kim, Charles

    2006-05-01

    The Irma synthetic signature prediction code is being developed to facilitate the research and development of multi-sensor systems. Irma was one of the first high resolution, physics-based Infrared (IR) target and background signature models to be developed for tactical weapon applications. Originally developed in 1980 by the Munitions Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MN), the Irma model was used exclusively to generate IR scenes. In 1988, a number of significant upgrades to Irma were initiated including the addition of a laser (or active) channel. This two-channel version was released to the user community in 1990. In 1992, an improved scene generator was incorporated into the Irma model, which supported correlated frame-to-frame imagery. A passive IR/millimeter wave (MMW) code was completed in 1994. This served as the cornerstone for the development of the co-registered active/passive IR/MMW model, Irma 4.0. In 2000, Irma version 5.0 was released which encompassed several upgrades to both the physical models and software. Circular polarization was added to the passive channel, and a Doppler capability was added to the active MMW channel. In 2002, the multibounce technique was added to the Irma passive channel. In the ladar channel, a user-friendly Ladar Sensor Assistant (LSA) was incorporated which provides capability and flexibility for sensor modeling. Irma 5.0 runs on several platforms including Windows, Linux, Solaris, and SGI Irix. Irma is currently used to support a number of civilian and military applications. The Irma user base includes over 130 agencies within the Air Force, Army, Navy, DARPA, NASA, Department of Transportation, academia, and industry. In 2005, Irma version 5.1 was released to the community. In addition to upgrading the Ladar channel code to an object oriented language (C++) and providing a new graphical user interface to construct scenes, this new release significantly improves the modeling of the ladar channel and

  1. Automatic dry eye detection.

    PubMed

    Yedidya, Tamir; Hartley, Richard; Guillon, Jean-Pierre; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2007-01-01

    Dry Eye Syndrome is a common disease in the western world, with effects from uncomfortable itchiness to permanent damage to the ocular surface. Nevertheless, there is still no objective test that provides reliable results. We have developed a new method for the automated detection of dry areas in videos taken after instilling fluorescein in the tear film. The method consists of a multi-step algorithm to first locate the iris in each image, then align the images and finally analyze the aligned sequence in order to find the regions of interest. Since the fluorescein spreads on the ocular surface of the eye the edges of the iris are fuzzy making the detection of the iris challenging. We use RANSAC to first detect the upper and lower eyelids and then the iris. Then we align the images by finding differences in intensities at different scales and using a least squares optimization method (Levenberg-Marquardt), to overcome the movement of the iris and the camera. The method has been tested on videos taken from different patients. It is demonstrated to find the dry areas accurately and to provide a measure of the extent of the disease. PMID:18051131

  2. Laser eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  3. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  4. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  5. Aging and dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A

    2012-07-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD.

  6. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  7. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  8. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong

    2015-09-01

    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  9. The X-ray Halo of GX5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Dame, T. M.; Costantini, Elisa; Predehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Using Chandra observations we have measured the energy-resolved dust-scattered X-ray halo around the low-mass X-ray binary GX5-1, detecting for the first time multiply scattered X-rays from interstellar dust. % e compared the observed X-ray halo at various energies to predictions from a range of dust models. These fits used both smoothly-distributed dust as well as dust in clumped clouds, with CO and 21 cm observations helping to determine the position of the clouds along the line of sight. We found that the BARE-GR-B model of Zubko, Dwek & Arendt (2004) generally led to the best results, although inadequacies in both the overall model and the data limit our conclusions. We did find that the composite dust models of Zubko, Dwek & Arendt (2004), especially the "no carbon" models, gave uniformly poor results. Although models using cloud positions and densities derived naively from CO and 21 cm data gave generally poor results, plausible adjustments to the distance of the largest cloud and the mass of a cloud in the expanding 3 kpc Arm lead to significantly improved fits. We suggest that combining X-ray halo, CO, and 21 cm observations will be a fruitful method to improve our understanding of both the gas and dust phases of the interstellar medium.

  10. Plasma shells compression on Angara-5-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovsky, E. V.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Oleynic, G. M.; Samohin, A. A.; Sasorov, Pavel V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Fedulov, M. V.; Alecsandrov, V. V.; Volkov, Georgi S.; Zurin, M. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.

    2001-04-01

    Appearance of generators of electric power of pulse duration of about 100 ns opened new possibilities in classic Z- pinches. First, it is connected with new level of power of this generators. Second, it has become possible to use loads of another size and densities. One of the new tasks studied on powerful installations is generation is generation of pulses of soft x-ray radiation for thermonuclear fusion research. The models of target ignition, developed on systems of laser initiation, determined the nanosecond time as a characteristic time scale of radiation pulse. A program of fast liner compression is developing in TRINITI on Angara 5-1 installation- an 8 module pulse generator of max power of 9TW, pulse rise time of 90 ns, load peak current of 4 MA. The main aim of the program was to investigate a way to create a source of soft x-ray radiation of high intensity for thermonuclear fusion and fundamental research work. A conception of double liner were proposed as a perspective way to ensure a dynamic hohlraum for thermonuclear target irradiation.

  11. Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

    This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

  12. Integration of Defocus by Dual Power Fresnel Lenses Inhibits Myopia in the Mammalian Eye

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Sally A.; Tse, Dennis Y.; Bowrey, Hannah E.; Leotta, Amelia J.; Lam, Carly S.; Wildsoet, Christine F.; To, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Eye growth compensates in opposite directions to single vision (SV) negative and positive lenses. We evaluated the response of the guinea pig eye to Fresnel-type lenses incorporating two different powers. Methods. A total of 114 guinea pigs (10 groups with 9–14 in each) wore a lens over one eye and interocular differences in refractive error and ocular dimensions were measured in each of three experiments. First, the effects of three Fresnel designs with various diopter (D) combinations (−5D/0D; +5D/0D or −5D/+5D dual power) were compared to three SV lenses (−5D, +5D, or 0D). Second, the ratio of −5D and +5D power in a Fresnel lens was varied (50:50 compared with 60:40). Third, myopia was induced by 4 days of exposure to a SV −5D lens, which was then exchanged for a Fresnel lens (−5D/+5D) or one of two SV lenses (+5D or −5D) and ocular parameters tracked for a further 3 weeks. Results. Dual power lenses induced an intermediate response between that to the two constituent powers (lenses +5D, +5D/0D, 0D, −5D/+5D, −5D/0D and −5D induced +2.1 D, +0.7 D, +0.1 D, −0.3 D, −1.6 D and −5.1 D in mean intraocular differences in refractive error, respectively), and changing the ratio of powers induced responses equal to their weighted average. In already myopic animals, continued treatment with SV negative lenses increased their myopia (from −3.3 D to −4.2 D), while switching to SV positive lenses or −5D/+5D Fresnel lenses reduced their myopia (by 2.9 D and 2.3 D, respectively). Conclusions. The mammalian eye integrates competing defocus to guide its refractive development and eye growth. Fresnel lenses, incorporating positive or plano power with negative power, can slow ocular growth, suggesting that such designs may control myopia progression in humans. PMID:24398103

  13. Bilateral Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Caused by Eye Rubbing.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Alfonso; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Carlomusto, Laura; Savastano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a particular condition of a 52-year-old man who showed advanced bilateral glaucomatous-like optic disc damage, even though the intraocular pressure resulted normal during all examinations performed. Visual field test, steady-state pattern electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer and retinal tomographic evaluations were performed to evaluate the optic disc damage. Over a 4-year observational period, his visual acuity decreased to 12/20 in the right eye and counting fingers in the left eye. Visual fields were severely compromised, and intraocular pressure values were not superior to 14 mm Hg during routine examinations. An accurate anamnesis and the suspicion of this disease represent a crucial aspect to establish the correct diagnosis. In fact, our patient strongly rubbed his eyes for more than 10 h per day. Recurrent and continuous eye rubbing can induce progressive optic neuropathy, causing severe visual field damage similar to the pathology of advanced glaucoma.

  14. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  15. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS..., 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. In addition to the technical...

  16. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS..., 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. In addition to the technical...

  17. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS..., 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. In addition to the technical...

  18. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  19. [Gunshot into the eye].

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P

    1996-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was found dead sitting at his work-bench. A pistol Parabellum 1908 (9 mm Luger) was disassembled on the work-table. A pack of 9 mm Luger full metal jacket ammunition was opened. The left side of his glasses and the left eye were injured. The autopsy proved the death from air embolism. Radiography of the head revealed metallic fragments along the bullet path. The bullet had lost the jacket and the core was fragmented. Gunshot residues on the hands of the deceased and on the left side of the face indicated that the lethal injury was self inflicted. The function of the pistol "08" explicated that a shot could be fired from the isolated barrel which formed a unit with the bolt. The bullet showed traces of manipulation. In the house there were found other self-made dumdum-bullets. Death could be explained as an accident while cleaning the pistol.

  20. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  1. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes.

  2. [Eye and sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Weber, M

    1999-11-15

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, of unknown cause, characterised by non-caseating granulomas. The most common organs involved are the lung, thoracic lymph nodes, skin and eyes. Ophthalmic involvement occurred in approximately 30% of the patients and could be the first manifestation of the disease and preceding pulmonary involvement for many years. If anterior uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation, the posterior segment involvement (intermediate uveitis, vasculitis, choroidal granuloma, macular oedema...) is less common but more visually disabling. The non specific ocular manifestations of the disease make it as a difficult diagnosis. The "suspected sarcoidosis" diagnosis is made with regards to clinical, radiological and (or) biological criteria and the "definitive diagnosis" require the demonstration of a non-caseating, granulomatous, non-infectious inflammation process on biopsy.

  3. Pregnancy and the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yenerel, Nursal Melda; Küçümen, Raciha Beril

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant changes in all systems of the body. Although most of them are physiological, they may also lead to pathological consequences. The resulting pathological changes may occur for the first time or existing diseases affected by pregnancy can become more serious or change course. Diseases specific only to pregnancy may arise. Like all systems of the body, the visual system is also affected by pregnancy, developing a wide range of physiological and pathological changes. Knowing the ocular physiological changes and diagnosing eye diseases that may develop during pregnancy, and preventing and treating these diseases is crucial to ensure the baby’s healthy development. Therefore, we have reviewed the conditions that an ophthalmologist should recognize, follow-up, and pay attention to during treatment and summarized them under the topic “pregnancy and the eye”. PMID:27800235

  4. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  5. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  6. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  7. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  8. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  11. Evaluation of the Painful Eye.

    PubMed

    Pflipsen, Matthew; Massaquoi, Mariama; Wolf, Suzanne

    2016-06-15

    Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, and herpetic keratitis. The history should focus on vision changes, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and associated symptoms, such as headache. The physical examination includes an assessment of visual acuity and systematic evaluation of the conjunctiva, eyelids, sclera, cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, and anterior uvea. Further examination with fluorescein staining and tonometry is often necessary. Because eye pain can be the first sign of an ophthalmologic emergency, the physician should determine if referral is warranted. Specific conditions that require ophthalmology consultation include acute angle-closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, orbital cellulitis, scleritis, anterior uveitis, and infectious keratitis. PMID:27304768

  12. Airglow events visible to the naked eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    During IR photographic airglow observations covering several years, three naked-eye events have been recorded. Two of these are moving luminous acoustic-gravity-wave groups of some 10-15-km wavelength, which occur near high lunar tide in the atmosphere. The events appear quickly, endure 0.5-1 h, then fade. Visible photos of two events appear enhanced, while little enhancement is present in the IR photos, although the structures are well correlated. If these events are due to OH, it is suggested that some unrecognized mechanism, perhaps a gravity wave interaction, enhances the visible transitions of the OH over the IR transitions. If the events are due to an unrecognized continuum emitter, perhaps NO, its emission must occur at the same height as the OH. Spectra seem to be the only reasonable approach to solving this problem.

  13. Photorefraction of eyes: history and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Howland, Howard C

    2009-06-01

    A brief history of photorefraction, i.e., the refraction of eyes by photography or computer image capture, is given. The method of photorefraction originated from an optical scheme for secret communication across the Berlin wall. This scheme used a lens whose focus about infinity was modulated by a movable reflecting surface. From this device, it was recognized that the vertebrate eye was such a reflector and that its double-pass pointspread could be used to compute its degree of defocus. Subsequently, a second, totally independent invention, more accurately termed "photoretinoscopy," used an eccentric light source and obtained retinoscopic-like images of the reflex in the pupil of the subject's eyes. Photoretinoscopy has become the preferred method of photorefraction and has been instantiated in a wide variety of devices used in vision screening and research. This has been greatly helped by the parallel development of computer and digital camera technology. It seems likely that photorefractive methods will continue to be refined and may eventually become ubiquitous in clinical practice. PMID:19390473

  14. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  15. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  16. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  17. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  18. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  19. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  20. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  1. Attention Switching during Scene Perception: How Goals Influence the Time Course of Eye Movements across Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…

  2. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    PubMed

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are.

  3. The eyes of LITENING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  4. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  5. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The importance of vision screening There are many eye conditions and diseases ... child’s vision. Focus and alignment disorders that affect vision If any of the following conditions is suspected, ...

  6. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Mar. 23, 2012 Thanks to news coverage, ... of breast or ovarian cancer. Physicians now use genetic tests to decide on treatment for some types ...

  7. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  8. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  9. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  10. Head and eye Echoencephalogram (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to test for abnormalities in the eye. The ultrasound helps evaluate the farthest part of the eyeball when there are cataracts. The test may help diagnose retinal detachment or other disorders and evaluate orbital lesions and intraocular lesions.

  11. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  12. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  13. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  14. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  15. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and na

  16. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (SUN3 VERSION WITH MOTIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. The Silicon Graphics version of TAE Plus now has a font caching scheme and a color caching scheme to make color allocation more efficient. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides an extremely powerful means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif Toolkit 1.1 or 1.1.1. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus comes with InterViews and idraw, two software packages developed by Stanford University and integrated in TAE Plus. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.1 was released in 1991. TAE Plus is currently available on media suitable for eight different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS 5.3 or higher (TK

  17. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (SUN3 VERSION WITH MOTIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. The Silicon Graphics version of TAE Plus now has a font caching scheme and a color caching scheme to make color allocation more efficient. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides an extremely powerful means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif Toolkit 1.1 or 1.1.1. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus comes with InterViews and idraw, two software packages developed by Stanford University and integrated in TAE Plus. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.1 was released in 1991. TAE Plus is currently available on media suitable for eight different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS 5.3 or higher (TK

  18. 14 CFR 67.103 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.103 Section 67.103 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.103 Eye. Eye standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each eye separately,...

  19. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  20. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  5. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  6. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  7. Effects of eye color on frisbee toss.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Fleming, P

    1988-04-01

    Light-eyed individuals generally perform better at self-paced activities while dark-eyed individuals perform better at reactive activities. Using multiple regression it was found that dark-eyed students hit a target with a frisbee more times than did light-eyed students.

  8. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains

  9. Advances in Gene Therapy for Diseases of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Lolita; Khanna, Hemant; Punzo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, huge progress has been made with regard to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of the eye. Such knowledge has led to the development of gene therapy approaches to treat these devastating disorders. Challenges regarding the efficacy and efficiency of therapeutic gene delivery have driven the development of novel therapeutic approaches, which continue to evolve the field of ocular gene therapy. In this review article, we will discuss the evolution of preclinical and clinical strategies that have improved gene therapy in the eye, showing that treatment of vision loss has a bright future. PMID:27178388

  10. Advances in Gene Therapy for Diseases of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Petit, Lolita; Khanna, Hemant; Punzo, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few years, huge progress has been made with regard to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases of the eye. Such knowledge has led to the development of gene therapy approaches to treat these devastating disorders. Challenges regarding the efficacy and efficiency of therapeutic gene delivery have driven the development of novel therapeutic approaches, which continue to evolve the field of ocular gene therapy. In this review article, we will discuss the evolution of preclinical and clinical strategies that have improved gene therapy in the eye, showing that treatment of vision loss has a bright future.

  11. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  12. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  13. [Incidence of sports-related eye injuries].

    PubMed

    Pikkel, J; Gelfand, Y; Miller, B

    1995-10-01

    The incidence of sports-related eye injuries was analyzed retrospectively for 1991-1993. It was fairly steady at about 2% of all eye casualties annually. 21% of those with sports-related eye injuries required hospitalization. The commonest pathological findings were corneal erosion (32%), eye lid injuries (27%), hyphema (19%) and macular edema (3%). Most eyes were injured during soccer (37%) and basketball (27%) games, the most popular sports in Israel.

  14. Pattern of blood vessels in eyes with coloboma

    PubMed Central

    Lingam, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Choroidal coloboma, especially with optic disc involvement affects the blood vessel (BV) pattern in the fundus. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the observations on the pattern of retinal BVs in eyes with fundus coloboma. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty four eyes of 19 patients with fundus coloboma and the disc involvement in the coloboma was classified according to a previous publication. Results: Four varieties of BVs were identified in the area of coloboma - BVs that were continuous with those arising from the optic disc; vessels emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery or its branches could be indirectly established; and those emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery could not be established. In addition, extraocular BVs were visible through the thinned sclera. The retinal BVs often traversed the coloboma to reach the normal retina. The disc itself was found to be small and had no physiological cup (if not colobomatous). Conclusions: One should be aware of the major BVs transgressing the coloboma while performing relaxing cuts in the intercalary membrane, during the surgery for retinal detachments in eyes with coloboma. Physiological cup is usually absent (when the disc is not colobomatous). Hence, any cupping in such eyes should be viewed with suspicion. PMID:24413826

  15. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns. PMID:9112193

  16. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns.

  17. Eye shape illusions induced by eyebrow positions.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Mitsuzane, Saya; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the position of the eyebrows influences the perceived shape of the eyes by employing psychophysical measurements. Experiment 1 used arched and straight eyebrows at five different inclinations as stimuli and measured the perceived inclination of the eyes. The results demonstrated that the eyes are perceived to be somewhat inclined in the same direction as the eyebrows. Experiment 2 measured the perceived eye size by manipulating the distance between the eyes and the eyebrows and the curvature of the eyebrows across three levels. The results showed that the lower eyebrows (ie closer to eyes) made the eyes appear larger and the higher eyebrows made the eyes appear smaller, while eyebrow curvature had no effect on perceived eye size. Experiment 3 examined the role of the eye-eyebrow distance in the eye inclination illusion shown in experiment 1. The eye inclination illusion was unaffected by the eye-eyebrow distance, suggesting that the eye inclination illusion and the eye size illusion may involve different kinds of assimilation. These illusions are discussed in terms of face perception and possible practical applications.

  18. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. PMID:27638066

  19. Infrared eye: an operational prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrette, Paul C.; Fortin, Jean; St-Germain, Daniel; Delisle, Jean

    1998-09-01

    A new concept of surveillance system called Wide Area Coverage Infrared Surveillance System (WACISS), based on the human vision, was developed and a first laboratory prototype was demonstrated recently. A second prototype, more operational, is named the Infrared Eye is being built and will be tested in cooperation with the NRCC Flight Research Laboratory. The Infrared Eye will use the new pixel-less quantum well infrared photodetector sensors, coupled to light emitting diodes (QWIP/LED), currently being developed at NRCC Institute for Microstructural Science under DREV sponsorship. The multiple advantages of the pixel-less QWIP/LED over conventional sensors will considerably simplify the design of the system. As the WACISS, the IR Eye will integrate two cameras: the first, with a wide field-of- view, will be used for detection while the second camera, with a narrower field with higher resolution for identification, will be mobile within the WFOV and slaved to the operator's line-of-sight by means of an eye-tracking system. The images from both cameras will be fused and shown simultaneously on a standard high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye-tracking unit. The basic concepts pertaining to the project and the design constraints of this second prototype are presented.

  20. Indications for eye removal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Koylu, Mehmet T.; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Ceylan, Osman M.; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Gunal, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the indications and types of eye removals at a military tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods: The medical records (age, gender, affected eye, type of surgical procedure, indications of surgery) of 123 patients who underwent evisceration and enucleation in the course of a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014) at Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 35.61±18.52 (range 3-80 years). The number of male in the patient group was 92 (74.8%) and female was 31 (25.2%). Patients who underwent evisceration were 95 (77.2%), whereas 28 (22.8%) of them underwent enucleation. The mean age of the eviscerated patients was 30.63±13.08, whereas the mean age of the enucleated patients was 52.50±23.92 (p<0.001). The leading indications for eye amputations were trauma (n=62, 50.4%), malignancy (n=20, 16.3%), painful blind eye and absolute glaucoma (n=20, 16.3%), endophthalmitis (n=12, 9.7%), and phthisis bulbi, and cosmetic reasons (n=9, 7.3%). Conclusion: Trauma was the most common etiology for evisceration, and malignancy was the most common etiology for enucleation. Using protective eyewear and early detection of intraocular malignancy and glaucoma through routine ophthalmic examinations are essential for providing non-invasive treatment modalities instead of eye removal. PMID:26446332

  1. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  2. Best practice eye care models

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  3. Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

  4. The role of eye movements in motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Vieluf, Solveig; Massing, Matthias; Blandin, Yannick; Leinen, Peter; Panzer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    An experiment that utilized a 16-element movement sequence was designed to determine the impact of eye movements on sequence learning. The participants were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: a group that was permitted to use eye movements (FREE) and a second group (FIX) that was instructed to fixate on a marker during acquisition (ACQ). A retention test (RET) was designed to provide a measure of learning, and two transfer tests were designed to determine the extent to which eye movements influenced sequence learning. The results demonstrated that both groups decreased the response time to produce the sequence, but the participants in the FREE group performed the sequence more quickly than participants of the FIX group during the ACQ, RET and the two transfer tests. Furthermore, continuous visual control of response execution was reduced over the course of learning. The results of the transfer tests indicated that oculomotor information regarding the sequence can be stored in memory and enhances response production.

  5. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  6. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  7. Red eyes in renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen-Broekema, N; van Bijsterveld, O P

    1992-01-01

    Of 57 patients with chronic renal failure who all had deposition of calcium salts in the conjunctival and corneal tissue two developed a brief episode of painful irritation and redness of the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva. This hyperaemia was adjacent to erosions of the corneal epithelium of the eye as a consequence of exfoliation of calcium concretions from the superficial corneal epithelium. Eight patients showed inflammatory reactions of the conjunctivae that were clinically identical to inflamed pingueculae. Three patients showed an inflammatory reaction of the eye that was characterised by a waxy red, more or less diffuse, episcleral and conjunctival hyperaemia extending beyond the palpebral fissure. The average value of the serum calcium concentration in these patients was particularly high and statistically significantly higher than in patients with calcification but without inflammatory signs and also higher than in patients who showed pingueculitis. We propose to reserve the term 'red eye of renal failure' for the latter group of patients. Images PMID:1390507

  8. Moving Ahead With Eye Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

  9. Aspectual coercion in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David J

    2013-06-01

    Comprehension includes interpreting sentences in terms of aspectual categories such as processes (Harry climbed) and culminations (Harry reached the top). Adding a verbal modifier such as for many years to a culmination coerces its interpretation from one to many culminations. Previous studies have found that coercion increases lexical decision and meaning judgment time, but not eye fixation time. This study recorded eye movements as participants read sentences in which a coercive adverb increased the interpretation of multiple events. Adverbs appeared at the end of a clause and line; the post-adverb region appeared at the beginning of the next line; follow-up questions occasionally asked about aspectual meaning; and clause type varied systematically. Coercive adverbs increased eye fixation time in the post-adverb region and in the adverb and post-adverb regions combined. Factors that influence the appearance of aspectual coercion may include world knowledge, follow-up questions, and the location and ambiguity of adverbs.

  10. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  11. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  12. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  13. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  14. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  15. EDITORIAL: The Eye and The Chip 2008 The Eye and The Chip 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Joseph F.; O'Malley, Edward R.; Hessburg, Philip C.

    2009-06-01

    Over the course of the past decade, The Eye and The Chip world congress on visual neuro-prosthetic devices has become a premier meeting for those who believe that 'artificial' vision will one day be used to improve the quality of life of visually impaired patients. Although substantial progress has been made, there are numerous unresolved issues, like the preferred methods for wireless communication, placement of devices, and materials and design among others. The Eye and The Chip meeting of 2008, held in Detroit on 12-14 June 2008, provided important new information about these and other important topics, and thus served to advance this field of scientific research. From a research seedling a decade ago to the crowd of superb presentations in Detroit last June, a very real sense of justifiable optimism has developed. The prospects of artificial vision are no longer remote. Many of the researchers expressed confidence that implantable devices will provide the hoped-for level of vision to justify their widespread use in the future. The often dramatic successes of cochlear implants continues to provide credence that artificial stimulation of nerve tissue is a plausible strategy to restore vision. The Eye and The Chip 2008 attracted researchers from four continents (North America, Europe, Asia and Australia). The meeting also benefited from the attendance and presentations by representatives of the FDA, who have been present for all The Eye and The Chip meetings. The 2008 meeting was also enhanced by the inclusion of a new and related scientific field that shares the goal of restoring vision to the blind—the field of molecular restoration of retinal function by insertion of channelrhodopsin. Just as the field of ophthalmology went from Ridley's primitive intraocular lens replacement to implants useful in virtually every cataract patient in one surgeon's clinical lifetime, the field of retinal prostheses seems to be following a very similar trajectory. Likewise, the

  16. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  17. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  18. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  19. Sore eyes and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Colley, Samantha; Smith, John

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with sexual disinhibition and altered behaviour following an episode of optic neuritis. Her only history was of anxiety disorder. Her differential diagnosis was neurological versus psychiatric. Routine blood tests were unremarkable at this stage. MRI revealed non-specific change and lumbar puncture revealed a slight lymphocytosis and elevated protein and glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR on the CSF was negative for viruses: Adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, enterovirus and parechovirus. She was initially treated with intravenous acyclovir to little effect. Antipsychotics olanzapine and haloperidol were also trialled and continued for 3 weeks in total. Once again these medications failed to affect the patient's behaviour but she did begin to show the side effects associated with these medications. Further test results became available at this point-she was anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody positive. A diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis was made. The patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone to good effect. PMID:25193812

  20. Sore eyes and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Samantha; Smith, John

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with sexual disinhibition and altered behaviour following an episode of optic neuritis. Her only history was of anxiety disorder. Her differential diagnosis was neurological versus psychiatric. Routine blood tests were unremarkable at this stage. MRI revealed non-specific change and lumbar puncture revealed a slight lymphocytosis and elevated protein and glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR on the CSF was negative for viruses: Adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, enterovirus and parechovirus. She was initially treated with intravenous acyclovir to little effect. Antipsychotics olanzapine and haloperidol were also trialled and continued for 3 weeks in total. Once again these medications failed to affect the patient's behaviour but she did begin to show the side effects associated with these medications. Further test results became available at this point—she was anti-N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody positive. A diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis was made. The patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone to good effect. PMID:25193812

  1. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  2. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

  3. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications.

  4. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  5. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  6. OPTICAL EYE MODEL: Human eye aberrations: 2. Development of a dynamic model of the human eye based on measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu; Kudryashov, A. V.

    2008-11-01

    A human eye model based on a flexible semipassive bimorph mirror is proposed and experimentally realised. The model can be used for the real-time reproduction of human eye aberrations and their fluctuations. The accuracy of the reproduction of individual Zernike polynomials and of total eye aberrations of inspected patients is discussed.

  7. FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159648.html FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers Tiny lens reshapes cornea to improve focus ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An implant that helps the aging eye focus on small print and nearby objects ...

  8. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect their eyes with hats and sunglasses. UV Light: Good in Moderation for a Good Night's Sleep ... accumulated during the day. Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to ...

  9. Eye injuries in canadian racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Pashby, T J; Bishop, P J; Easterbrook, W M

    1982-05-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors.

  10. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  11. MedlinePlus: Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Here Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery (Federal Trade Commission) Also in Spanish Is LASIK for Me? ... American Optometric Association) Find a Refractive (Eye) Surgeon (International Society of Refractive Surgery of the American Academy ...

  12. Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery En Español Read in Chinese What kinds of anesthesia are available for children ...

  13. Eye Protection in Racket Sports: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrook, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A review of the status of the use of protective equipment indicates that seven commercially available eye guards meet Canadian and United States standards recently established to protect squash and racketball players from eye injuries. (Author/CB)

  14. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports. PMID:1858609

  15. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports.

  16. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Gerczak, Tyler J.

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  17. Eye-tracking laser Doppler velocimeter stabilized in two dimensions: principle, design, and construction.

    PubMed

    Mendel, M J; Toi, V V; Riva, C E; Petrig, B L

    1993-07-01

    We developed an eye-tracking laser Doppler velocimeter to minimize eye-movement artifacts in the study of ocular hemodynamics in humans. The instrument compensates for both horizontal and vertical eye motions by using galvanometer mirrors controlled by a dual-Purkinje eye tracker. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated in a preliminary study of retinal arterial blood velocity in a normal subject. The subject's fixation point was adjusted manually to oscillate through a 2.3-deg span at 0.3 Hz. In spite of this motion the pulsatile velocity waveform of the heart cycle could be continuously recorded. Without eye tracking the velocity waveform was lost after the initiation of movement. PMID:8350156

  18. Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

  19. There is more to eye contact than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Myllyneva, Aki; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced brain and autonomic responses to seeing a face with a direct gaze. Interestingly, greater responses to eye contact vs. averted gaze have been observed when showing "live" faces as stimuli but not when showing pictures of faces on a computer screen. In this study, we provide unequivocal evidence that the differential responses observed in the "live" condition are dependent on the observer's mental attributions. Results from two experiments showed that eye contact resulted in greater autonomic and brain responses compared to averted gaze if a participant believed that the stimulus person sitting on the other side of an electronic shutter was able to see him or her through the shutter. Gaze direction had no effects if participants believed that the transparency from their side was blocked. The results suggest that mental attributions exert a powerful modulation on the processing of socially relevant sensory information.

  20. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  1. Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

  2. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  3. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  4. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  5. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  6. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  7. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  8. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  9. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  10. 14 CFR 67.203 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.203 Section 67.203 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.203 Eye. Eye standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each...

  11. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  12. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  13. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  14. A Model of the Human Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

  15. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  16. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  17. Clinical light damage to the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  18. Autologous eye drops for the treatment of dry eye and neurotrophic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Mixon, William; Angelle, Patricea Patsy; Chang, Richard I

    2009-01-01

    Tears-which contain fibronectin, growth facors, and vitamins that support the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium-nourish, protect, and refresh the eye. An inadequate tear film produces a variety of symptoms (ocular irritation, itching, burning, eye strain or fatigue, photophobia, a foreign-body sensation, a sharp stabbing pain, blurred vision) that wax and wane in intensity and are characteristic of disorders such as dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and neurotrophic keratitis. In patients for whom commercially manufactured eye drops fail to provide relief from the symptoms of those conditions, autologous serum eye drops (plasma eye drops, serum eye drops) have proven very effective. In this report, we examine the present case studies that reveal the efects of autologous serum eye drops on the signs and symptoms of both dry eye and neurotrophic keratitis. A procedure for preparing autologous eye drops is included.

  19. Surgery for Diabetic Eye Complications.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, María H; Acaba, Luis A; Acaba, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    New modalities for the treatment of diabetic eye complications have emerged in the past decade. Nevertheless, many severe diabetic retinopathy complications can only be treated with vitreoretinal surgery. Technological advances in pars plana vitrectomy have expanded the gamut of pathologies that can be successfully treated with surgery. The most common pathologies managed surgically include vitreous opacities and traction retinal detachment. The indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincisional surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic tractional retinal detachment will be discussed. With the availability of new microincisional vitrectomy technology, wide angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Eye surgery in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Raczyńska, Dorota; Glasner, Leopold; Serkies-Minuth, Ewelina; Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Mitrosz, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Extending life expectancy is a human achievement. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues. Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis. In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process. We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. PMID:27103794

  1. Flavonoid intake and eye health.

    PubMed

    Milbury, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often poorly designed studies. Ample laboratory evidence exists from in vitro and in vivo studies that provide plausible mechanistic evidence for flavonoid interactions relevant to visual function. Lacking are large randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies in older subjects who have early signs of vision impairment. These studies could link flavonoid intake and bioavailability to efficacy in prevention of age related vision disorders that develop over decades. Support for clinical trials remains to be found before a full "recommendation" can be made regarding the value of diets high in flavonoids for eye health. PMID:22888841

  2. Surgery for Diabetic Eye Complications.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, María H; Acaba, Luis A; Acaba, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    New modalities for the treatment of diabetic eye complications have emerged in the past decade. Nevertheless, many severe diabetic retinopathy complications can only be treated with vitreoretinal surgery. Technological advances in pars plana vitrectomy have expanded the gamut of pathologies that can be successfully treated with surgery. The most common pathologies managed surgically include vitreous opacities and traction retinal detachment. The indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincisional surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic tractional retinal detachment will be discussed. With the availability of new microincisional vitrectomy technology, wide angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27612846

  3. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  4. GeoEye(TradeMark) Corporate Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a corporate overview of GeoEye, the world's largest commercial remote sensing company. The contents include: 1) About GeoEye; 2) GeoEye Mission; 3) The Company; 4) Com,pany Summary; 5) U.S. Government Commitment; 6) GeoEye Constellation; 7) Other Imaging Resources; 8) OrbView-3 & OrbView-2; 9) OrbView-3 System Architecture; 10) OrbView-3; 11) OrbView-2; 12) IKONOS; 13) Largest Image Archive in the World; 14) GeoEye-1; 15) Best-In-Class Development Team; 16) Highest Performance Available in the Commercial Market; and 17) Key Themes

  5. Four Eyes Are Better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    VLT Interferometer Passes Another Technical Hurdle Summary During the nights of September 15/16 and 16/17, 2002, preliminary tests were successfully carried out during which the light beams from all four VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) at the ESO Paranal Observatory were successively combined, two by two, to produce interferometric fringes . This marks a next important step towards the full implementation of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) that will ultimately provide European astronomers with unequalled opportunities for exciting front-line research projects. It is no simple matter to ensure that the quartet of ANTU, KUEYEN, MELIPAL and YEPUN , each a massive giant with a suite of computer-controlled active mirrors, can work together by sending beams of light towards a common focal point via a complex system of compensating optics. Yet, in the span of only two nights, the four VLT telescopes were successfully "paired" to do exactly this, yielding a first tantalizing glimpse of the future possibilities with this new science machine. While there is still a long way ahead to the routine production of extremely sharp, interferometric images, the present test observations have allowed to demonstrate directly the 2D-resolution capacity of the VLTI by means of multiple measurements of a distant star. Much valuable experience was gained during those two nights and the ESO engineers and scientists are optimistic that the extensive test observations with the numerous components of the VLTI will continue to progress rapidly. Five intense, technical test periods are scheduled during the next six months; some of these with the Mid-Infrared interferometric instrument for the VLTI (MIDI) which will soon be installed at Paranal. Later in 2003, the first of the four moveable VLTI 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) will be put in place on the top of the mountain; together they will permit regular interferometric observations, also without having to use the large UTs. PR Photo 22a/02

  6. Ageing changes in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z

    2006-01-01

    Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces. PMID:16954455

  7. An eye-catching acanthocephalan.

    PubMed

    Haustein, T; Lawes, M; Harris, E; Chiodini, P L

    2010-06-01

    Acanthocephala are endoparasitic worms with a characteristic retractile proboscis bearing rows of thorny hooks. They have been found in all classes of vertebrates; however, human infection appears to be rare and accidental. To date, all reported cases of acanthocephalans in humans have involved the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report for the first time the highly unusual finding of an immature acanthocephalan retrieved from a patient's eye. PMID:19689468

  8. An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

  9. Eye movements and information geometry.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database. PMID:27505658

  10. Dry Eye in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V.; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to compare them with healthy children. We recruited 35 active VKC, 35 inactive VKC, and 70 age-matched control healthy subjects. Each child underwent a complete eye examination, including visual analog scale symptoms assessment, biomicroscopy, fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining, corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer test with anesthetic, and meibomian glands inspection and expression. Active VKC patients showed significantly increased symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease, compared with the other 2 groups. Inactive VKC patients, compared with control subjects, showed increased photophobia (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), conjunctival lissamine green staining and Schirmer test values, and reduced BUT and corneal sensitivity [P < 0.05 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) least significant difference posthoc test for BUT and Schirmer; P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test for lissamine green staining and corneal sensitivity]. Our results confirm the association between VKC and short-BUT dry eye. This syndrome seems to affect the ocular surface in quiescent phases too, determining abnormalities in tear film stability, epithelial cells integrity, and corneal nerves function. The very long-term consequences of this perennial mechanism of ocular surface damage have not been fully understood yet. PMID:26496269

  11. Principles of Drosophila Eye Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila eye is one of nature's most beautiful structures and one of its most useful. It has emerged as a favored model for understanding the processes that direct cell fate specification, patterning, and morphogenesis. Though composed of thousands of cells, each fly eye is a simple repeating pattern of perhaps a dozen cell types arranged in a hexagonal array that optimizes coverage of the visual field. This simple structure combined with powerful genetic tools make the fly eye an ideal model to explore the relationships between local cell fate specification and global tissue patterning. In this chapter, I discuss the basic principles that have emerged from three decades of close study. We now understand at a useful level some of the basic principles of cell fate selection and the importance of local cell–cell communication. We understand less of the processes by which signaling combines with morphogenesis and basic cell biology to create a correctly patterned neuroepithelium. Progress is being made on these fundamental issues, and in this chapter I discuss some of the principles that are beginning to emerge. PMID:19737644

  12. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  13. The eyes of the olms.

    PubMed

    Berz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The experiments of the Austrian biologist Paul Kammerer to breed eyes in blind olms is probably one of the most notable manifesations of Lamarckian thinking and research at the beginning of the 20th century. If living in the environment of the dark caves in the Slovenian Kraijna for thousands of years has reduced the eyes of the olms until they nearly disappeared, then is it possible to influence the development in the other direction and speed it up? Will a transformed milieux or media (in a Lamarckian sense) conduct olms to vision, to the mysteries of light? Kammerer's legendary skill in taking care of animals (especially amphibians), the highly modern research environment of an institution unique in whole Europe and America at that time (the Biologische Versuchsanstalt Wien), years of experimental crossings, and, finally, the convergence of biological media and technical media (for example media of development in photography), provided the opportunity for Kammerer to succeed. The olm experiments are part of an elaborate research program of the Viennese Versuchsanstalt and its facilities that assume the environment of animals to be the critical point in developmental, hereditary, and evolutionary research. Theoretically Kammerer's olms ask questions about vision in general and its organ, the eye. PMID:20210110

  14. Materials for occupational eye protectors.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    The selection of lens materials for non-prescription personal protective equipment has been a relatively simple process and has its origins in many studies around the 1970s. The viable materials available at that time were tempered glass, hard resin (n = 1.50) and polycarbonate. The modern spectacle non-prescription eye protector of choice is inevitably hard coated polycarbonate, which has exemplary impact resistant properties. In the prescription lens area, there is a bewildering array of materials of various refractive indices with a variety of coatings. The selection of an ophthalmic lens has optical and cosmetic considerations ahead of impact resistance. In complying with the Australian/New Zealand standard on prescription eye protection, adequate impact resistance must rate as the foremost requirement, with optical and cosmetic considerations as important but lesser considerations. In this review, the evidence on impact resistance of the available materials is presented, the standards set for testing impact resistance are detailed and some guidance is provided for the selection of prescription eye protection materials.

  15. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  16. Automated nystagmus analysis. [on-line computer technique for eye data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.; Allum, J. H. J.; Tole, J. R.; Young, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Several methods have recently been used for on-line analysis of nystagmus: A digital computer program has been developed to accept sampled records of eye position, detect fast phase components, and output cumulative slow phase position, continuous slow phase velocity, instantaneous fast phase frequency, and other parameters. The slow phase velocity is obtained by differentiation of the calculated cumulative position rather than the original eye movement record. Also, a prototype analog device has been devised which calculates the velocity of the slow phase component during caloric testing. Examples of clinical and research eye movement records analyzed with these devices are shown.

  17. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  18. Intermediate view synthesis for eye-gazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Eu-Ttuem; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication, also known as body language, is an important form of communication. Nonverbal behaviors such as posture, eye contact, and gestures send strong messages. In regard to nonverbal communication, eye contact is one of the most important forms that an individual can use. However, lack of eye contact occurs when we use video conferencing system. The disparity between locations of the eyes and a camera gets in the way of eye contact. The lock of eye gazing can give unapproachable and unpleasant feeling. In this paper, we proposed an eye gazing correction for video conferencing. We use two cameras installed at the top and the bottom of the television. The captured two images are rendered with 2D warping at virtual position. We implement view morphing to the detected face, and synthesize the face and the warped image. Experimental results verify that the proposed system is effective in generating natural gaze-corrected images.

  19. Paired-eye comparison of medical therapies for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Solish, Alfred M; James, Friedericke; Walt, John G; Chiang, Tina H

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy and patient preference retrospectively among intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering prostamide and prostaglandin medications in a real-world clinical setting. Methods Chart review of patients with uncontrolled glaucoma or ocular hypertension seen at a private practice clinic (n = 55) who received bimatoprost 0.03% once daily in one eye and either travoprost 0.004% or latanoprost 0.005% once daily in the fellow eye. IOP was evaluated at the initial visit and at a follow-up visit scheduled 4–6 weeks later. At the follow-up visit, each patient discussed the clinical results with their physician, chose which medication they preferred to continue using, and were queried regarding the reason for their choice. This paired-eye comparison method is used routinely in clinical practice to assess clinical response and involve patients in decisions regarding treatment. Change in mean IOP from baseline and patient medication choice were the outcome measures. Results Bimatoprost-treated eyes (n = 52) had a mean IOP reduction of 2.7 mmHg and travoprost-treated eyes (n = 47) had an average decrease of 1.7 mmHg (P = 0.230). Bimatoprost significantly reduced mean IOP (from 19.8 mmHg at baseline to 17.1 mmHg at follow-up, P < 0.0001), as did travoprost (from 19.4 mmHg at baseline to 17.7 mmHg at follow-up, P = 0.009). Latanoprost-treated eyes were excluded from the efficacy analysis due to small sample size (n = 5). For continued therapy, patients chose bimatoprost over travoprost by a factor of 2.4 to 1. Of the 15 patients who gave a reason for their choice, 80% said their decision was based primarily on IOP change. Conclusions Bimatoprost and travoprost were efficacious in reducing IOP among patients with uncontrolled glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Patients preferred bimatoprost over travoprost when trialed in fellow eyes. PMID:20957060

  20. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology.

  1. Gold nanoparticles disrupt zebrafish eye development and pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Zaikova, Tatiana; Hutchison, James E; Tanguay, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    Systematic toxicological study is still required to fully understand the hazard potentials of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Because their biomedical applications are rapidly evolving, we investigated developmental toxicity of AuNPs in an in vivo embryonic zebrafish model at exposure concentration ranges from 0.08 to 50mg/l. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to 1.3 nm AuNPs functionalized with a cationic ligand, N,N,N-trimethylammoniumethanethiol (TMAT-AuNPs), resulted in smaller malpigmented eyes. We determined that TMAT-AuNPs caused a significant increase of cell death in the eye, which was correlated with an increase in gene expression of p53 and bax. Expression patterns of key transcription factors regulating eye development (pax6a, pax6b, otx2, and rx1) and pigmentation (sox10) were both repressed in a concentration-dependent manner in embryos exposed to TMAT-AuNPs. Reduced spatial localization of pax6a, rx1, sox10, and mitfa was observed in embryos by whole-mount in situ hybridization. The swimming behavior of embryos exposed to sublethal concentrations of TMAT-AuNPs showed hypoactivity, and embryos exhibited axonal growth inhibition. Overall, these results demonstrated that TMAT-AuNPs disrupt the progression of eye development and pigmentation that continues to behavioral and neuronal damage in the developing zebrafish.

  2. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology. PMID:26563659

  3. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1 - Family employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family employment. 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Family employment. (a) Certain services are excepted from employment because of the existence of a...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1T - Family employment (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family employment (temporary). 31.3306(c)(5)-1T... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1T Family... are not within the exception unless the requisite family relationship exists between the employee...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1T - Family employment (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family employment (temporary). 31.3306(c)(5)-1T... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1T Family... are not within the exception unless the requisite family relationship exists between the employee...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1T - Family employment (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family employment (temporary). 31.3306(c)(5)-1T... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1T Family... are not within the exception unless the requisite family relationship exists between the employee...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1 - Family employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family employment. 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Family employment. (a) Certain services are excepted from employment because of the existence of a...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1 - Family employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family employment. 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Family employment. (a) Certain services are excepted from employment because of the existence of a...

  9. 18 CFR 5.1 - Applicability, definitions, and requirement to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate state fish and wildlife agencies, the appropriate state water resource management agencies, the... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability, definitions, and requirement to consult. 5.1 Section 5.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1 - Family employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family employment. 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Family employment. (a) Certain services are excepted from employment because of the existence of a...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(5)-1 - Family employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the individual employing him. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, in addition to the family... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family employment. 31.3306(c)(5)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(5)-1...

  12. 46 CFR 56.35-10 - Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-10 Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Nonmetallic expansion joints certified in accordance with...

  13. 46 CFR 56.35-15 - Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-15 Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Metallic expansion joints certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  14. 46 CFR 56.35-10 - Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-10 Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Nonmetallic expansion joints certified in accordance with...

  15. 46 CFR 56.35-15 - Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-15 Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Metallic expansion joints certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  16. 46 CFR 56.35-15 - Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-15 Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Metallic expansion joints certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  17. 46 CFR 56.35-10 - Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-10 Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Nonmetallic expansion joints certified in accordance with...

  18. 46 CFR 56.35-15 - Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-15 Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Metallic expansion joints certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  19. 46 CFR 56.35-10 - Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-10 Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Nonmetallic expansion joints certified in accordance with...

  20. 46 CFR 56.35-10 - Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-10 Nonmetallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Nonmetallic expansion joints certified in accordance with...

  1. 46 CFR 56.35-15 - Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). 56.35-15... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Expansion, Flexibility and Supports § 56.35-15 Metallic expansion joints (replaces 119.5.1). (a) Metallic expansion joints certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  2. Shape Change of the Vitreous Chamber Influences Retinal Detachment and Reattachment Processes: Is Mechanical Stress during Eye Rotations a Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Julia; Repetto, Rodolfo; Siggers, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We aim to understand how mechanical causation influences retinal detachment and reattachment processes. In particular, myopes suffer retinal detachment more frequently than emmetropes, and following a retinal detachment, scleral buckling promotes retinal reattachment. We test the hypothesis that stresses arising from saccadic eye rotations are involved in the processes, and that the alteration in the stress due to the change in the vitreous chamber geometry is sufficient to explain the phenomena. Methods. The vitreous chamber of the eye has an approximately spherical shape and it is filled with vitreous humor. We developed a mathematical model, treating the vitreous chamber in emmetropic and myopic eyes as a spheroid and in eyes subjected to scleral buckling as a sphere with a circumferential indentation. We assume that the eye performs prescribed small-amplitude, periodic, torsional rotations and we solve semi-analytically for the fluid pressure, velocity, and stress distributions. Results. The shape of the vitreous chamber has a large effect on the retinal stress. The vitreous and the retina of a highly myopic eye continuously experience shear stresses significantly higher than those of an emmetropic eye. An eye fitted with a scleral buckle experiences large stress levels localized around the buckle. Conclusions. Our results provide a mechanical explanation for the more frequent occurrence of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment in myopic eyes. To understand how the stress distribution in a buckled eye facilitates reattachment, an additional model of the details of the reattachment process should be coupled to this model. PMID:22899755

  3. 47 CFR 25.287 - Requirements pertaining to operation of mobile stations in the NVNG, 1.5/1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... capabilities to ensure compliance with Footnote 5.353A in 47 CFR 2.106 and the priority and real-time... stations in the NVNG, 1.5/1.6 GHz, 1.6/2.4 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service bands. 25.287 Section 25.287 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  4. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Footnote 5.353A in 47 CFR 2.106 and the priority and real-time preemption requirements imposed by Footnote... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE...

  5. Study on Seismogenesis of 2013 Ms5.1 Badong Earthquake in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zeng, Z.; Xu, S.; He, C.

    2015-12-01

    On 16 December, 2013, an earthquake of Ms5.1 occurred in Badong County, the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. We collected all the 150 published focal mechanism solutions (FMS) and inversed the tectonic stress field in Badong, the Three Gorges Dam and Huangling anticline area using the software SATSI (Hardebeck and Michael, 2006). Inversion results show that the orientations of maximum principle stress axis (σ1) in Badong plunge to NNE or SSW. Detailed characteristics of the stress field indicate that the σ1 axis is almost vertical in the center of Huangling anticline and turns horizontal to the west. As to deep structures, we studied the satellite gravity anomalies of 8-638 order in this area using the EIGEN-6C2 model provided by ICGRM. Combining the seismic sounding profile through the epicenter of Badong earthquake and the petrology data, we reinterpreted the deep structure in the study area. The results show that the deep crust in Badong is unstable and the deep material's upwelling leads to Huangling anticline continued uplifting, which is consistent with the result indicated from the stress filed. Both of them provide energy for the preparation of earthquake. The FMS shows that Gaoqiao Fault is the causative fault of this Ms5.1 earthquake. Field investigations indicated that the lithology and fracture characteristic in Badong is beneficial to reservoir water infiltration. Before the earthquake, reservoir water level raised to 175m, the highest storage level, which increased the loading. Based on above researches, we believe that the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake is controlled by deep tectonic environment and stress field in shallow crust. The reservoir water infiltration and uploading increase generated by water storage of the Three Gorges area reduced the strength of Gaoqiao Fault and changed its stress state. These factors jointly promoted an abrupt movement of the fault in the critical stress state, and triggered the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake.

  6. Visually guided eye growth in the squid.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Philip R K; Backhouse, Simon; Phillips, John R

    2015-09-21

    Eyes with refractive error have reduced visual acuity and are rarely found in the wild. Vertebrate eyes possess a visually guided emmetropisation process within the retina which detects the sign of defocus, and regulates eye growth to align the retina at the focal plane of the eye's optical components to avoid the development of refractive error, such as myopia, an increasing problem in humans. However, the vertebrate retina is complex, and it is not known which of the many classes of retinal neurons are involved. We investigated whether the camera-type eye of an invertebrate, the squid, displays visually guided emmetropisation, despite squid eyes having a simple photoreceptor-only retina. We exploited inherent longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) to create disparate focal lengths within squid eyes. We found that squid raised under orange light had proportionately longer eyes and more myopic refractions than those raised under blue light, and when switched between wavelengths, eye size and refractive status changed appropriately within a few days. This demonstrates that squid eye growth is visually guided, and suggests that the complex retina seen in vertebrates may not be required for emmetropisation.

  7. Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

  8. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  9. Investigation of eye-catching colors using eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Mokryun; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Jeongmin; Choi, Kyungah

    2013-03-01

    An eye tracking experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between eye gazing movements and the color attributes to support the creation of effective communication and increase aesthetic satisfaction. With consideration to the context of smart phones, the study focused on icon arrays, and thus each stimulus set was composed of 25 color square patches arrayed in the format of a 5 by 5 grid. The experiment was divided into three parts, each examining one specific attribute of color, while controlling its other attributes. Fifteen college students were recruited, among whom all partook in all three parts. In Part I, hue difference was examined. Each stimulus set contained 25 hues under a fixed tone. It was revealed that subjects were more attentive to warm colors than to cool colors, particularly when warm colors were arranged along the horizontal and vertical axes; In Part II, the experiment dealt with tone difference. 25 tone variations for red, green and blue were provided as stimulus sets. However, the result indicated that changes in tone does not have a significant influence on subjects' initial attention; Lastly, in Part III, combinations of colors were examined to determine whether color contrast influenced participants' attention in a manner different from that of single colors. Among them, icons with complementary contrast gained the greatest attention. Throughout the experiments, the background was applied with either black or white; however a contrast effect between background and foreground was not noticeable.

  10. Tear dynamics and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, K

    1998-10-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is important because it supplies such essential components as EGF and vitamin A, whose deficiency may cause squamous metaplasia. There is no reflex tearing in Sjogren's syndrome because of destruction of the lacrimal gland. In cases of diminished or absent reflex tearing, topical autologous serum is the treatment of choice. Even when there is adequate tear production, insufficient distribution, such as occurs with the decreased blinking associated with the use of video display terminals (VDT), may cause dry eye. Any process or activity that suppresses blinking interferes with tear distribution. Tear evaporation increases under certain conditions and in some diseases. When the exposed ocular surface area is increased, such as in VDT work, tear evaporation increases. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) also causes increased tear evaporation by altering the quality of the oily layer in tears. Tear evaporation can be suppressed by using a warm compresser or a humidifier, narrowing the palpebral fissure, or wearing protective eyeglasses. The tear clearance rate is measured by fluorescein dye dilution in the conjunctiva. When the tear clearance is low, inflammatory cytokines or preservatives accumulate in the conjunctival sac, resulting in ocular surface diseases. Frequent use of artificial tears without preservative is the key treatment. A differential diagnosis of the abnormalities of tear dynamics can give us a proper understanding of the pathogenesis of dry eye. With this knowledge, we can formulate an efficient therapeutic approach.

  11. Senile pseudoexfoliation in aphakic eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Radian, A B; Radian, A L

    1975-01-01

    In three eyes which underwent cataract extraction no evidence of senile pseudoexfoliation was found either before, or immediately after, surgery in spite of repeated biomicroscopical examination under full mydriasis. Years later pseudoexfoliative material was found on the anterior hyaloid and on the pupillary border. In another case, wherein the lens was traumatically dislocated and had lain in the inferior vitreous chamber for 53 years, pseudoexfoliative material was present on the anterior hyaloid, but not in the vitreous. Collating these clinical observations with data from electron and light microscopy studies, the authors refute the assumption that lens epithelium is the source of pseudoexfoliative material. PMID:1081405

  12. Eye Disorders in Old People

    PubMed Central

    M., Khalaj; A., Barikani; H., Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Visual impairment is one of a major public health problem among elderly people. Object: Aim of this study was determining the prevalence of visual impairment in median and old peoples in Qazvin (Iran). Method: In this cross sectional study, with a simple random sampling, 446 patients older than 5o years who were referred to outpatient ophthalmology clinics at Avecina hospital of Qazvin (a province of Iran) in 2010 were enrolled. Participants first complete a questionnaire with 25 questions toward demographic and past medical history and then were examined by ophthalmologist. These examinations includes direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp examination, measurement of uncorrected visual acuity and visual acuity with current glasses, lensometery of the previous glasses, refraction with and without the use of cycloplegic and determining the best corrected visual acuity. All slit lamp examinations were performed by the same ophthalmologist. Data were analyzed with SPSS16 with use of Chi – Square test with Pvalue <0.05. Results: In this study 446 patients were examined that 54.7% were male. Mean age of study population was 62+-9.3 years old. 96.4% of participants had refractory disorder. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 33.6%, 45.9% and 16.8% respectively. Of patients 17.4% had diabetes. Of participants 28.9% had temporal headache, 37% red eye, 41.2% flashing, 27.3% and 28% had dryness and discharge of eye respectively. 31.1% of participants had eyelide problem, 4.7% Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) and 3.8% had family history of CVD. Of total 4.5% had glaucoma, 3.3% macular degeneration and 21.7% had hypertension. 0.6% of population had macular degeneration, 0.4% of population had glaucoma Of 892 eyes (446 individuals), 36.2% had visual acuity less than 7/10, 1.7% light perception (LP) and 0.22% no light perception (NLP) and 2.7% finger count. Conclusion: Refractory errors, cataract and amblyopia were most important eye disorders

  13. "Christmas eye". Acute corneal erosion.

    PubMed

    Colvin, C S

    1979-12-15

    The term "Christmas eye" is one I have coined to describe a type of acute corneal erosion which seems to occur only between late November and mid January, in country areas of New South Wales. Since 1970, I have seen 20 cases, all monocular, in people from an area bounded by Wellington, Mudgee, Grenfell, Cowra and Young. Twelve patients were adult males, three were adult females, and there were five children (one female, four male). The incidence varies; six cases presented in 1976, and none in 1978.

  14. Eye movements of patients with schizophrenia in a natural environment.

    PubMed

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Backasch, Bianca; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Leube, Dirk; Kircher, Tilo; Bremmer, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of eye movements in schizophrenia patients have been widely described for laboratory settings. For example, gain during smooth tracking is reduced, and fixation patterns differ between patients and healthy controls. The question remains, whether such results are related to the specifics of the experimental environment, or whether they transfer to natural settings. Twenty ICD-10 diagnosed schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study, each performing four different oculomotor tasks corresponding to natural everyday behavior in an indoor environment: (I) fixating stationary targets, (II) sitting in a hallway with free gaze, (III) walking down the hallway, and (IV) visually tracking a target on the floor while walking straight-ahead. In all conditions, eye movements were continuously recorded binocularly by a mobile lightweight eye tracker (EyeSeeCam). When patients looked at predefined targets, they showed more fixations with reduced durations than controls. The opposite was true when participants were sitting in a hallway with free gaze. During visual tracking, patients showed a significantly greater root-mean-square error (representing the mean deviation from optimal) of retinal target velocity. Different from previous results on smooth-pursuit eye movements obtained in laboratory settings, no such difference was found for velocity gain. Taken together, we have identified significant differences in fundamental oculomotor parameters between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during natural behavior in a real environment. Moreover, our data provide evidence that in natural settings, patients overcome some impairments, which might be present only in laboratory studies, by as of now unknown compensatory mechanisms or strategies.

  15. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect.

  16. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect. PMID:26245915

  17. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence.

  18. Animal eyes in homeland security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Grubsky, Victor; Shnitser, Paul; Agurok, Ilya; Bennahmias, Mark; Lee, Kang; Savant, Gajendra

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, biologically-inspired optical imaging systems, including fish eye, bug eye, lobster eye, and RGB color vision, are discussed as new lensing systems for military and homeland security applications. This new area of interest includes UV, VIS, IR, and X-ray part of electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, recent progress at Physical Optics Corporation will be discussed, including such applications as hyperspectral/multi-spectral imagery, video surveillance, and X-ray inspection.

  19. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

  20. Developmental regulation of nucleolus size during Drosophila eye differentiation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E

    2013-01-01

    When cell cycle withdrawal accompanies terminal differentiation, biosynthesis and cellular growth are likely to change also. In this study, nucleolus size was monitored during cell fate specification in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc using fibrillarin antibody labeling. Nucleolus size is an indicator of ribosome biogenesis and can correlate with cellular growth rate. Nucleolar size was reduced significantly during cell fate specification and differentiation, predominantly as eye disc cells entered a cell cycle arrest that preceded cell fate specification. This reduction in nucleolus size required Dpp and Hh signaling. A transient enlargement of the nucleolus accompanied cell division in the Second Mitotic Wave. Nucleoli continued to diminish in postmitotic cells following fate specification. These results suggest that cellular growth is regulated early in the transition from proliferating progenitor cells to terminal cell fate specification, contemporary with regulation of the cell cycle, and requiring the same extracellular signals.

  1. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model.

    PubMed

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  2. 46 CFR 148.140 - Stowage and segregation for materials of Class 5.1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of heat or ignition; and (3) Be stowed separate from foodstuffs and all readily combustible materials. (b) Special care must be taken to ensure that holds containing Class 5.1 materials are clean...

  3. Eye movements predict recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Davidson, Matthew L; Carson, Meredith M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-08-06

    Previously encountered stimuli can bring to mind a vivid memory of the episodic context in which the stimulus was first experienced ("remembered" stimuli), or can simply seem familiar ("known" stimuli). Past studies suggest that more attentional resources are required to encode stimuli that are subsequently remembered than known. However, it is unclear if the attentional resources are distributed differently during encoding and recognition of remembered and known stimuli. Here, we record eye movements while participants encode photos, and later while indicating whether the photos are remembered, known or new. Eye fixations were more clustered during both encoding and recognition of remembered photos relative to known photos. Thus, recognition of photos that bring to mind a vivid memory for the episodic context in which they were experienced is associated with less distributed overt attention during encoding and recognition. The results suggest that remembering is related to encoding of a few distinct details of a photo rather than the photo as a whole. In turn, during recognition remembering may be trigged by enhanced memory for the salient details of the photos.

  4. Eye Movements During Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Falck-Ytter, Terje

    2015-01-01

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others’ manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer’s gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer’s motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person’s future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction. PMID:26385998

  5. Iron homeostasis and eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

  6. Los Alamos Laser Eye Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle investigator was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal investigator assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to investigate the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week investigation. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle investigator's unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the investigation, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.

  7. Visual Function in Geriatric Eye Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faye, Eleanor E.

    1971-01-01

    Visual functioning, treatment, and helpful low vision aids are discussed in relation to four major eye diseases of the elderly: cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. (KW)

  8. Colour in the eyes of insects.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, D G

    2002-06-01

    Many insect species have darkly coloured eyes, but distinct colours or patterns are frequently featured. A number of exemplary cases of flies and butterflies are discussed to illustrate our present knowledge of the physical basis of eye colours, their functional background, and the implications for insect colour vision. The screening pigments in the pigment cells commonly determine the eye colour. The red screening pigments of fly eyes and the dorsal eye regions of dragonflies allow stray light to photochemically restore photoconverted visual pigments. A similar role is played by yellow pigment granules inside the photoreceptor cells which function as a light-controlling pupil. Most insect eyes contain black screening pigments which prevent stray light to produce background noise in the photoreceptors. The eyes of tabanid flies are marked by strong metallic colours, due to multilayers in the corneal facet lenses. The corneal multilayers in the gold-green eyes of the deer fly Chrysops relictus reduce the lens transmission in the orange-green, thus narrowing the sensitivity spectrum of photoreceptors having a green absorbing rhodopsin. The tapetum in the eyes of butterflies probably enhances the spectral sensitivity of proximal long-wavelength photoreceptors. Pigment granules lining the rhabdom fine-tune the sensitivity spectra. PMID:12073079

  9. Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue. PMID:22267956

  10. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  11. Measuring Reflective Power with the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang

    Although the legitimacy of using the eye as an essential instrument in photometric experiments had been questioned by critics, the practitioners of visual photometry in the 18th and 19th centuries were convinced that the eye was reliable and capable of making accurate judgments in comparing brightness. They demonstrated their belief through their efforts in searching for the optimal conditions for the eye in photometric measurements. Eventually, they were able to measure reflective power with accuracy comparable to today's standards by developing a body of practice, including both instrumental designs and experimental procedures, which aimed at maintaining the eye's sensibility in brightness comparison.

  12. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    PubMed Central

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  13. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  14. Maxwellian eye fixation during natural scene perception.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  15. Sports eye injuries a preventable disease.

    PubMed

    Vinger, P F

    1981-02-01

    Each year, sports are responsible for over 100.000 preventable eye injuries. A face-protector standard was developed for hockey. Certified protectors effectively eliminated eye and face injuries to 1,200,000 players averting a projected 70,000 injuries and saving over $10,000,000 in medical expenses annually. The principle of absorbing energy in a protective device before the eye is injured is applied to other sports (racket sports, baseball, basketball). Recommendations are made on eye protection for athletes. Better data collection and standards for sports and children's eyewear are encouraged.

  16. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Consult Services, discusses eye health and the importance of comprehensive dilated exams in the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. nei.nih.gov/videos/ Age-Related ...

  17. Macro- and microglial responses in the fellow eyes contralateral to glaucomatous eyes.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ana I; Salazar, Juan J; de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Gallego, Beatriz I; Salobrar-García, Elena; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J; Triviño, Alberto; Ramirez, José M

    2015-01-01

    Most studies employing experimental models of unilateral glaucoma have used the normotensive contralateral eye as the normal control. However, some studies have recently reported the activation of the retinal macroglia and microglia in the uninjured eye, suggesting that the eye contralateral to experimental glaucoma should not be used as a control. This review analyzes the studies describing the contralateral findings and discusses some of the routes through which the signals can reach the contralateral eye to initiate the glial reactivation.

  18. Ultrasound velocities for axial eye length measurement.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, K J

    1994-09-01

    Since 1974, I have used individual sound velocities for each eye condition encountered for axial length measurement. The calculation results in 1,555 M/sec for the average phakic eye. A slower speed of 1,549 M/sec was found for an extremely long (30 mm) eye and a higher speed of 1,561 M/sec was noted for an extremely short (20 mm) eye. This inversely proportional velocity change can best be adjusted for by measuring the phakic eye at 1,532 M/sec and correcting the result by dividing the square of the measured axial length (AL1,532)2 by the difference of the measured axial length (AL1,532) minus 0.35 mm. A velocity of 1,534 M/sec was found for all aphakic eyes regardless of their length, and correction is clinically significant. The velocity of an eye containing a poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens is not different from an average phakic eye but it does magnify the effect of axial length change. I recommend measuring the pseudophakic eye at 1,532 M/sec and adding to the result (AL1,532), + 0.04 + 44% of the IOL thickness. The speed for an eye with a silicone IOL was found to be 1,476 M/sec (or AL1,532 + 0.04 - 56% of IOL thickness) and for glass, 1,549 M/sec (or AL1,532 + 0.04 + 75% of IOL thickness). A speed of 1,139 M/sec was found for a phakic eye with silicone oil filling most of the vitreous cavity and 1,052 M/sec for an aphakic eye filled with oil. For varying volumes of oil, each eye should be calculated individually. The speed was 534 M/sec for phakic eyes filled with gas. Eyes containing a silicone IOL or oil or gas will create clinically significant errors (3 to 10 diopters) if the sound velocity is not corrected. PMID:7996413

  19. The 5:1 Neptune Resonance as Probed by CFEPS: Dynamics and Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, R. E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, J. M.; Gladman, B. J.; Alexandersen, M.; Volk, K.; Shankman, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    The Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey discovered four trans-Neptunian objects with semimajor axes near the 5:1 resonance, revealing a large and previously undetected intrinsic population. Three of these objects are currently resonant with Neptune, and the fourth is consistent with being an object that escaped the resonance at some point in the past. The non-resonant object may be representative of a detached population that is stable at slightly lower semimajor axes than the 5:1 resonance. We generated clones of these objects by resampling the astrometric uncertainty and examined their behavior over a 4.5 Gyr numerical simulation. The majority of the clones of the three resonant objects (\\gt 90%) spend a total of 107 years in resonance during their 4.5 Gyr integrations; most clones experience multiple periods of resonance capture. Our dynamical integrations reveal an exchange between the 5:1 resonance, the scattering objects, and other large semimajor axis resonances, especially the 4:1, 6:1, and 7:1 resonances. The multiple capture events and relatively short resonance lifetimes after capture suggest that these objects are captured scattering objects that stick in the 5:1 resonance. These 5:1 resonators may be representative of a temporary population, requiring regular contributions from a source population. We examined the dynamical characteristics (inclination, eccentricity, resonant island, libration amplitude) of the detected objects and their clones in order to provide an empirical model of the orbit structure of the 5:1 resonance. This resonance is dynamically hot and includes primarily symmetric librators. Given our orbit model, the intrinsic population necessary for the detection of these three objects in the 5:1 resonance is 1900-1400+3300 (95% confidence) objects with {{H}g} \\lt 8 and e\\gt 0.5.

  20. Eye Injuries in Canadian Racquet Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Thomas J.; Bishop, Patrick J.; Easterbrook, W. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286105

  1. Creating the "History through Deaf Eyes" Documentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hott, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines how a documentary film about the history of deafness in the United States, inspired by the exhibition "History through Deaf Eyes," is going to be created. "History through Deaf Eyes" will have a dual focus. Part of its subject is deafness from the inside: the personal experiences of deaf people (and hearing…

  2. Eye Movements Reveal Mental Looking through Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Kurt; Hartmann, Matthias; Martarelli, Corinna S.; Mast, Fred W.

    2016-01-01

    People often make use of a spatial "mental time line" to represent events in time. We investigated whether the eyes follow such a mental time line during online language comprehension of sentences that refer to the past, present, and future. Participants' eye movements were measured on a blank screen while they listened to these…

  3. Eye Movements in Reading as Rational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Klinton

    2011-01-01

    Moving one's eyes while reading is one of the most complex everyday tasks humans face. To perform efficiently, readers must make decisions about when and where to move their eyes every 200-300ms. Over the past decades, it has been demonstrated that these fine-grained decisions are influenced by a range of linguistic properties of the text, and…

  4. Eye point-of-regard system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    System measures intersection of line of sight and eye point of regard /EPR/ for a human operator in visual scanning system. Device measures two head to reference angles with EPR system and adds them with eye to head angles, yielding a dc signal proportional to picture plane coordinates.

  5. Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

    An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye…

  6. Red eye emergencies in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Anthony

    2015-12-12

    Severe red eye conditions can be the result of intraocular inflammation, corneal insults or inflammation, and acute glaucoma. These pathologies require the knowledge and assessment tools of an ophthalmologist. This article will discuss red eye emergencies that the NP should promptly recognize and refer to ophthalmology. PMID:26545092

  7. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  8. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David

    2000-01-01

    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Eye Movement Instrumentation for Reading Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieger, George R.; Hirschfeld, Rafael

    A method and apparatus for collecting and interpreting eye movement data is described that is both relatively inexpensive and portable. The study lists and describes hardware and software components of a data collection and data analysis system which provides precise information regarding the location, duration, and sequence of eye fixations while…

  10. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  11. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M.; Witte, Otto W.

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  12. Eye and Face Protection in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Choosing what eye and face protection to provide for the high school science laboratory is often a challenge. Science teachers and school administrators may not fully understand the relevant safety regulations and standards or be able to correctly identify the various types of eye protection devices. Although some schools have received training…

  13. Bio-inspired hemispherical compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-03-01

    Compound eyes in arthropods demonstrate distinct imaging characteristics from human eyes, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. Artificial imaging systems with similar geometries and properties are of great interest for many applications. However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. We present our recent progress in combining optics, materials, mechanics and integration schemes to build fully functional artificial compound eye cameras. Nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees) with densely packed artificial ommatidia were realized. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, which were fabricated in the planar geometries and then integrated and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  14. Eye Movement as an Index of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    The relationship between cognitive activity, achievement, and the number of eye fixations used by a learner in viewing visuals was examined. Past research has shown a positive correlation between learning and number of eye fixations and indicated that both the stimulus materials themselves and the viewer's intelligence level may influence viewing…

  15. Analysis of EEG Related Saccadic Eye Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru

    Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.

  16. Task Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how proofreading and reading-for-comprehension instructions influence eye movements during reading. Thirty-seven participants silently read sentences containing compound words as target words while their eye movements were being recorded. We manipulated word length and frequency to examine how task instructions influence…

  17. Mitomycin eye drops as treatment for pterygium.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Wilson, M R; Foster, C S

    1988-06-01

    The authors used an antineoplastic-antibiotic agent, mitomycin, in the form of eye drops as adjunctive treatment for primary and recurrent pterygia after surgical excision. Sixteen primary and four recurrent pterygia were treated with 1.0 mg/ml mitomycin eye drops, 14 primary and 10 recurrent pterygia were treated with 0.4 mg/ml mitomycin eye drops, and 18 primary pterygia were treated with placebo eye drops. Postoperative follow-up for the eyes treated with mitomycin eye drops ranged from 3 to 34 weeks (mean, 23 weeks). One of 44 pterygia treated with mitomycin recurred after 5 months (recurrence rate, 2.3%), whereas 16 of 18 primary pterygia treated with placebo eye drops developed postoperative granulomas and recurrent pterygia with a mean postoperative period of 6 weeks (recurrence rate, 88.9%). Topical mitomycin (1.0 mg/ml) caused conjunctival irritation, excessive lacrimation, and mild superficial punctate keratitis. These topical side effects were minimized with the 0.4 mg/ml mitomycin dosage. No systemic toxicity was noted with either dosage. The authors believe that mitomycin eye drops is a safe and effective adjunct to surgical excision in the treatment of primary or recurrent pterygia, or both.

  18. Analysis on sports and recreation activity-related eye injuries presenting to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Yoo, In Sool; Cho, Jin Seong; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Jeong, Tae Oh; Yeom, Seok Ran; Kim, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Ok

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence and general characteristics of sports-related eye injuries in patients visiting the Emergency Department. METHODS A cross-sectional, multi-center, observational study. Patients with an injured eye who visited the Emergency Department at one of nine hospitals in Korea were enrolled. All data were prospectively collected between March and September 2010 using a questionnaire. Eye injuries that occurred during risky sports were examined by gender and age. Additionally, the rate of open globe injuries that occurred with and without protective eyewear was examined for each activity. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 446 patients had sports-related eye injuries. Teenagers (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old) had the most eye injuries. Eye injuries accounted for 0.2% of Emergency Department patients. Baseball was the most common cause of sports-related eye injuries, followed by soccer and hiking. Protective gear was worn by 9.4% of all patients. Patients that were 30-39 years of age had the highest rate of protective gear use, followed by patients that were 40-49 years of age. The proportion of sports-related eye injuries that were open-globe injuries was highest for soccer and hiking. CONCLUSION Although injuries were most common in patients below the age of 10 years, these patients had the lowest rate of protective eyewear use. Injuries in adults over 40 years of age most commonly occurred during hiking, but the rate of protective eyewear use was low. Young athletes should be educated on and provided with protective eyewear and policies protective gear use should be established. For older adults, eye protection should be encouraged, especially during hiking. PMID:27803871

  19. Prevalence of Major Eye Diseases Among US Civil War Veterans, 1890–1910

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Boly, Idrissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of major eye diseases and low vision or blindness in a national sample of male US Union Army veterans from 1890 to 1910 and to compare these prevalence rates with contemporary rates for the same diseases and visual status. Design Longitudinal histories of 16 022 white Union Army veterans receiving disability pensions from 1890 to 1910 were developed from pension board examination records. Prevalence rates of trachoma, corneal opacities, cataract, diseases of the retina and optic nerve, and low vision or blindness were calculated in 1895 and 1910. Changes in prevalence by age were examined. Results By 1910, 11.9% of veterans had low vision or were blind in both eyes. Prevalence of cataract increased with age, resulting in 13.1% of veterans having had cataract in one or both eyes. Rates of trachoma were 3.2% in 1895 and 4.8% in 1910. Rates of corneal opacity were 3.0% and 5.1%, respectively. Glaucoma was rarely diagnosed from 1890 to 1910, but diseases of the optic nerve were reported in 2.0% of veterans in 1895 and 3.6% in 1910. Conclusions This study documents substantial reductions in the prevalence of low vision or blindness and changes in the composition of eye diseases from an era in which there were few effective therapies for eye diseases to the present. PMID:18268217

  20. Genetic regulation of vertebrate eye development.

    PubMed

    Zagozewski, J L; Zhang, Q; Eisenstat, D D

    2014-11-01

    Eye development is a complex and highly regulated process that consists of several overlapping stages: (i) specification then splitting of the eye field from the developing forebrain; (ii) genesis and patterning of the optic vesicle; (iii) regionalization of the optic cup into neural retina and retina pigment epithelium; and (iv) specification and differentiation of all seven retinal cell types that develop from a pool of retinal progenitor cells in a precise temporal and spatial manner: retinal ganglion cells, horizontal cells, cone photoreceptors, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, rod photoreceptors and Müller glia. Genetic regulation of the stages of eye development includes both extrinsic (such as morphogens, growth factors) and intrinsic factors (primarily transcription factors of the homeobox and basic helix-loop helix families). In the following review, we will provide an overview of the stages of eye development highlighting the role of several important transcription factors in both normal developmental processes and in inherited human eye diseases.

  1. New instruments for dry eye diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Komuro, Aoi; Maruyama, Kunio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Several non-invasive techniques for dry eye diagnosis have been developed in the past decade. These include quantitative assessment of tear volume, tear film stability, tear dynamics, and integrity of ocular surface epithelium. A combination of meniscometry and interferometry is useful for proving focal dry eye, by confirming whether or not tears at the meniscus have an effect on the ocular surface. Interferometer is also useful to evaluate tear dynamics on soft contact lenses. Fluorophotometry is useful for assessing the severity of dry eye from the view point of corneal epithelial barrier function and measuring the tear turnover rate. Both video-meibography and meibometry are useful for screening meibomian gland dysfunction. The advances in these techniques accumulate knowledge regarding pathophysiology of dry eye and allow precise diagnosis of dry eye. More targeted treatment will become feasible based on the clearer pathophysiology.

  2. "Eyes" on the thrones: imperial ophthalmologic nicknames.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J

    1999-01-01

    Several Greek and Byzantine sovereigns are known in history by nicknames that are of ophthalmologic origin; the sobriquets derive from characteristics of their eyes or their actions in relation to the eyes. The first was Antigonos I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed), who was the most eminent successor of Alexander the Great and Sovereign of Eastern Mediterranean Asia. He obtained his nickname at an early age when he lost one eye fighting at the seige of Perinthos, as a general of King Philip of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great). Several Byzantine emperors also have a number of similar nicknames, such as Anastasius I Dicoros (with Heterochromia Iridis), Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus (with Scowling Eyebrows), and Andronicus I Comnenus Misophaes (Hater of Sunlight, since he blinded a great number of his opponents). To these must be added the Byzantine Empress Zoe Carvounopsina (with Coal-black Eyes).

  3. Multiscale systems integration in the eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc D

    2009-01-01

    A series of research topics on the eye is reviewed with the aim of illustrating how integrative and systems-biological approaches can be used to understand complex properties and functions of ocular tissues. Emphasis is placed on the diversity of physiological systems represented in the eye, and the variety of approaches required to analyze those systems, both empirically and theoretically. Modeling and empirical studies reviewed focus mainly on problems that the eye presents, in the broad areas of biomechanics and fluid dynamics from the molecular to the whole-organ scale. Attention is given to the relevance of these studies in human disease and the current potential for development of medical therapies based upon a biophysical, integrative modeling approach. The creation of a multiscale hierarchy of numerical models of the eye is proposed as an important and unifying aim of integrative eye research.

  4. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  5. Measurement of eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Do eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow actually make the eyes appear larger than they really are? If so, by what percentage? To answer these questions, we used psychophysical experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of eyeliner (four levels) and mascara (five levels), and measured perceived eye size using a psychophysical procedure called the staircase method. The results showed that both eyeliner and mascara make the eyes appear larger than they really are by up to 6% (13% in area), but their effects are not additive. Eyeliner increased perceived eye size only in the absence of mascara. In the presence of mascara, however, eyeliner has no additional effect. Experiment 2 measured perceived eye size with or without eye shadow and demonstrated that eye shadow increases perceived eye size by about 5% (10% in area). These findings indicate that one mechanism by which makeup and cosmetics alter facial appearances involves inducing visual illusions. In addition, it is suggested that the eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow uses the same mechanism as that of the Delboeuf illusion, a geometric illusion of assimilation.

  6. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners’ reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  7. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  8. Continuous and shutterless hologram movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, Joseph C.; Miller, Mark E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a unique approach to the production and display of a hologram movie. Motion was provided by rotating a 3D object in steps between exposures. Strip holograms were made on 70 mm AGFA 8E75 Holotest roll film. Each hologram was about 11 mm high and 55 mm wide. The object was rotated two degrees, while the film was advanced, between successive exposures. A complete rotation of the object was recorded on 180 holograms using the lensless Fourier-transform construction. The ends of the developed film were spliced together to produce a continuous loop. Although the film moves continuously on playback and there is no shutter, there is no flicker or image displacement because of the Fourier-transform hologram construction. The movie can be viewed for as long a time as desired because the object motion is cyclical and the film is continuous. The film is wide enough such that comfortable viewing with both eyes is possible, enhancing the 3D experience. Viewers can stand comfortably away from the film since no viewing slit or aperture is necessary. Several people can view the movie at the same time. Speckle is reduced due to the film motion.

  9. Ectopic Six3 expression in the dragon eye goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For goldfish (Carassius auratus), there are many varieties with different eye phenotypes due to artificial selection and adaptive evolution. Dragon eye is a variant eye characterized by a large-size eyeball protruding out of the socket similar to the eye of dragon in Chinese legends. In this study, anatomical structure of the goldfish dragon eye was compared with that of the common eye, and a stretching of the retina was observed in the enlarged dragon eye. Moreover, the homeobox-containing transcription factor Six3 cDNAs were cloned from the two types of goldfish, and the expression patterns were analyzed in both normal eye and dragon eye goldfish. No amino acid sequence differences were observed between the two deduced peptides, and the expression pattern of Six3 protein in dragon eye is quite similar to common eye during embryogenesis, but from 2 days after hatching, ectopic Six3 expression began to occur in the dragon eye, especially in the outer nuclear layer cells. With eye development, more predominant Six3 distribution was detected in the outer nuclear layer cells of dragon eye than that of normal eye, and fewer cell-layers in outer nuclear layer were observed in dragon eye retina than in normal eye retina. The highlight of this study is that higher Six3 expression occurs in dragon eye goldfish than in normal eye goldfish during retinal development of larvae.

  10. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea’s high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer’s default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer’s peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. PMID:24291712

  11. Effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study used a pretest-posttest design with a non-equivalent control group. Forty undergraduate nursing students were selected by convenience sampling, with 20 assigned to an exercise group and 20 assigned to a control group. The yogic eye exercise intervention was performed for 60 minutes, two days a week for 8 weeks. It consisted of 8 steps: palming, blinking, sideways viewing, front and sideways viewing, rotational viewing, up and down viewing, preliminary nose tip gazing, and near and distant viewing. Eye fatigue was measured using a questionnaire for evaluating ocular fatigue. [Results] The exercise-group measurements revealed a significantly decreased eye-fatigue score compared with that of the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic eye exercises could reduce the eye fatigue score in undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27390422

  12. Effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study used a pretest-posttest design with a non-equivalent control group. Forty undergraduate nursing students were selected by convenience sampling, with 20 assigned to an exercise group and 20 assigned to a control group. The yogic eye exercise intervention was performed for 60 minutes, two days a week for 8 weeks. It consisted of 8 steps: palming, blinking, sideways viewing, front and sideways viewing, rotational viewing, up and down viewing, preliminary nose tip gazing, and near and distant viewing. Eye fatigue was measured using a questionnaire for evaluating ocular fatigue. [Results] The exercise-group measurements revealed a significantly decreased eye-fatigue score compared with that of the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic eye exercises could reduce the eye fatigue score in undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27390422

  13. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  14. The eyes like their targets on a stable background.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Markku; Olivers, Christian N L; Theeuwes, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In normal human visual behavior, our visual system is continuously exposed to abrupt changes in the local contrast and mean luminance in various parts of the visual field, as caused by actual changes in the environment, as well as by movements of our body, head, and eyes. Previous research has shown that both threshold and suprathreshold contrast percepts are attenuated by a co-occurring change in the mean luminance at the location of the target stimulus. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that contrast targets presented with a co-occurring change in local mean luminance receive fewer fixations than targets presented in a region with a steady mean luminance. To that end we performed an eye-tracking experiment involving eight observers. On each trial, after a 4 s adaptation period, an observer's task was to make a saccade to one of two target gratings, presented simultaneously at 7° eccentricity, separated by 30° in polar angle. When both targets were presented with a steady mean luminance, saccades landed mostly in the area between the two targets, signifying the classic global effect. However, when one of the targets was presented with a change in luminance, the saccade distribution was biased towards the target with the steady luminance. The results show that the attenuation of contrast signals by co-occurring, ecologically typical changes in mean luminance affects fixation selection and is therefore likely to affect eye movements in natural visual behavior.

  15. 76 FR 71350 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Pediatric Vision Science Grant Applications... Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite...

  16. 78 FR 28233 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... given of the following meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Eye Institute. The... and projects conducted by the National Eye Institute, including consideration of...

  17. 77 FR 64525 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Career Development and Conference Grant... Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of...

  18. 77 FR 43097 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Epidemiology Applications. Date: August 13... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  19. People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 30, 2014 Everyone ... photosensitivity, though the reaction is rare. People with light-colored eyes Have blue or green eyes? Cover ...

  20. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for eye cancer What’s new in eye cancer research and treatment? Many medical ... high risk group. Using genes to help find new treatments Identifying gene changes in eye cancer cells ...

  1. Current status of the Fly's Eye Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Laszlo; Pál, András; Jasko, Attila; Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin; Csepany, Gergely

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we summarize the current status of the Fly's Eye project. This project aims to provide a low resolution and multiple-passband full-sky survey with an imaging cadence of a few minutes. Based on our earlier tests, we found that a novel type of astronomical telescope mount on a hexapod platform can provide the accuracy of sidereal tracking needed by our instrumentation. The fully configured Fly's Eye device contains 19 wide-field cameras equipped with fast focal ratio optics which are arranged in a mosaic form and have an effective resolution of 20 arcseconds per pixel. The scientific goal of this project is to continuously monitor stellar brightness variations in the full Sloan photometric system down to the magnitude of r=15 or the limit of apparent stellar confusion. The data acquisition will then cover roughly 6 magnitudes of the time domain, from the scales of minutes up to the several years of planned operations. Fly's Eye data yield is complementary to that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope since the saturation magnitude of LSST is close to the faint limit of the Fly's Eye setup.One of the main scientific yields of this survey is to recover time-domains of photometric variability of stars with magnetic activity. These timescales range from minutes through hours to years, just like in the case of the Sun. If active stars are monitored continuously, the measurements will give us data in the broad time range of the magnetic phenomena. By now, the Sun is the only active star, on which we have full picture of the manifestation of the magnetic field. In the solar active nests spots, faculae, plages and flares are observed and their spatial correlation studied. The Fly's Eye device allows similar research on different kinds of active stars individually, observing in five bandpasses from ultraviolet to near-infrared (365 to 900 nm) which is unprecedented. The results give us a broader view of the magnetic activity of stars of different ages

  2. EFFECTS OF MILD TO MODERATE SEDATION ON SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Busettini, C.; Frölich, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedatives alter the metrics of saccadic eye movements. If these effects are nonspecific consequences of sedation, like drowsiness and loss of attention to the task, or differ between sedatives is still unresolved. A placebo-controlled multi-step infusion of one of three sedatives, propofol or midazolam, both GABA-A agonists, or dexmedetedomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, was adopted to compare the effects of these three drugs in exactly the same experimental conditions. 60 healthy human volunteers, randomly divided in 4 groups, participated in the study. Each infusion step, delivered by a computer-controlled infusion pump, lasted 20 min. During the last 10 min of each step, the subject executed a saccadic task. Target concentration was doubled at each step. This block was repeated until the subject was too sedated to continue or for a maximum of 6 blocks. Subjects were unaware which infusion they were receiving. A video eye tracker was used to record the movements of the right eye. Saccadic parameters were modeled as a function of block number, estimated sedative plasma concentration, and subjective evaluation of sedation. Propofol and midazolam had strong effects on the dynamics and latency of the saccades. Midazolam, and to a less extent, propofol, caused saccades to become increasingly hypometric. Dexmedetedomidine had less impact on saccadic metrics and presented no changes in saccadic gain. Suppression of the sympathetic system associated with dexmedetomidine has different effects on eye movements from the increased activity of the inhibitory GABA-A receptors by propofol and midazolam even when the subjects reported similar sedation level. PMID:25026096

  3. Postsaccadic activities in the posterior parietal cortex of primates are influenced by both eye movement vectors and eye position.

    PubMed

    Genovesio, Aldo; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Giusti, Maria Assunta; Ferraina, Stefano

    2007-03-21

    Primates explore their visual environment by redirecting the gaze to objects of interest by alternating eye movements and periods of steady fixation. During this task, the fixation point changes frequently in depth. Therefore, the representation of object location based on retinal disparity requires frequent updating. Neural activity was recorded in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area while monkeys performed saccades between targets in different depths. We report that in the early postsaccadic period, posterior parietal neurons continue to encode the difference in depth between fixation point and targets. About one-third of these neurons are, during the same period, modulated by eye position in depth as well. In the late postsaccadic period, the influence of the previous movement vector dissipates, and parietal neurons are modulated only by the new fixation distance. This result suggests that the postsaccadic activity of area LIP contributes to the dynamic representation of the visual space, and it is compatible with the presence of both a vector subtraction computation and eye-position-dependent gain fields. PMID:17376987

  4. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  5. Evaluating the potential eye irritancy of shampoos.

    PubMed

    Bell, M; Holmes, P M; Nisbet, T M; Uttley, M; Abbe, N J

    1979-04-01

    Synopsis Experience in a large manufacturing unit showed that splashes of undiluted shampoo only produced transient effects in the eyes of production and packaging staff; over the same period, very few complaints of eye irritation were received from shampoo users, none of which were of a serious nature. Predictive testing is needed to make sure that new formulations are not severe eye irritants though rabbit eye testing may tend to exaggerate the likely human response. Detergent concentration is the principal factor influencing findings in the rabbit eye and an active matter content of 2.5-3.0% (usually representing a 20% aqueous dilution of shampoo) gives the best discrimination between formulations whilst producing no signs of distress in the animals; for typical anionic shampoos, testing at this concentration is recommended, without subsequent rinsing. Rabbit eye tests should never be conducted at higher concentrations until their innocuousness at 20% dilution has been shown and, even then, stronger preparations should only be instilled if they contain new ingredients for which the potential risk in human use are unknown. Conduct of all rabbit eye testing as a comparison with a 'control' formulation of equivalent concentration, known to be well tolerated under market conditions, is recommended. For preliminary screening, an in vitro test using freshly-isolated buccal mucosa cells from human volunteers may be useful, irritancy being assessed by the proportion of cells showing loss of visible nuclei when examined by phase-contrast microscopy.

  6. How to perform irrigation of the eye.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-02-01

    rationale and key points: This article aims to help nurses to understand the importance of performing irrigation immediately following chemical injury to the eye, and outlines the most effective technique. It is essential that irrigation of the eye is understood and performed correctly. Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency. It presents a serious risk to the patient's vision and may cause blindness. The length of time the chemical remains in contact with the eye determines the severity of the injury. Immediate irrigation of the eye is essential to minimise preventable loss of vision. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would ensure immediate irrigation following chemical injury to the eye in your clinical area. 2. How you know when you have irrigated the eye for long enough, if you have previously performed this procedure, and how reading this article might influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26838655

  7. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  8. [Protection of the eyes in racket sports].

    PubMed

    Prince, P; Laurencelle, L

    1988-06-01

    A survey was conducted on 1032 racket sport players from 10 randomly selected racket sport centers in Quebec during the month of October 1985. The use of protective eye glasses was found to be higher in racketball (70.2%) and squash (45.8%) than in badminton (8.8%) or tennis (3.5%). While a little less than 60% of protective eye glasses were equipped with unbreakable lenses, 40% of protective glasses were simple eye guards, containing no lens at all. Hence a large number of players assumed that they had adequate protection while wearing simple eye guards or their everyday normal glasses. Gender differences did not seem to affect the use of protective eye glasses. A general observation was that the older the player the better the eye protection, whereas novice players tended to be less prepared to use the protective glasses. The use of protective eye glasses was found to be compulsory in close to 46% of racketball centers and in 25% of squash clubs.

  9. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

  10. Eye injuries in athletics and recreation.

    PubMed

    Napier, S M; Baker, R S; Sanford, D G; Easterbrook, M

    1996-01-01

    Sports-related eye injuries represent a significant eye health hazard worldwide. In the USA, it is estimated that eye injuries from sports account for more than 100,000 physician visits per year at the cost of greater than $175 million. The sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries are baseball, ice hockey, and racquet sports. In the USA there are over 189 million participants in these sports with a disproportionate number (one-third) of injuries involving the pediatric population. The most common injuries are abrasions and contusions, followed by more serious injuries, including hyphema. Substantial reduction in the incidence of eye injuries through prevention has been demonstrated in the sport of hockey which can serve as a model for other sports. Specific criteria for protective eyewear must be developed. Polycarbonate plastic lenses and frames which are sturdy and impact resistant provide optimal protection. Lensless goggles, street wear and spectacle correction glasses do not provide adequate eye protection. The ophthalmologist's role in preventing sports-related eye injuries includes addressing particular sports participants needs, identifying one-eyed athletes, and informing patients of the need for protective eyewear.

  11. The modern office environment desiccates the eyes?

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, P; Nøjgaard, J K; Franck, C; Skov, P

    2006-08-01

    Eye irritation is a common complaint in the office environment. The purpose of this overview is to merge knowledge within indoor air science, ophthalmology, and occupational health to promote understanding eye irritation symptomatology, the cause of which is still partly unknown. High periocular relative humidity appears to protect the pre-corneal tear film against desiccation and sensory irritating pollutants and reduces the development of eye irritation symptoms. This is particularly relevant for intensive computer work, where the pre-corneal tear film is altered resulting in dry spot formation and eye dryness, in addition to enhanced susceptibility towards sensory irritating pollutants. The workplace, thermal conditions, and work schedule (including breaks) should be planned in such a way to help maintain a normal eye blink frequency to minimize alterations of the pre-corneal tear film. The role of relative humidity on eye irritation symptoms should not be underestimated. Multiple short breaks are justified by the beneficial effect on the pre-corneal tear film. In addition, longer breaks in tasks, which require demanding visual work, should be considered. In addition, air temperature as well as certain alkene oxidation products by ozone may worsen eye irritation symptoms, but the latter factor may be smaller at higher relative humidity.

  12. 43 CFR 3191.5-1 - Indian lands included in delegation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indian lands included in delegation. 3191..., COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Delegation of Authority § 3191.5-1 Indian... out on Indian lands without the written permission of the affected Indian tribe or allottee. (b)...

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AMAD will perform two annual CMAQ model simulations, one with the current publically available version of the CMAQ model (v5.0.2) and the other with the beta version of the new model (v5.1). The results of each model simulation will then be compared to observations and the pe...

  14. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AMAD will performed two CMAQ model simulations, one with the current publically available version of the CMAQ model (v5.0.2) and the other with the new version of the CMAQ model (v5.1). The results of each model simulation are compared to observations and the performance of t...

  15. 43 CFR 2920.5-1 - Filing of applications for land use authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing of applications for land use... EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.5-1 Filing of applications for land use authorizations. (a) Only after publication of a notice of realty action shall an application for a land...

  16. 43 CFR 2920.5-1 - Filing of applications for land use authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing of applications for land use... EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.5-1 Filing of applications for land use authorizations. (a) Only after publication of a notice of realty action shall an application for a land...

  17. 43 CFR 2920.5-1 - Filing of applications for land use authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing of applications for land use... EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.5-1 Filing of applications for land use authorizations. (a) Only after publication of a notice of realty action shall an application for a land...

  18. 43 CFR 2920.5-1 - Filing of applications for land use authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing of applications for land use... EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.5-1 Filing of applications for land use authorizations. (a) Only after publication of a notice of realty action shall an application for a land...

  19. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities. 1.142... Bonds § 1.142(a)(5)-1 Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities. (a) In general. Under section 103(a), a private activity bond is a tax-exempt bond only if it is a qualified bond. A qualified bond includes...

  20. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities. 1.142... Bonds § 1.142(a)(5)-1 Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities. (a) In general. Under section 103(a), a private activity bond is a tax-exempt bond only if it is a qualified bond. A qualified bond includes...