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Sample records for 5-10 times greater

  1. Time allocation by Greater White-fronted Geese: Influence of diet, energy reserves and predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1992-01-01

    I determined the amount of time Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) allocated to various activities from September to May, 1980-1982 at their primary wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway of North America. The length of time spent on roosts during the day was positively correlated to day length. Geese at roost sites spent the majority of their time sleeping (24-46%), alert (17-40%), walking or swimming (6-24%), and in comfort behaviors (3-25%). The amount of time geese fed each day varied little from early autumn to late spring (4.5-4.9 hr), except during mid-winter when minimum temperatures were below freezing (3.9 hr), and immediately before migration in spring (6.3 hr). The proportion of time devoted to feeding and alert behavior, the two most dominant activities at field sites, varied significantly among seasons and locations. The amount of time geese were actively engaged in foraging each season was more dependent on feeding intensity than the amount of time spent at foraging sites (fields), and varied almost three-fold, from 1.8 hr during late winter to 5.1 hr during late spring. Geese fed in closer proximity to conspecifics, were more frequently disturbed, and spent less time feeding during the hunting season. Exploitation of high energy foods and catabolism of substantial energy reserves probably enabled geese to minimize foraging time during periods of harsh weather and high predation pressure. Seasonal variation in the proportion of time spent feeding corresponded closely to changes in body mass. Greater White-fronted Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway spent substantially less time feeding than they do in Europe, as geese in California fed primarily on high energy cereal grains, while in Europe they subsist on green vegetation which has relatively less digestible energy than cereal grains.

  2. Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Greater Metropolitan Mumbai: Trends over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T. K.; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Background While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. Results A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005–2007 and 27.8% in 2011–2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (p<0.05). Discussion The observed trends in TB drug-resistance patterns in Mumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within

  3. Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

    2010-08-01

    As the majority of the world’s population is living in urban environments, there is growing interest in studying local urban climates. In this paper, for the first time, the long-term trends (31-162 years) of temperature change have been analyzed for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Annual and seasonal time series for a number of urban, suburban, and rural weather stations are considered. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for the assessing of the significance and detection of trends, and the sequential Mann test is used to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significant trends for annual mean and minimum temperatures are detected for almost all stations in the GTA. Winter is found to be the most coherent season contributing substantially to the increase in annual minimum temperature. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature suggest that the beginning of the increasing trend in Toronto started after the 1920s and then continued to increase to the 1960s. For all stations, there is a significant increase of annual and seasonal (particularly winter) temperatures after the 1980s. In terms of the linkage between urbanization and spatiotemporal thermal patterns, significant linear trends in annual mean and minimum temperature are detected for the period of 1878-1978 for the urban station, Toronto, while for the rural counterparts, the trends are not significant. Also, for all stations in the GTA that are situated in all directions except south of Toronto, substantial temperature change is detected for the periods of 1970-2000 and 1989-2000. It is concluded that the urbanization in the GTA has significantly contributed to the increase of the annual mean temperatures during the past three decades. In addition to urbanization, the influence of local climate, topography, and larger scale warming are incorporated in the analysis of the trends.

  4. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses.

  5. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  6. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  7. Web-Based Time Entry Systems: Providing Greater Automation and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Time and resources are becoming increasingly scarce in most higher education institutions today. As a result, colleges and universities are looking to streamline and simplify many costly, labor-intensive administrative processes. In this article, Tracy Williams examines how Web-based time-entry systems can help institutions save valuable time and…

  8. Increasing Time and Enriching Learning for Greater Equity in Schools: Perspective from Two Community Funders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…

  9. Greater bed- and wake-time variability is associated with less healthy lifestyle behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J; Kline, Christopher E; Rebar, Amanda L; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Short, Camille E

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study examines associations between the variability in bed/rise times, usual bed/rise time and dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, sitting time, sleep insufficiency and a composite index of behaviors. Subject and methods A random sample of Australian adults drawn from an online Panel cohort in 2013 completed a cross-sectional online survey. A total of 1,317 participants, median age 57 (IQR=20) completed the survey. Bed- and wake times, variability in bed- and wake-times, dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, sitting time, sleep insufficiency and socio-demographics were assessed using a questionnaire. Associations were examined with generalized linear models. Results Having bed - times that varied by >30 min were associated with lower dietary quality, higher alcohol consumption, higher sitting time, more frequent insufficient sleep and poorer overall pattern of lifestyle behaviors. Greater variability in wake times, usual bed times and usual wake times were inconsistently associated with lifestyle behaviours. Conclusions Greater bed-time variability is associated with a less healthy pattern of lifestyle behaviors. Greater consistency in sleep timing may contribute to, or be reflective of, a healthier lifestyle. PMID:27110481

  10. Does Social Connectedness Promote a Greater Sense of Well-Being in Adolescence over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Ryan, Nicholas; Pryor, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether or not social connectedness predicts psychological well-being over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the temporal relations between these constructs assessed yearly for 3 years for a sample of 1,774 10- to 15-year-olds (at Time 1). Results indicated that global…

  11. An Earlier Time of Scan is Associated with Greater Threat-related Amygdala Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Baranger, David A A; Margolis, Seth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-04-04

    Time-dependent variability in mood and anxiety suggest that related neural phenotypes, such as threat-related amygdala reactivity, may also follow a diurnal pattern. Here, using data from 1,043 young adult volunteers, we found that threat-related amygdala reactivity was negatively coupled with time of day, an effect which was stronger in the left hemisphere (β=-0.1083, p-fdr=0.0012). This effect was moderated by subjective sleep quality (β=-0.0715, p-fdr=0.0387); participants who reported average and poor sleep quality had relatively increased left amygdala reactivity in the morning. Bootstrapped simulations suggest that similar cross-sectional samples with at least 300 participants would be able to detect associations between amygdala reactivity and time of scan. In control analyses, we found no associations between time and V1 activation. Our results provide initial evidence that threat-related amygdala reactivity may vary diurnally, and that this effect is potentiated among individuals with average to low sleep quality. More broadly, our results suggest that considering time of scan in study design or modeling time of scan in analyses, as well as collecting additional measures of circadian variation, may be useful for understanding threat-related neural phenotypes and their associations with behavior, such as fear conditioning, mood and anxiety symptoms, and related phenotypes.

  12. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  13. Wavelet analysis of paleomagnetic data: 1. Characteristic average times (5 10 kyr) of variations in the geomagnetic field during and immediately before and after the Early Jaramillo reversal (Western Turkmenistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarii, G. Z.; Aleksyutin, M. V.; Ataev, N.

    2007-10-01

    Joint wavelet analysis of complete and downsampled series of paleomagnetic and petromagnetic characteristics of rocks in the Matuyama-Jaramillo transitional zone in the Adzhidere section is used to extract paleomagnetic data whose variations are associated with the geomagnetic field alone and data correlating with variations in petromagnetic parameters. It supposed that this correlation can be caused by an external factor affecting weak variations in the magnetic field and climatic changes reflected in the composition and amount of the ferromagnetic fraction in rocks. Preliminary data are obtained for the characteristic times of field variations at the time of accumulation of rocks in the transitional zone.

  14. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; Zhao, Maosheng; Zhao, Feng A.; Gong, Peng; Yu, Le; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24 years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.

  15. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24more » years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.« less

  16. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

  18. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office... Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading room containing agency records that the FOIA requires to be...

  19. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office... Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading room containing agency records that the FOIA requires to be...

  20. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office... Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading room containing agency records that the FOIA requires to be...

  1. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  2. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  3. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  4. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  5. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  6. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Agency Records Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2),...

  7. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  8. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-01-01

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners’ tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing. PMID:28276461

  9. Role-Playing and Real-Time Strategy Games Associated with Greater Probability of Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Adam; Kattner, Florian; Bradford, Daniel; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates that a small subset of those who routinely play video games show signs of pathological habits, with side effects ranging from mild (e.g., being late) to quite severe (e.g., losing a job). However, it is still not clear whether individual types, or genres, of games are most strongly associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A sample of 4,744 University of Wisconsin-Madison undergraduates (Mage=18.9 years; SD=1.9 years; 60.5% female) completed questionnaires on general video game playing habits and on symptoms of IGD. Consistent with previous reports: 5.9-10.8% (depending on classification criteria) of individuals who played video games show signs of pathological play. Furthermore, real-time strategy and role-playing video games were more strongly associated with pathological play, compared with action and other games (e.g., phone games). The current investigation adds support to the idea that not all video games are equal. Instead, certain genres of video games, specifically real-time strategy and role-playing/fantasy games, are disproportionately associated with IGD symptoms.

  10. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  11. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  17. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  18. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  19. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION..., the Commission staff shall, if necessary, issue Scoping Document 2....

  20. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION..., the Commission staff shall, if necessary, issue Scoping Document 2....

  1. β-Nitro-5,10,15-tritolylcorroles

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, Manuela; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R.; McCandless, Gregory T.; Smith, Kevin M.; Manowong, Machima; Chen, Ping; Kadish, Karl M.; Rosa, Angela; Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Paolesse, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Functionalization of the β-pyrrolic positions of the corrole macrocycle with –NO2 groups is limited at present to metallocorrolates due to of the instability exhibited by corrole free bases under oxidizing conditions. A careful choice of the oxidant can limit the transformation of corroles into decomposition products or isocorrole species, preserving the corrole aromaticity, and thus allowing the insertion of nitro groups onto the corrole framework. Here we report results obtained by reacting 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole (TTCorrH3) with the AgNO2/NaNO2 system, to give mono- and di-nitrocorrole derivatives when stoichiometry is carefully controlled. Reactions were found to be regioselective, affording the 3-NO2TTCorrH3 and 3,17-(NO2)2TTCorrH3 isomers as the main products in the case of mono- and di-substitution, in 53 and 20% yields, respectively. In both cases, traces of other mono- and di-substituted isomers were detected, which were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The influence of the β-nitro substituents on the corrole properties is studied in detail by UV-visible, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical characterization of these functionalized corroles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the ground and excited state properties of these β-nitrocorrole derivatives also afforded significant information, closely matching the experimental observations. It is found that the β-NO2 substituents conjugate with the π-aromatic system of the macrocycle, which initiates significant changes in both the spectroscopic and redox properties of the so functionalized corroles. This effect is more pronounced when the nitro group is introduced at the 2-position, because in this case the conjugation is, for steric reasons, more efficient than in the 3-nitro isomer. PMID:22668242

  2. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  3. Accumulation of Giant Planet Atmospheres Around 5 -- 10 M⊕ Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, O.; Bodenheimer, P.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Observations of protoplanetary disks imply that gas giant planets form very quickly (≤ 10 Myr). Recent interior models of Jupiter suggest smaller core masses (0 -- 10 M⊕ ) than had been previously predicted (10 to 30 M⊕ ). We have computed evolutionary simulations of Jupiter based on the core accretion model of gas giant planet formation where we vary the grain opacity and the planetesimal surface density of the solar density of the solar nebula. We also explore the implications of halting the solid accretion at selected core mass values during the protoplanet's growth, thus simulating the presence of a competing embryo. The core accretion model states that a solid core is formed from the accretion of planetesimals in the solar nebular followed by the capture of a massive envelope from the solar nebula gas. Our simulations based on this model (Pollack et al. 1996) have been successful in explaining many features of the giant planets. Our most recent results (Hubickyj et al. 2004) demonstrate that decreasing the grain opacity reduces the formation time by more than half of that for models computed with full interstellar grain opacity values. In fact, it is the reduction of the grain opacity in the upper portion of the envelope with T < 500 K that governs the lowering of the formation time. Decreasing the surface density of the planetesimals lowers the final core mass of the protoplanet but increases the formation timescale. Finally, a core mass cutoff results in the reduction of the time needed for a protoplanet to evolve to the stage of runaway gas accretion provided the cutoff mass is not too small. Our models show that with reasonable parameters it is possible to form Jupiter by means of the core accretion process in 3 Myr or less. \\ref Hubickyj, O., P. Bodenheimer, & J. J. Lissauer 2004. Accumulation of giant planet atmospheres around 5 -- 10 M⊕ cores. In preparation. \\ref Pollack J. B., O. Hubickyj, P. Bodenheimer, J. J. Lissauer, M. Podolak, and Y

  4. [Validity of the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire for 5-10 Graders (RPA 5-10)].

    PubMed

    Beckers, Leif; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A precondition of an appropriate treatment of aggressive children and youth is a specific diagnosis. The Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire for 5-10 Graders (RPA 5-10) assesses reactive and proactive aggression and different facets of the subtypes such as angry-aggression, defensive attribution of aggression, obtaining of resources and power/domination-aggression. This study proves the validity of the questionnaire by differential correlates based on a sample of 9 to 17 year-old students (N = 250). The scales of the RPA 5-10 were associated with anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression, conduct problems and decreased prosocial behaviour. Reactive aggression but not proactive aggression was related to hostility, emotional symptoms and peer relationship problems. The relations between reactive aggression and anger and emotional symptoms are based on angry-aggression. Contrary to predictions hyperactivity/inattention was associated with reactive but also with proactive aggression.

  5. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fedy, Bradley C; Doherty, Kevin E

    2011-04-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0.77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes.

  6. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: Greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.C.; Doherty, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0. 77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes. ?? 2010 US Government.

  7. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.

  8. BROWN DWARF DISKS AT AGES OF 5-10 Myr

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Basmah; Lodieu, Nicolas; Gizis, John E.

    2009-11-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS 24 mum observations for 28 brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius (UppSco) region. We find a disk fraction of 10.7%{sup +8.7%} {sub -3.3%}. One object shows a small excess at 24 mum but none at shorter wavelengths, and may be a candidate transition disk. Three objects show emission in the 10 mum silicate feature and we present compositional fits for these sources. Flat structures are observed for all disk sources in UppSco. Also presented are the MIPS/70 mum observations for the TW Hydrae Association brown dwarf 2MASS J1139511-315921. We discuss the structure and chemistry of brown dwarf disks at ages of approx5-10 Myr, and consider the possible effects of the brown dwarf densities in these clusters on the disk lifetimes.

  9. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  10. The 2-Year Checkup on 10 SNe IIn Discovered by Spitzer to Exhibit Late-Time (is greater than 100 Day) IR Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori Dosovitz; Chevalier, R. A.; Skrutskie, A. V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Ganeshalingam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, a warm Spitzer survey of sixty-eight SNe IIn identified between the years 1998-2008 discovered 10 events with unreported late-time infrared (IR) excesses, in some cases more than 5 years post-explosion. These data nearly double the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn and offer important clues regarding the SN circumstellar.

  11. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  12. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  13. 41 CFR 102-5.10 - What does this part cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this part cover? 102-5.10 Section 102-5.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... transport employees between their homes and places of work....

  14. 41 CFR 102-5.10 - What does this part cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this part cover? 102-5.10 Section 102-5.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... transport employees between their homes and places of work....

  15. 41 CFR 102-5.10 - What does this part cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this part cover? 102-5.10 Section 102-5.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... transport employees between their homes and places of work....

  16. 43 CFR 5.10 - Can I appeal a decision not to issue a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Can I appeal a decision not to issue a permit? 5.10 Section 5.10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION...

  17. 43 CFR 5.10 - Can I appeal a decision not to issue a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can I appeal a decision not to issue a permit? 5.10 Section 5.10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior COMMERCIAL FILMING AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION...

  18. Kokes Awards for the 22nd North American Catalysis Society Meeting, June 5-10, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Fabio H. Ribeiro

    2011-06-05

    The biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meetings are the premiere conferences in the area of catalysis, surface science, and reaction engineering. The 22nd meeting will be held the week of June 5-10, 2011 in Detroit, Michigan. The objective of the Meetings is to bring together leading researchers for intensive scientific exchange and interactions. Financial support that offsets some of the associated costs (specifically, registration fee, airline tickets, and hotel accommodations) would encourage graduate students, and for the first time undergraduate students, to attend and participate meaningfully in this conference. The funds sought in this proposal will help support the Richard J. Kokes Travel Award program. Graduate students eligible for these merit-based Awards are those who study at a North American university and who will present at the Meeting. We have currently 209 applications and we expect to be able to fund about half of them. The NACS has traditionally sought to encourage graduate student, and this year for the first time undergraduate studies, participation at the National Meetings and providing financial support is the most effective means to do so. Their attendance would contribute significantly to their scientific training and communication and presentation skills. They would be exposed to the leading researchers from the US and abroad; they would meet their peers from other universities; they would learn about cutting-edge results that could benefit their research projects; and they may become interested in becoming active participants in the catalysis community. These young investigators represent the next generation of scientists and engineers, and their proper training will lead to future scientific breakthroughs and technological innovations that benefit the US economy. Advances in catalysis can come in the form of more energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly chemical processes, improved fuel cell performance, efficient

  19. Early fluid resuscitation with hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (10%) in severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Despite large experience in the management of severe burn injury, there are still controversies regarding the best type of fluid resuscitation, especially during the first 24 hours after the trauma. Therefore, our study addressed the question whether hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 200/0.5 (10%) administered in combination with crystalloids within the first 24 hours after injury is as effective as 'crystalloids only' in severe burn injury patients. Methods 30 consecutive patients were enrolled to this prospective interventional open label study and assigned either to a traditional 'crystalloids only' or to a 'HES 200/0.5 (10%)' volume resuscitation protocol. Total amount of fluid administration, complications such as pulmonary failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, sepsis, renal failure and overall mortality were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for binary outcomes and adjustment for potential confounders was done in the multivariate regression models. For continuous outcome parameters multiple linear regression analysis was used. Results Group differences between patients receiving crystalloids only or HES 200/0.5 (10%) were not statistically significant. However, a large effect towards increased overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 7.12; P = 0.16) in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group as compared to the crystalloids only group (43.8% versus 14.3%) was present. Similarly, the incidence of renal failure was 25.0% in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group versus 7.1% in the crystalloid only group (adjusted hazard ratio 6.16; P = 0.42). Conclusions This small study indicates that the application of hyperoncotic HES 200/0.5 (10%) within the first 24 hours after severe burn injury may be associated with fatal outcome and should therefore be used with caution. Trial registration NCT01120730. PMID:20584291

  20. 16 CFR 5.10 - Cross-reference to executive branch-wide regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Financial Disclosure Requirements § 5.10 Cross-reference to... the Federal Trade Commission are subject to and should refer to the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, and to the procedures for filing and review of...

  1. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  2. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  3. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  4. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  5. Teaching for Creativity by Science Teachers in Grades 5-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Abdali, Nasser S.; Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom observation study explored how science teachers (N = 22) teach for creativity in grades 5-10 in Oman. We designed an observation form with 4 main categories that targeted the instructional practices related to teaching for creativity: questioning strategy, teacher's responses to students' ideas, classroom activities to support…

  6. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  7. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  8. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  9. The characteristic study of TSP, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 in the rural site of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Chang, C N; Wu, Y S; Fu, P C; Chang, K F; Yang, D G

    1999-08-01

    The total suspended particle (TSP), PM2.5-10 (aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns) and PM2.5 concentration (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations were sampled by PS-1 and Universal sampler on the roof (25 m) of the Medical and Engineering Building in the campus of Hungkuang Institute of Technology (HKIT) which is located at a height of 500 m on Da Du Mountain. The results indicated that average TSP, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 concentrations are 0.42, 0.34 and 0.019 mg/m3 in the day time, respectively and are 0.32, 0.26 and 0.017 mg/m3 in the night time, respectively. The ratios of PM2.5-10/TSP were from 76% to 85% and from 50% to 91% for day and night period, respectively. It indicated that the major composition in the total suspended particles was PM2.5-10 in the rural site. The relationship between TSP and PM2.5-10 is TSP = 1.16PM2.5-10 + 0.027 and TSP = 1.01 PM2.5-10 + 0.058 in the day and night time, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.98 and 0.97 for day and night period, respectively. The relationship between PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 is PM2.5 = 0.0005PM2.5-10 + 0.019 and PM2.5 = 0.037PM2.5-10 + 0.0076 in the day and night period, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) is 3E-5 and 0.67 for day and night period, respectively. The relationships between TSP, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 particle concentrations and wind speed (R2) in the day time are 0.71, 0.64, 0.43, respectively and are 0.83, 0.79, 0.57, respectively in the night time. The proposed reasons are that there are more activities caused by people (students) and natural living animals which absorbed some of the particles during the day time. Thus, the correlation coefficients for the night time are better than those of day time. The particle size distributions are both bimodel in the day and night time. The major peaks in the day time appear in the particle diameter between 0.031-0.056 micron and 3.16-5.62 microns in the day period and appear between 0.017-0.031 micron and 1

  10. Chelation and fluorescence properties of tetraphenylporphyrin and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin in acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Yu. B.; Parfenov, A. S.; Mamardashvili, N. Zh.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of complex formation between zinc and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin in acetonitrile is studied in the temperature range from 298 to 318 K. The fluorescent properties of these compounds are examined, the emission in the red region of the spectrum is measured, and the fluorescence quantum yields are determined. It is found that although the electronic absorption spectra of the studied compounds are almost identical, hydroxyl substituents are observed to have a considerable effect on the chelating ability of ligands. The rate constant of the formation of ZnT(4-OH-Ph)P is thus approximately three times higher than that of ZnTPhP, with the energy consumption being lower (about 20 kJ mol-1). The calculated fluorescence quantum yields of H2TPhP, H2T(4-OH-Ph) P, ZnTPhP, and ZnT(4-OH-Ph)P in acetonitrile are half those in toluene, while the ratio between the quantum yields of ligands and their metal complexes is a constant equal to approximately 3 and does not depend on which solvent is used.

  11. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  12. Total synthesis and antileukemic evaluations of the phenazine 5,10-dioxide natural products iodinin, myxin and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Viktorsson, Elvar Örn; Melling Grøthe, Bendik; Aesoy, Reidun; Sabir, Misbah; Snellingen, Simen; Prandina, Anthony; Høgmoen Åstrand, Ove Alexander; Bonge-Hansen, Tore; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Herfindal, Lars; Rongved, Pål

    2017-04-01

    A new efficient total synthesis of the phenazine 5,10-dioxide natural products iodinin and myxin and new compounds derived from them was achieved in few steps, a key-step being 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine di-N-oxidation. Analogues prepared from iodinin, including myxin and 2-ethoxy-2-oxoethoxy derivatives, had fully retained cytotoxic effect against human cancer cells (MOLM-13 leukemia) at atmospheric and low oxygen level. Moreover, iodinin was for the first time shown to be hypoxia selective. The structure-activity relationship for leukemia cell death induction revealed that the level of N-oxide functionality was essential for cytotoxicity. It also revealed that only one of the two phenolic functions is required for activity, allowing the other one to be modified without loss of potency.

  13. Structural distortions in 5-10 nm silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, Kristie J.; Kamp, Noelle M.; Kunz, Martin; Knight, Jason K.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Smith, R.K.

    2008-10-13

    We present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles in the size range of 5-10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. We have used x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron light source to investigate pressure-dependent and size-dependent trends in the crystal structure of silver nanoparticles in a hydrostatic medium compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. Results suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. We propose a mechanism for this transition that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. To further support this hypothesis, we also show that similar measurements of single-crystal platinum nanoparticles reveal no such distortions.

  14. Warm-hot baryons comprise 5-10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Dominique; Jauzac, Mathilde; Shan, HuanYuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Céline

    2015-12-03

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5 per cent of the Universe's total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of 10(5)-10(7) kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm-hot baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars and of hot gas between interacting clusters. These observations were, however, unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm-hot baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of gas at 10(7) kelvin associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous observations of this cluster were unable to resolve and remove coincidental X-ray point sources. After subtracting these, we find hot gas structures that are coherent over scales of 8 megaparsecs. The filaments coincide with over-densities of galaxies and dark matter, with 5-10 per cent of their mass in baryonic gas. This gas has been heated up by the cluster's gravitational pull and is now feeding its core. Our findings strengthen evidence for a picture of the Universe in which a large fraction of the missing baryons reside in the filaments of the cosmic web.

  15. Seven novel mutations at the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D.S.; Rozen, R.

    1994-09-01

    5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a flavoprotein, catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cofactor for methionine synthase in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Severe MTHFR deficiency, which causes homocysteinemia, is an autosomal recessive disorder with variable clinical features; developmental delay, perinatal death, mental retardation and asymptomatic individuals have been observed. A milder deficiency has been reported in patients with cardiovascular disease. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA for MTHFR and the identification of 2 mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. We report here the characterization of 7 additional mutations at this locus: 5 missense mutations and 2 splicing mutations. Mutation analysis was performed by SSCP on PCR products generated either from reverse transcription-PCR of patients` total fibroblast RNA or from PCR of patients` genomic DNA. The 5 missense mutations are as follows: 1 Arg to Cys substitution in a hydrophilic segment proposed to be the hinge region that connects the catalytic and regulatory domains, 2 different Arg to Cys substitutions in 2 patients whose enzymatic thermolability is responsive to FAD, 1 Thr to Met substitution affecting an evolutionarily-conserved residue and a Pro to Leu substitution. The 2 splicing mutations affect the 5{prime} splice site and the 3{prime} splice site of 2 introns, respectively. The 5{prime} splice site mutation generates a 57 bp in-frame deletion of the RNA through the utilization of a cryptic 5{prime} splice site within the coding sequence. The identification of 9 mutations at this locus has allowed us to make preliminary correlations between genotype and phenotype and to contribute to a structure:function analysis of the enzyme.

  16. Nickel removal from nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine using supercritical water in absence of catalyst: a basic study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2011-03-15

    Reactions of nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (Ni-TPP) were studied in supercritical water in the presence of toluene without the addition of any catalyst, H(2) or H(2)S that is called a green process. The objective of this study was to remove nickel from Ni-TPP, the most common metal compound present in heavy crude, in high extent at low reaction time. All experiments were carried out in an 8.8 mL batch reactor fabricated from hastelloy C-276. The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to remove nickel from Ni-TPP was studied at temperatures of 450-490 °C and water partial pressures of 25-35 MPa. Water partial pressure had no effect on overall conversion at temperatures of 450 °C and a reaction time of 60 min. The overall Ni-TPP conversion was 89.80%, a figure above that of previous catalytic studies. The percentage of nickel removal was estimated as a function of reaction time and temperature. It were temperature 490 °C and pressure 25 MPa at reaction time 90 min where 65.68% nickel were removed by the action of SCW and toluene, as a co-solvent. It was determined that Ni-TPP undergoes a series of reactions, ending in demetallation and ring fragmentation. The obtained results suggest that supercritical water has a capability to remove nickel from Ni-TPP.

  17. Folate metabolism gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with ADHD in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Spellicy, Catherine J; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C; Martinez, Carla A; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3'-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype.

  18. Prevention of brain disease from severe 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Morton, D Holmes; Puffenberger, Erik G; Hendrickson, Christine; Robinson, Donna L; Wagner, Conrad; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Chwatko, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Niculescu, Mihai D; Mudd, S Harvey

    2007-06-01

    Over a four-year period, we collected clinical and biochemical data from five Amish children who were homozygous for missense mutations in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR c.1129C>T). The four oldest patients had irreversible brain damage prior to diagnosis. The youngest child, diagnosed and started on betaine therapy as a newborn, is healthy at her present age of three years. We compared biochemical data among four groups: 16 control subjects, eight heterozygous parents, and five affected children (for the latter group, both before and during treatment with betaine anhydrous). Plasma amino acid concentrations were used to estimate changes in cerebral methionine uptake resulting from betaine therapy. In all affected children, treatment with betaine (534+/-222 mg/kg/day) increased plasma S-adenosylmethionine, improved markers of tissue methyltransferase activity, and resulted in a threefold increase of calculated brain methionine uptake. Betaine therapy did not normalize plasma total homocysteine, nor did it correct cerebral 5-methyltetrahydrofolate deficiency. We conclude that when the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate content of brain tissue is low, dietary betaine sufficient to increase brain methionine uptake may compensate for impaired cerebral methionine recycling. To effectively support the metabolic requirements of rapid brain growth, a large dose of betaine should be started early in life.

  19. 5,10 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphism as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, C.Y.; Brown, V.K.; Khoury, M.J.

    1996-06-28

    Persons with a thermolabile form of the enzyme 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have reduced enzyme activity and increased plasma homocysteine which can be lowered by supplemental folic acid. Thermolability of the enzyme has recently been shown to be caused by a common mutation (677C{sup {r_arrow}}T) in the MTHFR gene. We studied 41 fibroblast cultures from NTD-affected fetuses and compared their genotypes with those of 109 blood specimens from individuals in the general population. 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T homozygosity was associated with a 7.2 fold increased risk for NTDs (95% confidence interval: 1.8-30.3; p value: 0.001). These preliminary data suggest that the 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for spina bifida and anencephaly that may provide a partial biologic explanation for why folic acid prevents these types of NTD. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency with progressive polyneuropathy in an infant.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Megumi; Takagi, Atsushi; Sameshima, Kiyoko; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Shinbo, Hiroko; Furuya, Noritaka; Kurosawa, Kenji; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2011-06-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is the most prevalent inborn error of folate metabolism, and has variable clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe psychomotor retardation, microcephalus and seizure. In untreated infantile cases, it predominantly affects the central nervous system, which is sometimes fatal. On the other hand, peripheral nerve involvement is uncommon. We present a severe infantile case of MTHFR deficiency that manifested unilateral phrenic nerve palsy with communicating hydrocephalus, developmental delay and died at 11months of age. An enzymatic study confirmed MTHFR deficiency with residual activity of 0.75% of mean control values in cultured fibroblasts. Mutation analysis of the MTHFR gene revealed homozygous, tandem missense mutations c.[446G>T; 447C>T] in exon 3 of the MTHFR gene converting glycine to valine (Gly149Val). In MTHFR deficiency, betaine may improve the symptoms if started immediately after birth by reducing the level of serum homocysteine and increasing that of methionine. Our results show that we should be aware of possible inborn errors of folate metabolism such as MTHFR deficiency, in infants with unexplained developmental delay manifesting rapidly progressive polyneuropathy.

  1. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5-10-million-year-old star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Trevor J.

    2016-10-01

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals - the building blocks of planets - are produced within the first million years of a star's life. A prominent question is: how early can one find fully formed planets like those frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars? Some theories suggest the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and the existence of such planets is evidence for large scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report on a newly-born, transiting planet orbiting its star every 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be within a factor of several of Neptune's. The 5-10 million year old star has a tenuous dust disk extending outwards from about 2 times the Earth-Sun separation, in addition to the large planet located at less than one-twentieth the Earth-Sun separation.

  2. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of metamorphic complexes in the conjunction of the Greater and Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China: Timing of formation and metamorphism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fuqin; Zhu, Mingshuai; Liu, Dunyi

    2015-12-01

    Metamorphic complexes, including the Luomahu, Xinkailing and Fengshuigouhe groups, are scattered in the conjunction of the Greater and the Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China, and have long been interpreted to represent the Precambrian basement of the so-called "Xing'an" and "Songnen" blocks although reliable evidence is lacking. Thin-section examination and mineral assemblage indicate that the protoliths of these metamorphic rocks are mainly meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks and have experienced greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism and strong deformation. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of the metamorphic complexes and associated pre- or syn-kinematic veins constrained the formation and metamorphic ages of the Luomahuo Group at 175 ± 3 Ma and 159 ± 3 Ma, the Xingkailing Group at 200 ± 2 Ma and 158 ± 3 Ma, and the Fengshuigouhe Group at between 230-310 Ma and 170 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Additionally, all these rocks contain some Late Paleozoic detrital or inherited zircons with ages between 290-390 Ma, but no Precambrian, even if Early Paleozoic, age information was detected from these metamorphic rocks. These new data suggest that the metamorphic complexes were formed during Mesozoic-Late Paleozoic period, rather than in Precambrian as previously inferred, and that all of them underwent metamorphism and deformation during Middle Jurassic between 170-160 Ma. Consequently, these metamorphic complexes are not basement rocks of the so-called Precambrian continental blocks. Instead, there are likely metamorphosed Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic accretionary complexes and/or arc terranes. These results, in combination with published data, illustrate an overall young trend from north to south in the tectonic evolution of the northern Xing'an region. Significantly, the Jurassic (170-160 Ma) metamorphism and deformation event firstly identified by this study from the metamorphic complexes likely recorded the coinstantaneous Mongol-Okhotsk collisional and

  3. Warm-hot baryons comprise 5-10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique; Jauzac, Mathilde; Shan, Huanyuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Céline

    2015-12-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5 per cent of the Universe’s total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of 105-107 kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm-hot baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars and of hot gas between interacting clusters. These observations were, however, unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm-hot baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of gas at 107 kelvin associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous observations of this cluster were unable to resolve and remove coincidental X-ray point sources. After subtracting these, we find hot gas structures that are coherent over scales of 8 megaparsecs. The filaments coincide with over-densities of galaxies and dark matter, with 5-10 per cent of their mass in baryonic gas. This gas has been heated up by the cluster’s gravitational pull and is now feeding its core. Our findings strengthen evidence for a picture of the Universe in which a large fraction of the missing baryons reside in the filaments of the cosmic web.

  4. Microwave soft x-ray microscopy for nanoscale magnetization dynamics in the 5-10 GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Stefano; Kukreja, Roopali; Chen, Zhao; Spoddig, Detlef; Ollefs, Katharina; Schöppner, Christian; Meckenstock, Ralf; Ney, Andreas; Pinto, Jude; Houanche, Richard; Frisch, Josef; Stöhr, Joachim; Dürr, Hermann A.; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    We present a scanning transmission x-ray microscopy setup combined with a novel microwave synchronization scheme for studying high frequency magnetization dynamics at synchrotron light sources. The sensitivity necessary to detect small changes in the magnetization on short time scales and nanometer spatial dimensions is achieved by combining the excitation mechanism with single photon counting electronics that is locked to the synchrotron operation frequency. Our instrument is capable of creating direct images of dynamical phenomena in the 5-10 GHz range, with high spatial resolution. When used together with circularly polarized x-rays, the above capabilities can be combined to study magnetic phenomena at microwave frequencies, such as ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin waves. We demonstrate the capabilities of our technique by presenting phase resolved images of a ˜6 GHz nanoscale spin wave generated by a spin torque oscillator, as well as the uniform ferromagnetic precession with ˜0.1° amplitude at ˜9 GHz in a micrometer-sized cobalt strip.

  5. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5-10-million-year-old star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Petigura, Erik A.; Carpenter, John M.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Hinkley, Sasha; Ciardi, David R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Cody, Ann Marie; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Beichman, Charles A.; Barenfeld, Scott A.

    2016-06-01

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals—the building blocks of planets—are produced within the first million years of a star’s life. Fully formed planets are frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars. Some theories suggest that the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and that the existence of such planets is therefore evidence of large-scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report a newly born, transiting planet orbiting its star with a period of 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times that of Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be similar to that of Neptune. The star is 5-10 million years old and has a tenuous dust disk extending outward from about twice the Earth-Sun separation, in addition to the fully formed planet located at less than one-twentieth of the Earth-Sun separation.

  6. Structural investigation of 5,10-A2B2-type porphyrins: palladium(II) and zinc(II) complexes of 5,10-dibromo-15,20-bis(4-methylphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Senge, Mathias O; Zawadzka, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of [5,10-dibromo-15,20-bis(4-methylphenyl)porphyrinato]palladium(II), [Pd(C34H22Br2N4)], and [5,10-dibromo-15,20-bis(4-methylphenyl)porphyrinato](methanol)zinc(II), [Zn(C34H22Br2N4)(CH4O)], reveals a small but localized influence of the bromine residues on the conformation of the macrocycle. A comparison of the 5,10-dibromo substituent pattern with literature data for 5,15-dibromoporphyrins shows similar in-plane distortions in both but a different mix of out-of-plane distortion modes for the different regiochemical arrangements.

  7. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  8. Unbalanced translocation in a mother and her son in one of two 5;10 translocation families

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.K.; Barber, I.; Collinson, M.N.

    1996-03-01

    We present two families with different distal long arm 5;10 translocations. In one family the propositus and his mother inherited the same derived chromosome 10 from the maternal grandfather who has a balanced t(5;10)(q35.3;q26.13). The phenotype of both the affected patients is milder and only partially overlaps with that of previous cases of distal 10q deletion. Other previously reported cases of transmitted imbalance are also remarkable for mild phenotype, occurrence of deletions rather than duplications and a strong bias toward maternal as opposed to paternal transmission. In the second family, the propositus inherited a derived chromosome 10 from his mother who carries a balanced t(5;10)(q35.1;q26.3) translocation; his clinical manifestations are consistent with an emerging phenotype for distal 5q duplications. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    : at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most

  10. Accretion of the gaseous envelope of Jupiter around a 5 10 Earth-mass core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubickyj, Olenka; Bodenheimer, Peter; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2005-12-01

    New numerical simulations of the formation and evolution of Jupiter are presented. The formation model assumes that first a solid core of several M accretes from the planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk, and then the core captures a massive gaseous envelope from the protoplanetary disk. Earlier studies of the core accretion-gas capture model [Pollack, J.B., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., Podolak, M., Greenzweig, Y., 1996. Icarus 124, 62-85] demonstrated that it was possible for Jupiter to accrete with a solid core of 10-30 M in a total formation time comparable to the observed lifetime of protoplanetary disks. Recent interior models of Jupiter and Saturn that agree with all observational constraints suggest that Jupiter's core mass is 0-11 M and Saturn's is 9-22 M [Saumon, G., Guillot, T., 2004. Astrophys. J. 609, 1170-1180]. We have computed simulations of the growth of Jupiter using various values for the opacity produced by grains in the protoplanet's atmosphere and for the initial planetesimal surface density, σ, in the protoplanetary disk. We also explore the implications of halting the solid accretion at selected core mass values during the protoplanet's growth. Halting planetesimal accretion at low core mass simulates the presence of a competing embryo, and decreasing the atmospheric opacity due to grains emulates the settling and coagulation of grains within the protoplanet's atmosphere. We examine the effects of adjusting these parameters to determine whether or not gas runaway can occur for small mass cores on a reasonable timescale. We compute four series of simulations with the latest version of our code, which contains updated equation of state and opacity tables as well as other improvements. Each series consists of a run without a cutoff in planetesimal accretion, plus up to three runs with a cutoff at a particular core mass. The first series of runs is computed with an atmospheric opacity due to grains (hereafter referred to as

  11. Ionospheric disturbance dynamo associated to a coronal hole: Case study of 5-10 April 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, I.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fathy, A.; Mahrous, A. M.; Yumoto, K.; Ghamry, E.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we study the planetary magnetic disturbance during the magnetic storm occurring on 5 April 2010 associated with high-speed solar wind stream due to a coronal hole following a coronal mass ejection. We separate the magnetic disturbance associated to the ionospheric disturbance dynamo (Ddyn) from the magnetic disturbance associated to the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric field (DP2). This event exhibits different responses of ionospheric disturbance dynamo in the different longitude sectors (European-African, Asian, and American). The strongest effect is observed in the European-African sector. The Ddyn disturbance reduces the amplitude of the daytime H component at low latitudes during four consecutive days in agreement with the Blanc and Richmond's model of ionospheric disturbance dynamo. The amplitude of Ddyn decreased with time during the 4 days. We discuss its diverse worldwide effects. The observed signature of magnetic disturbance process in specific longitude sector is strongly dependent on which Earth's side faces the magnetic storms (i.e., there is a different response depending on which longitude sector is at noon when the SSC hits). Finally, we determined an average period of 22 h for Ddyn using wavelet analysis.

  12. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  13. Biomimetic oxidation of curcumin with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrinatoiron(III) chlorides in dichloromethane.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shive Murat Singh; Kandadai, Appan Srinivas; Jain, Nidhi; Kumar, Anil

    2003-11-01

    The biomimetic oxidation of curcumin, a main turmeric pigment with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by different 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrinatoiron(III) chlorides [TAPFe(III)Cl] in dichloromethane has been studied to give a C-C coupled curcumin dimer in 40-70% yield. The structure of the dimer has been elucidated by (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, IR and FAB-Mass spectroscopic data.

  14. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  15. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  16. Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Borm, Paul J. A.

    Objectives: We collected fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter fractions in two areas ˜80 km apart and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Here we report on temporo-spatial variation of endotoxin content in the collected particles. Methods: Dichotomous Anderson samplers were used to collect 21 weekly samples of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in both towns from January to June 2002. Each Teflon filter was water extracted and endotoxin was measured by a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate method. Endotoxin concentrations were expressed per mg of fine or mg of coarse mass and per sampled air volume (m 3). Results: For both cities, the mean endotoxin content in PM 2.5 was 1.2 EU mg -1; however the endotoxin content in the coarse fraction was ˜10 times higher compared to the fine mass fractions. Although endotoxin content is highly variable over time, a good correlation was observed between the two town sites for both fine ( r=0.85) and coarse PM ( r=0.88). The fluctuations of weekly endotoxin means were high in both areas suggesting a strong temporal dependence on particle source and composition. The endotoxin content in particles collected during May and June were two to four times higher than concentrations measured during the winter and early spring weeks. Conclusions: Ambient airborne endotoxin concentrations were detected in coarse and fine particle fraction, but 10-fold higher in the coarse PM. The strong seasonality and the week to week fluctuation of endotoxin content in PM indicate different biologic PM properties which might affect results of time series studies on short-term effects as well as in vitro studies and human exposure studies.

  17. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  18. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  19. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  20. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  1. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

    1992-11-10

    A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

  2. Method using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine for treating cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1995-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  3. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1992-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques cna be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  4. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15 percent of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15% on energy balance in finishing cattle diets were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 503 kg) using a replicated Latin square design. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period, and the random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Glycerin replaced dry-rolled corn (DRC) at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary DM. Dry matter intake decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss tended to decrease linearly (P < 0.07), and DE also tended to increase linearly (P = 0.07) as dietary level of GLY increased. Urinary energy loss was not different (P > 0.31) as a proportion of GE as GLY increased in the diet. Methane energy loss as a proportion of GE intake tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), decreasing from 0 to 10% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter. As a proportion of GE intake, ME tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), increasing from 0 to 10% GLY and then decreasing. As a proportion of GE intake, heat production increased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Additionally, as a proportion of GE intake, retained energy (RE) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.07), increasing from 0 to 10% GLY inclusion and decreasing thereafter. As a proportion of N intake, urinary and fecal N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.04) as GLY increased in the diet. Furthermore, grams of N retained and N retained as a percent of N intake both decreased linearly (P < 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Total DM digestibility tended (P < 0.10) to respond quadratically, increasing at a decreasing rate from 0 to 5% GLY

  5. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  6. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Moissinac, K

    2001-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.

  7. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  8. INCREASED AIRWAYS INFLAMMATION AND MODIFIED BAL CELL SURFACE PHENOTYPES IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO COARSE SIZE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although associations between inhalation of PM10 and disease morbidity and mortality appear stronger for fine (PM2.5) vs coarse (PM2.5-10) or ultrafine/UF (PM<0.1) PM. In vitro studies suggest that PM2.5-10 are more potent in inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from alve...

  9. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  10. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-lauroylimidophenyl)porphyrin and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Er-jun; Cheng, Xiu-li; Wang, Dong; Tang, Xue-xin; Yu, Shuang-jiang; Shi, Tong-shun

    2007-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-lauroylimidophenyl)porphyrin TLPPM [M = Mn(Cl), Fe(Cl), Co, Ni, Cu, Zn] have been synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analyses, UV-VIS spectra, infrared spectra, 1H NMR spectra, molar conductance, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), cyclic voltammetry, luminescence spectra and surface photovoltage spectroscopies. The porphyrin ligand shows liquid crystalline behaviour, and it exhibits a high phase transition temperature 182 °C and a broad mesophase temperature span, 88 °C. The oxidation and reduction properties of the compounds were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The photovoltaic properties and charge transfer process of the compounds were investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and electric field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopic (EFISPS) techniques, which revealed that all the compounds are p-type semiconductors. Quantum yields of the S 1 → S 0 fluorescence were measured at room temperature. These studies will contribute to further choice and application of the liquid crystals.

  11. Insights into severe 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: molecular genetic and enzymatic characterization of 76 patients.

    PubMed

    Burda, Patricie; Schäfer, Alexandra; Suormala, Terttu; Rummel, Till; Bürer, Céline; Heuberger, Dorothea; Frapolli, Michele; Giunta, Cecilia; Sokolová, Jitka; Vlášková, Hana; Kožich, Viktor; Koch, Hans Georg; Fowler, Brian; Froese, D Sean; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2015-06-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of folate metabolism and causes severe hyperhomocysteinaemia. To better understand the relationship between mutation and function, we performed molecular genetic analysis of 76 MTHFR deficient patients, followed by extensive enzymatic characterization of fibroblasts from 72 of these. A deleterious mutation was detected on each of the 152 patient alleles, with one allele harboring two mutations. Sixty five different mutations (42 novel) were detected, including a common splicing mutation (c.1542G>A) found in 21 alleles. Using an enzyme assay in the physiological direction, we found residual activity (1.7%-42% of control) in 42 cell lines, of which 28 showed reduced affinity for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), one reduced affinity for methylenetetrahydrofolate, five flavin adenine dinucleotide-responsiveness, and 24 abnormal kinetics of S-adenosylmethionine inhibition. Missense mutations causing virtually absent activity were found exclusively in the N-terminal catalytic domain, whereas missense mutations in the C-terminal regulatory domain caused decreased NADPH binding and disturbed inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine. Characterization of patients in this way provides a basis for improved diagnosis using expanded enzymatic criteria, increases understanding of the molecular basis of MTHFR dysfunction, and points to the possible role of cofactor or substrate in the treatment of patients with specific mutations.

  12. Effect of multivitamins on plasma homocysteine in patients with the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous state.

    PubMed

    Dell'edera, Domenico; Tinelli, Andrea; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Malvasi, Antonio; Domenico, Carone; Pacella, Elena; Pierluigi, Compagnoni; Giuseppe, Tarantino; Marcello, Guido; Francesco, Lomurno; Epifania, Annunziata Anna

    2013-08-01

    The role of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as a cardiovascular risk factor remains a matter of debate, while it correlates with folates, it demonstrates inverse correlation with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and vitamin B12 levels and reduces plasma Hcy levels following supplementation with multivitamins. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that administering multivitamins at specific doses for 90 days restores normal plasma Hcy levels in women who are homozygous for the thermolabile variant of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T). We enrolled 106 healthy females aged between 30 and 42 years, who were non-smokers, non-vegetarian, normotensive and who had no history of food abuse in the previous months. Only females were enrolled in order to rule out any bias due to the variation in Hcy plasma concentrations between males and females. Patient blood sampling was performed in order to determine plasma Hcy, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Furthermore, molecular characterization of the C677T polymorphism present in the MTHFR gene, was also performed. The results of this study demonstrated that supplementation with specific multivitamins restores normal plasma Hcy levels, regardless of the MTHFR genotype. Furthermore, it is unnecessary to adminster high doses of folate to reduce plasma Hcy levels, and administering high doses of folate may cause pro-inflammatory and pro-proliferative effects.

  13. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  14. DNA Physical Mapping via the Controlled Translocation of Single Molecules through a 5-10nm Silicon Nitride Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Derek; Reisner, Walter; Jiang, Zhijun; Hagerty, Nick; Wood, Charles; Chan, Jason

    2009-03-01

    The ability to map the binding position of sequence-specific markers, including transcription-factors, protein-nucleic acids (PNAs) or deactivated restriction enzymes, along a single DNA molecule in a nanofluidic device would be of key importance for the life-sciences. Such markers could give an indication of the active genes at particular stage in a cell's transcriptional cycle, pinpoint the location of mutations or even provide a DNA barcode that could aid in genomics applications. We have developed a setup consisting of a 5-10 nm nanopore in a 20nm thick silicon nitride film coupled to an optical tweezer setup. The translocation of DNA across the nanopore can be detected via blockades in the electrical current through the pore. By anchoring one end of the translocating DNA to an optically trapped microsphere, we hope to stretch out the molecule in the nanopore and control the translocation speed, enabling us to slowly scan across the genome and detect changes in the baseline current due to the presence of bound markers.

  15. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  16. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  17. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  18. Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, dietary folate intake, and the risk of leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Min; Xie, Xing; Jin, Jie; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2016-03-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are critical enzymes in folate metabolism. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk, which may due to the lack of information on folate intake. We investigated the risks of adult leukemia with genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes (MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and TS) and evaluated if the associations varied by dietary folate intake from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Chinese. This study comprised 442 incident adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Dietary folate intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR 677TT genotype conferred a significant higher risk of leukemia in males than in females and exhibited an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but a decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype appeared to decrease the risks of leukemia in both genders, in AML and ALL. Stratified analysis by dietary folate intake showed the increased risks of leukemia with the MTHFR 677TT and TS 2R3R/2R2R genotypes were only significant in individuals with low folate intake. A significant interaction between TS polymorphism and dietary folate intake was observed (P = 0.03). This study suggests that dietary folate intake and gender may modify the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk.

  19. Oxidation of tertiary benzamides by 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinatoironIII chloride-tert-butylhydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Luis; Iley, Jim

    2004-07-07

    Tertiary benzamides are oxidized by the 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinatoiron(III) chloride-Bu'(t)OOH system at the alpha-position of the N-alkyl groups. The major products are N-acylamides, although small amounts of secondary amides, the products of dealkylation, are also formed. Plots of initial rate versus initial substrate concentration for these reactions are curved, suggesting formation of an oxidant-substrate complex. The reaction rates are almost insensitive to the substituent in the benzamide moiety, but there is a kinetic deuterium isotope effect of 5.6 for the reaction of the N,N-(CH(3))(2) and N,N-(CD(3))(2) compounds. Comparison of the reaction products from N-alkyl-N-methylbenzamides reveals that, for all compounds studied except N-cyclopropyl-N-methylbenzamide, oxidation of the alkyl group is preferred, strongly so (by a factor of ca. 8) for N-allyl-N-methylbenzamide. In contrast to microsomal oxidation, there is no steric hindrance to oxidation of an isopropyl group. Thus, we propose that these reactions proceed via hydrogen atom abstraction to form an alpha-carbon-centred radical and we attribute the observed diminished reactivity of the N-cyclopropyl group to its known reluctance to form a cyclopropyl radical. Oxidation of N-methyl-N-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methylbenzamide provides preliminary evidence for rearrangement of an intermediate radical. While it remains unclear how these reactions proceed directly to the N-acyl products, we have established that N-hydroxymethyl, N-alkoxymethyl and N-alkylperoxymethyl intermediates are not involved.

  20. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Cadmium in Environmental Fresh Water with 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuya; Yamamoto, Natsuki; Suzuki, Yasutada; Ueta, Ikuo; Kawakubo, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium-catalyzed complexation of zinc with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic acid (TPPS) was monitored spectrophotometrically. A kinetic parameter for the determination was obtained under kinetic consideration. Absorbance of zinc-TPPS at a fixed reaction time was proportional to the concentration of cadmium at pH 8 and 25°C. Tolerable concentration of interfering ions were 200, 200, 2000, 50, 500 and 1 μg L(-1) for Mg(II), Al(III), Ca(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Hg(II), respectively, in the determination of 20 μg L(-1) of cadmium, indicating Ca(II) and Mg(II) interferes with the analysis of natural fresh water. Such interference became tolerable at 5 mg L(-1) by the addition of an excess Ca(II) (50 mg L(-1)) in the reacting solution of sample and cadmium standards. A calibration curve of Cd(II) was linear up to 100 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 2 μg L(-1). The reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by the recovery test of cadmium spiked into tap, river and reservoir water samples.

  1. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  2. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  3. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  4. In vivo and in vitro estrogenic profile of 17β-amino-1,3,5(10)estratrien-3-ol.

    PubMed

    Lemini, Cristina; Jaimez, Ruth; Pozas, Rocio; Franco, Yanira; Avila, María Estela; Figueroa, Alejandra; Medina, Martha; Lemus, Ana Elena; García-Becerra, Rocío; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Larrea, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    17β-amino-1,3,5(10)estratrien-3-ol (17βAE2), is the 17β-aminoestrogens prototype possessing anticoagulant activity, contrasting with the procoagulant effects of 17β-estradiol (17βE2). Its estrogenicity profile has not been reported, and it was evaluated by uterotrophic assay, estrogen receptor binding affinity and its ability to induce gene transcription of the human estrogen receptor (hER)α mediated in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast expression system. Additionally, 17βAE2 and 17αAE2 were compared with 17βE2 in HeLa cells co-transfected with expression vectors for hERα or hERβ subtypes and for an estrogen-responsive reporter gene. Immature female CD1 mice and Wistar rats (21 days old) were treated for three days with 17βAE2 (10-5000 μg/kg), 17βE2 (0.001-1000 μg/kg) or vehicle (propylenglycol 10 ml/kg) and uterine weights were estimated. 17βAE2 increased uterine weight in a dose-dependent manner. The effective dose (ED)50 uterine weight values: 17βAE2=552 and 764 μg/kg (17βE2=4.8 and 16 μg/kg) and their relative uterotrophic potency were 0.86 and 2.1 (17βE2=100) in mice and rats, respectively. 17βAE2 competed with [(3)H]E2 for the estrogen receptor. The 17βAE2 relative binding affinities (RBAs) were: 0.074; Ki=2.2×10(-6)M (17βE2=100; Ki=1.6×10(-9)M); 0.029 and Ki=3.8×10(-6)M (17βE2=100; Ki=1.1×10(-9)M) for mice and rats uteri respectively. 17βAE2 activated hERα-mediated β-galactosidase transcription activity in the yeast system co-transfected with hERα gene. 17βAE2 effective concentration (EC)50=1.82 μM (17βE2=2.14 nM) with a relative potency of 0.12 (17βE2=100). These transactivation effects were abolished by the antagonist fulvestrant (ICI 182,780), similarly to 17βE2. 17βAE2 and 17αAE2 bind with low relative affinity to hERα and hERβ. Both induced hER-mediated reporter gene transactivation in a dose-response manner. The overall results provide evidence that 17βAE2 has a weak agonist estrogenic action greatly mediated

  5. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  6. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  7. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  8. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  9. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis pentafluorophenyl porphyrin studied by fluorescence up-conversion and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Hemant; Venkatesh, Yeduru; Siva, Doddi; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2015-02-26

    The ultrafast photophysical characterization of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis pentafluorophenyl porphyrin (H2F20TPP) in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution has been done in the femtosecond-picosecond time domain, by combining fluorescence up-conversion and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Fluorescence up-conversion studies on H2F20TPP were done demonstrating fluorescence dynamics over the whole spectral range from 440 to 650 nm when excited at 405 nm, 360.5 cm(-1) excess vibrational energy of Soret band (411 nm). Single-exponential decay with ∼160 ± 50 fs lifetime of Soret fluorescence (also called S2 fluorescence or B band fluorescence) at around 440 nm was observed. On going from 440 nm, S2 fluorescence to S1 fluorescence, (Q-band) around 640 nm (wavelength of 0-0 transition in the stationary spectrum), single-exponential fluorescence time profile turns into a multiexponential time profile and it could be resolved critically into five-exponential components. An ultrafast rise component with ∼160 ± 50 fs followed by two decay components: a very fast decay component with 200 ± 50 fs time constant and another relatively slower 1.8 ± 0.5 ps decay component. Next, a very prominent rise component with 105 ± 30 ps lifetime followed by long-lived 10 ns decay component. The initial rise of S1 (Q-band) fluorescence around 640 nm agreed with the decay time of S2 (Soret or B band) fluorescence indicates that internal conversion (IC) from relaxed S2 to vibrationally excited S1 occurs in the ∼160 fs time scale and subsequent very fast decay with 200 fs time constant, which is assigned to be intramolecular vibrational dephasing or redistribution. The 1.8 ps decay component of S1 fluorescence is attributed to be "hot" fluorescence from vibrationally excited S1 state, and it reveals the vibrational relaxation time induced by elastic or quasi-elastic collision with solvent molecules. The 105 ps rise component is the creation time of the

  10. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl] chlorin as potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Darío D; Reynoso, Eugenia; Cordero, Paula; Spesia, Mariana B; Alvarez, M Gabriela; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2016-05-01

    A novel 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl]chlorin (TAPC) was synthesized by reduction of the corresponding porphyrin TAPP with p-toluenesulfonhydrazide, followed by selective oxidation with o-chloranil. Spectroscopic properties and the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers were compared in N,N-dimethylformamide. An increase in the absorption band at 650nm was found for the chlorin derivative with respect to TAPP. These photosensitizers emit red fluorescence with quantum yields of 0.15. Both compounds were able to photosensitize singlet molecular oxygen with quantum yields of about 0.5. Also, the formation of superoxide anion radical was detected in the presence of TAPC or TAPP and NADH. Photodynamic inactivation was investigated on a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and a fungal yeast Candida albicans cells. In vitro experiments showed that TAPC or TAPP were rapidly bound to microbial cells at short incubation periods. These photosensitizers, without intrinsic positive charges, contain four basic amino groups. These substituents can be protonated at physiological pH, increasing the interaction with the cell envelopment. Photosensitized inactivation improved with an increase of both photosensitizer concentrations and irradiation times. After 15min irradiation, a 7 log reduction of S. aureus was found for treated with 1μM photosensitizer. Similar result was obtained with E. coli after using 5μM photosensitizer and 30min irradiation. Also, the last conditions produced a decrease of 5 log in C. albicans cells. Therefore, TAPC was highly effective as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizer.

  11. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  12. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  13. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  14. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  15. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets we...

  16. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15 percent of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% on energy balance in finishing cattle d...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect....

  18. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect....

  19. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some 10-substituted 2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-5(10H)-ones, a new class of bronchodilators.

    PubMed

    Hardtmann, G E; Koletar, G; Pfister, O R; Gogerty, J H; Iorio, L C

    1975-05-01

    On treatment of N-substituted isatoic anhydrides with 2-methylmercaptoimidazolines, 10-substituted imidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-5(10H)-ones are obtained. Several members of this class exhibited pronounced broncholytic activity. The structure-activity relationships (based on results obtained in the guinea pig histamine aerosol test) of these nonsympathomimetic bronchodilators are discussed. In addition, the detailed pharmacological evaluation of two analogs found to be five to ten times more active than theophyline as bronchodilators without having central nervous system or cardiovascular side effects is described.

  1. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  2. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  3. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  4. Ultrasound-assisted one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-5,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Nabid, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Seyed Jamal Tabatabaei; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin; Bazgir, Ayoob

    2010-01-01

    Triethylamine was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-5,10-diones by one-pot reaction of phthalhydrazide, aromatic aldehydes, and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate in ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of this method are the use of an inexpensive and readily available catalyst, easy workup, improved yields, and the use of ethanol as a solvent that is considered to be relatively environmentally benign.

  5. Novel Phenazine 5,10-Dioxides Release •OH in Simulated Hypoxia and Induce Reduction of Tumour Volume In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lavaggi, María L.; Cabrera, Mauricio; Pintos, Cristina; Arredondo, Carolina; Pachón, Gisela; Rodríguez, Jorge; Raymondo, Stella; Pacheco, José Pedro; Cascante, Marta; Olea-Azar, Claudio; López de Ceráin, Adela; Monge, Antonio; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Phenazine 5,10-dioxides (PDOs) are a new class of bioreductive cytotoxins, which could act towards tumours containing hypoxic regions. The PDOs selective-hypoxic bioreduction was probed in vitro; however, the mechanism of action has not been completely explained. Besides, PDOs in vivo antitumour activities have not been demonstrated hitherto. We study the mechanism of hypoxic/normoxic cytotoxicity of PDO representative members. Electron spin resonance is used to confirm •OH production, alkaline comet assay to determine genotoxicity, and gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry to analyze DNA fragmentation and cell cycle distribution. Chemically induced rat breast tumours are employed to evaluate in vivo activities. For the most selective cytotoxin, 7(8)-bromo-2-hydroxyphenazine 5,10-dioxide (PDO1), exclusive hypoxic •OH production is evidenced, while for the unselective ones, •OH is produced in both conditions (normoxia and simulated hypoxia). In normoxia (Caco-2 cells), PDO1 induces cell-cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation but does not significantly induce apoptosis neither at IC50 nor IC80. No difference in the comet-assay scores are observed in normoxia and simulated hypoxia being the unselective 2-amino-7(8)-bromophenazine 5,10-dioxide (PDO2) the most genotoxic. The in vivo efficacy with the absence of systemic toxicity of PDO1 and PDO2 is checked out. Results from this study highlight the potential of PDOs as new therapeutics for cancer. PMID:22084710

  6. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of the daily PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Meinan; Wu, Huaichun; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Tianshui; Liu, Wei; Liu, He

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, Beijing has been shown to suffer one of the most serious air pollution problems of any major world city. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM) pollutants, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, are commonly used as air pollution indexes. We conducted a detailed environmental magnetism study to investigate possible sources of air pollution in Beijing, China, using 283 pairs of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples collected daily from July 2010 to June 2011. Rock magnetic measurements, including magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves (FORCs), and thermomagnetism, indicate that the main magnetic mineral is low-coercivity pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the PM indicate that the major magnetic phase is coarse-grained magnetite, which is most likely from automobile exhausts and braking system debris. Magnetic parameters of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show significant seasonal patterns that may be attributed to domestic heating enhancing magnetization of the PM during late autumn to early spring. Power spectral analyses and box-whisker plots indicate that the magnetic parameters have strong weekly variations that may be due to traffic emissions. These results indicate that magnetic parameters can be used as efficient proxies for monitoring Beijing's air pollution, and that the atmospheric environment may be improved by controlling vehicle emissions.

  7. Detection of gamma-ray emission in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 and G166.0+4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    52 months of accumulated observations by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 (PKS 1209-51/52) and G166.0+4.3 (VRO 42.05.01) are analysed. GeV emission is detected coincident with the position of the sources at the ≃5σ and 11σ levels above the background, respectively, for the best-fitting spectral and spatial scenarios. The gamma-ray spectrum of the sources can be described with a power law in energy. G166.0+4.3 shows a soft GeV spectrum while that of G296.5+10.0 is flat (in the νFν representation). The origin of the gamma-ray emission from the sources is explored. Both leptonic and hadronic mechanisms can account for the high-energy emission from G296.5+10.0, while a leptonic scenario is preferred for G166.0+4.3.

  8. Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A Randomized Trial of a Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Intervention for At-Risk 5-10 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G.; Anderson, Julie D.; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10 year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a contact control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well-child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The contact control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. PMID:23816490

  9. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    minister of Greece, “neither race, nor language, nor skull could be used as the basis for determining the nationality and that national conscience...Serbia, in particular, has been very active in spreading propaganda about the danger posed by the prospect of Greater Albania. The term, alien to the...greater Albania plot.”62 However, for Albanians, despite of their living place, the term “Greater Albania” is alien .63 Instead, they use the term

  10. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  11. Whole genomic analysis of bovine group A rotavirus strains A5-10 and A5-13 provides evidence for close evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Satoshi; Pongsuwanna, Yaowapa; Tacharoenmuang, Ratana; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Ide, Tomihiko; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Tsuji, Takao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-11-15

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is an important cause of acute diarrhea in calves worldwide. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolutionary dynamics of bovine RVA strains, we determined and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of six archival bovine RVA strains; four Thai strains (RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-10/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-13/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/61A/1989/G10P[5], and RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A44/1989/G10P[11]), one American strain (RVA/Cow-tc/USA/B223/1983/G10P[11]), and one Japanese strain (RVA/Cow-tc/JPN/KK3/1983/G10P[11]). On whole genomic analysis, the 11 gene segments of strains A5-10, A5-13, 61A, A44, B223, and KK3 were found to be considerably genetically diverse, but to share a conserved non-G/P genotype constellation except for the NSP1 gene (I2-R2-C2-M2-(A3/11/13/14)-N2-T6-E2-H3), which is commonly found in RVA strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that most genes of the six strains were genetically related to bovine and bovine-like strains. Of note is that the VP1, VP3, and NSP2 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 exhibited a closer relationship with the cognate genes of human DS-1-like strains than those of other RVA strains. Furthermore, the VP6 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 appeared to be equally related to both human DS-1-like and bovine strains. Thus, strains A5-10 and A5-13 were suggested to be derived from the same evolutionary origin as human DS-1-like strains, and were assumed to be examples of bovine RVA strains that provide direct evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between bovine and human DS-1-like strains. Our findings will provide important insights into the origin of bovine RVA strains, and into evolutionary links between bovine and human RVA strains.

  12. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  13. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  14. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify

  15. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... or regulation. (d) The entitlements under sections 6381 through 6387 of title 5, United States...

  16. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  17. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  18. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  19. Outreach impact study: the case of the Greater Midwest Region*

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest Region (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive impact on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223

  20. The formation and inversion of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and the uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: Implications for the wider Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Stephen J.; Braham, William; Lavrishchev, Vladimir A.; Maynard, James R.; Harland, Melise

    2016-12-01

    The western Greater Caucasus formed by the tectonic inversion of the western strand of the Greater Caucasus Basin, a Mesozoic rift that opened at the southern margin of Laurasia. Subsidence analysis indicates that the main phase of rifting occurred during the Aalenian to Bajocian synchronous with that in the eastern Alborz and, possibly, the South Caspian Basin. Secondary episodes of subsidence during the late Tithonian to Berriasian and Hauterivian to early Aptian are tentatively linked to initial rifting within the western, and possibly eastern, Black Sea and during the late Campanian to Danian to the opening of the eastern Black Sea. Initial uplift, subaerial exposure, and sediment derivation from the western Greater Caucasus occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Oligocene and younger sediments on the southern margin of the former basin were derived from the inverting basin and uplifted parts of its northern margin, indicating that the western Greater Caucasus Basin had closed by this time. A predominance of pollen representing a montane forest environment (dominated by Pinacean pollen) within these sediments suggests that the uplifting Caucasian hinterland had a paleoaltitude of around 2 km from early Oligocene time. The closure of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and significant uplift of the range at approximately 34 Ma is earlier than stated in many studies and needs to be incorporated into geodynamic models for the Arabia-Eurasia region.

  1. Chromophore-modified antitumor anthracenediones: synthesis, DNA binding, and cytotoxic activity of 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]benzo[g]-phthalazine-5,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, C A; Beggiolin, G; Menta, E; Palumbo, M; Sissi, C; Spinelli, S; Johnson, F

    1995-02-03

    As part of a program aimed at exploring the effect of the introduction of heteroatoms into the anthracene-9,10-dione chromophore, we have synthesized novel 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]-benzo[g]phthalazine-5,10-diones (BPDs) 1 which are related to the antitumor agents ametantrone and mitoxantrone. Derivatives 1 were prepared by chromic acid oxidation of acylated benzo[g]phthalazines 5 followed by acid hydrolysis or by silylation-amination of 5,10-dihydroxybenzo[g]phthalazine-1,4-dione (8). The 1-[(aminoalkyl)amino]-4-amino congeners 2 were isolated in low yields as byproducts from the oxidation of 5. Against a panel of human tumor cell lines, the benzo[g]phthalazine-5,10-diones 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity comparable or even superior to that of mitoxantrone. In compounds 1, structure-activity relationships different than those operative in the carbocyclic series appeared to emerge. DNA-binding studies with the ametantrone-like compound 1c and its single-armed congener 2c indicated that the introduction of a 2,3-diaza subunit into the anthracene-9,10-dione chromophore reduces the affinity of the drug for DNA in comparison with ametantrone. On the other hand, the number of side-chain groups does not affect binding to a great extent. These findings seem to suggest mechanisms of cell death other than those induced by simple interaction of the 1,4-BPDs 1 and 2 with DNA.

  2. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  3. Photophysical Characterization and in Vitro Phototoxicity Evaluation of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin as a Potential Sensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Letícia D; e Silva, Joana de A; Fonseca, Sofia M; Arranja, Cláudia T; Urbano, Ana M; Sobral, Abilio J F N

    2016-03-31

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a selective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach, involving the combination of a light-sensitive compound, called a photosensitizer (PS), visible light and molecular oxygen. The interaction of these per se harmless agents results in the production of reactive species. This triggers a series of cellular events that culminate in the selective destruction of cancer cells, inside which the photosensitizer preferentially accumulates. The search for ideal PDT photosensitizers has been a very active field of research, with a special focus on porphyrins and porphyrin-related macrocycle molecules. The present study describes the photophysical characterization and in vitro phototoxicity evaluation of 5,10,15,20-tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin (2-TQP) as a potential PDT photosensitizer. Molar absorption coefficients were determined from the corresponding absorption spectrum, the fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) as a standard and the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation was determined by direct phosphorescence measurements. Toxicity evaluations (in the presence and absence of irradiation) were performed against HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cells. The results from this preliminary study show that the hydrophobic 2-TQP fulfills several critical requirements for a good PDT photosensitizer, namely a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation (Φ∆ 0.62), absence of dark toxicity and significant in vitro phototoxicity for concentrations in the micromolar range.

  4. Antibody persistence and the effect of a booster dose given 5, 10 or 15 years after vaccinating preadolescents with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Vladimir; De Serres, Gaston; Boulianne, Nicole; Murphy, Donald; De Wals, Philippe; Ouakki, Manale; Trudeau, Gisele; Massé, Richard; Dionne, Marc

    2013-01-07

    The persistence of antibody obtained post-vaccination of preadolescents with three doses of Engerix-B and the effect of a booster administered 5, 10 or 15 years later were monitored in 663 vaccinees. Five, 10 and 15 years post-vaccination >94% of subjects had detectable antibodies and 88.2%, 86.4% and 76.7% had a titre ≥10 IU/L; GMTs were 269 IU/L, 169 IU/L and 51 IU/L, respectively; 99.1-100% vaccinees reached a titre ≥10 IU/l post-booster. GMTs were 118012 IU/L, 32477 IU/L, and 13946 IU/L when the booster was administered 5, 10 or 15 years post-vaccination, respectively. We conclude that vaccination induces immunity in the great majority of vaccinees for at least 15 years. The response to a booster dose suggests persistence of immune memory in almost all vaccinees. Although a booster dose increases substantially anti-HBs titres, the clinical relevance of such an increase remains unknown. These results do not support the need of a booster for at least 15 years when vaccinating preadolescents with Engerix-B.

  5. PIXE analysis of PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) for air quality assessment of Islamabad, Pakistan: application of chemometrics for source identification.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Shahida; Jaafar, Muhammad Z; Siddique, Naila; Markwitz, Andreas; Brereton, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    A Gent sampler was used to collect 379 pairs of filters from Nilore, a suburban area of Islamabad city. The study was designed to assess the concentration variations of trace elements in fine and coarse particulate matter due to anthropogenic activities and naturally occurring events. Source identification was performed by applying MATLAB software for principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA). The average fine and coarse particulate masses during the study period were 15.1 ± 11.9 and 37.3 ± 28.0 μg/m(3) respectively which complies with the 24-h air quality limits set by the government of Pakistan. The application of PCA to PM(2.5) data suggests the PM contribution from sources such as soil, automobile exhaust and coal combustion, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood combustion, biomass burning and fertilizers and fungicides whereas for the PM(2.5-10) data shows signatures of suspended soil, automobile exhaust, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood and biomass burning, refuse incineration, Ni smelter, fertilizers and fungicides are obtained. Cluster analysis of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) datasets reveals that there are mainly three contributory pollution sources and these are suspended soil particles, automobile related sources and wood and coal combustion.

  6. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  7. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  8. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  9. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  10. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  11. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  12. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and coarse PM with 2.5 < da < 10 microm (PM2.5-10) were collected using dichotomous samplers. The inhalable particle fraction, PM10, was determined as the sum of fine and coarse concentrations. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured continuously. Average concentrations of PM2.5 for the 1989-2001 period ranged from 38.5 microg/m3 to 53 microg/m3. For PM2.5-10 levels ranged from 35.8-48.2 microg/m3 and for PM10 results were 74.4-101.2 microg/m3 across the four sites. Both annual and daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration levels exceeded the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  13. Comparison between 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl- and 5,15-diarylporphyrins as photosensitizers: synthesis, photodynamic activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Stefano; Caruso, Enrico; Buccafurni, Loredana; Murano, Roberto; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-06-01

    The synthesis of a panel of seven nonsymmetric 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrins, 13 symmetric and nonsymmetric 5,15-diarylporphyrins, and one 5,15-diarylchlorin is described. In vitro photodynamic activities on HCT116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were evaluated by standard cytotoxicity assays. A predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) regression model, based on theoretical holistic molecular descriptors, of a series of 34 tetrapyrrolic photosensitizers (PSs), including the 24 compounds synthesized in this work, was developed to describe the relationship between structural features and photodynamic activity. The present study demonstrates that structural features significantly influence the photodynamic activity of tetrapyrrolic derivatives: diaryl compounds were more active with respect to the tetraarylporphyrins, and among the diaryl derivatives, hydroxy-substituted compounds were more effective than the corresponding methoxy-substituted ones. Furthermore, three monoarylporphyrins, isolated as byproducts during diarylporphyrin synthesis, were considered for both photodynamic and QSAR studies; surprisingly they were found to be particularly active photosensitizers.

  14. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy activity of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-(4-carboxyphenycarbonoimidoyl)phenyl)porphyrinato) chloro gallium(III).

    PubMed

    Managa, Muthumuni; Amuhaya, Edith K; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-12-05

    (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-(4-carboxyphenycarbonoimidoyl)phenyl)porphyrinato) chloro gallium(III) (complex 1) was conjugated to platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) (represented as 1-PtNPs). The resulting conjugate showed 18 nm red shift in the Soret band when compared to 1 alone. Complex 1 and 1-PtNPs showed promising photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in solution where the log reductions obtained were 4.92, 3.76, and 3.95, respectively for 1-PtNPs. The singlet oxygen quantum yields obtained were higher at 0.56 for 1-PtNPs in DMF while that of 1 was 0.52 in the same solvent. This resulted in improved PACT activity for 1-PtNPs compared to 1 alone.

  15. An in vitro enzymatic assay to measure transcription inhibition by gallium(III) and H3 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corroles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Grace Y; Pribisko, Melanie A; Henning, Ryan K; Lim, Punnajit; Termini, John; Gray, Harry B; Grubbs, Robert H

    2015-03-18

    Chemotherapy often involves broad-spectrum cytotoxic agents with many side effects and limited targeting. Corroles are a class of tetrapyrrolic macrocycles that exhibit differential cytostatic and cytotoxic properties in specific cell lines, depending on the identities of the chelated metal and functional groups. The unique behavior of functionalized corroles towards specific cell lines introduces the possibility of targeted chemotherapy. Many anticancer drugs are evaluated by their ability to inhibit RNA transcription. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for RNA transcription in the presence of known and potential inhibitors. The evaluation of the RNA products of the transcription reaction by gel electrophoresis and UV-Vis spectroscopy provides information on inhibitive properties of potential anticancer drug candidates and, with modifications to the assay, more about their mechanism of action. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of action of corrole cytotoxicity. In this experiment, we consider two corrole compounds: gallium(III) 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole (Ga(tpfc)) and freebase analogue 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole (tpfc). An RNA transcription assay was used to examine the inhibitive properties of the corroles. Five transcription reactions were prepared: DNA treated with Actinomycin D, triptolide, Ga(tpfc), tpfc at a [complex]:[template DNA base] ratio of 0.01, respectively, and an untreated control. The transcription reactions were analyzed after 4 hr using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. There is clear inhibition by Ga(tpfc), Actinomycin D, and triptolide. This RNA transcription assay can be modified to provide more mechanistic detail by varying the concentrations of the anticancer complex, DNA, or polymerase enzyme, or by incubating the DNA or polymerase with the complexes prior to RNA transcription; these modifications would differentiate between an inhibition mechanism involving the DNA or the enzyme

  16. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. Treatment of symptomatic greater trochanteric fracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jeffrey I; Chuang, Michael J; Cerynik, Douglas L; Johanson, Norman A

    2009-08-01

    Isolated greater trochanter fractures after total hip arthroplasty are associated with major comorbidities such as debilitating weakness, pain, and dislocation. No definitive standard of care has been established for these fracture. However, it is well known that reestablishing osseous union in these patients is strongly associated with return of functional status. We report a case of an elderly patient with multiple hip revision surgeries now presenting with unilateral greater trochanter fracture. Treatment incorporated the use of a trochanteric claw plate, cerclage wiring, and adjuvant demineralized bone matrix allograft to achieve successful osseous union. This is the first reported use of adjuvant demineralized bone matrix for fixing these fractures.

  18. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  19. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    İNAN, Nurten; İNAN, Levent E.; COŞKUN, Özlem; TUNÇ, Tuğba; İLHAN, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Methods Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. Results The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis. PMID:28360765

  20. Family stability in greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1993-01-01

    I investigated the stability of parent-offspring bonds, and sibling-sibling bonds of neck-banded Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) during winters (September-May) in California and southern Oregon from 1979 to 1989. Geese captured at feeding sites were more likely to be in social groups than those captured at roosting sites. Offspring remained associated with their parents longer than reported for other geese, as 69% of yearlings, 39% of two-year-olds, and 38% of three-year-olds and older were observed with their parents during winter. The proportion of time offspring spent with their parents declined as they grew older, being 76% for juveniles, 32% for yearlings, and 15% for two-year-olds and older. The prevalence of extended family groups was corroborated by counts of landing groups of unmarked geese. Sibling bonds also persisted after the first year of life, with 74%, 50%, and 39% of siblings maintaining some degree of social contact at ages of one, two and three years or older, respectively. Older offspring were more likely to associate with brood mates than with parents. Intensive observations ended when the oldest known-age geese were 34 months old. Incidental sightings in subsequent years revealed that some offspring up to eight years of age still associated with their parents and/or siblings. The benefits of maintaining long-term family bonds were not readily apparent, as there was no difference in the reproductive success of parents with and without attendant offspring, and yearlings that associated with parents were not more likely to survive than yearlings that did not associate with parents. However, older offspring and their parents may benefit by remaining together if extended families are more dominant and have better access to limited food and safe roost sites. Parents benefit if their fitness is enhanced due to nest defense provided by older offspring, and subadults probably benefit from staying with their parents by learning

  1. DOD Joint Bases: Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Joint Bases Realign Fort Eustis, VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Langley AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by...the installation management functions to L·mglcy AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Commander...DOD JOINT BASES Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies Report to Congressional Addressees

  2. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  3. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  4. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional,…

  5. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  6. Will greater shrub abundance greatly impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.; Lafleur, P.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing deciduous shrub abundance, productivity, and range in the Arctic comes with the potential for both negative and positive feedbacks to the climate system. This study presents six seasons of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and latent and sensible heat fluxes along a shrub gradient in Canada's Low Arctic. Three flux tower sites with 17, 45, and 64% dwarf birch cover were established within a few kilometers of each other to investigate differences in microclimate, energy and carbon exchanges. As expected, there was greater winter snow depth but less summer soil thaw with greater shrub cover. However, snowmelt timing and speed were usually similar among sites. Despite a reduction in albedo in spring and greater leaf area through summer, latent heat fluxes were consistently lower with greater shrub cover. Offset by small differences in sensible heat fluxes, total seasonal atmospheric heating (combined sensible and latent heat fluxes) was similar among sites. We anticipated greater net uptake of CO2 through the growing season with greater shrub cover. However, that was only the case in some years. There was much more week-to-week and year-to-year variability in CO2 fluxes at the shrubbiest site suggesting photosynthesis and respiration processes were more sensitive to weather variations. Shrub abundance does impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon but these observations also highlight the complexity involved in predicting the net climate feedback effect of current and future Arctic vegetation change.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  8. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  9. PREPARATION OF OXALATES OF METALS OF ATOMIC NUMBER GREATER THAN 88

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of oxalates of metals of atomic number greater than 88. A solid peroxide of the heavy metal is contacted with an aqueous oxalic acid solution ai a temperature of about 50 C for a period of time sufficient to form the insoluble metal oxalate which is subsequentiy recovered as a pures crystalline compound.

  10. Incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The goals of the study were to describe the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup in terms of incubation constancy, recess frequency and recess length. The use of endogenous reserves by Greater Scaup was examined by determining weight loss over the incubation period. Further, intraspecific variation in incubation constancy was considered in terms of hypotheses regarding timing of reproduction. Constancy (% time on nest) averaged 59% during egg laying and increased to 83% during incubation. Patterns of daily incubation constancy varied among females, with no overall trend. Females took an average of 4.3 recesses per day, with an average length of 57 minutes. Body mass declined by 6.4 g day-1 and females initiating nests later tended to be lighter. These data suggest that while Greater Scaup utilise some stored reserves during incubation, they probably meet most of their energetic demands by foraging during incubation recesses. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that females are initiating nests before adequate forage is available in the spring to meet the demands of egg production and maintenance. Thus, the observed delay in the onset of nesting by Greater Scaup, relative to other sympatric nesting species, does not appear to be related to inadequate forage to meet nutritional requirements.

  11. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Loring Air Force Base, Operable Units 3, 5, 10, and 11, Limestone, ME, August 21, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Loring Air Force Base National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Aroostook County, Maine. This decision document presents the selected remedial actions for the source areas at the following sites located within OUs 3, 5, 10, and 11 at the Site: OU3 - Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Range Outdoor Firing Range; OU5 -- Base Exchange Service Station (BXSS); OU10 -- Pumphouse (PH) 8210; PH 8270; Former Solvent Storage Building (FSSB); and OU11 -- Refueling Maintenance Shop Area (RMSA); Vehicle Maintenance Building (VMB); The USAF has evaluated the potential risks to human health and the environment at each of the these sites and developed the site-specific remediation goals for the source areas at each of these sites based on the future land use determinations made in the April 1996 Record of Decision (PB96-963703) for the Disposal of Loring Air Force Base, Maine. Therefore, the No Further CERCLA Action decisions for the source areas at each of these sites is based on the assumption that future land use at each site shall be in accordance with the Disposal ROD (i.e., that real property comprising the site shall be parceled, disposed of, and reused in accordance with the Disposal ROD).

  13. 5,10b-Ethanophenanthridine amaryllidaceae alkaloids inspire the discovery of novel bicyclic ring systems with activity against drug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sean; Kidner, Ria; Reisenauer, Mary R; Magedov, Igor V; Kiss, Robert; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Antonio; Yu, Xiaojie; Ma, Xiuye; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry; Cavazos, David A; Brenner, Andrew J; Aksenov, Alexander V; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander; Frolova, Liliya V

    2016-09-14

    Plants of the Amaryllidaceae family produce a large variety of alkaloids and non-basic secondary metabolites, many of which are investigated for their promising anticancer activities. Of these, crinine-type alkaloids based on the 5,10b-ethanophenanthridine ring system were recently shown to be effective at inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells resistant to various pro-apoptotic stimuli and representing tumors with dismal prognoses refractory to current chemotherapy, such as glioma, melanoma, non-small-cell lung, esophageal, head and neck cancers, among others. Using this discovery as a starting point and taking advantage of a concise biomimetic route to the crinine skeleton, a collection of crinine analogues were synthetically prepared and evaluated against cancer cells. The compounds exhibited single-digit micromolar activities and retained this activity in a variety of drug-resistant cancer cell cultures. This investigation resulted in the discovery of new bicyclic ring systems with significant potential in the development of effective clinical cancer drugs capable of overcoming cancer chemotherapy resistance.

  14. The effect of laser activation of 5,10,15,20-tetra-sulphophenyl-porphyrin loaded in K562 cells and human normal mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Carolina; Neagu, Monica; Manda, Gina; Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Iordăchescu, Dana Iord

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new type of treatment in cancer, based on a photosensitizer, visible light and molecular oxygen. Reactive oxygen species are generated, causing tumor cells death by apoptosis or necrosis. Significant nowadays research efforts are focused on finding new photosensitizers with antineoplastic activity and an acceptable toxicological profile. Although consistent information exists regarding PDT in solid tumors, relatively few data are available for PDT of blood cancers. Therefore, we carried out a comparative study on lymphoblastic K562 cells and human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) treated at a density of 2 x 10(5) cells/mL with 5,10,15,20-tetra-sulphophenyl-porphyrin (TSPP) and then irradiated with He-Ne laser light (lamda = 632.8 nm). The following cell functions were investigated: viability, multiplication, RNA synthesis, total RNA levels and apoptosis. After irradiation, the viability of TSPP-loaded tumor cells decrease, the multiplication rate and the total RNA level are drastically reduced and cells undergo apoptosis. TSPP alone loaded into cells but not activated by irradiation, does not affect these cell parameters. Human normal PBMC subjected to TSPP loading and laser-irradiation develop a different cellular response, their viability and proliferative capacity not being altered by experimental PDT. Accordingly, it appears that TSPP is a non-aggressive compound for cellular physiology and becomes cytotoxic only by irradiation; moreover laser-activated TSPP affects only cells that have a tumoral pattern.

  15. Molecular structure, UV/vis spectra, and cyclic voltammograms of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Stute, Silvio; Götzke, Linda; Meyer, Dirk; Merroun, Mohamed L; Rapta, Peter; Kataeva, Olga; Seichter, Wilhelm; Gloe, Kerstin; Dunsch, Lothar; Gloe, Karsten

    2013-02-04

    The 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrin complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) have been crystallized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry as well as cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray structure of the earlier described Cu(II) complex is also reported. All complex structures possess a five-coordinate, approximately square-pyramidal geometry with a slight deviation of the heteroaromatic moieties from planarity. The packing structures are characterized by parallel strands of complex molecules interacting by weak hydrogen bonds. In the case of Zn(II) an octahedral complex has also been isolated using a side-chain hydroxy functionalized oxaporphyrin ligand; the structure was verified by NMR and EXAFS spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the reduction of the complex bound Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) ions is a ligand-centered process whereas the first oxidation step depends on the metal ion present.

  16. Synthesis of 21,23-selenium- and tellurium-substituted 5-porphomethenes, 5,10-porphodimethenes, 5,15-porphodimethenes, and porphotrimethenes and their interactions with mercury.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohail; Yadav, Kumar Karitkey; Bhattacharya, Soumee; Chauhan, Prashant; Chauhan, S M S

    2015-04-17

    The 3+1 condensation of symmetrical 16-Selena/telluratripyrranes with symmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols in the presence of BF3-etheratre or BF3-methanol followed by oxidation with DDQ gave 5,10-porphodimethenes, whereas the process with unsymmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols gave 5-porphomethenes. In addition, the reaction of unsymmetrical 16-Selena/telluratripyrranes with symmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols gave the corresponding porphotrimethenes, whereas the process with unsymmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols gave the 5,15-porphodimethenes. The structures of different products were characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, CHN analysis, and mass spectrometry. The binding of mercury with the calix[4]phyrins mentioned above had been observed in the decreasing order of porphodimethenes > porphomethenes > porphotrimethenes by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Crystal structure of 16-ferrocenylmethyl-3β-hydroxy­estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one: a potential chemotherapeutic drug

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Negrón, José A.; Flores-Rivera, Mariola M.; Díaz-Reyes, Zaibeth; Moore, Curtis E.; Rheigold, Arnold L.; Meléndez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A new ferrocene complex, 16-ferrocenylmethyl-3β-hy­droxy­estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate, [Fe(C5H5)(C24H27O2)]·C2H6OS, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The mol­ecule crystallizes in the space group P21 with one mol­ecule of dimethyl sulfoxide. A hydrogen bond links the phenol group and the dimethyl sulfoxide O atom, with an O⋯O distance of 2.655 (5) Å. The ferrocene group is positioned in the β face of the estrone moiety, with an O—C—C—C torsion angle of 44.1 (5)°, and the carbonyl bond length of the hormone moiety is 1.216 (5) Å, typical of a C=O double bond. The average Fe—C bond length of the substituted Cp ring [Fe—C(Cp*)] is similar to that of the unsubstituted one [Fe—C(Cp)], i.e. 2.048 (3) versus 2.040 (12) Å. The structure of the complex is compared with those of estrone and eth­oxy­methyl­estrone. PMID:27308062

  18. Elevated total plasma homocysteine and 667C{r_arrow}T mutation of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in thrombotic vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    De Franchis, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G.

    1996-07-01

    Moderate elevation of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been reported as an independent risk factor for thrombotic vascular disease, a well-known multifactorial disorder. Possible genetic causes of elevated tHcy include defects of the sulfur-containing amino acids metabolism due to deficiencies of cystathionine {Beta}-synthase, of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and of the enzymes of cobalamin metabolism. An impaired activity of MTHFR due to a thermolabile form of the enzyme has been observed in {le}28% of hyperhomocysteinemic patients with premature vascular disease. More recently, the molecular basis of such enzymatic thermolability has been related to a common mutation of the MTHFR gene, causing a C-to-T substitution at nt 677 (677C{r_arrow}T). This mutation was found in 38% of unselected chromosomes from 57 French Canadian individuals. The homozygous state for the mutation was present in 12% of these subjects and correlated with significantly elevated tHcy. Preliminary evidence indicates that the frequency of homozygotes for the 677C{r_arrow}T mutation may vary significantly in populations from different geographic areas. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Genotype prevalence and allele frequencies of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in two caste groups of India.

    PubMed

    Rai, V; Yadav, U; Kumar, P

    2012-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism in two caste group populations of eastern Uttar Pradesh. This mutation has been suggested to be positively associated with the risk of several congenital and multifactorial disorders. Frequency of mutant T allele differs in various ethnic and geographical populations of the world. MTHFR C677T mutation analysis was carried out by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method and the samples studied were randomly selected from the healthy individuals belonging to two caste populations. In Brahmin samples, genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT were 0.727, 0.25 and 0.023 respectively whereas in Rajput samples, CC genotype was observed in 88 samples, CT genotype in 25 and TT genotype was found in 2 samples. Frequency of mutant T allele was found to be 0.147 in Brahmin and 0.126 in Rajput populations. The percentage of CT genotype and C allele were high in both the populations.

  20. Mössbauer effect study of tight spin coupling in oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20- tetra(mesityl)porphyrinatoiron(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian; Lang, George; McMurry, Thomas J.; Groves, John T.

    1983-08-01

    Mössbauer spectra of a polycrystalline form of oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20-tetra(mesityl)porphyrin- atoiron(III) [Fe(TMP)Cl], compound A, were recorded over a range of temperatures (4.2-195 K) and magnetic fields (0-6 T). These spectra of compound A exhibit magnetic features which are markedly different from those of the analogous protein complexes, horse radish peroxidase compound I (HRP-I) and compound ES of cytochrome c peroxidase, even though chemical evidence and optical spectroscopy indicate that compound A is similar to the others in comprising a Fe(IV) complex within a porphyrin cation radical. We interpret the data by employing a spin Hamiltonian model in which the central Fe(IV) complex, with S=1, is tightly coupled to a S=1/2 system of the oxidized porphyrin to yield a net S=3/2 system as suggested by the susceptibility measurements. The theoretical treatment yields information on the d-electron energies which is similar to that more directly available in the peroxidase spectra. The strength of the axial crystal field is found to increase progressively in the series HRP-I, ES, compound A, while the spin coupling in A is the strongest of the three by several orders of magnitude. The good fits to experimental data confirm the efficacy of the theoretical treatment which may be applicable to a variety of other coupled systems.

  1. Novel nanomaterials based on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin entrapped in silica matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Enache, Corina; Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Gheorghe; Vasile, Mihaela; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2009-12-15

    The present study is dealing with the obtaining of transparent hybrid silica materials encapsulating 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin designated for advanced optoelectronic devices. The porphyrin was synthesized by three methods: an Adler-type reaction between pyrrole and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in propionic acid medium; by Lindsey condensation of pyrrole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of BF{sub 3}.OEt{sub 2} and by a multicomponent reaction by simultaneously using of pyrrole and two different aldehydes: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl substituted porphyrin was characterized by HPLC, TLC, UV-vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR analysis. Excitation and emission spectra were also discussed in terms of pH conditions. The hybrid materials, consisting in the porphyrin encapsulated in silica matrices, have been prepared successfully via the two steps acid-base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate using different approaches of the sol-gel process: in situ, by impregnation and by sonication. The synthetic conditions and the compositions were monitored and characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, fluorescence and UV-vis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to observe the columnar or pyramidal nanostructures which are formed by the immobilization of porphyrin on the silica matrices.

  2. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  3. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  4. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  5. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  6. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  7. A comparison of behavior for two cohorts of captive-reared greater sandhill cranes released in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mummert, D.P.; Chambers, C.L.; Ellis, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    To determine how the behavior of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) changes according to time of year, time of day, and number of days after release, we observed the activities of 2 groups of captive-reared greater sandhill cranes at Mormon Lake, northern Arizona. The behaviors we compared were alert, loafing, sleeping, foraging, preening, locomotion, and other. We found costume-reared subadult greater sandhill cranes that were established at the study site for a year spent more time foraging and being alert towards predators than parent-reared juvenile greater sandhill cranes that were recently released from captivity. We also found that with time juvenile sandhill cranes were increasingly alert and spent less time loafing. It appeared that captive-reared juvenile sandhill cranes learn behavior important for survival from previously released captive-reared cranes.

  8. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-20

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ{sub UV}, at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ{sub e}, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease and the large τ {sub e}. It is possible that the ρ{sub UV} decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei.

  9. New 5-aminoacyl-5,10-dihydro-11H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepin-11-ones with antiarrhythmic activity.

    PubMed

    Poppe, H; Kaverina, N V; Lyskovzev, V V; Egerland, U; Sauer, W; Lichoscherstow, A; Rüger, C; Skoldinow, A

    1997-11-01

    A series of new 5-substituted tricyclic 5,10-dihydro-11H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]-diazepin-11-ones was identified as potential antiarrhythmic agents against bradyarrhythmias [1, 2]. The in vitro and in vivo interactions of the compounds with muscarinic receptors and the antiarrhythmic activity were examined. In receptor binding studies some derivatives showed a high affinity to the cardiac M2 receptor (Ki 10 nmol/l), an equal or smaller affinity to cortical M1 receptor and a lower affinity to the glandular M3 binding site. Functional experiments showed the derivatives as competitive antagonists with high affinity to the cardiac and smaller affinity to the intestinal muscarinic receptor. In vivo experiments correspond with the M2 selectivity. First the vagal or agonist-induced bradycardia was inhibited in rats and guinea pigs while the McNA-343 induced increase of blood pressure, methacholine-induced bronchi and bladder constriction as well as the salivation were inhibited only at higher doses. In conscious cats the tachycardia was examined in comparison with pupillomotoricity. The effect duration and the therapeutical range were determined in comparison to the M2 selective blocking agent AF-DX116. The antiarrhythmic activity was examined compared to quinidine sulfate in CaCl2-arrhythmia of rats, in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in dogs according to Scherf [2] and in electric induced atrial fibrillation under vagal stimulation in cats. In the atrial arrhythmias the derivatives are clearly longer effective than quinidine sulfate. The antiischemic activity was examined in the two-stages coronary ligature in dogs according to Harris. The long-running regularization of ectopies (about 2 h after i.v. injection) occurred without decrease of the heart rate, an effect particularly convenient to therapy of bradycardic dysrhythmias.

  10. Fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter on a heavily trafficked London highway: sources and processes.

    PubMed

    Charron, Aurelie; Harrison, Roy M

    2005-10-15

    A large dataset for PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM2.5-10) concentrations monitored near a busy London highway (Marylebone Road) has been analyzed to define the factors that lead to high concentrations. The following have been highlighted as major influencing parameters: wind speed, prevailing wind direction (because of its role on the microscale dispersion within the street), the daily cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (stable during the night/ convective and mixed during the day), and traffic density. The mainly diesel heavy-duty vehicles are the main source of fine particulate matter at Marylebone Road. In particular, lorries (trucks) dominate PM10 exhaust emissions which are mainly in the fine (<2.5 microm) size range. A strong correlation with PMcoarse suggests that the heavy-duty traffic is largely responsible for this component also. Substantial local increments in PM2.5 and PMcoarse due to traffic have been estimated and a large part of the increment in PMcoarse concentrations is inferred to arise from resuspended road dust emissions since the contribution of abrasion processes estimated from emission factors is modest. Despite the strong influence of traffic on PM concentrations measured at Marylebone Road the analysis of factors leading to the highest 5% of hourly concentrations of PM10 at Marylebone Road reveals that almost half of these events were due to building works. The other events occurred when all or most of the key factors occurred simultaneously (heavy traffic, poor dispersion, etc.). Some episodes of high PM2.5 concentrations were associated with long-range transport in which the regional PM2.5 constituted most of the local concentrations.

  11. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnoea is greater in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Render, Jacqueline N; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Sheel, A William

    2015-01-01

    We compared the oxygen cost of breathing () in healthy men and women over a wide range of exercise ventilations (). Eighteen subjects (nine women) completed 4 days of testing. First, a step-wise maximal cycle exercise test was completed for the assessment of spontaneous breathing patterns. Next, subjects were familiarized with the voluntary hyperpnoea protocol used to estimate . During the final two visits, subjects mimicked multiple times (four to six) the breathing patterns associated with five or six different exercise stages. Each trial lasted 5 min, and on-line pressure–volume and flow–volume loops were superimposed on target loops obtained during exercise to replicate the work of breathing accurately. At ∼55 l min−1 , was significantly greater in women. At maximal ventilation, the absolute was not different (P > 0.05) between the sexes, but represented a significantly greater fraction of whole-body in women (13.8 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1% ). During heavy exercise at 92 and 100% , the unit cost of was +0.7 and +1.1 ml O2 l−1 greater in women (P < 0.05). At , men and women who developed expiratory flow limitation had a significantly greater than those who did not (435 ± 44 vs. 331 ± 30 ml O2 min−1). In conclusion, women have a greater for a given , and this represents a greater fraction of whole-body . The greater in women may have implications for the integrated physiological response to exercise. PMID:25652549

  12. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  13. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Prevéy, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Rüger, Nadja; Hollister, Robert D; Bjorkman, Anne D; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Elmendorf, Sarah C; Clark, Karin; Cooper, Elisabeth J; Elberling, Bo; Fosaa, Anna M; Henry, Gregory H R; Høye, Toke T; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Klanderud, Kari; Lévesque, Esther; Mauritz, Marguerite; Molau, Ulf; Natali, Susan M; Oberbauer, Steven F; Panchen, Zoe A; Post, Eric; Rumpf, Sabine B; Schmidt, Niels M; Schuur, Edward A G; Semenchuk, Phillip R; Troxler, Tiffany; Welker, Jeffrey M; Rixen, Christian

    2017-01-11

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms.

  14. Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners.

  15. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test.

  16. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  17. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  18. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  19. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  20. Greater Coordination Required in Defense Planning for Intratheather Airlift Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-09

    AD-AIOI 292 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC PROCUREMENT -ETC F/6 15/5 GREATER COORDINATION REQUIRED IN DEFENSE PLANNING FOR INTRATHEA-(ETC(U...JUL 81 UNCLASSIFIED GAO/PLR-81-42 BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Secretary Of Defense Q reater Coordination Required In Defense...11~~~I~ LF’A RD-1-42/ I1CCU4S JULY 9, 1981’ / 81 7 13 331 I Request for copies of GAO reports should be sent to: U.S. General Accounting Office

  1. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  2. The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

  3. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Carbone, S; Postacchini, F

    2009-02-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks.

  4. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  5. Thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia; McClean, Modesto; Cushing, Andrew; Bildfell, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. Although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (Rhea spp.). An intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (7.31 +/- 2.72 microg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (5.09 +/- 2.31 mg/kg) was utilized in eight adult (four male, four female) greater rheas (Rhea americana). Smooth inductions were observed. During clinical procedures, birds were intubated and maintained on isoflurane gas, and atipamezole was administered to antagonize the dexmedetomidine. At recovery, naltrexone was administered to antagonize the thiafentanil, and midazolam was administered to smooth crate recoveries until release. This low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combination demonstrated safe inductions and smooth recoveries and proved to be a reliable anesthetic regimen for greater rheas.

  6. Spatial variations in travel behavior within greater Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaeli, R.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid suburbanization of housing and employment has produced severe traffic congestion in North American cities. One response to this problem in the greater Toronto area (GTA) has been to identify urban forms that are more supportive of public transport and require less vehicle kilometers of travel to support. The analytical tools used to assess the travel implications of different urban forms normally use travel demand parameters that are uniform across an area. This has yielded misleading estimates of travel demands. This paper describes analyses of the intraregional differences in travel behavior in the greater Toronto area. The analyses described are at two spatial scales: the suburb (municipality/planning district) level and the much finer traffic analysis zone level. The analysis units were grouped into high-growth, developing,a nd low-growth categories at both spatial scales. The analyses reported in this paper show that household characteristics and travel behavior are quite similar for both established and redeveloping zones in the older, stable suburbs. Significant differences in travel characteristics exist between the older, established zones and the growing zones in the developing suburbs. Household trip rates are shown to vary with household size, car ownership, and whether a household is located in a stable or growing suburb. Accessibility to public transport is shown to affect trip behavior differently in growing areas than in established areas. The paper concludes by discussing the public policy and transport systems analysis implications of the results.

  7. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  8. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  9. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse.

  10. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  11. Lakes in the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of an inventory of the lakes in the central one-third of the Colorado Front Range Urban Corridor. This inventory provides information that might be helpful in planning the best and most beneficial use of lakes in an area of rapid population growth. The report includes data on lake size and water quality. Size data are included on most of the lakes of 2 hectares (20,000 m2, or about 5 acres) or greater, and water-quality data are provided on most lakes larger than 10 hectares (about 25 acres). Bodies of water resulting form excavation of gravel (borrow pits) were generally not included in the inventory.

  12. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  13. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  14. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  15. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  16. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  17. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  18. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  19. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  20. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  1. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  2. The High Arctic Magnetic High - The Geophysical Manifestation of a Large (1.36 x 10e6 km2) and Voluminous (5-10 x 10e6 km3) Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, Richard; Oakey, Gordon; Miller, Elizabeth; Jackson, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    The High Arctic Magnetic High (HAMH) dominates the magnetic anomaly field of the Earth north of about 75°N; this magnetic domain consists of very high amplitude magnetic highs and lows with variable orientations. The HAMH is visible on satellite magnetic compilations (e.g., MF6) with anomaly amplitudes greater than 200 nT indicating it is a globally significant feature. The magnetic potential of this magnetic feature is a single large intensity high indicative of a large volume of magnetic material in the crust. The map area of this magnetic domain is roughly 1.36 x 10e6 km2. Geographically the HAMH lies within the Amerasian Basin adjacent to the Lomonosov Ridge, encompasses the region of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges, and extends beneath the northern portions of the Canada Basin. Ocean floor geomorphology, limited seismic and sonobouy data, sparse dredge samples, and dated samples from the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean are consistent with the interpretation of the HAMH as the geophysical manifestation of a Large Igneous Province. The designation "High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP)" has been applied to portions of the Arctic perimeter based on geologic mapping and sampling. The designation "Alpha/Mendeleev Large Igneous Province (AMLIP)" has been applied to the offshore Alpha/Mendeleev region (e.g., Grantz et al., 2009) with boundaries defined, in large part, by magnetic anomaly patterns. We have constructed 2D and 3D models of the HAMH to investigate the structure and geometry of this significant crustal feature. We estimate the overall volume of magnetic material as between 5-10 x 10e6 km3. The area and volume of this feature are comparable with estimates for the Deccan Traps and the North Atlantic Igneous Province, but are significantly smaller than the Kerguellen or Ontong Java Plateaus (based on tables in Coffin and Eldholm, 1994). In detail we find significant correlation between shorter wavelength portions of this magnetic feature and the

  3. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  4. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  5. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  6. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  7. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  8. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  9. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    PubMed

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-03-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  10. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  11. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  12. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    PubMed

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  13. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  14. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  15. T2 can be greater than 2T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevian, H. M.; Skinner, J. L.

    1989-08-01

    We consider a quantum-mechanical two-level system under the influence of both diagonal and off-diagonal stochastic perturbations, and focus on the decay times T1 and T2, which refer to the relaxation to equilibrium of the populations and relative phase of the two levels, respectively. From both theoretical and experimental viewpoints one traditionally expects that T2≤2T1. On the other hand, from a fourth-order cumulant expansion calculation of the asymptotic time dependence of the density matrix elements, Budimir and Skinner [J. Stat. Phys. 49, 1029 (1987)] showed that, in fact, in some instances T2>2T1. In this paper we solve the stochastic model numerically, which leads to the exact time dependence of the density matrix at all times. We find that the analytic prediction that T2>2T1 is not only correct, but also meaningful, in the sense that the density matrix elements decay exponentially after only a short transient time.

  16. Effects of neck bands on the behavior of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    Activity budgets of adult Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) with and without neck bands during the non-breeding season revealed that geese with neck bands spent more time preening than geese without neck bands while at foraging sites, but not while at roosting sites. Neck-banded and control geese spent equal time in other important activities (alert, feeding, sleeping, locomotor activities, flying, or social interactions) while at both foraging and roosting sites. Neck-banded geese apparently compensated for the increase in preening activity by reducing the amount of time spent in alert postures relative to control geese (23.9 vs. 28.6%), although the decrease was not significant (P = 0.106). There was a significant negative relationship (P = 0.038) between the length of time a goose had worn a neck band and the amount of time spent preening while at roost sites. After a short acclimation period, neck bands probably have minimal effect on the activity of wintering Greater White-fronted Geese.

  17. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  18. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  19. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  20. Greater risks of chemotherapy toxicity in elderly patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Lazzaro

    2003-01-01

    Complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy are more common in older patients (65 years of age and older) with cancer than in younger patients, and the occurrence of myelosuppression, mucositis, cardiodepression, peripheral neuropathy, and central neurotoxicity can complicate treatment. Age-related physiologic changes that can increase the toxicity of chemotherapy are decreased stem-cell reserves, decreased ability to repair cell damage, progressive loss of body protein, and accumulation of body fat. A decline in organ function can alter the pharmacokinetics of many of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in some elderly patients, making toxicity less predictable. Comorbidities increase the risk of toxicity through their effects on the body. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat comorbidities may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs, potentially increasing toxicity in elderly patients. Prospective trials in older patients with lymphoma or solid tumors have found that age is a risk factor for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications. Anemia may be present because of the disease or its treatment, and, if left uncorrected, it can alter drug activity and increase toxicity. Being able to predict which elderly patients are at greater risk of toxicity on the basis of pretreatment factors would be valuable, and there is a need for prospective trials to determine regimen- and patient-specific prognostic factors. Effective management of the toxicity associated with chemotherapy with appropriate supportive care is crucial, especially in the elderly population, to give them the best chance of cure and survival, or to provide palliation. For example, management of neutropenic complications with colony-stimulating factors makes treatment with standard-dose chemotherapy possible, which can lead to better outcomes. A better understanding of drug activity and toxicity in older patients is necessary for developing guidelines for safe and effective treatment. Few

  1. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  2. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  3. Predicting Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek Site Suitability to Inform Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Hovick, Torre J.; Dahlgren, David K.; Papeş, Monica; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Pitman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. Particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. This has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. We used nine years (2003–2011) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek locations totaling 870 unique leks sites in Kansas and seven geographic information system (GIS) layers describing land cover, topography, and anthropogenic structures to model habitat suitability across the state. The models obtained had low omission rates (<0.18) and high area under the curve scores (AUC >0.81), indicating high model performance and reliability of predicted habitat suitability for Greater Prairie-Chickens. We found that elevation was the most influential in predicting lek locations, contributing three times more predictive power than any other variable. However, models were improved by the addition of land cover and anthropogenic features (transmission lines, roads, and oil and gas structures). Overall, our analysis provides a hierarchal understanding of Greater Prairie-Chicken habitat suitability that is broadly based on geomorphological features followed by land cover suitability. We found that when land features and vegetation cover are suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens, fragmentation by anthropogenic sources such as roadways and transmission lines are a concern. Therefore, it is our recommendation that future human development in Kansas avoid areas that our models identified as highly suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens and focus development on land cover types that are of lower conservation concern. PMID:26317349

  4. Exhumation of Greater Himalayan rock along the main central thrust in Nepal: Implications for channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, D.M.; Pearson, O.N.; ,

    2006-01-01

    South-vergent channel flow from beneath the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in forming the Himalaya. The possibility that Greater Himalayan rocks currently exposed in the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt flowed at mid-crustal depths before being exhumed is intriguing, and may suggest a natural link between orogenic processes operating under the Tibetan Plateau and in the fold-thrust belt. Conceptual and numeric models for the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen currently reported in the literature do an admirable job of replicating many of the observable primary geological features and relationships. However, detailed observations from Greater Himalayan rocks exposed in the fold-thrust belt's external klippen, and from Lesser Himalayan rocks in the proximal footwall of the Main Central Thrust, suggest that since Early Miocene time, it may be more appropriate to model the evolution of the fold-thrust belt using the critical taper paradigm. This does not exclude the possibility that channel flow and linked extrusion of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred, but it places important boundaries on a permissible time frame during which these processes may have operated. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  5. Visitor influence on the behavior of captive greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae Aves).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Lima, Márcia Fontes Figueiredo; da Silva, Vitor Caetano Alves; Young, Robert John; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Visitors can affect and reduce the welfare of nonhuman animals. The Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil, had a group of greater rheas intended for reintroduction to the wild. Because this group received public visitation, evaluating its effect on the birds' behavior and welfare was important. The study conducted 60 hr of behavioral observations: 30 with, and 30 without, visitors in front of the birds' enclosure. The study, conducted April-December 2009, collected data using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every minute. The study collected data on public behavior, visitor density, and time spent observing the birds. More than 4,000 persons visited the birds' enclosure: 9.86 s average time spent. Public behaviors most expressed were walking-watching-talking and stopped-watching-talking; visitors or not, greater rheas' most expressed behaviors (inversed between treatments) were foraging and walking alert; defecating/urinating and other behaviors differed statistically between treatments. Walking alert was most expressed in the presence of visitors; defecating/urinating and other behaviors were most expressed in their absence. Greater rheas seemed to habituate to visitors. Birds' behaviors differed little in visitors' presence or absence.

  6. Reading Pictures: Developing Visual Literacy for Greater Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Kathleen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Picturebooks tell stories in both words and pictures. Interacting with the printed word, the technical elements of illustration--color, line, shape and composition--work to establish and enhance the story. Sometimes simply by adding description of characters and setting, and, at times, by challenging the veracity of the text with ironic or…

  7. American Indian Voluntary Associations in Greater Los Angeles: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramstedt, Wayne

    With its large and heterogeneous Indian population, the Los Angeles area offers an excellent opportunity to study patterns in the origin, growth, and structure of Indian voluntary associations, and the leisure time institutions. Since the 1920's more than 100 Indian voluntary associations formed in the area. Established groups influenced the…

  8. Can use of positive religious coping predict greater distress? An examination of Army soldiers on deployment.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Marilyn A; Lannin, Daniel G; Wade, Nathaniel G; Martinez, Melisa

    2017-04-01

    Although positive religious coping is generally viewed as an adaptive, functional coping pattern, some studies have actually found positive religious coping to be associated with more distress in military populations. In the current study, we examined the role of positive religious coping on distress across 2 time points. Participants in this study were 192 Army soldiers (men = 90.4%) who were stationed in Iraq for a 1-year deployment in 2005. Using structural equation modeling, we conducted a cross-lag analysis of positive religious coping and distress. Results indicated that greater use of positive religious coping significantly predicted greater distress 1 month later, whereas distress at T1 did not predict positive religious coping 1 month later. Combat exposure was also a significant predictor of distress 1 month later. Implications of these results include the need to inquire about clients' use of religious coping and whether such coping methods are having the desired effect for them. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. A novel form of spontaneous tool use displayed by several captive greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa).

    PubMed

    Lambert, Megan L; Seed, Amanda M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-12-01

    Parrots are frequently cited for their sophisticated problem-solving abilities, but cases of habitual tool use among psittacines are scarce. We report the first evidence, to our knowledge, of tool use by greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa). Several members of a captive population spontaneously adopted a novel tool-using technique by using pebbles and date pits either (i) to scrape on the inner surface of seashells, subsequently licking the resulting calcium powder from the tool, or (ii) as a wedge to break off smaller pieces of the shell for ingestion. Tool use occurred most frequently just prior to the breeding season, during which time numerous instances of tool transfer were also documented. These observations provide new insights into the tool-using capabilities of parrots and highlight the greater vasa parrot as a species of interest for studies of physical cognition.

  10. A novel form of spontaneous tool use displayed by several captive greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa)

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Megan L.; Seed, Amanda M.; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are frequently cited for their sophisticated problem-solving abilities, but cases of habitual tool use among psittacines are scarce. We report the first evidence, to our knowledge, of tool use by greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa). Several members of a captive population spontaneously adopted a novel tool-using technique by using pebbles and date pits either (i) to scrape on the inner surface of seashells, subsequently licking the resulting calcium powder from the tool, or (ii) as a wedge to break off smaller pieces of the shell for ingestion. Tool use occurred most frequently just prior to the breeding season, during which time numerous instances of tool transfer were also documented. These observations provide new insights into the tool-using capabilities of parrots and highlight the greater vasa parrot as a species of interest for studies of physical cognition. PMID:26673936

  11. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  12. Latin American perspectives on the individual and the greater community.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1983-08-01

    betterment; social justice; and individual dignity. In all these questions, there are legitimate rationales for childbearing or for contraceptive use from the individual's perspective, but from the point of view of the global community, continued high fertility appears to be a longterm plan for disaster. By taking into account the greater good of the community, the exercise of individual choices takes on new meaning.

  13. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the

  14. Late Paleozoic deformation of interior North America: The greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hongzhuan |; Royden, L.; Burchfiel, C.; Schuepbach, M.

    1996-09-01

    Late Paleozoic deformation within interior North America has produced a series of north-northwest- to northwest-trending elongate basins that cover much of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. Each basin thickens asymmetrically toward an adjacent region of coeval basement uplift from which it is separated by synsedimentary faults with great vertical relief. The remarkable coincidence in timing, geometry, and apparent structural style throughout the region of late Paleozoic deformation strongly suggests that these paired regions of basin subsidence and basement uplift form a unified system of regional deformation, the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Over this region, basin subsidence and basement uplift were approximately synchronous, beginning in the Chesterian-Morrowan, continuing through the Pennsylvanian, and ending in the Wolfcampian (although minor post-Wolfcampian deformation occurs locally). The basement uplifts show evidence for folding and faulting in the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Reverse faults and thrust faults have been drilled over many of the uplifts, but only in the Anadarko region has thrusting of the basement uplifts over the adjacent basin been clearly documented. Extensive basement-involved thrusting also occurs along the margins of the Delaware and Midland basins, and suggests that the entire greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains region probably formed as the result of northeast-southwest-directed-intraplate shortening. Deformation within the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains was coeval with late Paleozoic subduction along much of the North American plate margin, and has traditionally been related to emplacement of thrust sheets within the Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt. The nature, timing, and orientation of events along the Ouachita-Marathon belt make it difficult to drive the deformation of the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains by emplacement of the Ouachita-Marathon belt along the southern margin of North America.

  15. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3‧, 2‧-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; J. Potscavage, William, Jr.; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Rong-Juan

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a photodetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7% for an α-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with a low-concentration donor. Project supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R & D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, the Fund from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant Nos. 14DZ2280900 and 14XD1401800), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 15ZR1416600).

  16. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larry; Hall, Jeffrey; McLean, Robert; Dunbar, Michael; Klenk, Kaci; Bowen, Richard; Smeraski, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45-80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental studies. Grouse were challenged by subcutaneous injection of WNV (10(3.2) plaque-forming units [PFUs]). All grouse died within 6 days of infection. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 50% survival was 4.5 days. Mean peak viremia for nonvaccinated birds was 10(6.4) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.2) PFUs/ml, standard error of the mean [SEM]). Virus was shed cloacally and orally. Four of the five vaccinated grouse died, but survival time was increased (50% survival=9.5 days), with 1 grouse surviving to the end-point of the experiment (14 days) with no signs of illness. Mean peak viremia for the vaccinated birds was 10(2.3) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.6) PFUs/ml, SEM). Two birds cleared the virus from their blood before death or euthanasia. These data emphasize the high susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to infection with WNV.

  17. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: affirms.

    PubMed

    Berend, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Component and limb alignment are essential surgical variables that influence the long-term performance of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty failure remains multifactorial, and computer-assisted surgical techniques may address only part of the failure pathophysiology. Despite attempting to use computer-assisted surgical techniques to improve TKA alignment, recent evidence has reported that the entire nature of the computer-assisted experience is not particularly forgiving, as significant increases in time and complications remain problematic. It appears computer-assisted surgical techniques are not yet "ready for primetime" with reproducible and proven long-term benefits for patients. Further studies are needed to better determine the precise target toward which to aim computer-assisted surgery efforts.

  18. Heartfelt imitation: high interoceptive awareness is linked to greater automatic imitation.

    PubMed

    Ainley, Vivien; Brass, Marcel; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-07-01

    'Interoceptive awareness', defined as the individual's awareness of internal body signals, modulates self/other distinction under conditions of multisensory integration. We examined here, for the first time, the potential impact of interoceptive awareness on self/other distinction in the motor domain. In automatic imitation, inhibition of imitation is an index of an individual's success in distinguishing internally generated motor representations from those triggered by observing another person's action. This is measured by the 'congruency effect', which is the difference between mean reaction times when the observed action is 'incongruent' with the required action and when it is 'congruent'. The present study compared the congruency effect in a typical finger lifting paradigm, with interoceptive awareness measured by heartbeat perception. Contrary to expectation, interoceptive awareness was positively correlated with the congruency effect and this effect depended on mean reaction times in the incongruent condition, indicating that good heartbeat perceivers had more difficulty inhibiting the tendency to imitate. Potentially, high interoceptive awareness involves stronger interoceptive representations of the consequences of an action, implying higher empathy, greater motor reactivity in response to observed action and hence a greater tendency to imitate. Our results may also tentatively be explained within a predictive coding account of interoception.

  19. Delaying rewards has greater effect on altruism when the beneficiary is socially distant

    PubMed Central

    Osiński, Jerzy; Karbowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Based on the assumption that social distance and time are dimensions of psychological distance important for altruistic choices it was predicted that enhancement of altruism due to delaying rewards when choosing between a reward for oneself and for another person would be more pronounced the greater the social distance between the subject and another person. In order to test this hypothesis, social discounting using hypothetical monetary rewards and manipulation of social distance and reward delay was measured in a group of 161 college students. The results indicate that delaying rewards increasingly enhances preference for altruistic choices as the social distance between subject and beneficiary grows. PMID:28196125

  20. Ecological studies of bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Development and implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Mack, John A.; Brewster, Wayne G.; Olexa, Edward M.; Clark, Wendy E.

    2001-01-01

    Bison (Bison bison) of the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are perhaps best known to the scientific community from the classic study of Meagher (1973) that reviewed their ecological status and management from the time of establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 through the last National Park Service (NPS) removals of bison within the park in 1966. Since cessation of herd reductions in the park, bison numbers within Yellowstone increased (Dobson and Meagher 1996), as did range use (Meagher 1989b), including increased frequency and magnitude of movements beyond the park boundaries in winter (Meagher 1989a; Pac and Frey 1991; Cheville et al. 1998).

  1. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  2. The first series of 4,11-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-diones: Synthesis and anti-proliferative characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shchekotikhin, Andrey E; Glazunova, Valeria A; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Shevtsova, Elena K; Traven', Valery F; Balzarini, Jan; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Shtil, Alexander A; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2011-01-01

    We developed the synthesis of a series of furan-fused tetracyclic analogues of the antitumor agent ametantrone. The reactions included nucleophilic substitution of propoxy groups in 4,11-dipropoxyanthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-diones with ethylenediamines, producing the derivatives of 4,11-diaminoanthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione in good yields. Studies of anti-proliferative activity on a panel of mammalian tumor cell lines demonstrated that anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-diones were the most potent derivatives among heteroarene-fused ametantrone analogues with one heteroatom. We identified several compounds that evoked a growth inhibitory effect at submicromolar concentrations. The anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione 9 with distal methylamino groups was markedly potent against drug-resistant cell lines with P-glycoprotein overexpression or p53 gene deletion. Furthermore, this derivative attenuated in vitro topoisomerase I-mediated DNA uncoiling at low micromolar concentrations. These results demonstrate that anthrafurandiones are a new class of heterocyclic anthraquinone derivatives with the properties potentially valuable for anticancer therapy.

  3. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. 73.3117 Section 73.3117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this...

  4. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. 73.3117 Section 73.3117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this...

  5. [Pharmacological and toxicological investigation of 2,2-diethyl-2,3,5,10-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo(1,2-b)phthalazine-1,3-dione, a new compound with anti-inflammatory activity].

    PubMed

    Dalla Vedova, R; Cadel, S; D'Alò, G

    1980-06-01

    As part of research on 1H-pyrazole[1,2-b]phthalazine compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, the results of preliminary pharmacological and toxicological investigation of 2,2-diethyl-2,2,5,10-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-1,3-dione are reported.

  6. Lifetime history of heroin use is associated with greater drug severity among prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew C.; Patrick, Mollie E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While research suggests primary prescription opioid (PO) abusers may exhibit less severe demographic and drug use characteristics than primary heroin abusers, less is known about whether a lifetime history of heroin use confers greater severity among PO abusers. Objective In this secondary analysis, we examined demographic and drug use characteristics as a function of lifetime heroin use among 89 PO-dependent adults screened for a trial evaluating the relative efficacy of buprenorphine taper durations. Exploratory analyses also examined contribution of lifetime heroin use to treatment response among a subset of participants who received a uniform set of study procedures. Methods Baseline characteristics were compared between participants reporting lifetime heroin use ≥5 (H+; n=41) vs. <5 (H−; n=48) times. Treatment response (i.e., illicit opioid abstinence and treatment retention at end of study) was examined in the subset of H+ and H− participants randomized to receive the 4-week taper condition (N=22). Results H+ participants were significantly older and more likely to be male. They reported longer durations of illicit opioid use, greater alcohol-related problems, more past-month cocaine use, greater lifetime IV drug use, and greater lifetime use of cigarettes, amphetamines and hallucinogens. H+ participants also had lower scores on the Positive Symptom Distress and Depression subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finally, there was a trend toward poorer treatment outcomes among H+ participants. Conclusion A lifetime history of heroin use may be associated with elevated drug severity and unique treatment needs among treatment-seeking PO abusers. PMID:25481453

  7. Antiangiogenic cancer treatment: The great discovery and greater complexity (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Ewa; Papiernik, Diana; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of tumor angiogenesis opened a new path in fighting cancer. The approval of different antiangiogenic agents, most targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, has either increased the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy or even replaced it by offering better patient outcomes. However, an increasing number of preclinical and clinical observations have shown that the process of angiogenesis is far from clearly understood. Apart from targeting the VEGF pathway, novel strategies aim to influence other molecular factors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis. In addition, naturally occurring compounds seem to offer additional agents for influencing angiogenesis. The first concept of antiangiogenic therapy aimed to destroy tumor vessels, while it turned out that, paradoxically, antiangiogenic drugs normalized vasculature and as a result offered an improvement in chemotherapeutic delivery. In order to design an effective treatment schedule, methods for detecting the time window of normalization and biomarkers predicting patient response are needed. The initial idea that antiangiogenic therapy would be resistance-free failed to materialize and currently we still face the obstacle of resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:27826619

  8. Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen

    2008-01-01

    COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.

  9. Greater benefits of multisensory integration during complex sensorimotor transformations.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Verena N; Goonetilleke, Samanthi C; Medendorp, W Pieter; Corneil, Brian D

    2012-06-01

    Multisensory integration enables rapid and accurate behavior. To orient in space, sensory information registered initially in different reference frames has to be integrated with the current postural information to produce an appropriate motor response. In some postures, multisensory integration requires convergence of sensory evidence across hemispheres, which would presumably lessen or hinder integration. Here, we examined orienting gaze shifts in humans to visual, tactile, or visuotactile stimuli when the hands were either in a default uncrossed posture or a crossed posture requiring convergence across hemispheres. Surprisingly, we observed the greatest benefits of multisensory integration in the crossed posture, as indexed by reaction time (RT) decreases. Moreover, such shortening of RTs to multisensory stimuli did not come at the cost of increased error propensity. To explain these results, we propose that two accepted principles of multisensory integration, the spatial principle and inverse effectiveness, dynamically interact to aid the rapid and accurate resolution of complex sensorimotor transformations. First, early mutual inhibition of initial visual and tactile responses registered in different hemispheres reduces error propensity. Second, inverse effectiveness in the integration of the weakened visual response with the remapped tactile representation expedites the generation of the correct motor response. Our results imply that the concept of inverse effectiveness, which is usually associated with external stimulus properties, might extend to internal spatial representations that are more complex given certain body postures.

  10. Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.; Patterson, James E.; Olson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid material containing wound filaments made of a hybrid of high-strength carbon fibers and poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) [PBO] fibers is discussed. This hybrid material is chosen in an effort to increase the ability of the pressure vessel to resist damage by low-speed impacts (e.g., dropping of tools on the vessel or bumping of the vessel against hard objects during installation and use) without significantly increasing the weight of the vessel. While the basic concept of hybridizing fibers in filament-wound structures is not new, the use of hybridization to increase resistance to impacts is an innovation, and can be expected to be of interest in the composite-pressure-vessel industry. The precise types and the proportions of the high-strength carbon fibers and the PBO fibers in the hybrid are chosen, along with the filament-winding pattern, to maximize the advantageous effects and minimize the disadvantageous effects of each material. In particular, one seeks to (1) take advantage of the ability of the carbon fibers to resist stress rupture while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to impact damage and (2) take advantage of the toughness of the PBO fibers while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to stress rupture. Experiments on prototype vessels fabricated according to this concept have shown promising results. At the time of reporting the information for this article, research toward understanding and optimizing the performances of PBO fibers so as to minimize their contribution to vulnerability of the pressure vessel to stress rupture had yet to be performed.

  11. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    characterized by the accumulation of marine sediments and the later by mountain building and erosion. The later period began with folding and elevation in late Cretaceous or early Eocene time, followed by overthrust faulting and the intrusion of the Boulder batholith. Next, there ensued a period of crustal stability, during which erosion reduced the region to a surface of low relief and cut away at least 10,000 feet of strata in the area north of Helena. In Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene (?) time sediments composed of land waste and volcanic ash were deposited, and this event was followed by warping and faulting that elevated the present mountains. During Pliocene and Pleistocene time the mountains were maturely dissected, and in middle and late Pleistocene time local glaciers formed in the higher mountains and large valley glaciers invaded the extreme northern part of the region. The ore deposits include lodes and placers that have yielded gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc to a value of at least $176,860,000. The placers were formed mostly during interglacial stages of the Pleistocene. They have been almost entirely exhausted. Most of the lodes are classified as regards age in two groups, an older and a younger. The older lodes are related in origin to the Boulder batholith or some of the neighboring intrusive granitic bodies and were probably formed during early Eocene time. The younger lodes were formed after dacite of probable Miocene age was erupted. They are possibly related in origin to some unexposed intrusive granitic rock. For convenience in description the region is divided into three parts districts north of Helena, districts in the Belt Mountains, and districts south of Helena. The districts north of Helena include a 50-mile stretch of the Continental Divide that forms a broad ridge surmounted with considerable areas of flat or gently sloping surface at a general altitude of 7,000 feet. Narrow valleys 1,000 to 2,000 feet deep are cut into this surface and lead

  12. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  13. New quinoline di-Mannich base compounds with greater antimalarial activity than chloroquine, amodiaquine, or pyronaridine.

    PubMed Central

    Kotecka, B M; Barlin, G B; Edstein, M D; Rieckmann, K H

    1997-01-01

    We have compared the ex vivo antimalarial activity of 12 new quinoline di-Mannich base compounds containing the 7-dichloroquinoline or 7-trifluoromethylquinoline nucleus with amodiaquine, chloroquine, and pyronaridine using the Saimiri-bioassay model. Each compound was administered orally (30 mg/kg of body weight) to three or more noninfected Saimiri sciureus monkeys, and serum samples were collected at various times after drug administration and serially diluted with drug-free (control) serum. In vitro activity against the multidrug-resistant K1 isolate of Plasmodium falciparum was determined in serum samples by measuring the maximum inhibitory dilution at which the treated monkey serum inhibited schizont maturation in vitro. Of the 12 Mannich bases tested, 8 were associated with levels of ex vivo antimalarial activity in serum greater than those of amodiaquine, chloroquine, or pyronaridine 1 to 7 days after drug administration. Further studies were carried out with four of these compounds, and the results showed that the areas under the serum drug concentration-time curves for the four compounds were between 7- and 26-fold greater than that obtained for pyronaridine. Activity against four multidrug-resistant strains of P. falciparum was also much greater in serum samples collected from monkeys after administration of these four compounds than in serum samples collected after administration of pyronaridine or chloroquine. These findings suggest that these four quinoline Mannich base compounds possess a very marked and prolonged antimalarial activity and that further studies should be performed to determine their value as antimalarial drugs. PMID:9174201

  14. Remote monitoring of parental incubation conditions in the greater sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Hatfield, J.; Howey, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    To monitor incubation conditions in nests of greater sandhill cranes, a radiotransmitting egg was built using six temperature sensors, a position sensor, and a light sensor. Sensor readings were received, along with time of observations, and stored in a computer. The egg was used to monitor incubation in nests of six pairs of cranes during 1987 and 1988. Ambient temperature was also measured. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to relate highest egg temperature, core egg temperature, and lowest egg temperature to ambient temperature, time since the egg was last turned, and time since the beginning of incubation. Ambient temperature had the greatest effect on egg temperature (P 0.0001), followed by the time since the beginning of incubation and time since the egg was last turned. Pair effect, the class variable in the ANCOVA. was also very significant (P < 0.0001). A nine-term Fourier series was used to estimate the average core egg temperature versus time of day and was found to fit the data well (r2 = 0.94). The Fourier series will be used to run a mechanical incubator to simulate natural incubation conditions for cranes.

  15. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st century.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anthony L; Turner, Monica G; Smithwick, Erica A H; Romme, William H; Ryan, Michael G

    2011-08-09

    Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. We considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) (Wyoming), a large wildland ecosystem dominated by conifer forests and characterized by infrequent, high-severity fire. We developed a suite of statistical models that related monthly climate data (1972-1999) to the occurrence and size of fires >200 ha in the northern Rocky Mountains; these models were cross-validated and then used with downscaled (~12 km × 12 km) climate projections from three global climate models to predict fire occurrence and area burned in the GYE through 2099. All models predicted substantial increases in fire by midcentury, with fire rotation (the time to burn an area equal to the landscape area) reduced to <30 y from the historical 100-300 y for most of the GYE. Years without large fires were common historically but are expected to become rare as annual area burned and the frequency of regionally synchronous fires increase. Our findings suggest a shift to novel fire-climate-vegetation relationships in Greater Yellowstone by midcentury because fire frequency and extent would be inconsistent with persistence of the current suite of conifer species. The predicted new fire regime would transform the flora, fauna, and ecosystem processes in this landscape and may indicate similar changes for other subalpine forests.

  16. Individuals with low working memory spans show greater interference from irrelevant information because of poor source monitoring, not greater activation.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Rose, Nathan S; Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Although individuals with high and low working memory (WM) span appear to differ in the extent to which irrelevant information interferes with their performance on WM tasks, the locus of this interference is not clear. The present study investigated whether, when performing a WM task, high- and low-span individuals differ in the activation of formerly relevant, but now irrelevant items, and/or in their ability to correctly identify such irrelevant items. This was done in two experiments, both of which used modified complex WM span tasks. In Experiment 1, the span task included an embedded lexical decision task designed to obtain an implicit measure of the activation of both currently and formerly relevant items. In Experiment 2, the span task included an embedded recognition judgment task designed to obtain an explicit measure of both item and source recognition ability. The results of these experiments indicate that low-span individuals do not hold irrelevant information in a more active state in memory than high-span individuals, but rather that low-span individuals are significantly poorer at identifying such information as irrelevant at the time of retrieval. These results suggest that differences in the ability to monitor the source of information, rather than differences in the activation of irrelevant information, are the more important determinant of performance on WM tasks.

  17. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  18. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    PubMed

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2016-07-14

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants (N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  19. Effects of environmental factors on incubation patterns of Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Birds in which only one sex incubates the eggs are often faced with a direct conflict between foraging to meet metabolic needs and incubation. Knowledge of environmental and ecological factors that shape life-history strategies of incubation is limited. We used continuous videography to make precise measurements of female Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) incubation constancy (percentage of time spent at the nest in a 24-hour period) and recess duration. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate incubation patterns in relation to grouse age, timing of incubation, raven abundance, microhabitat, weather, and food availability. Overall, sage-grouse females showed an incubation constancy of 96% and a distinctive bimodal distribution of brief incubation recesses that peaked at sunset and 30 min prior to sunrise. Grouse typically returned to their nests during low light conditions. Incubation constancy of yearlings was lower than that of adults, particularly in the later stages of incubation. Yearlings spent more time away from nests later in the morning and earlier in the evening compared to adults. Video images revealed that nearly all predation events by Common Ravens (Corvus corax), the most frequently recorded predator at sage-grouse nests, took place during mornings and evenings after sunrise and before sunset, respectively. These were the times of the day when sage-grouse typically returned from incubation recesses. Recess duration was negatively related to raven abundance. We found evidence that incubation constancy increased with greater visual obstruction, usually from vegetation, of nests. An understanding of how incubation patterns relate to environmental factors will help managers make decisions aimed at increasing productivity through successful incubation.

  20. A 2-Year Psychological Autopsy Study of Completed Suicides in the Athens Greater Area, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Lykouras, Lefteris; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area using the psychological autopsy method for the first time in Greece. Methods We studied all recorded cases of completed suicide for the 2-year time period November 2007-October 2009 collecting data from the victims' forensic records as well as from the completion of a psychological autopsy questionnaire. Results 335 persons were recorded as suicide victims. We contacted relatives of 256 victims interviewing those of 248 of them (96.9%). The differences regarding sex, marital and employment status between our sample and the general population were statistically significant (p<0.001). The male/female ratio was 3:1. Comparatively more victims were divorced, separated or single and a greater proportion were pensioners or unemployed. 26.0% of the victims had history of prior attempts (64.4% once, 20.3% twice and 15.3% more times). 42.6% were taking psychiatric medication-significantly more women than men according to blood tests; 14.2% had been hospitalized in a psychiatric clinic the year prior to their death. 84.8% have deceased at the place of suicide and 15.2% died in the hospital; 80.3% died indoors and 19.7% outdoors. Men died primarily by hanging or shooting by a firearm while women preferred jumping from height instead (p<0.001). As many as 48.8% had expressed their intention to die to their relatives; 26.6% left a suicide note. Conclusion Our study has shown that the psychological autopsy method is applicable and widely accepted yielding results comparable to the international literature. Specific parameters associated with suicide have been studied for the first time in Greece. PMID:25866522

  1. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R.

    2015-01-01

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately. PMID:26354026

  2. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R

    2015-09-10

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately.

  3. San Andreas Fault, California, M 5.5 or greater Earthquakes 1800-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.; Reichle, M.; Hallstrom, C.

    2001-12-01

    The San Andreas fault has been the most significant source of major California earthquakes since 1800. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7.2 or greater in two pairs on two major regions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Central to Southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. And a pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Northern region, where the 1906 faulting overlapped the 1838 earthquake faulting. The 1812 earthquake resulted from a rupture of up to about 200 km, from the region of Cajon Pass to as far as about 50 km west of Fort Tejon (Sieh and others, 1989). This rupture is the probable source of both the destructive 1812.12.8 "San Juan Capistrano" and the 1812.12.21 "Santa Barbara Channel" earthquakes. The 1838 earthquake's damage effects throughout the Bay area, from San Francisco to Santa Clara Valley and Monterey, were unequalled by any Bay area earthquake other than the 1906 event. The mainshock's effects, and numerous strong probable aftershocks in the San Juan Bautista vicinity in the following three years, suggest 1838 faulting from San Francisco to San Juan Bautista, and M about 7.4. The 630 km length of the San Andreas fault between San Francisco and Cajon Pass ruptured in the 1838 and 1857 earthquakes, except for about 75 km between Bitterwater and San Juan Bautista. The 1840-1841 probable aftershocks of the 1838 event occurred near San Juan Bautista, and the foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1857 event occurred near Bitterwater. In the Bitterwater area, strong earthquakes continued to occur until the 1885 earthquake of M 6.5. Near Parkfield, 40 to 70 km southeast of Bitterwater, M 5.5 or greater earthquakes have occurred from the 1870s to the 1960s. In the total Bitterwater to Parkfield zone bracketing the northern end of the 1857 rupture, the seismicity and moment release has decreased steadily since 1857, and has tended to migrate southeastward with time. The

  4. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 5/10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Wide shot of impact, front/port side showing a large volume of AMK flowing over the fuselage, and the effects on the occupants. With narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  5. This Week @ NASA - 11/5/10

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Postponement of Mission STS-133 tops the billboard on This Week @ NASA. Also, EPOXI meets a Comet, NASA and LEGO build a future together, Administrator Bolden heralds ten years of ISS, KSC Twee...

  6. nem_spread Ver. 5.10

    SciTech Connect

    HENNIGAN, GARY; SHADID, JOHN; SJAARDEMA, GREGORY; HUTCHINSON, SCOTT

    2009-06-08

    Nem_spread reads it's input command file (default name nem_spread.inp), takes the named ExodusII geometry definition and spreads out the geometry (and optionally results) contained in that file out to a parallel disk system. The decomposition is taken from a scalar Nemesis load balance file generated by the companion utility nem_slice.

  7. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  8. Warming-induced reductions in body size are greater in aquatic than terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Atkinson, David

    2012-11-20

    Most ectothermic organisms mature at smaller body sizes when reared in warmer conditions. This phenotypically plastic response, known as the "temperature-size rule" (TSR), is one of the most taxonomically widespread patterns in biology. However, the TSR remains a longstanding life-history puzzle for which no dominant driver has been found. We propose that oxygen supply plays a central role in explaining the magnitude of ectothermic temperature-size responses. Given the much lower oxygen availability and greater effort required to increase uptake in water vs. air, we predict that the TSR in aquatic organisms, especially larger species with lower surface area-body mass ratios, will be stronger than in terrestrial organisms. We performed a meta-analysis of 1,890 body mass responses to temperature in controlled experiments on 169 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species. This reveals that the strength of the temperature-size response is greater in aquatic than terrestrial species. In animal species of ∼100 mg dry mass, the temperature-size response of aquatic organisms is 10 times greater than in terrestrial organisms (-5.0% °C(-1) vs. -0.5% °C(-1)). Moreover, although the size response of small (<0.1 mg dry mass) aquatic and terrestrial species is similar, increases in species size cause the response to become increasingly negative in aquatic species, as predicted, but on average less negative in terrestrial species. These results support oxygen as a major driver of temperature-size responses in aquatic organisms. Further, the environment-dependent differences parallel latitudinal body size clines, and will influence predicted impacts of climate warming on food production, community structure, and food-web dynamics.

  9. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  11. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  12. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  13. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  14. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  15. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Fieo, Robert A.; O’Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  16. Trihalomethanes in drinking water of greater Québec region (Canada): occurrence, variations and modelling.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Manuel J; Vinette, Yannick; Sérodes, Jean-B; Bouchard, Christian

    2003-11-01

    The levels of trihalomethanes (THMs)--the main species of by-product from water chlorination--were monitored in the distribution systems of the five major drinking water utilities of the greater area of Québec City in order to investigate and model their occurrence on a spatial and seasonal basis. Data for THMs and other water quality and operational parameters associated with their formation were generated through a 16 month sampling program involving several sites representing variable water residence times, from the plant to the system extremity. The results demonstrate that the differences in measured THM levels between the five utilities are mainly due to the variable quality of raw waters, the type of water treatment process being used and the type and levels of applied disinfectant. Depending on the utility, average THM levels were from 1.3 to 2.5 times higher in the system extremities than in the water leaving the treatment plant. Also, average levels of THMs measured in summer at the distribution system extremities were, depending on the utility, from 2.5 to 5 times higher than the average levels measured in winter. The seasonal differences were found to be significantly greater than those observed by others in water utilities in the United States and Europe and are explained in large part by the considerable changes, over the year, in the quality and temperature of surface waters in Southern Quebec. For the live utilities under study, multivariate regression models were developed in order to predict spatial and seasonal variations of THMs. Both residual chlorine demand and temperature were found to be better, statistically, as predictors for THM occurrence. The usefulness of the developed models for routine and long term water quality management, as well as for assessment of human exposure to THMs, are also discussed.

  17. Collective migration exhibits greater sensitivity but slower dynamics of alignment to applied electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Mark L.; Asthagiri, Anand R.

    2015-01-01

    During development and disease, cells migrate collectively in response to gradients in physical, chemical and electrical cues. Despite its physiological significance and potential therapeutic applications, electrotactic collective cell movement is relatively less well understood. Here, we analyze the combined effect of intercellular interactions and electric fields on the directional migration of non-transformed mammary epithelial cells, MCF-10A. Our data show that clustered cells exhibit greater sensitivity to applied electric fields but align more slowly than isolated cells. Clustered cells achieve half-maximal directedness with an electric field that is 50% weaker than that required by isolated cells; however, clustered cells take ∼2-4 fold longer to align. This trade-off in greater sensitivity and slower dynamics correlates with the slower speed and intrinsic directedness of collective movement even in the absence of an electric field. Whereas isolated cells exhibit a persistent random walk, the trajectories of clustered cells are more ballistic as evidenced by the superlinear dependence of their mean square displacement on time. Thus, intrinsically-directed, slower clustered cells take longer to redirect and align with an electric field. These findings help to define the operating space and the engineering trade-offs for using electric fields to affect cell movement in biomedical applications. PMID:26692908

  18. Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben

    2003-03-01

    Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning/commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information--and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information--or none--is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.

  19. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  20. Greater trochanter bursitis pain syndrome in females with chronic low back pain and sciatica.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Fares; Potoupnis, Michael; Kapetanos, George

    2004-10-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a clinical condition which simulates major hip diseases and low back pain, it may also mimic nerve root pressure syndrome. Patients with greater trochanteric bursitis pain syndrome (GTBPS) usually suffer from pain radiating to the posterolateral aspect of the thigh, paraesthesiae in the legs, and tenderness over the iliotibial tract.. The purpose of this study is to indicate the similarity between the clinical features of the GTBPS and those of chronic low back pain, and to highlight the importance of diagnosing GTBPS in patients complaining of low back conditions. Three hundred female patients were included in this prospective study. All patients complained about chronic low back pain or sciatica and had a failed long term conservative treatment. Local injection of the tender peritrochanteric area was only done in half of the patients (group 1). Patients were required to answer the Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire during all periods of follow-up. Patients of group 1 had a better clinical outcome (p < 0.0005) than the patients in group 2 where no injection was done. We conclude that greater trochanter bursitis pain syndrome is a frequent syndrome which may be associated with low back symptoms. Patients with a long standing history of low back pain and sciatica should be routinely checked for GTBPS. GTBPS is easy to diagnose and can be treated. Peritrochanteric infiltration with glucocorticoids mixed with 2% lidocaine relieves patients from their symptoms for a long period of time. Recurrence should always be expected, but treatment may be repeated.

  1. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  2. ENSO-Related Variability in Wave Climate Drives Greater Erosion Potential on Central Pacific Atolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific over a periodic time scale of 2-7 years. Despite the importance of this climate mode in forcing storm generation and trade wind variability, its impact on the wave climate incident on central Pacific atolls has not been addressed. We used the NOAA Wavewatch III CFSR reanalysis hindcasts (1979-2007) to examine the influence of ENSO on sediment mobility and transport at Kwajalein Atoll (8.8°N, 167.7°E). We found that during El Nino event years, easterly trade winds incident on the atoll weakened by 4% compared to normal years and 17% relative to La Nina event years. Despite this decrease in wind strength, significant wave heights incident on the atoll were 3-4% greater during El Nino event years. Using machine learning to partition these waves revealed that the greater El Nino wave heights originated mainly from greater storm winds near the atoll. The southeastern shift in tropical cyclone genesis location during El Nino years forced these storm winds and contributed to the 7% and 16% increases in annual wave energy relative to normal and La Nina years, respectively. Using nested SWAN and XBeach models we determined that the additional wave energy during El Nino event years significantly increased potential sediment mobility at Kwajalein Atoll and led to greater net offshore transport on its most populous island. The larger storm waves likely deplete ocean-facing beaches and reef flats of sediment, but increase the supply of sediment to the atoll lagoon across open reef platforms that are not supporting islands. We discuss further explicit modelling of storms passing over the atoll to elucidate the confounding role of storm surge on the net erosional/depositional effects of these waves. Extrapolating our results to recent Wavewatch III forecasts leads us to conclude that climate change-linked increases in wave height and storm wave energy will increase erosion on

  3. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    assessment, inclusion of dose calculations from collocated low-level waste in the boreholes for the individual protection requirements, further assessments of engineered barriers and conditions associated with the assurance requirements, and expansion of documentation provided for assessing the groundwater protection requirements. The Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group approved the performance assessment for Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in 2001 and did not approve the Application of the Assurance Requirements. Remaining issues concerned with engineered barriers and the multiple aspects of the Assurance Requirements will be resolved at the time of closure of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. This is the first completion and acceptance of a performance assessment for transuranic materials under the U.S. Department of Energy self-regulation. The Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes are only the second waste disposal configuration to meet the safety regulatory requirements of 40 CFR 191.

  4. Conversion of 5(10)-oestrene-3 beta,17 beta-diol to 19-nor-4-ene-3-ketosteroids by luteal cells in vitro: possible involvement of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Tekpetey, F R; Armstrong, D T; Khalil, M W

    1991-05-01

    We have previously suggested that in porcine granulosa cells, a putative intermediate, 5(10)-oestrene-3,17-dione is involved in 4-oestrene-3,17-dione (19-norandrostenedione; 19-norA) and 4-oestren-17 beta-ol-3-one (19-nortestosterone: 19-norT) formation from C19 aromatizable androgens. In this study, luteal cells prepared from porcine, bovine and rat corpora lutea by centrifugal elutriation were used as a source of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase in order to investigate the role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of 19-norsteroids. Small porcine luteal cells made mainly 19-norT and large porcine luteal cells 19-norA from 5(10)-oestrene-3 beta,17 beta-diol, the reduced product of the putative intermediate 5(10)-oestrene-3,17-dione. However, neither small nor large cells metabolized androstenedione to 19-norsteroids. Serum and serum plus LH significantly stimulated formation of both 19-norA and 19-norT from 5(10)-oestrene-3 beta,17 beta-diol, compared with controls. Inhibitors of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (trilostane and cyanoketone) significantly reduced formation of 19-norT in small porcine luteal cells and 19-norA in large porcine luteal cells, although they were effective at different concentrations in each cell type. In parallel incubations, formation of [4-14C]androstenedione from added [4-14C]dehydroepiandrosterone was also inhibited by cyanoketone in both small and large porcine luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner; however, trilostane (up to 100 mumol/l) did not inhibit androstenedione formation in large porcine luteal cells. In addition, the decrease in progesterone synthesis induced by trilostane and cyanoketone (100 mumol/l each) was accompanied by a parallel accumulation of pregnenolone in both cell types. These results suggest that 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase, or a closely related enzyme, present in small and large porcine luteal cells can convert added 5(10)-3 beta-hydroxysteroids into 19-nor-4

  5. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  6. Greater specificity of sensorimotor learning in the elderly when acquiring an interceptive task.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luis Augusto; Lima, Elke dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    In this investigation we assessed the extent to which young and elderly individuals become dependent on the specific visual situation present during practice of an interceptive task. Young and elderly participants practiced extensively a task of intercepting a virtually moving target under full vision or visual occlusion of the last 600 ms of target displacement. Before and after practice they were assessed in four visual conditions varying the time interval of visual display. The results showed that the elderly practicing under full vision had a progressive increase of temporal errors as a function of the period of visual occlusion after task acquisition. The elderly practicing under visual occlusion, conversely, achieved improved performance only in the visual condition experienced during task acquisition. Young individuals showed greater adaptability, presenting similar performance across visual conditions. Development of specific visuomotor integration only for the elderly seems to be related with the higher status that vision holds for movement control at this age.

  7. Residential characteristics as correlates of occupants’ health in the greater Accra region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing has been a relatively neglected site for public health action. However, it remains a place where human beings spend the most part of their day. As a result, the quality of housing has consequences for human health. We investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Methods A cross sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted among 500 informed adults aged 18 years and above to investigate residential characteristics associated with self-rated occupant health in five neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Correlates of occupant rated health were determined using Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results Forty-two per cent of houses were rented, 44% required repair and 46% shared sanitation facilities. One in twenty occupants reported poor health. Gender, employment status, income, ventilation, house wall material, odours, stale air, privacy, shared facilities, hand washing facility, type of house and house repair status were associated with poor health in the bivariate analysis. Only two variables were independently associated with poor self-rated health: occupants who lacked privacy were eight times more likely to report poor self-rated health when compared to peers who did not lack privacy [OR = 8.16, 95% CI 2.86-23.26] and women were three times more likely than men to report poor health [OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.35]. Conclusion The results provide further evidence of housing as a determinant of occupants’ health, and identify housing characteristics and living conditions as issues for public health action in Ghana. PMID:24612884

  8. 21 CFR 1312.15 - Shipments in greater or less amount than authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments in greater or less amount than... in greater or less amount than authorized. (a) If the shipment made under an import permit is greater... amount by less than 1 percent may be released to the importer upon the filing by him of an amended...

  9. Editorial Commentary: Save the Subchondral Bone in Rotator Cuff Repair Greater Tuberosity Preparation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-04-01

    Results from a recent investigation into the practice of greater tuberosity decortication before rotator cuff repair showed that decortication significantly reduced the ultimate failure load. Although the potential of greater tuberosity treatment for solving the rotator cuff healing quandary still exists, the biomechanics are clear, one should not decorticate the greater tuberosity to cancellous bone.

  10. 75 FR 42079 - Treatment of Letters Stating That the USPTO's Patent Term Adjustment Determination Is Greater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Determination Is Greater Than What the Applicant or Patentee Believes Is Appropriate AGENCY: United States... notification, or patent, is greater than what the applicant or patentee believes is appropriate. The USPTO will... notification, or patent is greater than what the applicant or patentee believes is appropriate. DATES:...

  11. A delay discounting task produces a greater likelihood of waiting than a deferred gratification task.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael E; McCoy, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    A first-person-shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes to compare the behavioral patterns produced by deferred gratification (DG) and delay discounting (DD) tasks. Participants played a game in which they could either fire their weapon sooner and do a small amount of damage or wait a few seconds to fire their weapon and do a larger amount of damage. For the DD task, a failure to fire within one second committed the player to waiting for the larger later outcome thus removing the opportunity to defect during the delay that is present in the DG task. The incentive structure changed multiple times during game play so that at times the optimal decision was to choose the smaller sooner outcome whereas at other times the optimal decision was to wait for the larger later outcome. Players assigned to the DD task showed a greater tendency to wait and lower sensitivity to the changing incentives.

  12. Greater Avoidance of a Heroin-Paired Taste Cue is Associated with Greater Escalation of Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imperio, Caesar G.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2015-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse affecting over half of its users. Therefore, modeling individual differences in addiction-like behavior is needed to better reflect the human condition. In a rodent model, avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue is associated with greater cocaine seeking and taking. Here, we tested whether rats would avoid a saccharin cue when paired with the opportunity to self-administer heroin and whether the rats that most greatly avoid the heroin-paired taste cue would exhibit the greatest drug escalation over time, the greatest willingness to work for drug, and the greatest heroin-induced relapse. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 3 h (short access) or 6 h (extended access). Following 16 – 18 pairings, terminal saccharin intake was used to categorize the rats into small (>200 licks/5min) or large (<200 licks/5min) suppressors and responding for drug was examined accordingly. Only 5% of the short access rats reached the criteria for large suppressors. This large suppressor did not differ from the small suppressors in drug taking behavior. Conversely, 50% of the extended access saccharin-heroin rats were large suppressors and showed the largest escalation of drug intake, drug-loading behavior, and the greatest relapse-like behaviors. Extended access small suppressors displayed drug-taking behaviors that were similar to rats in the short access heroin condition. Avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual differences in addiction-like behavior for heroin using extended drug access. PMID:26214212

  13. Greater avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue is associated with greater escalation of heroin self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; Grigson, Patricia S

    2015-08-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse affecting over half of its users. Therefore, modeling individual differences in addiction-like behavior is needed to better reflect the human condition. In a rodent model, avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue is associated with greater cocaine seeking and taking. Here, we tested whether rats would avoid a saccharin cue when paired with the opportunity to self-administer heroin and whether the rats that most greatly avoid the heroin-paired taste cue would exhibit the greatest drug escalation over time, the greatest willingness to work for drug, and the greatest heroin-induced relapse. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 3 hr (short access) or 6 hr (extended access). Following 16 to 18 pairings, terminal saccharin intake was used to categorize the rats into small (>200 licks/5min) or large (<200 licks/5min) suppressors and responding for drug was examined accordingly. Only 5% of the short access rats reached the criteria for large suppressors. This large suppressor did not differ from the small suppressors in drug-taking behavior. On the other hand, 50% of the extended access saccharin-heroin rats were large suppressors and showed the largest escalation of drug intake, drug-loading behavior, and the greatest relapse-like behaviors. Extended access small suppressors displayed drug-taking behaviors that were similar to rats in the short access heroin condition. Avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual differences in addiction-like behavior for heroin using extended drug access.

  14. Microabrasion: effect of time, number of applications, and pressure on enamel loss.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, D P; Howes, R I; Hubler, P M

    1995-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion using hydrochloric acid and pumice is an effective method to remove superficial enamel discoloration. This procedure is used in many dental offices but little is known about how different treatment combinations of hand applicator pressure on the tooth, number of applications, and duration of application affect the amount of enamel loss. This investigation studied variables of time, number of applications, and pressure individually and in combination. Twenty-seven extracted premolars were hand rubbed with an 18% HCL-pumice mixture at time intervals of 5, 10, and 20 sec and 5, 10, and 15 applications under pressures of 10, 20, and 30 g. Fifty-four longitudinal sections were cut from the treated sections and measured for enamel loss (P < 0.05). Enamel loss significantly increased as each variable separately increased. When two variables increased at the same time, a greater amount of enamel loss occurred than when one increased. The combination of 10 ten-sec applications or 15 five-sec applications with 20 g pressure resulted in enamel loss of slightly less than 250 microns.

  15. Source identification and apportionment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in iron and steel scrap smelting factory environment using PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Olise, Felix S; Hopke, Philip K

    2016-10-01

    To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2.5-10 for the production, outside M1 and outside M2 sites, respectively. The same size resolved data set were used as input for the positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component factor analysis (PCFA), and Unmix (UNMIX) receptor modeling in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter and their contribution. The PMF resolved four sources with their respective contributions were metal processing (33 %), e-waste (33 %), diesel emission (22 %) and soil (12 %) for PM2.5, and coking (50 %), soil (29 %), metal processing (16 %) and diesel combustion (5 %) for PM2.5-10. PCFA identified soil, metal processing, Pb source, and diesel combustion contributing 45, 41, 9, and 5 %, respectively to PM2.5 while metal processing, soil, coal combustion and open burning contributed 43, 38, 12, and 7 %, respectively to the PM2.5-10. Also, UNMIX identified metal processing, soil, and diesel emission with 43, 42 and 15 % contributions, respectively for the fine fraction, and metal processing (71 %), soil (21 %) and unidentified source (1 %) for the coarse fraction. The study concluded that metal processing and e-waste are the major sources contributing to the fine fraction while coking and soil contributed to the coarse fraction within the factory environment. The application of PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models improved the source identification and apportionment of particulate matter drive in the study area.

  16. A novel synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a potential dopamine D1/D2 agonist: 1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline-6,7-diol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Dijkstra, Durk; de Vries, Jan B; Wikström, Håkan V

    2008-03-15

    Previously, we have demonstrated that enone prodrugs of dopaminergic catecholamines represent a new type of dopamine (DA) agonist. Trans-1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline-6,7-diol (TL-334), the active form of trans-1-propyl-2,3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-1H-benzo[g]quinolin-6-one (GMC-6650), in vivo showed an extremely potent dopaminergic activity. Here, we report a novel synthesis and a pharmacological evaluation of TL-334 by means of microdialysis.

  17. Woody climbers show greater population genetic differentiation than trees: Insights into the link between ecological traits and diversification.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Saldaña, Alfredo; Ríos, Rodrigo S

    2016-12-01

    The climbing habit is a key innovation in plants: climbing taxa have higher species richness than nonclimbing sister groups. We evaluated the hypothesis that climbing plant species show greater among-population genetic differentiation than nonclimber species. We compared the among-population genetic distance in woody climbers (eight species, 30 populations) and trees (seven species, 29 populations) coexisting in nine communities in a temperate rainforest. We also compared within-population genetic diversity in co-occurring woody climbers and trees in two communities. Mean genetic distance between populations of climbers was twice that of trees. Isolation by distance (increase in genetic distance with geographic distance) was greater for climbers. Climbers and trees showed similar within-population genetic diversity. Our longevity estimate suggested that climbers had shorter generation times, while other biological features often associated with diversification (dispersal and pollination syndromes, mating system, size, and metabolic rate) did not show significant differences between groups. We hypothesize that the greater population differentiation in climbers could result from greater evolutionary responses to local selection acting on initially higher within-population genetic diversity, which could be driven by neutral processes associated with shorter generation times. Increased population genetic differentiation could be incorporated as another line of evidence when testing for key innovations.

  18. Seafloor spreading and microcontinent formation during Mesozoic breakup between Australia and Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Australia as part of greater India during initial breakup at ~130 Ma. Seafloor spreading in the PAP continued during the early part of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (until approximately 108 Ma assuming a constant spreading rate inferred from the M-series anomalies). A westward jump in the Australia-India plate boundary led to cessation of spreading in the PAP and the rifting of the BK and GDK from Greater India. Satellite-derived gravity anomalies and swath bathymetry profiles provide evidence for ridge propagation events within the PAP ocean crust, occurring during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. This series of westwards jumps of the India-Australia plate boundary suggests a strong influence of the Kerguelen hotspot, located beneath eastern greater India at this time.

  19. Genetic structure among greater white-fronted goose populations of the Pacific Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Wilson, Robert E.; Talbot, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure of populations in the wild is essential for long-term conservation and stewardship in the face of environmental change. Knowledge of the present-day distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) of a species is especially important for organisms that are exploited or utilize habitats that may be jeopardized by human intervention, including climate change. Here, we describe mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic (microsatellite) diversity among three populations of a migratory bird, the greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), which breeds discontinuously in western and southwestern Alaska and winters in the Pacific Flyway of North America. Significant genetic structure was evident at both marker types. All three populations were differentiated for mtDNA, whereas microsatellite analysis only differentiated geese from the Cook Inlet Basin. In sexual reproducing species, nonrandom mate selection, when occurring in concert with fine-scale resource partitioning, can lead to phenotypic and genetic divergence as we observed in our study. If mate selection does not occur at the time of reproduction, which is not uncommon in long-lived organisms, then mechanisms influencing the true availability of potential mates may be obscured, and the degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity may appear incongruous with presumed patterns of gene flow. Previous investigations revealed population-specific behavioral, temporal, and spatial mechanisms that likely influence the amount of gene flow measured among greater white-fronted goose populations. The degree of observed genetic structuring aligns well with our current understanding of population differences pertaining to seasonal movements, social structure, pairing behavior, and resource partitioning.

  20. Survival of greater white-fronted geese: Effects of year, season, sex, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Information regarding the magnitude and variation in survival rates is necessary for understanding the causes of large changes in population size. We examined survival of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in the Pacific Flyway during 1979-82. The population declined by 75% in the decade preceding our study but was stable during our investigation. Annual survival of adults (0.749, SE = 0.045) was 7% higher than during an earlier study. We developed a simple population model which suggests that recent (1985-96) survival rates may be as much as 10% higher in adults than the 1979-82 rate, which corresponds to population increases observed since 1985. Survival of adult females varied seasonally; monthly survival during a period of winter when no hunting or migration occurred was higher (0.986, SE = 0.015) than monthly survival at other times (0.964, SE = 0.006). Survival of adult males varied among years and with a general seasonal trend inverse to that for females. An index of body condition was positively related to survival of adult females in fall and spring, but not for adult males or immature geese. Monthly survival of immatures was lower during their first hunting season (0.886, SE = 0.026) than during all subsequent seasons (0.963, SE = 0.007). Annual survival of immatures beginning 1 October, immediately before the hunting season, was 0.471. Corresponding variations in survival rates, population numbers, and hunting regulations suggest that hunting may have influenced survival in this population of greater white-fronted geese.

  1. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans.

  2. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  3. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged < 10 sec. During agonistic encounters, heart rate exceeded 400 BPM; heart rates during social interactions were not predictable solely from postures, as heart rates were context-dependent, and were highest in initial encounters among individuals. Instantaneous measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  4. Effects of management and climate on elk brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Edwards, W.H.; Scurlock, B.M.; Maichak, E.J.; Rogerson, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Every winter, government agencies feed ???6000 metric tons (6 ?? 106 kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis in elk, and may be affected by climatic factors, such as snowpack. We assessed these possibilities using snowpack and feeding data from 1952 to 2006 and disease testing data from 1993 to 2006. Brucellosis seroprevalence was strongly correlated with the timing of the feeding season. Longer feeding seasons were associated with higher seroprevalence, but elk population size and density had only minor effects. In other words, the duration of host aggregation and whether it coincided with peak transmission periods was more important than just the host population size. Accurate modeling of disease transmission depends upon incorporating information on how host contact rates fluctuate over time relative to peak transmission periods. We also found that supplemental feeding seasons lasted longer during years with deeper snowpack. Therefore, milder winters and/or management strategies that reduce the length of the feeding season may reduce the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the elk populations of the southern GYE. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Electrophysiological evidence for greater attention to threat when cognitive control resources are depleted.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amanda; Mogg, Karin; de Fockert, Jan; Nielsen, Maria Kragh; Bradley, Brendan P

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the time course of attentional bias for threat-related (angry) facial expressions under conditions of high versus low cognitive (working memory) load. Event-related potential (ERP) and reaction time (RT) data were recorded while participants viewed pairs of faces (angry paired with neutral face) displayed for 500 ms and followed by a probe. Participants were required to respond to the probe while performing a concurrent task of holding in working memory a sequence of digits that were either in the same order (low memory load) or in a random mixed order (high memory load). The ERP results revealed that higher working memory load resulted in enhanced lateralized neural responses to threatening relative to neutral faces, consistent with greater initial orienting of attention to threatening faces (early N2pc: 180-252 ms) and enhanced maintenance of processing representations of threat (late N2pc, 252-320 ms; SPCN, 320-500 ms). The ERP indices showed significant positive relationships with each other, and also with the behavioral index of attentional bias to threat (reflected by faster RTs to probes replacing angry than neutral faces at 500 ms), although the latter index was not significantly influenced by memory load. Overall, the findings indicate that depletion of cognitive control resources, using a working memory manipulation, increases the capacity of task-irrelevant threat cues to capture and hold attention.

  6. The Association between Filial Piety and Perceived Stress among Chinese Older Adults in Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Zhang, Manrui

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceived stress influences the health and well-being of older adults. This study aims to examine the association between the expectation and the receipt of filial piety and perceived stress among U.S Chinese older adults. Methods Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based study of Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area. Perceived stress was assessed by the PSS-10 and was the dependent variable. Independent variables were the expectation and the receipt of filial piety examined in six domains. Negative Binomial Regression and Multivariable Logistic Regression analyses were conducted. Results Of the 3,159 Chinese older adults interviewed, the mean age was 72.8 (SD=8.3) and 58.9% were female. Compared with older adults who received a high level of filial piety, older adults who received a medium level of filial piety were 1.57 (1.29–1.93) times more likely to perceive stress as high, and older adults who received a low level of filial piety were 2.74 (2.26–3.33) times more likely to perceive stress as high, after controlling for the potential confounding variables. The expectation of filial piety was not significantly associated with perceived stress. Conclusion A low level of filial piety receipt may be a risk factor for perceived stress. Our findings suggest incorporating cultural contributors into the analyses of perceived stress. PMID:27642631

  7. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-03-22

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  8. Low self-esteem elicits greater mobilization of attentional resources toward emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijiang; Yang, Juan

    2013-08-26

    Previous findings are generally consistent with the notion that individuals with low self-esteem tends to easily orient their attention on negative stimuli. The main objective of the present study was to further investigate the time course of attention deployment to positive (happy) and negative (angry) facial expressions in visual probe task using event-related potentials (ERP) technology in 15 high versus 15 low self-esteem participants while they viewed pairs of faces (e.g., happy face paired with neutral face or angry face paired with neutral face) shown for 500 ms and followed by a probe. Behavioral results showed that individuals with low self-esteem simply had faster manual reaction times on the entire task. ERP results showed that individuals with low self-esteem, but not high self-esteem, displayed increased P1 and N1 activity to both happy and angry facial expression. These findings suggest that emotional stimuli (angry faces and happy faces) elicited greater mobilization of attentional resources in individuals with low self-esteem.

  9. Effects of management and climate on elk brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cross, Paul C; Edwards, William H; Scurlock, Brandon M; Maichak, Eric J; Rogerson, Jared D

    2007-06-01

    Every winter, government agencies feed approximately 6000 metric tons (6 x 10(6) kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis in elk, and may be affected by climatic factors, such as snowpack. We assessed these possibilities using snowpack and feeding data from 1952 to 2006 and disease testing data from 1993 to 2006. Brucellosis seroprevalence was strongly correlated with the timing of the feeding season. Longer feeding seasons were associated with higher seroprevalence, but elk population size and density had only minor effects. In other words, the duration of host aggregation and whether it coincided with peak transmission periods was more important than just the host population size. Accurate modeling of disease transmission depends upon incorporating information on how host contact rates fluctuate over time relative to peak transmission periods. We also found that supplemental feeding seasons lasted longer during years with deeper snowpack. Therefore, milder winters and/or management strategies that reduce the length of the feeding season may reduce the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the elk populations of the southern GYE.

  10. Quiet time observations of equatorially trapped megaelectronvolt radiation belt ions with nuclear charge Z greater than or equal to 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data from the equatorial satellite Explorer 45 were used to study ion fluxes during the geomagnetically quiescent period June 1-15, 1972. A heavy-ion solid-state ion detector system obtained count rates close to the equatorial plane in the energy passband 1.82-4.8 MeV per ion during a single satellite pass through the radiation belts. Fluxes of these ions are interpreted as oxygen ions and are found to maximize in the L shell range 3-3.5 with peak equatorially mirroring flux of 0.38 ions/(sq cm s sr keV). This peak is not as sharply confined in L shell as is the helium ion peak.

  11. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: application to the Llobregat River Basin.

    PubMed

    Aldekoa, Joana; Medici, Chiara; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Marcé, Rafael; Barceló, Damià; Francés, Félix

    2013-12-15

    The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results.

  12. Greater V˙O2peak is correlated with greater skeletal muscle deoxygenation amplitude and hemoglobin concentration within individual muscles during ramp-incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Okushima, Dai; Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; Rossiter, Harry B; Kondo, Narihiko; Bowen, T Scott; Amano, Tatsuro; Koga, Shunsaku

    2016-12-01

    It is axiomatic that greater aerobic fitness (V˙O2peak) derives from enhanced perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances across active muscles. However, it remains unknown how these conductances might be reflected by regional differences in fractional O2 extraction (i.e., deoxy [Hb+Mb] and tissue O2 saturation [StO2]) and diffusive O2 potential (i.e., total[Hb+Mb]) among muscles spatially heterogeneous in blood flow, fiber type, and recruitment (vastus lateralis, VL; rectus femoris, RF). Using quantitative time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy during ramp cycling in 24 young participants (V˙O2peak range: ~37.4-66.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)), we tested the hypotheses that (1) deoxy[Hb+Mb] and total[Hb+Mb] at V˙O2peak would be positively correlated with V˙O2peak in both VL and RF muscles; (2) the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) during submaximal exercise would not differ among subjects differing in V˙O2peak Peak deoxy [Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with V˙O2peak for both VL (r = 0.44 and -0.51) and RF (r = 0.49 and -0.49), whereas for total[Hb+Mb] this was true only for RF (r = 0.45). Baseline deoxy[Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with V˙O2peak only for RF (r = -0.50 and 0.54). In addition, the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes were not affected by aerobic fitness. In conclusion, while the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) did not differ between fitness groups the capacity to deoxygenate [Hb+Mb] (index of maximal fractional O2 extraction) correlated significantly with V˙O2peak in both RF and VL muscles. However, only in the RF did total[Hb+Mb] (index of diffusive O2 potential) relate to fitness.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17 -diol and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (17 alpha-(iodovinyl)estradiol derivatives) as high specific activity potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, I.; Ferreira, N.L.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Two 17 alpha-(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl estradiol derivatives 4b,d possessing high specific activity have been prepared and tested as potential radiopharmaceuticals. The use of the 3-acetyl derivatives 2c,e and the replacement of iodine monochloride with sodium iodide and Chloramine-T in THF/phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) permitted us to synthesize no-carrier-added (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-d iol (4b) and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (4d) with 50% radiochemical yield and high purity. Although the specific activity represents only half of the theoretical value in some cases, this modified approach is a substantial improvement over the previously published method. Our preliminary distribution studies indicate that although both 4b and 4d localize in the tissues known to have a large concentration of estrogen receptors, 4d accumulates in higher amounts in target tissues and provides a high target to nontarget ratio.

  14. Tectonic stratification and seismicity of the accretionary prism of the Azerbaijani part of Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizade, Akif; Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Fuad

    2013-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus has formed during last stage of the tectogenesis in a geodynamic condition of the lateral compression, peculiar to the zone pseudo-subduction interaction zone between Northern and Southern Caucasian continental microplates. Its present day structure formed as a result of horizontal movements of the different phases and sub-phases of Alpine tectogenesis (from late Cimmerian to Valakhian), and is generally regarded as zone where, along Zangi deformation, the insular arc formations of the Northern edge of South Caucasian microplate thrust under the Meso-Cenozoic substantial complex contained in the facials of marginal sea of Greater Caucasus. The last, in its turn, has been pushed beneath the North-Caucasus continental margin of the Scythian plate along Main Caucasus Thrust fault. Data collected from the territory of Azerbaijan and its' sector of the Caspian area stands for pseudo-subduction interaction of microplates which resulted in the tectonic stratification of the continental slope of Alpine formations, marginal sea and insular arc into different scale plates of south vergent combined into napping complexes. In the orogeny's present structure, tectonically stratified Alpine substantial complex of the marginal sea of Greater Caucasus bordered by Main Caucasus and Zangi thrusts, is represented by allochthonous south vergent accretionary prism in the front of first deformation with its' root buried under the southern border of Scythian plate. Allocated beneath mentioned prism, the autochthonous bedding is presented by Meso-Cenosoic complex of the Northern flank of the South-Caucasian miroplate, which is in its' turn crushed and lensed into southward shifted tectonic microplates gently overlapping the northern flank of Kura flexure along Ganykh-Ayrichay-Alyat thrust. Data of real-time GPS measurement of regional geodynamics indicates that pseudo-subduction of South Caucasian microplate under the North Caucasian microplate still continues during

  15. Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?

    PubMed

    Ruczyński, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

    2014-11-15

    Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor.

  16. Characterization of aerosol composition and sources in the greater Atlanta area by aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Suresh, S.; Weber, R. J. J.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    An important and uncertain aspect of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is that it is often associated with anthropogenic pollution tracers. Prior studies in Atlanta suggested that 70-80% of the carbon in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is modern, yet it is well-correlated with the anthropogenic CO. In this study, we deployed a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at multiple sites in different seasons (May 2012-February 2013) to characterize the sources and chemical composition of aerosols in the greater Atlanta area. This area in the SE US is ideal to investigate anthropogenic-biogenic interactions due to high natural and anthropogenic emissions. These extensive field studies are part of the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology study (SCAPE). The HR-ToF-AMS is deployed at four sites (~ 3 weeks each) in rotation: Jefferson Street (urban), Yorkville (rural), roadside site (near Highway 75/85), and Georgia Tech site (campus), with the urban and rural sites being part of the SEARCH network. We obtained seven HR-ToF-AMS datasets in total. During the entire measurement period, the ACSM is stationary at the GIT site and samples continuously. We perform positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the HR-ToF-AMS and ACSM data to deconvolve the OA into different components. While the diurnal cycle of the total OA is flat as what have been previously observed, the OA factors resolved by PMF analysis show distinctively different diurnal trends. We find that the "more-oxidized oxygenated OA" (MO-OOA) constitutes a major fraction of OA at all sites. In summer, OA is dominated by SOA, e.g., isoprene-OA and OOA with different degrees of oxidation. In contrary, biomass burning OA is more prominent in winter data. By comparing HR-ToF-AMS and ACSM data during the same sampling periods, we find that the aerosol time series are highly correlated, indicating the

  17. Intraseasonal variation in survival and probable causes of mortality in greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blomberg, Erik J.; Gibson, Daniel; Sedinger, James S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The mortality process is a key component of avian population dynamics, and understanding factors that affect mortality is central to grouse conservation. Populations of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus have declined across their range in western North America. We studied cause-specific mortality of radio-marked sage-grouse in Eureka County, Nevada, USA, during two seasons, nesting (2008-2012) and fall (2008-2010), when survival was known to be lower compared to other times of the year. We used known-fate and cumulative incidence function models to estimate weekly survival rates and cumulative risk of cause-specific mortalities, respectively. These methods allowed us to account for temporal variation in sample size and staggered entry of marked individuals into the sample to obtain robust estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality. We monitored 376 individual sage-grouse during the course of our study, and investigated 87 deaths. Predation was the major source of mortality, and accounted for 90% of all mortalities during our study. During the nesting season (1 April - 31 May), the cumulative risk of predation by raptors (0.10; 95% CI: 0.05-0.16) and mammals (0.08; 95% CI: 0.03-013) was relatively equal. In the fall (15 August - 31 October), the cumulative risk of mammal predation was greater (M(mam) = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04-0.19) than either predation by raptors (M(rap) = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00-0.10) or hunting harvest (M(hunt) = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.0-0.06). During both seasons, we observed relatively few additional sources of mortality (e.g. collision) and observed no evidence of disease-related mortality (e.g. West Nile Virus). In general, we found little evidence for intraseasonal temporal variation in survival, suggesting that the nesting and fall seasons represent biologically meaningful time intervals with respect to sage-grouse survival.

  18. GREAT-ER: a new tool for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins. Contribution to GREAT-ER #10.

    PubMed

    Schowanek, D; Fox, K; Holt, M; Schroeder, F R; Koch, V; Cassani, G; Matthies, M; Boeije, G; Vanrolleghem, P; Young, A; Morris, G; Gandolfi, C; Feijtel, T C

    2001-01-01

    The GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) project team has developed and validated an accurate aquatic chemical exposure prediction tool for use within environmental risk assessment schemes. The software system GREAT-ER 1.0 calculates the distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of consumer chemicals in surface waters, for individual river stretches as well as for entire catchments. The system uses an ARC/INFO-ArcView (ESRI) based Geographical Information System (GIS) for data storage and visualization, combined with simple mathematical models for prediction of chemical fate. At present, the system contains information for four catchments in Yorkshire, one catchment in Italy, and two in Germany, while other river basins are being added. Great-ER 1.0 has been validated by comparing simulations with the results of an extensive monitoring campaign for two 'down-the-drain' chemicals, i.e. the detergent ingredients boron and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS). GREAT-ER 1.0 is currently being expanded with models for the terrestrial (diffuse input), air and estaurine compartments.

  19. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra-kis-(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)tetra-zinc(II) dimethyl-formamide octa-solvate trihydrate at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M

    2011-01-22

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn(4)(C(40)H(24)N(8))(4)]·8C(3)H(7)NO·3H(2)O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol-ecules. The mol-ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra-mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol-ecule. The tetra-mer so formed exhibits mol-ecular S(4) symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl-formamide and water mol-ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed.

  20. Ring fusion strategy for the synthesis of anthra[2,3-d]oxazole-2-thione-5,10-dione homologues as DNA topoisomerase inhibitors and as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Liu, Fei-Lan; Lee, Chia-Chung; Chen, Tsung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Wei; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Ahmed Ali, Ahmed Atef; Chang, Deh-Ming; Huang, Hsu-Shan

    2014-11-24

    The efficient synthesis of mono-substituted anthraquinones and ring fusion into anthra[2,3-d]oxazole-2-thione-5,10-dione derivatives were developed, and all the compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against PC-3 cancer cell lines. Compounds 8, 14, 17 and 23 were selected by the NCI and 12, 17 and 19 were evaluated for topoisomerase I-mediated DNA relaxation. Among them, 17 appeared to be the most active compound of this series and not only showed higher inhibition when indicated from the low IC50 values against PC-3 cancer cell line but also attenuated the in vitro topoisomerase I-mediated DNA relaxation at low micromolar concentrations. All test compounds exhibited different cytostatic and cytotoxic activities for further developing potential anticancer drugs.

  1. A synchrotron study of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-cyanophenyl)porphyrinato-κ(4)N(5),N(10),N(15),N(20)]copper(II) nitrobenzene trisolvate at 80 K.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Goddard, Richard; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Oppel, Iris M

    2016-11-01

    Porphyrin assemblies display interesting photophysical properties and a relatively high thermal stability. Moreover, meso-functionalized porphyrins with virtually fourfold symmetry can be relatively readily synthesized from pyrrole and the appropriate aldehyde. A number of metallo derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-cyanophenyl)porphyrin, where the N atom of the linear cyano group can act both as a donor for coordination bonds or as an acceptor for hydrogen bonds, have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The supramolecular and structural chemistry of the corresponding 2- and 3-cyanophenyl isomers of the parent porphyrin, however, has remained largely unexplored. The crystal structure of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-cyanophenyl)porphyrinato]copper(II) (CuTCNPP) nitrobenzene trisolvate, [Cu(C48H24N8)]·3C6H5NO2, has been determined at 80 K by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. CuTCNPP exhibits a C2h-symmetric ααββ conformation, despite an unsymmetrical crystal environment, and is situated on a crystallographic centre of symmetry. The Cu(II) ion adopts a genuine square-planar coordination by the four pyrrole N atoms. The 24-membered porphyrin ring system shows no marked deviation from planarity. In the crystal, the CuTCNPP molecules and two nitrobenzene molecules are face-to-face stacked in an alternating fashion, resulting in corrugated layers. The remaining nitrobenzene guest molecule per CuTCNPP resides in the region between four neighbouring columnar stacks of CuTCNPP and sandwiched nitrobenzene molecules, and is disordered over four positions about a centre of symmetry.

  2. Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in the coastal urban agglomeration along the Western Taiwan Strait Region, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liqian; Niu, Zhenchuan; Chen, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling

    2014-04-01

    PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 aerosol samples were collected in four seasons during November 2010, January, April, and August 2011 at 13 urban/suburban sites and one background site in Western Taiwan Straits Region (WTSR), which is the coastal area with rapid urbanization, high population density, and deteriorating air quality. The 10 days average PM2.5 concentrations were 92.92, 51.96, 74.48, and 89.69 μg/m(3) in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, exceeding the Chinese ambient air quality standard for annual average value of PM2.5 (grade II, 35 μg/m(3)). Temporal distribution of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) in PM2.5 was coincident with PM2.5 mass concentrations, showing highest in spring, lowest in summer, and middle in autumn and winter. WSIIs took considerable proportion (42.2 ∼ 50.1 %) in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. Generally, urban/suburban sites had obviously suffered severer pollution of fine particles compared with the background site. The WSIIs concentrations and characteristics were closely related to the local anthropogenic activities and natural environment, urban sites in cities with higher urbanization level, or sites with weaker diffuse condition suffered severer WSIIs pollution. Fossil fuel combustion, traffic emissions, crustal/soil dust, municipal constructions, and sea salt and biomass burnings were the major potential sources of WSIIs in PM2.5 in WTSR according to the result of principal component analysis.

  3. Effects of collision energy and rotational quantum number on stereodynamics of the reactions: H(2S) + NH( υ = 0, j = 0, 2, 5, 10)→N(4S) + H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Yong-Jiang; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Chuan-Lu

    2016-08-01

    The stereodynamical properties of H(2S) + NH(v = 0, j = 0, 2, 5, 10) → N(4S) + H2 reactions are studied in this paper by using the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method with different collision energies on the double many-body expansion (DMBE) potential energy surface (PES) (Poveda L A and Varandas A J C 2005 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7 2867). In a range of collision energy from 2 to 20 kcal/mol, the vibrational rotational quantum numbers of the NH molecules are specifically investigated on v = 0 and j = 0, 2, 5, 10 respectively. The distributions of P(θ r ), P(ϕ r ), P(θ r ,ϕ r ), (2π/σ)(dσ 00/dω t ) differential cross-section (DCSs) and integral cross-sections(ICSs) are calculated. The ICSs, computed for collision energies from 2 kcal/mol to 20 kcal/mol, for the ground state are in good agreement with the cited data. The results show that the reagent rotational quantum number and initial collision energy both have a significant effect on the distributions of the k - j ‧, the k - k ‧- j ‧, and the k - k ‧ correlations. In addition, the DCS is found to be susceptible to collision energy, but it is not significantly affected by the rotational excitation of reagent. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 2016ZRB01066) and the University Student’s Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Ludong University, China (Grant No. 131007).

  4. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's service... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Generation systems greater than 3000 kw....

  5. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's service... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generation systems greater than 3000 kw....

  6. Personalisation: A Theoretical Possibility to Reinvigorate Children's Interest in Storybook Reading and Facilitate Greater Book Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucirkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, there has been a proliferation of new platforms for children's stories (e.g. storybook apps or iBooks), but not necessarily greater diversity of story content or children's greater interest in reading. This article argues for a new approach to address the apparent paradox of a wider availability of children's literature…

  7. 21 CFR 50.51 - Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical investigations not involving greater than... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations § 50.51 Clinical investigations not involving greater than minimal risk. Any...

  8. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  9. 45 CFR 46.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. HHS will conduct or fund research in which the IRB finds that no greater than minimal risk to children is presented, only if the IRB finds that...

  10. 40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved... not involving greater than minimal risk. EPA will conduct or fund observational research in which the IRB finds that no greater than minimal risk to children is presented, only if the IRB finds...

  11. Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

  12. Revision of the Lima clade (Miconia sect. Lima, Miconieae, Melastomataceae) of the Greater Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Miconia sect. Lima is an entirely Greater Antillean clade that consists of 19 known species of shrubs and small trees, which were previously recognized under the polyphyletic genera Leandra and Ossaea. The highest species richness in the clade is represented on Cuba (10 species), followed by Hispaniola (8 species) and then Jamaica (1 species). Here we present a taxonomic revision of the clade based on the study of species in the field, herbarium specimens, as well as a DNA-based phylogeny reconstruction. The Lima clade most likely originated on Cuba and then spread to Jamaica once and Hispaniola multiple times. Species of this clade can be recognized by the well developed bulla-based hairs of the adaxial leaf surface, as well as the clavate-dendritic hairs produced along the primary, secondary and tertiary veins of the adaxial leaf surface, mostly towards the leaf base, terminal inflorescences, acute petal apices, slightly bulla-based hairs produced subapically along the petal abaxial surface, and anthers with a dorso-basal appendage and a single, dorsally oriented pore. Descriptions, synonymies, along with distribution maps and illustrations/figures, are given for each species. Miconia pagnolensis sp. nov. is newly described in this revision. PMID:27829802

  13. Energy dynamics, foraging ecology, and behavior of prenesting greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budeau, D.A.; Ratti, John T.; Ely, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    We collected greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) on their nesting grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, when they arrived and again before incubation during 1986 and 1987. Body mass, water content, crude fat, and crude protein increased in female geese between arrival and incubation onset in 1986 and 1987 (P = 0.0001, 0.0002, 0.0329, and 0.0003, respectively). Body mass of male geese during prenesting did not change, but total fat content decreased by about 30%. Crude protein of males was different between years (P = 0.0014). Female geese spent more time feeding than did males (P < 0.001). Primary foods during the prenesting period were pendent grass (Arctophila fulva) shoots and arrowgrass (Triglochin palustris) bulbs. Gizzard contents and orifice staining indicated crowberries (Empetrum nigrum) also were consumed. Of the commonly consumed food items, arrowgrass bulbs had the greatest protein content (21%), and crowberries had the greatest lipid content (10%). Unlike other medium-sized, northern-nesting geese, food (energy) acquired on the nesting grounds by white-fronted geese before incubation increased endogenous reserves necessary for reproduction.

  14. Revision of the Lima clade (Miconia sect. Lima, Miconieae, Melastomataceae) of the Greater Antilles.

    PubMed

    Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S

    2016-01-01

    Miconia sect. Lima is an entirely Greater Antillean clade that consists of 19 known species of shrubs and small trees, which were previously recognized under the polyphyletic genera Leandra and Ossaea. The highest species richness in the clade is represented on Cuba (10 species), followed by Hispaniola (8 species) and then Jamaica (1 species). Here we present a taxonomic revision of the clade based on the study of species in the field, herbarium specimens, as well as a DNA-based phylogeny reconstruction. The Lima clade most likely originated on Cuba and then spread to Jamaica once and Hispaniola multiple times. Species of this clade can be recognized by the well developed bulla-based hairs of the adaxial leaf surface, as well as the clavate-dendritic hairs produced along the primary, secondary and tertiary veins of the adaxial leaf surface, mostly towards the leaf base, terminal inflorescences, acute petal apices, slightly bulla-based hairs produced subapically along the petal abaxial surface, and anthers with a dorso-basal appendage and a single, dorsally oriented pore. Descriptions, synonymies, along with distribution maps and illustrations/figures, are given for each species. Miconia pagnolensissp. nov. is newly described in this revision.

  15. Spatial clustering and the temporal mobility of walking school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron N; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2010-07-01

    Interest in utilitarian sources of physical activity, such as walking to school, has emerged in response to the increased prevalence of sedentary behavior in children and youth. Public health practitioners and urban planners need to be able to survey and monitor walking practices in space and time, with a view to developing appropriate interventions. This study explored the prevalence of walking to and from school of 11-13 year olds in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. The Getis-Ord (G(i)(*)) local spatial statistic, Markov transition matrices, and logistic regressions were used to examine the spatial clustering of walking trips in the study area, and to document any temporal drift of places in and out of walking clusters. Findings demonstrate that walking tends to cluster within the urban and inner-suburban GTA, and in areas with low household income. Temporally persistent cluster membership was less likely within inner-suburban and outer-suburban places. The evidence suggests that interventions to increase active school transportation need to acknowledge spatial and temporal differences in walking behavior.

  16. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  17. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  18. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production.

  19. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

    2007-01-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Estuaries of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem: Laboratories of Long-term Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.; Marshall, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    Restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem of south Florida is arguably the largest ecosystem restoration effort to date. A critical goal is to return more natural patterns of flow through south Florida wetlands and into the estuaries, but development of realistic targets requires acknowledgement that ecosystems are constantly evolving and changing in response to a variety of natural and human-driven stressors. Examination of ecosystems over long periods of time requires analysis of sedimentary records, such as those deposited in the wetlands and estuaries of south Florida. As sediment accumulates, it preserves information about the animals and plants that lived in the environment and the physical, chemical, and climatic conditions present. One of the methods used to interpret this information is paleoecology-the study of the ecology of previously living organisms. Paleoecologic investigations of south Florida estuaries provide quantitative data on historical variability of salinity and trends that may be applied to statistical models to estimate historical freshwater flow. These data provide a unique context to estimate future ecosystem response to changes related to restoration activities and predicted changes in sea level and temperature, thus increasing the likelihood of successful and sustainable ecosystem restoration.

  1. Greater aerial moisture transport distances with warming amplify interbasin salinity contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hansi K. A.; Donohoe, Aaron; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Noone, David C.

    2016-08-01

    The distance atmospheric moisture travels is fundamental to Earth's hydrologic cycle, governing how much evaporation is exported versus precipitated locally. The present-day tropical Atlantic is one region that exports much locally evaporated moisture away, leading to more saline surface waters in the Atlantic compared to the Indo-Pacific at similar latitudes. Here we use a state-of-the-art global climate model equipped with numerical water tracers to show that over half of the atmospheric freshwater exported from the Atlantic originates as evaporation in the northern Atlantic subtropics, primarily between 10°N and 20°N, and is transported across Central America via prevailing easterlies into the equatorial Pacific. We find enhanced moisture export from the Atlantic to Pacific with warming is due to greater distances between moisture source and sink regions, which increases moisture export from the Atlantic at the expense of local precipitation. Distance traveled increases due to longer moisture residence times, not simply Clausius-Clapeyron scaling.

  2. Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-07-01

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  3. Greater sage-grouse population response to energy development and habitat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.L.; Naugle, D.E.; Doherty, K.E.

    2007-11-15

    Modification of landscapes due to energy development may alter both habitat use and vital rates of sensitive wildlife species. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, have experienced rapid, widespread changes to their habitat due to recent coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development. We analyzed lek-count, habitat, and infrastructure data to assess how CBNG development and other landscape features influenced trends in the numbers of male sage-grouse observed and persistence of leks in the PRB. From 2001 to 2005, the number of males observed on leks in CBNG fields declined more rapidly than leks outside of CBNG. Of leks active in 1997 or later, only 38% of 26 leks in CBNG fields remained active by 2004-2005, compared to 84% of 250 leks outside CBNG fields. By 2005, leks in CBNG fields had 46% fewer males per active lek than leks outside of CBNG. Persistence of 110 leks was positively influenced by the proportion of sagebrush habitat within 6.4 km of the lek. After controlling for habitat, we found support for negative effects of CBNG development within 0.8 km and 3.2 km of the lek and for a time lag between CBNG development and lek disappearance. Current lease stipulations that prohibit development within 0.4 km of sage-grouse leks on federal lands are inadequate to ensure lek persistence and may result in impacts to breeding populations over larger areas. Seasonal restrictions on drilling and construction do not address impacts caused by loss of sagebrush and incursion of infrastructure that can affect populations over long periods of time. Regulatory agencies may need to increase spatial restrictions on development, industry may need to rapidly implement more effective mitigation measures, or both, to reduce impacts of CBNG development on sage-grouse populations in the PRB.

  4. Estimates of natural salinity and hydrology in a subtropical estuarine ecosystem: implications for Greater Everglades restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Frank E.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Pitts, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the natural patterns of freshwater flow into estuarine ecosystems occurred in many locations around the world beginning in the twentieth century. To effectively restore these systems, establishing a pre-alteration perspective allows managers to develop science-based restoration targets for salinity and hydrology. This paper describes a process to develop targets based on natural hydrologic functions by coupling paleoecology and regression models using the subtropical Greater Everglades Ecosystem as an example. Paleoecological investigations characterize the circa 1900 CE (pre-alteration) salinity regime in Florida Bay based on molluscan remains in sediment cores. These paleosalinity estimates are converted into time series estimates of paleo-based salinity, stage, and flow using numeric and statistical models. Model outputs are weighted using the mean square error statistic and then combined. Results indicate that, in the absence of water management, salinity in Florida Bay would be about 3 to 9 salinity units lower than current conditions. To achieve this target, upstream freshwater levels must be about 0.25 m higher than indicated by recent observed data, with increased flow inputs to Florida Bay between 2.1 and 3.7 times existing flows. This flow deficit is comparable to the average volume of water currently being diverted from the Everglades ecosystem by water management. The products (paleo-based Florida Bay salinity and upstream hydrology) provide estimates of pre-alteration hydrology and salinity that represent target restoration conditions. This method can be applied to any estuarine ecosystem with available paleoecologic data and empirical and/or model-based hydrologic data.

  5. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew J; Beck, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus). Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  6. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    PubMed

    Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Pratt, Aaron C

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  7. Recent Forest Disturbance History in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Reconstructed using Remote Sensing and Management Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), located in Central Rocky Mountains of United States, is of complex ecological and land management histories along with different land ownerships. What are effects of the different land management practices (such as those by national parks vs. national forests) on ecosystem disturbances and carbon balance? We present here the methods and results of a study on forest disturbance history over the GYE from 1984 to 2010 reconstructed from Landsat time series stacks and local management records. Annual forest fire, harvest and other disturbances were tracked and separated by integrating a model called Vegetation Change Tracker and the Support Vector Machine algorithm. Local management records were separated into training and validation data for the disturbance maps. Area statistics and rates of disturbances were quantified and compared across GYE land ownership over the multi-decade period and interpreted for implications of these changes for forest management and carbon analysis. Our results indicate that during the study interval (1984 - 2010), GYE National Parks (NPs) and Wilderness Area (WA) had higher percentages of area of forests disturbed compared to GYE National Forests (NF). Within the GYE NPs, over 45% of the forest lands were disturbed at least once during the study period, the majority (37%) was by wildfire. For GYE wilderness area, the total disturbance was 30% of forest with 19.4% by wildfire and 10.6% by other disturbances. In Bridger-Teton NF, 14.7% of forest was disturbed and 3.6%, 0.5% and 10.6% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively. For Caribou-Targhee NF, 25% of total forest was disturbed during this time interval and 1.5%, 6.4% and 17.1% of forest were disturbed by fire, harvest and other disturbances, respectively.

  8. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  9. Hippocampus-specific deficiency of IL-15Rα contributes to greater anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda; Bohlen, Joseph; Stricker, Janelle; Chahal, Ikttesh; Zhang, Hanting; Pistilli, Emidio E

    2016-11-11

    A hippocampus-specific IL15RαKO mouse (hipIl15ra (fl/fl) /Cre(+)) was generated to test the hypothesis that the targeted deletion of interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) in the hippocampus contributes to altered behavior, including greater levels of anxiety and ambulatory activity. Using Cre-loxP, exons 2 and 3 of the IL-15Rα gene were excised within the hippocampus, while normal expression was maintained within the rest of the brain. In the open field test (OFT), hipIl15ra (fl/fl) /Cre(+) spent a greater amount of time in the periphery and less time in the central portions of the chamber, and there was also a noticeable trend for decreased rearing activity; these behaviors are consistent with greater levels of anxiety-like behavior in these mice. However, there were no differences in the overall locomotor counts in the OFT when comparing hipIl15ra (fl/fl) /Cre(+) mice to their littermate controls. These data implicate IL-15-related signaling within the hippocampus has a role in anxiety-like behavior.

  10. Strain distribution across the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna-Dhaulagiri, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Searle, M. P.; Law, R. D.; Ferre, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Himalaya provides a unique natural laboratory to observe orogenic processes at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. The potential for these observations to serve as kinematic and geodynamic analogues for past orogens relies on a robust understanding of the evolution of the Himalayan mountain belt. Field structural data, supported by thermobaromety, geochronology and thermodynamic modelling, generally support a channel flow model in which a partially molten middle crust layer, the Greater Himalaya Sequence (GHS), was extruded to the south during Miocene time bounded by high-strain ductile shears above and below. This model suggests that the GHS, the metamorphic core of the orogen, represents an exhumed, rheologically weak, mid-crustal channel. Lateral flow of the channel was driven southwards by the lithostatic pressure gradient between the 5 km high Tibetan plateau and the < 1 km elevation and average crustal thickness of the Indian plate. The vertical distribution of strain across the GHS is one element of the channel flow hypothesis that is yet to be fully investigated. This project considers this issue by examining specifically, the vertical distribution and evolution of strain across the GHS and bounding units. A variety of techniques, that include SEM electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) will be used to analyse samples collected during recent field work in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himal, central Nepal. These samples were collected from two transects along the Modi Khola valley and the Kali Gandaki valley. EBSD will be used to measure the lattice preferred orientation of individual mineral phases of these samples, providing a proxy for strain and valuable information on deformation mechanisms. Given specific magnetic carriers, AMS will be used to provide a proxy for finite strain in samples that are too heterogeneous for EBSD. Combined EBSD and AMS data will be augmented by additional strain and

  11. Greater carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi reduces tree nitrogen uptake in a boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Inselsbacher, Erich; Stangl, Zsofia; Oren, Ram; Näsholm, Torgny; Högberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The central role that ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses play in the structure and function of boreal forests pivots around the common assumption that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are exchanged at rates favorable for plant growth. However, this may not always be the case. It has been hypothesized that the benefits mycorrhizal fungi convey to their host plants strongly depends upon the availability of C and N, both of which are rapidly changing as a result of intensified human land use and climate change. Using large-scale shading and N addition treatments, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of changes in C and N supply on the transfer of N in intact EM associations with -15 yr. old Scots pine trees. To assess the dynamics of N transfer in EM symbioses, we added trace amounts of highly enriched 5NO3(-) label to the EM-dominated mor-layer and followed the fate of the 15N label in tree foliage, fungal chitin on EM root tips, and EM sporocarps. Despite no change in leaf biomass, shading resulted in reduced tree C uptake, ca. 40% lower fungal biomass on EM root tips, and greater 15N label in tree foliage compared to unshaded control plots, where more 15N label was found in fungal biomass on EM colonized root tips. Short-term addition of N shifted the incorporation of 15N label from EM fungi to tree foliage, despite no significant changes in below-ground tree C allocation to EM fungi. Contrary to the common assumption that C and N are exchanged at rates favorable for plant growth, our results show for the first time that under N-limited conditions greater C allocation to EM fungi in the field results in reduced, not increased, N transfer to host trees. Moreover, given the ubiquitous nature of mycorrhizal symbioses, our results stress the need to incorporate mycorrhizal dynamics into process-based ecosystem models to better predict forest C and N cycles in light of global climate change.

  12. Possible effects of elk harvest on fall distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, M.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Cherry, S.; Moody, D.

    2004-01-01

     The tradition of early elk (Cervus elaphus) hunting seasons adjacent to Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, provides grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) with ungulate remains left by hunters. We investigated the fall (Aug–Oct) distribution of grizzly bears relative to the boundaries of YNP and the opening of September elk hunting seasons. Based on results from exact tests of conditional independence, we estimated the odds of radiomarked bears being outside YNP during the elk hunt versus before the hunt. Along the northern boundary, bears were 2.40 times more likely to be outside YNP during the hunt in good whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seed-crop years and 2.72 times more likely in poor seed-crop years. The level of confidence associated with 1-sided confidence intervals with a lower endpoint of 1 was approximately 94% in good seed-crop years and 61% in poor years. Along the southern boundary of YNP, radiomarked bears were 2.32 times more likely to be outside the park during the hunt in good whitebark pine seed-crop years and 4.35 times more likely in poor seed-crop years. The level of confidence associated with 1-sided confidence intervals with a lower endpoint of 1 was approximately 93% in both cases. Increased seasonal bear densities and human presence in early hunt units increases potential for conflicts between bears and hunters. Numbers of reported hunting-related grizzly bear mortalities have increased in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) during the last decade, and nearly half of this increase is due to bear deaths occurring in early hunt units during September. Human-caused grizzly bear mortality thresholds established by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have not been exceeded in recent years. This is because agency actions have reduced other sources of human-caused mortalities, and because population parameters that mortality thresholds are based on have increased. Agencies must continue to monitor and manage hunter

  13. Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network.

    PubMed

    Debas, Karen; Carrier, Julie; Barakat, Marc; Marrelec, Guillaume; Bellec, Pierre; Hadj Tahar, Abdallah; Karni, Avi; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2014-10-01

    The consolidation of motor sequence learning is known to depend on sleep. Work in our laboratory and others have shown that the striatum is associated with this off-line consolidation process. In this study, we aimed to quantify the sleep-dependent dynamic changes occurring at the network level using a measure of functional integration. We directly compared changes in connectivity before and after sleep or the simple passage of daytime. As predicted, the results revealed greater integration within the cortico-striatal network after sleep, but not an equivalent daytime period. Importantly, a similar pattern of results was also observed using a data-driven approach; the increase in integration being specific to a cortico-striatal network, but not to other known functional networks. These findings reveal, for the first time, a new signature of motor sequence consolidation: a greater between-regions interaction within the cortico-striatal system.

  14. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  15. Assessing greater sage-grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic disturbances, wildfires, and weedy-plant invasions have destroyed and fragmented sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) habitats. Sagebrush-dependent species like greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) are vulnerable to these changes, emphasizing the importance ...

  16. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  17. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  18. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  19. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  20. 34 CFR 97.404 - Research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.404 Research not involving greater than minimal risk. ED conducts or funds research in which the IRB finds that no...

  1. The Greater Houston P-16+ Council: Systemic Pathways to Birth-to-Career Access and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpelberg, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes efforts of the Greater Houston P-16+ Council (GHPC) to find effective ways to promote student participation and success across the P-16 continuum, from pre-kindergarten through postsecondary education and work related training.

  2. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  3. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  4. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Lees, J.M.; Malone, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ???10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Linking ecology to hydrology and geomorphology using river reach classification for the Greater Mekong Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouelette Dallaire, Camille; Lehner, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale development projects, such as hydropower dams, in the Greater Mekong Region (GMR) are putting high pressure on freshwater resources. Environmental impact assessments are needed in the region to understand the possible impacts of these projects. These assessments often require biodiversity data that can be costly to acquire both in terms of time and money. It is often assumed that river or ecosystem classes, based on geo-physical characteristics, can be used as biodiversity proxies in large scale assessments to account for a lack of biodiversity data. However, there has been little research to compare the spatial distribution of river classes and fish species. It is unclear how well river classes are able to represent the distribution of fish and, more generally, biodiversity. To address this question, a set of two classifications were compared to a newly available dataset of fish species distribution in the GMR (Allen et al., 2012). The classifications were derived from two different methods to test which could potentially better represent fish assemblages. The first classification is derived using regional expert knowledge and the second using K-mean analysis. Both are using the same geophysical datasets. The two datasets were used in a Redundancy Analysis (RDA) to calculate which proportion of the variability in the fish species data can be explained by the river classes. The RDA resulted in R2 of 0.44 for the supervised classification and 0.41for the statistical classification, showing a moderate correlation between the datasets. Based on these results, using river classes as biodiversity proxy is deemed reasonable. However, some of the variability in the distribution of fish species cannot be related simply to geophysical factors. River classes may capture different elements such as unique habitats and associated, possibly unknown, endemic species that indices based only on biological data do not. Hence, river classes can be a good alternative and

  6. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  7. Insomnia in Alcohol Dependent Subjects is Associated with Greater Psychosocial Problem Severity

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Ninad S.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Grandner, Michael A.; Debbarma, Swarnalata; Chakravorty, Subhajit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although psychosocial problems are commonly associated with both alcohol misuse and insomnia, very little is known about the combined effects of insomnia and current alcohol dependence on the severity of psychosocial problems. The present study evaluates whether the co-occurrence of insomnia and alcohol dependence is associated with greater psychosocial problem severity. Methods Alcohol dependent individuals (N=123) were evaluated prior to participation in a placebo-controlled medication trial. The Short Index of Problems (SIP), Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Time Line Follow Back (TLFB), were used to assess psychosocial, employment, and legal problems; insomnia symptoms; and alcohol consumption, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the relations between insomnia and psychosocial problems. Results Subjects’ mean age was 44 years (SD=10.3), 83% were male, and their SIP sub-scale scores approximated the median for normative data. A quarter of subjects reported no insomnia; 29% reported mild insomnia; and 45% reported moderate-severe insomnia. The insomnia groups did not differ on alcohol consumption measures. The ISI total score was associated with the SIP total scale score (β=0.23, p=0.008). Subjects with moderate-severe insomnia had significantly higher scores on the SIP total score, and on the social and impulse control sub-scales, and more ASI employment problems and conflicts with their spouses than others on the ASI. Conclusion In treatment-seeking alcohol dependent subjects, insomnia may increase alcohol-related adverse psychosocial consequences. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the relations between insomnia and psychosocial problems in these subjects. PMID:26151580

  8. Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance System Evaluation, Greater-Accra Region, Ghana, 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Perdita Hilary; Akweongo, Patricia; Wurapa, Fred; Afari, Edwin; Sackey, Samuel; Ocansey, Dennis; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, zoonotic, multi-species disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In developed countries, effective surveillance and enforcement of regulations on bTB control resulted in significant reduction of infections in cattle and hence, humans. However, in developing countries, weak surveillance systems affect accurate and timely reporting of bTB in humans and cattle. In Ghana, transhumance movement of cattle increases the risk of bTB importation and spread, however, the extent to which surveillance detects bTB is unknown. We therefore evaluated the bTB surveillance system in the Greater-Accra Region to determine its performance and assessed its attributes. Methods We interviewed stakeholders, and reviewed bTB surveillance data for all ten districts in the region from 2006-2011 using the CDC Guidelines for Evaluation of public health surveillance systems. Results From 2006-2011, bTB was suspected in 284/244,576 (0.12%) cattle slaughtered, of which 7/284 (2.5%) were submitted for laboratory confirmation and all tested positive. Predictive value positive was 100%. There is no standard case definition which guides bTB detection. Fifty percent of carcasses slip through inspection, and confirmed cases are not traced back. There were 99/284 (34.9%) condemnations from suspected carcasses and 57/97 (58.8%) from positive reactors from screening. Ninety percent (9/10) of districts submitted reports late to the region whereas representativeness was 30%. Regional and district data were manually stored with no electronic backups. The region's cattle population is unknown. Conclusion Although the bTB surveillance system is sensitive, it is under performing, and the possibility of bTB transmission from cattle to humans is high. PMID:28149435

  9. Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  10. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future.

  11. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  12. Greater inflammatory activity and blunted glucocorticoid signaling in monocytes of chronically stressed caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Cashman, Rosemary; Ma, Roy; Ma, Jeffrey; Arevalo, Jesusa M.G.; Kobor, Michael S.; Cole, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is associated with morbidity and mortality from numerous conditions, many of whose pathogenesis involves persistent inflammation. Here, we examine how chronic stress influences signaling pathways that regulate inflammation in monocytes. The sample consisted of 33 adults caring for a family member with glioblastoma and 47 controls whose lives were free of major stressors. The subjects were assessed four times over eight months. Relative to controls, caregivers’ monocytes showed increased expression of genes bearing response elements for nuclear-factor kappa B, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor. Simultaneously, caregivers showed reduced expression of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor that conveys cortisol’s anti-inflammatory signals to monocytes. Transcript origin analyses revealed that CD14+/CD16− cells, a population of immature monocytes, were the predominate source of inflammatory gene expression among caregivers. We considered hormonal, molecular, and functional explanations for caregivers’ decreased glucocorticoid-mediated transcription. Across twelve days, the groups displayed similar diurnal cortisol profiles, suggesting that differential adrenocortical activity was not involved. Moreover, the groups’ monocytes expressed similar amounts of glucocorticoid receptor protein, suggesting that differential receptor availability was not involved. In ex vivo studies, subjects’ monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, and caregivers showed greater production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 relative to controls. However, no group differences in functional glucocorticoid sensitivity were apparent; hydrocortisone was equally effective at inhibiting cytokine production in caregivers and controls. These findings may help shed light on the mechanisms through which caregiving increases vulnerability to inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25242587

  13. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  14. Methods to estimate distribution and range extent of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , Daniel D. Bjornlie; , Daniel J. Thompson; , Kerry A. Gunther; , Steven L. Cain; , Daniel B. Tyers; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population has expanded into areas unoccupied since the early 20th century. Up-to-date information on the area and extent of this distribution is crucial for federal, state, and tribal wildlife and land managers to make informed decisions regarding grizzly bear management. The most recent estimate of grizzly bear distribution (2004) utilized fixed-kernel density estimators to describe distribution. This method was complex and computationally time consuming and excluded observations of unmarked bears. Our objective was to develop a technique to estimate grizzly bear distribution that would allow for the use of all verified grizzly bear location data, as well as provide the simplicity to be updated more frequently. We placed all verified grizzly bear locations from all sources from 1990 to 2004 and 1990 to 2010 onto a 3-km × 3-km grid and used zonal analysis and ordinary kriging to develop a predicted surface of grizzly bear distribution. We compared the area and extent of the 2004 kriging surface with the previous 2004 effort and evaluated changes in grizzly bear distribution from 2004 to 2010. The 2004 kriging surface was 2.4% smaller than the previous fixed-kernel estimate, but more closely represented the data. Grizzly bear distribution increased 38.3% from 2004 to 2010, with most expansion in the northern and southern regions of the range. This technique can be used to provide a current estimate of grizzly bear distribution for management and conservation applications.

  15. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  16. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  17. Eimeria spp. infecting quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Alison E; Yang, Rongchang; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Parasites of wildlife inhabiting urbanised and peri-urban environments are of interest regarding wildlife population health, and also veterinary public health in the case of parasites that can also infect humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to: identify, and estimate the prevalence of, species of Eimeria parasitic in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia; 2) morphologically describe and genetically characterise a novel observed species of Eimeria as E. angustus; and 3) genetically characterise E. kanyana. Eimeria spp. prevalence was 76.1% (95% CI 64.9-84.5%), and four putative species of Eimeria were identified. Eimeria kanyana was identified infecting quenda for the first time, with a prevalence of 54.9% (43.4-66.0%). Eimeria quenda was less prevalent, at 7.0% (3.1-15.5%). The novel species E. angustus was present in 45.1% of sampled quenda (34.0-56.6%). A second novel morphotype of Eimeria was present in 2.8% of sampled quenda (0.9-9.7%). Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were present in 21/71 quenda (29.6%, 95% CI 20.2-41.1%). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of E. kanyana and E. angustus were conducted at the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase loci. At both loci, two isolates identified as E. kanyana grouped in a phylogenetic clade with E. trichosuri. Five isolates identified as the novel E. angustus were most closely related to E. tropidura at the 18S locus. At the COI locus, no sequence data were available for E. tropidura; isolates of E. angustus grouped with E. sciurorum.

  18. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P. S.; Herndon, S. C.; Brooks, B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z.; Visser, S.; Prevot, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of PM1 in the greater London area during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012 by applying two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). While the concentration of organic aerosol (OA) is comparable between the rural and urban sites, the OA sources are distinctly different. Due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area, the concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site. In contrast, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. This is likely caused by a steep concentration gradient of OOA when air masses are advected from polluted mainland Europe. Taking advantage of low biogenic emissions in winter, the sources of OOA, which are highly uncertain, are investigated. Combing Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis and radiocarbon analysis, the majority of OOA is estimated to arise from aged biomass burning. We deploy a suite of instruments to investigate the organic volatility at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250°C in a thermal-denuder (TD), the mass fraction remaining of organics is 16%, which indicates the presence of non-volatile organics. By comparing the OA associated with refractory black carbon (measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) and total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS), we proposed that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon in the atmosphere. Finally, we will discuss the relationship between the volatility and the degree of oxidation of organics.

  19. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  20. Wechsler performance IQ greater than Verbal IQ index in a forensic sample: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    DeWolfe, A S; Ryan, J J

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationships of the Performance IQ (PIQ) greater than Verbal IQ (VIQ) to type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 adult males incarcerated on felony charges. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign was not related to Full Scale IQ or to violent vs. nonviolent crime, per se. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign showed a trend toward association with Ethnicity (black vs. white) and was related significantly to reading disability, with the reading disabled inmates more likely to show the sign, and to type of crime, with perpetrators of sex crimes most likely (87%) to show the sign and those incarcerated for murder or attempted murder least likely (33%) to show it. The difference in the proportion of inmates who showed the sign in these two classes of violent crimes (murder and sex crimes) was significant, and further analysis showed that with murder excluded, PIQ greater than VIQ occurred significantly more frequently in those accused of violent crimes than for nonviolent crimes. The latter findings suggested that differences between studies in the relationship of PIQ greater than VIQ and violence may be the result of differences in the proportion of murderers in the violent samples. Additional analyses indicated that the significant relationships between PIQ greater than VIQ and both type of crime and reading disability were most likely independent of ethnicity and each other.

  1. Nesting habitat of the Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.; Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Kratzer, S.; Udevitz, M.S.; Fehringer, D.J.; Rothe, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first information on the availability and use of nesting habitat by the rare Tule Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons elgasi. The breeding range was sampled by marking geese with radio transmitters on wintering and moulting areas, and tracking them to nest sites in Alaska. Nesting habitat was described at the scales of ecoregion, wetland ecosystem (National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps), vegetation type within wetland (Alaska Vegetation Classification (AVC) maps based on satellite imagery), and nest site. Tule Greater White-fronted Goose nests were located in boreal forest wetlands in the upper Cook Inlet Basin ecoregion. Nesting Tule Greater White-fronted Geese selected NWT Palustrine Seasonally Flooded wetlands and used NWI Palustrine Saturated wetlands in proportion to availability. Within these wetlands, Tule Greater White-fronted Geese used Needleleaf Forest, Low Shrub and Herbaceous (mostly graminoid) AVC classes for nest sites in proportion to availability Most (93%) Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nested > 75 m from open water ponds or lakes, and many nested in wetlands with little or no open water. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese nest only in a small breeding area near the most human-impacted area of the state, and continued development may limit the use of suitable nesting habitat.

  2. Synthesis, FT–IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato-κ4 N)manganese(III) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin), the MnIII cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn—O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central MnIII ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)]+ cation and the tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  3. A comparative study of the interaction of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin and its zinc complex with DNA using fluorescence spectroscopy and topoisomerisation.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J M; Murphy, M J; McConnell, D J; OhUigin, C

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (H2TMPyP4+) and its zinc complex (ZnTMPyP4+) to DNA is demonstrated by their coelectrophoresis and by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Topoisomerisation of pBR322 DNA shows that H2TMPyP4+ unwinds DNA as efficiently as ethidium bromide showing that it intercalates at many sites. ZnTMPyP4+ may cause limited unwinding. Marked changes in the fluorescence spectra of the porphyrins are found in the presence of DNA. The fluorescence intensity of either H2TMPyP4+ or ZnTMPyP4+ is enhanced in the presence of poly (d(A-T)), whereas in the presence of poly (d(G-C] the fluorescence intensity of ZnTMPyP4+ is only slightly affected and that of H2TMPyP4+ markedly reduced. Both the porphyrins photosensitize the cleavage of DNA in aerated solution upon visible light irradiation. Images PMID:2987789

  4. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra­kis­(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)tetra­zinc(II) dimethyl­formamide octa­solvate trihydrate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn4(C40H24N8)4]·8C3H7NO·3H2O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol­ecules. The mol­ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra­mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol­ecule. The tetra­mer so formed exhibits mol­ecular S 4 symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl­formamide and water mol­ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21522892

  5. A method for the detection of alcohol vapours based on optical sensing of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin thin film by an optical spectrometer and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-12-13

    In this work we have proposed a method for the detection of alcohol vapours, i.e. methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, based on the optical sensing response of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin (MgTPP) thin films, as measured by optical spectrometry with the assistance of chemometric analysis. We have implemented a scheme which allows a laboratory UV-vis spectrometer to act as a so-called "electronic nose" with very little modification. MgTPP thin films were prepared by a spin coating technique, using chloroform as the solvent, and then subjected to thermal annealing at 280°C in an argon atmosphere. These MgTPP optical gas sensors presented significant responses with methanol compared to ethanol and isopropanol, based on the dynamic flow of alcohol vapours at the same mol% of alcohol concentration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to model the underlying mechanism of this selectivity. The performance of the optical gas sensors was optimised by varying the fabrication parameters. It is hoped that the MgTPP thin film together with an off-the-shelf optical spectrometer and a simple chemometrics algorithm can be a valuable tool for the analysis of alcoholic content in the beverage industry.

  6. Di-μ-azido-bis­(μ-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa­oxacyclo­octa­deca­ne)bis­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato)dicadmium­disodium

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Hamza; Amiri, Nesrine; Belkhiria, Mohamed Salah; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cd2Na2(N3)2(C44H28N4)2(C12H24O6)2], consists of one half of the dimeric complex; the tetra­nuclear mol­ecule lies about an inversion centre. The CdII atom is coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinate ligand and one N atom of the axial azide ligand in a square-pyramidal geometry. The azide group is also linked to the NaI atom, which is surrounded by one 18-crown-6 molecule and additionally bonded to a second 18-crown-6 molecule trans to the azide group. The porphyrin core exhibits a major doming distortion (∼40%) and the crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. The mol­ecular structure features weak intra­molecular hydrogen bonds: two O—H⋯O inter­actions within the 18-crown-6 mol­ecule and one C—H(18-crown-6)⋯N(azido) contact. PMID:23468761

  7. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Nesrine; Nasri, Soumaya; Roisnel, Thierry; Simonneaux, Gérard; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Mg(C44H24Br4N4)(H2O)2] or [Mg(TBrPP)(H2O)2], where TBrPP is the 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato ligand, was obtained unintentionally as a by-product of the reaction of the [Mg(TBrPP)] complex with an excess of di­methyl­glyoxime in di­chloro­methane. The entire mol­ecule exhibits point group symmetry 4/m. In the asymmetric unit, except for two C atoms of the phenyl ring, all other atoms lie on special positions. The MgII atom is situated at a site with symmetry 4/m, while the N and the C atoms of the porphyrin macrocycle, as well as two C atoms of the phenyl ring and the Br atom lie in the mirror plane containing the porphyrin core. The H atoms of the axially bonded water mol­ecule are incompatible with the fourfold rotation axis and are disordered over two sites. In the crystal, mol­ecules are packed in rows along [001]. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π and C—H⋯Br inter­actions, as well as O—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:25844215

  8. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity in Response of Male Greater Sage-Grouse Lek Attendance to Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Andrew J.; Beck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus). Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991–2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts. PMID:24918922

  10. Exhumation of the Greater Himalayan Sequence Along the Zanskar Shear Zone, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basta, S.; Beck, E.; Burlick, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Zanskar Shear Zone (ZSZ), the western extent of the South Tibetan Detachment System, exposes high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in its footwall. Granites and metapelites collected along the the ZSZ in the Suru River valley provide how and when the GHS rocks exhumed and were deformed. There are two suits of Paleozoic granites deformed within the ZSZ: Pan-African Cambrian-Ordovician granites at the cores of gneiss domes and Mississippian-Permian granites related to Panjal Traps magmatism. Age of Himalayan granites indicates 28-16 Ma which is concurrent with anatectic leucogranite crystallization. The metamorphic mineral assemblage indicates increasing metamorhic grade from NE to SW and comprises Qtz × Kfs + Pl + Bt × Ms × Sil × Ky × Grt × St × Chl × Tur × Rt. In addition to macroscopic evidence, strongly deformed quartz grains, deformation twins, pressure shadows, and kink bands have been observed to demonstrate micro-tectonics evidence. There are two different method to explain exhumation and deformation of the GHS metapelites: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) crystallographic mapping and pseudosection modeling. While EBSD indicates the potential temperature of deformation, pseudosection modeling with Perple_X specifically presents the exhumation path of the GHS rocks. Pseudosection modeling with Perple_X , based on whole-rock geochemical analysis, is set pressure and temperature to 0.4-1.2 GPa and 300-900°C, and uses specific solution models, Bio(TCC), Chl(HP), St(HP), feldspar, Mica(CHA), Gt(HP), and hCrd, namely. These two methods are used by combining with geo/thermochronology data from U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, and (U-Th)/He, constraining the age of metamorphism, the cooling and exhumation time of the GHS rocks, and the end of shearing of deformation, respectively. 40Ar/39Ar dating on muscovite and biotite constrains cooling and exhumation ages of the GHS as ~20-19 Ma and 15 Ma, respectively. A metamorphic pressure-temperature-time

  11. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  12. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC) following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after) was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in WC, the other variables

  13. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  14. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  15. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  16. Gold deposits and occurrences of the Greater Caucasus, Georgia Republic: Their genesis and prospecting criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kekelia, S.A.; Kekelia, M.A.; Kuloshvili, S.I.; Sadradze, N.G.; Gagnidze, N.E.; Yaroshevich, V.Z.; Asatiani, G.G.; Doebrich, J.L.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The south-central part of the Greater Caucasus region, Georgia Republic, represents an extremely prospective region for significant orogenic gold deposits. Gold-bearing quartz veins are concentrated in two extensive WNW-trending belts, the Mestia-Racha and Svaneti districts, within the northern margin of the Southern Slope Zone of the Great Caucasus orogen. This metalliferous region is dominated by Early to Middle Jurassic slates, which are part of a terrane that likely accreted to the continental margin from late Paleozoic to Jurassic. The slates were subsequently intruded by both Middle to Late Jurassic and Neogene granitoids. Quartz veins in the more carbonaceous slate units are most consistently enriched in As, Au, Hg, Sb, and W, and show mineralization styles most consistent with typical orogenic gold deposits. Quartz veins in the Mestia-Racha district were mined in Soviet times for As, Sb, and W, but many of these are now being recognized as gold resource targets. The veins occur in the footwall of a thrust fault between the Southern Slope zone and an earlier accreted terrane, the Main Zone, to the north. Many veins in the district continue along strike for > 1??km and some cut Neogene intrusions, constraining ore formation to the most recent 4 to 5??million years. Gold deposition thus correlates with final collision of the Arabian plate to the south and uplift of the ore-hosting Greater Caucasus. The Zopkhito deposit, previously mined for antimony, contains an estimated 55??t Au at a cutoff grade of 0.5??g/t. The veins are localized in an area where smaller-order structures show a major change in strike from N-S to more E-W trends. A pyrite-arsenopyrite ore stage includes gold concentrated in both sulfide phases; it is overprinted by a later stibnite-dominant stage. Fluid-inclusion studies of ore samples from the Zopkhito deposit indicate minimum trapping temperatures of 300 to 350????C and 200 to 300????C for the two stages, respectively, and minimum

  17. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on Greater Sage-Grouse was summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the current range of Greater Sage-Grouse (adapted from Schroeder et al. 2004). Although birds may be observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The

  18. A multilocus population genetic survey of greater sage-grouse across their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Taylor, S.E.; Quinn, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined dramatically, and as a result the species has become the focus of conservation efforts. We conducted a range-wide genetic survey of the species which included 46 populations and over 1000 individuals using both mitochondrial sequence data and data from seven nuclear microsatellites. Nested clade and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that, in general, the greater sage-grouse populations follow an isolation-by-distance model of restricted gene flow. This suggests that movements of the greater sage-grouse are typically among neighbouring populations and not across the species, range. This may have important implications if management is considering translocations as they should involve neighbouring rather than distant populations to preserve any effects of local adaptation. We identified two populations in Washington with low levels of genetic variation that reflect sever habitat loss and dramatic population decline. Managers of these populations may consider augmentation from geographically close populations. One population (Lyon/Mono) on the southwestern edge of the speciesa?? range appears to have been isolated from all other greater sage-grouse populations. This population is sufficiently genetically distinct that it warrants protection and management as a separate unit. The genetic data presented here, in conjunction with large-scale demographic and habitat data, will provide an integrated approach to conservation efforts for the greater sage-grouse.

  19. Greater sage-grouse of Grand Teton National Park: where do they roam?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chong, G.W.; Wetzel, W.C.; Holloran, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population declines may be caused by range-wide degradation of sagebrush (woody Artemisia spp.) steppe ecosystems. Understanding how greater sage-grouse use the landscape is essential for successful management. We assessed greater sage-grouse habitat selection on a landscape level in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and radio-collared sage-grouse to compare habitat used and the total available landscape. Greater sage-grouse selected mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata var. vaseyana) communities or mixed mountain big sagebrush–antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) communities and avoided low-sagebrush (A. arbuscula) dwarf shrubland. In spring and summer, sage-grouse primarily used sagebrush-dominated habitats on the valley floor and did not concentrate in mesic areas later in the summer as is typical of the species. The diversity of habitats used in winter exceeds that reported in the literature. In winter, Jackson Hole greater sage-grouse moved to hills, where they used various communities in proportion to their availability, including tall deciduous shrublands, cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) stands, exposed hillsides, and aspen (P. tremuloides) stands. Because seasonal habitat selection is not necessarily consistent across populations residing in different landscapes, habitat management should be specific to each population and landscape. This sage-grouse population provides an example that may offer insight into other species with seasonal habitat needs.

  20. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  1. Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

  2. The model homologue of the partially defective human 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, considered as a risk factor for stroke due to increased homocysteine level, can be protected and reactivated by heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Michał; Banecki, Bogdan; Kadziński, Leszek; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta

    2016-10-01

    The A222 V substitution in the human MTHFR gene product (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) is responsible for a decreased activity of this enzyme. This may cause an increased homocysteine level, considered as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis and stroke. The bacterial homologue of the human enzyme, MetF, has been found to be a useful model in genetic and biochemical studies. The similarity of Escherichia coli MetF and human MTHFR proteins is so high that particular mutations in the corresponding human gene can be reflected by the bacterial mutants. For example, the A222 V substitution in MTHFR (caused by the C667T substitution in the MTHFR gene) can be ascribed to the A117 V substitution in MetF. Here, it is reported that a temperature-sensitive MetF117 (A117 V) protein can be partially protected from a thermal inactivation by the heat shock proteins from the Hsp70/100 systems. Moreover, activity of the thermally denatured enzyme can be partially restored by the same heat shock proteins. High temperature protein G (HtpG) had no effect on MetF117 activity in both experimental systems. The presented results indicate that functions of heat shock proteins may be required for maintenance of the MetF117 function. This may have implications for the mechanisms of arteriosclerosis and stroke, especially in the light of previous findings that the A222 V MTHFR polymorphism may be a risk factor for stroke, as well as recently published results which demonstrated the increased levels of antibodies against heat shock proteins in stroke patients.

  3. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin­ation geometry about the central ZnII atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro­gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn— N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra­molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter­layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:27555935

  4. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin-ation geometry about the central Zn(II) atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro-gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn- N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra-molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter-layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules.

  5. Crystal structure of (4-cyano­pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc–4-cyano­pyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra­phenyl­benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano­pyridine, respectively], the ZnII cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn—N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano­pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol­ecules are linked together via weak C—H⋯N, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming supra­molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol­ecules, via weak C—H⋯N inter­actions and π-π stacking or via weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  6. The Relationship between Greater Pre-Pubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation and Bone Strength during Adolescence†

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Natalie A.; Torner, James C.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Gilmore, Julie M. Eichenberger; Schlechte, Janet A.; Levy, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater pre-pubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using BMI data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy-weight, HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15 and 17 years for estimates of body composition by DXA, bone compression (bone strength index) and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age – grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in Model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age – age PHV) as the time variable for Model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in Model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p<0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) in Model 1, while OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck, but not radius (p>0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (Model 1.) Differences were no longer present following adjustment for lean mass (Model 2) in girls (p>0.05) while differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation and bone strength. PMID:26861036

  7. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  8. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population.

  9. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype predicts greater aggression through impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R; Lynam, Donald R; Jiang, Yang

    2015-04-15

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype's established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

  10. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  11. Analyses of sexual dimorphism of reconstructed pelvic computed tomography images of contemporary Japanese using curvature of the greater sciatic notch, pubic arch and greater pelvis.

    PubMed

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Tomabechi, Makiko

    2012-06-10

    Three-dimensional pelvic images were reconstructed from multi-slice CT data of contemporary Japanese (males: 124; females: 104, 25-92 years old), and curvature analysis to examine sexual dimorphism was carried out in the great sciatic notch (GSN), the pubic arch and the greater pelvis in the images. Reconstructed pelvic CT images were visualized fairly well and anatomical landmarks were easily recognizable. When calculating the radii (curvature radii) of the best-fit circles for the spline curve lines set along the edges of the GSNs and of the pubic arches, sexes from these regions were correctly identified in 89.1% (males: 93.8%; females: 83.7%) and 94.7% (males: 97.3%; females: 91.8%) of cases, respectively, by setting an appropriate cut-off value. Furthermore, sexing was possible even in deeper regions of the GSN which are relatively resistant to postmortem damage. Curvature radii of the best-fit spheres of greater pelves showed no significant difference between sexes. However, curvature of the best-fit sphere for the left iliac fossa was significantly larger than that of the right one (p<10(-24)) in males, and the ratios were >1.0 in 88% of all male specimens analyzed. Meanwhile, no significant difference was observed among female samples. Although some left-sided dominancy has been reported in 2-dimensional measurements of the human pelvis, this 3-dimensional laterality in males was much more significant, and is a potential index of sex difference.

  12. Surgical treatment for greater sphenoid wing fracture (orbital blow-in fracture).

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, N; Tominaga, Y; Motomura, H; Muraoka, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors present 2 patients with greater sphenoid wing fractures that were treated surgically. This type of fracture is classified as a blow-in fracture of the lateral orbital wall. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy who was involved in a motor vehicle accident. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed a medial displacement of the inner wall of the greater sphenoid wing of the left orbit. He was unconscious for 3 days. After he recovered consciousness, he presented limited abduction of the left eye with diplopia in all gaze directions and mild left proptosis. Although these symptoms did not improve for 1 week, displaced bone fragments of the greater sphenoid wing were removed via the lateral orbital approach. The patient had a good postoperative course with progressive improvement in eye movement over the next several weeks. The second patient was a 22-year-old man whose face was hit in a fight. CT disclosed medial displacement of the inner wall of the greater sphenoid wing of the left orbit. Although the patient also presented limited abduction of the left eye on admission, this symptom improved gradually. However, diplopia in all gaze directions and mild left proptosis did not improve. Therefore, the displaced inner wall of the greater sphenoid wing was reduced via the lateral orbital approach. The patient showed a good postoperative course with progressive improvement over the next several weeks. This type of orbital fracture, which is classified as an orbital blow-in fracture, is relatively rare. This type of greater sphenoid wing fracture is caused by buckling of the orbital wall secondary to severe compression of the orbital rim. Surgical treatment using the lateral orbital approach through a hemicoronal skin incision afforded a wider operative field and better cosmetic result.

  13. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake.

  14. Strike-slip and extrusion tectonics of the Greater Caucasus-Kopetdagh region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In the Paleogene-Early Miocene, the areas of the modern Greater Caucasus and Kopetdagh were occupied by marginal seas (parts of the Paratethys intracontinental sea) inheriting the Cretaceous back-arc basins. In the Early Miocene, a collisional compression of the seas began at the time when the Arabian plate detached from Africa to move northward. The compression proceeded in a good accordance with the Arabia movement that was manifested in a general synchroneity of the Late Alpine orogenies in the Caucasus and Kopetdagh with the rifting and spreading phases in the Aden Gulf and the Red Sea. The earliest orogeny was the Styrian one of the terminal Early Miocene. It corresponds to the initial stage of the rift opening and was mostly pronounced in the east, in Kopetdagh and East Iran, where a recent structure has been formed by the initial Middle Miocene. In the Greater Caucasus, the Styrian deformations occurred in its central part only (i.e., in front of the Arabian plate northern tip) where the main Caucasian thrusts and conjugate asymmetrical megaanticline of the Central Caucasus were formed. An essential feature of the earliest, Styrian, structure of the whole Caucasus-Kopetdagh region was a series of regional right-lateral strike-slip faults. In the Kopetdagh, the strike-slips have no submeridional but northwestern direction although they occurred in the northern continuation of the submeridional right-lateral strike-slip faults framing the Lut block. In the Caucasus, they became even sublatitudinal, in parallel with the North Anatolian fault, thus constituting a single domain with the latter. So, the right-lateral strike-slip faults of East Iran, Kopetdagh, and the Caucasus compose an extensive arc convex to the north and appeared probably as a result of the right-lateral shear caused by the known counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian lithospheric plate. The Middle Miocene was characterized by a tectonic pause both in the Red Sea-Aden rift system and in the

  15. Dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch compressing both sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Okumura, Y; Furusawa, N; Omori, H; Kawahara, H; Fujita, T; Katayama, K; Noriki, S

    1998-08-01

    We report an instructive case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a dumb-bell shaped tuberculous abscess across the greater sciatic notch bilaterally compressing both sciatic nerves. Clinical symptoms progressed slowly and mimicked lumbar radiculopathy, thus delaying an accurate diagnosis. Anterolateral retroperitoneal and posterolateral gluteal approaches of the greater sciatic notch as well as the acetabulum on both sides were followed in order to provide safe viewing and resection of the abscess. The abscess wall was adherent to the sciatic nerve and surrounding blood vessels. The symptoms completely disappeared after resection of the abscess.

  16. Development of FEC and ESC performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Francisco; Koga, Keiichiro

    1988-12-01

    The requirement for restoration of high capacity fiber optic cables and the new tariffs approved for Intelsat digital services has created a requirement to develop performance characteristics for intermediate data rate (IDR) carriers greater than 10 Mb/s. This paper presents the trade-offs used in this development, and estimates the coding gains needed to meet these requirements. A number of forward error correction schemes are evaluated and a rate 3/4 convolutional code with soft decision Viterbi decoding is selected. Engineering service circuits performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s are presented.

  17. Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, A.W.; Hansen, A.; Kennedy, R.E.; Cohen, W.; Langner, U.; Lawrence, R.; Maxwell, B.; Gallant, A.; Aspinall, R.

    2003-01-01

    Shifts in the demographic and economic character of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are driving patterns of land cover and land use change in the region. Such changes may have important consequences for ecosystem functioning. The objective of this paper is to quantify the trajectories and rates of change in land cover and use across the GYE for the period 1975-1995 using satellite imagery. Spectral and geographic variables were used as inputs to classification tree regression analysis (CART) to find "rules" which defined land use and land cover classes on the landscape. The resulting CART functions were used to map land cover and land use across seven Landsat TM scenes for 1995. We then used a thresholding technique to identify locations that differed in spectral properties between the 1995 and 1985 time periods. These "changed" locations were classified using CART functions derived from spectral and geographic data from 1985. This was similarly done for the year 1975 based on Landsat MSS data. Differences between the 1975, 1985, and 1995 maps were considered change in land cover and use. We calibrated and tested the accuracy of our models using data acquired through manual interpretation of aerial photos. Elevation and vegetative indices derived from the remotely sensed satellite imagery explained the most variance in the land use and land cover classes (-i.e., defined the "rules" most often). Overall accuracies from our study were good, ranging from 94% at the coarsest level of detail to 74% at the finest. The largest changes over the study period were the increases in burned, urban, and mixed conifer-herbaceous classes and decreases in woody deciduous, mixed woody deciduous-herbaceous, and conifer habitats. These changes have important implications for ecological function and biodiversity. The expansion of mixed conifer classes may increase fuel loads and enhance risk to the growing number of rural homes. The reduction of woody deciduous cover types is

  18. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  19. Capacity for Absorption of Water-Soluble Secondary Metabolites Greater in Birds than in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (Mr = 150.1 Da) and lactulose (Mr = 342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; Mr = 194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on

  20. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem's carnivore community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, E.S.; Cross, P.C.; Smith, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50 000-100 000 individuals for moderate persistence (>50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding

  1. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's carnivore community.

    PubMed

    Almberg, Emily S; Cross, Paul C; Smith, Douglas W

    2010-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily distributed groups. We used CDV in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's (GYE) wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) as a case study for exploring how metapopulation structure, host demographics, and multi-host transmission affect the critical community size and spatial scale required for CDV persistence. We illustrate how host spatial connectivity and demographic turnover interact to affect both local epidemic dynamics, such as the length and variation in inter-epidemic periods, and pathogen persistence using stochastic, spatially explicit susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered simulation models. Given the apparent absence of other known persistence mechanisms (e.g., a carrier or environmental state, densely populated host, chronic infection, or a vector), we suggest that CDV requires either large spatial scales or multi-host transmission for persistence. Current GYE wolf populations are probably too small to support endemic CDV. Coyotes are a plausible reservoir host, but CDV would still require 50000-100000 individuals for moderate persistence (> 50% over 10 years), which would equate to an area of 1-3 times the size of the GYE (60000-200000 km2). Coyotes, and carnivores in general, are not uniformly distributed; therefore, this is probably a gross underestimate of the spatial scale of CDV persistence. However, the presence of a second competent host species can greatly increase the probability of long-term CDV persistence at much smaller spatial scales. Although no management of CDV is currently recommended for the GYE, wolf managers in the region should expect periodic but unpredictable CDV-related population declines as often as every 2-5 years. Awareness and monitoring of such outbreaks will allow corresponding adjustments

  2. Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.

    PubMed

    Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r) = 150.1 Da) and lactulose (M(r) = 342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r) = 194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands

  3. Crop classification modelling using remote sensing and environmental data in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    With an ever expanding population, potential climate variability and an increasing demand for agriculture-based alternative fuels, accurate agricultural land-cover classification for specific crops and their spatial distributions are becoming critical to researchers, policymakers, land managers and farmers. It is important to ensure the sustainability of these and other land uses and to quantify the net impacts that certain management practices have on the environment. Although other quality crop classification products are often available, temporal and spatial coverage gaps can create complications for certain regional or time-specific applications. Our goal was to develop a model capable of classifying major crops in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) for the post-2000 era to supplement existing crop classification products. This study identifies annual spatial distributions and area totals of corn, soybeans, wheat and other crops across the GPRB from 2000 to 2009. We developed a regression tree classification model based on 2.5 million training data points derived from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) in relation to a variety of other relevant input environmental variables. The primary input variables included the weekly 250 m US Geological Survey Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized differential vegetation index, average long-term growing season temperature, average long-term growing season precipitation and yearly start of growing season. An overall model accuracy rating of 78% was achieved for a test sample of roughly 215 000 independent points that were withheld from model training. Ten 250 m resolution annual crop classification maps were produced and evaluated for the GPRB region, one for each year from 2000 to 2009. In addition to the model accuracy assessment, our validation focused on spatial distribution and county-level crop area totals in comparison with the

  4. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Williams, L. R.; Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Chhabra, P.; Herndon, S.; Brooks, W. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Fleming, Z. L.; Visser, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-08-01

    The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Two High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS) were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent) and an urban site (North Kensington, London). The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA) concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the sources of OA are distinctly different. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA) are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD) to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC, measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer) only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS) at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as rBC in the atmosphere

  5. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cross, P C; Cole, E K; Dobson, A P; Edwards, W H; Hamlin, K L; Luikart, G; Middleton, A D; Scurlock, B M; White, P J

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  6. The use of the greater trochanter marker in the thigh segment model: implications for hip and knee frontal and transverse plane motion

    PubMed Central

    Graci, Valentina; Salsich, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Background The greater trochanter marker is commonly used in 3-dimensional models; however, its influence on hip and knee kinematics during gait is unclear. Understanding the influence of the greater trochanter marker is important when quantifying frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics, parameters which are particularly relevant to investigate in individuals with conditions such as patellofemoral pain, knee osteoarthritis, ACL injury and hip pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of including the greater trochanter in the construction of the thigh segment on hip and knee kinematics during gait. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics were collected in 19 healthy subjects during walking using a surface marker system. Hip and knee angles were compared across two thigh segment definitions (with and without greater trochanter) at two time points during stance: peak knee flexion (PKF) and minimum knee flexion (MinKF). Results Hip and knee angles differed in magnitude and direction in the transverse plane at both time points. In the thigh model with the greater trochanter the hip was more externally rotated than in the thigh model without the greater trochanter, (PKF −9.34°±5.21° vs 1.40°±5.22°, MinKF −5.68°±4.24° vs 5.01°±4.86°, p<0.001). In the thigh model with the greater trochanter, the knee angle was more internally rotated compared to the knee angle calculated using the thigh definition without the greater trochanter (PKF 14.67°±6.78° vs 4.33°±4.18°, MinKF 10.54°±6.71° vs −0.01°±2.69°, p<.001). Small but significant differences were detected in the sagittal and frontal plane angles at both time points (p<.001). Conclusion Hip and knee kinematics differed across different segment definitions including or excluding the greater trochanter marker, especially in the transverse plane. Therefore when considering whether to include the greater trochanter in the thigh segment model when using a surface markers to

  7. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    2013-05-22

    correlograms of genetic distance among males at leks were a more sensitive measure of population structure, and indicated a weak effect of wind energy development on the spatial genetic structure of prairie chickens. 7. We tested the effects of wind power development on female survival with time-to-event models, and on residual body mass of males with analyses of covariance. Distance to turbine and the interaction of distance and treatment period had no effect on female survival. Contrary to predictions of negative impacts of wind power development, the probability of female was lowest during the preconstruction period (0.274) and increased significantly during the postconstruction period (0.543). Inspection of hazard functions indicated that the difference in annual survival could be attributed to a higher risk of mortality during the lekking season in the preconstruction period. We suggest that wind power development may have improved ecological conditions for prairie chickens by disrupting the foraging behavior of diurnal raptors that kill prairie chickens at lek sites. In support of this idea, raptor kills tended to be farther from turbines during the postconstruction period whereas mammalian kills were closer. Analyses of the major causes of mortality did not support our hypothesis because the odds of raptor predation were greater after development was completed. Most mortality losses of radio-marked females were due to predation, and losses to collision mortality or harvest were rare events. Low rates of natural mortality during fall and winter imply that harvest is likely to be additive mortality in prairie chickens. Wind energy development reduced the residual body mass of male Greater Prairie-Chickens at lek sites near turbines. Low values of residual body mass could have a negative impact on individual survival or fecundity rates, or may be related to predation risk and flight performance of males displaying at open lek sites. 8. We tested for impacts of wind power

  8. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  9. Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College. National Panel Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the sustained and collective work of the 25 members of the Greater Expectations National Panel as they deliberated on the challenges facing higher education. These deliberations have led to a recommendation to rethink what should be expected from higher education and how college education should be provided. Even as college…

  10. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  11. 75 FR 68044 - Regulation To Mitigate the Misfueling of Vehicles and Engines With Gasoline Containing Greater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...EPA is proposing a regulatory program to help mitigate the potential for misfueling of certain engines, vehicles and equipment with gasoline containing greater than 10 volume percent (``vol%'') ethanol up to 15 vol% ethanol (E15). This proposal is in conjunction with the Agency's partial waiver, pursuant to Clean Air Act section 211(f)(4), which allows for the introduction into commerce of......

  12. How Postsecondary Education Can Play a Greater Role in CETA Programs. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Lucy

    Reauthorization of the federal government's main jobs and training program, the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), P.L. 95-524, has resulted in legislative changes that could lead to greater participation of postsecondary institutions. This paper addresses those changes and serves as an introduction and guide to CETA. The changes…

  13. Statutory and Regulatory Barriers to Greater Efficiencies in the Arizona University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edward

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this document organizes the responses of Arizona's universities to questions on statutory and regulatory barriers to greater efficiency. Each statute, regulation, or policy is noted with commentary and…

  14. "Trying to Find the Extra Choices": Migrant Parents and Secondary School Choice in Greater Manchester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Bridget; De Tona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on qualitative research in Greater Manchester, examines the experience of migrants in navigating the education system, and in particular in choosing secondary schools for their children. There has been extensive research on the process of choosing schools since the policy reforms of the 1980s, but none has examined how the…

  15. Does Modernity Lead to Greater Well-Being? Bedouin Women Undergoing a Socio-Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedem-Friedrich, Peri; Al-Atawneh, Maged

    2004-01-01

    The effect of modernization on the well-being of Bedouin women (n = 150) was investigated. Results show that the more modern the objective circumstances of the women's lives, and/or the more modern the husbands' attitudes (as perceived by their wives), the greater their subjective well-being (SWB). The women's own attitudes affected their SWB only…

  16. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  17. Language Education, Economic Development and Participation in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Mekong has long attracted interest although it remains economically insignificant. A group of riparian states known as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)--Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan Province (China)--now manage aspects of regional development including trade, water management and education. Standard GMS discourse…

  18. Higher Education's Influence on the Confessional Practices of Roman Catholic Laity in the Greater Miami Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study of 20 Roman Catholic laypersons in the Greater Miami area investigated the phenomenon of transformation of confessional practice as a result of the undergraduate educational experience. By searching for meaning in each individual's story, two themes or factors and six sub themes emerged. The themes were…

  19. Greater Discomfort as a Proximate Cause of Sex Differences in Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Roy, Rosanne; Waite, Angela; Goldbaum, Suzanne; Linders, Lisa; Simpson, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined whether females exhibited greater discomfort than males when competing directly with same-sex peers. In the first study, 40 same-sex groups of 4 children from kindergarten or grade 4 were asked to choose a group leader. The second study involved competitive games in pairs separated by a barrier. Both studies found greater…

  20. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics.

  1. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  2. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  3. Increased dietary sodium is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mc Causland, Finnian R; Waikar, Sushrut S; Brunelli, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Dietary sodium is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, hypervolemia, and mortality in hemodialysis patients; hence, sodium restriction is almost universally recommended. Since the evidence upon which to base these assumptions is limited, we undertook a post-hoc analysis of 1770 patients in the Hemodialysis Study with available dietary, clinical, and laboratory information. Within this cohort, 772 were men, 1113 black, and 786 diabetic, with a mean age of 58 years and a median dietary sodium intake of 2080 mg/day. After case-mix adjustment, linear regression modeling found that higher dietary sodium was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement, caloric and protein intake; sodium to calorie intake ratio was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement; and sodium to potassium ratio was associated with higher serum sodium. No indices were associated with the pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure. Cox regression modeling found that higher baseline dietary sodium and the ratio of sodium to calorie or potassium were each independently associated with greater all-cause mortality. No association between a prescribed dietary sodium restriction and mortality were found. Thus, higher reported dietary sodium intake is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients. Randomized trials will be necessary to determine whether dietary sodium restriction improves survival.

  4. Achilles tendon material properties are greater in the jump leg of jumping athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, A.J.; Weatherholt, A.M.; Crandall, T.T.; Farmer, D.L.; McConnell, J.C.; Crossley, K.M.; Warden, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Achilles tendon (AT) must adapt to meet changes in demands. This study explored AT adaptation by comparing properties within the jump and non-jump legs of jumping athletes. Non-jumping control athletes were included to control limb dominance effects. Methods: AT properties were assessed in the preferred (jump) and non-preferred (lead) jumping legs of male collegiate-level long and/or high jump (jumpers; n=10) and cross-country (controls; n=10) athletes. Cross-sectional area (CSA), elongation, and force during isometric contractions were used to estimate the morphological, mechanical and material properties of the ATs bilaterally. Results: Jumpers exposed their ATs to more force and stress than controls (all p≤0.03). AT force and stress were also greater in the jump leg of both jumpers and controls than in the lead leg (all p<0.05). Jumpers had 17.8% greater AT stiffness and 24.4% greater Young’s modulus in their jump leg compared to lead leg (all p<0.05). There were no jump versus lead leg differences in AT stiffness or Young’s modulus within controls (all p>0.05). Conclusion: ATs chronically exposed to elevated mechanical loading were found to exhibit greater mechanical (stiffness) and material (Young’s modulus) properties. PMID:27282454

  5. Ethics roundtable debate: Is a physician–patient confidentiality relationship subservient to a greater good?

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Chris; Crippen, David W; Kapadia, Farhad; Morgan, Arthur; Murray, Holt N; Ross, Gil

    2005-01-01

    Is a health care provider's most proximal obligation to individuals or society as a whole? Our International panel of critical care providers grapple over the issue of whether patient–physician confidentiality exists as an open ended ideal it should be subservient to a greater good. PMID:15987407

  6. A Review of Three Alternative Schools in Greater Cleveland: Promising Practices and Feasibility Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Elyse; And Others

    The intent of the evaluation studies reported here was two-fold: (1) to determine the promising practices of three alternative schools in Greater Cleveland, and (2) to determine which of those practices identified as promising would be feasible for incorporation into the public schools. Each substudy includes an overview, a description of the…

  7. Assessing greater sage-grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural expansion, housing and energy developments, wildfires, and weedy plant invasions have led to loss and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats within the Intermountain West. Sagebrush-dependent species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are vulnerable t...

  8. Arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation of minimally displaced greater tuberosity fractures.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Ra, Ki-Hang

    2007-10-01

    In cases of displaced greater tuberosity fractures, treatments by arthroscopic-assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation have been reported. However, in cases in which there is a comminuted fracture or a minimally displaced fracture combined with concomitant lesions such as rotator cuff tear or labral pathology, it is difficult to reduce the fracture and to treat other pathologies by use of a percutaneous screw. Recently, many surgeons have used the double-row repair method in rotator cuff repair, which provides a tendon-bone interface better suited for biologic healing and restoring normal anatomy. In accordance with this method, we used the arthroscopic technique of double-row suture anchor fixation for a minimally displaced greater tuberosity fracture without additional incision. Initially, debridement was performed on the fracture surface by use of a shaver, and the medial-row anchor was inserted through the anterior portal or the intact cuff. Two lateral-row anchors were inserted just anterior and posterior to the lower margin of the fractured fragment under C-arm guidance. The medial-row sutures and lateral-row sutures were then placed. Arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation of a displaced greater tuberosity fracture restores the original footprint of the rotator cuff and normal tendon-bone interface of the displaced greater tuberosity fracture.

  9. DOD Financial Management: Greater Visibility Needed to Better Assess Audit Readiness for Property, Plant, and Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Greater Visibility Needed to Better Assess Audit Readiness for Property, Plant, and Equipment...Needed to Better Assess Audit Readiness for Property, Plant, and Equipment Why GAO Did This Study Since 1997, DOD has been required to prepare... audited financial statements. However, long-standing and pervasive financial management weaknesses have precluded DOD from being auditable . The

  10. Influences of environmental and anthropogenic features on greater sage-grouse populations, 1997-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Holloran, Matthew J.; Connelly, John W.; Hanser, Steven E.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Knick, Steven T.; Knick, Steven T.; Connelly, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), endemic to western North Amer-ica, is of great conservation interest. Its popula-tions are tracked by spring counts of males at lek sites. We explored the relations between trends of Greater Sage-Grouse lek counts from 1997 to 2007 and a variety of natural and anthropogenic fea-tures. We found that trends were correlated with several habitat features, but not always similarly throughout the range. Lek trends were positively associated with proportion of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover, within 5 km and 18 km. Lek trends had negative associations with the coverage of agriculture and exotic plant species. Trends also tended to be lower for leks where a greater pro-portion of their surrounding landscape had been burned. Few leks were located within 5 km of developed land and trends were lower for those leks with more developed land within 5 km or 18 km. Lek trends were reduced where communi-cation towers were nearby, whereas no effect of power lines was detected. Active oil or natural gas wells and highways, but not secondary roads, were associated with lower trends. Effects of some anthropogenic features may have already been manifested before our study period and thus not have been detected in this analysis. Results of this range-wide analysis complement those from more intensive studies on smaller areas. Our findings are important for identifying features that could threaten Greater Sage-Grouse populations.

  11. Greater Engagement among Members of Gay-Straight Alliances: Individual and Structural Contributors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2016-01-01

    Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, M[subscript age] =16.07).…

  12. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  13. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. OBJECTIVE: Researchers tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower...

  14. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  15. The Length of the Greater Palatine Canal in a Lebanese Population: a Radio-anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the length of the greater palatine canal in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology. Material and methods: In this study, we measured the length of 148 greater palatine canals in 74 CBCT images of Lebanese adult patients (38 females and 36 males). The data obtained was analyzed statistically to determine 1) if age is related to the length of the canal, 2) if the length of the left side tends to be systematically larger or smaller than the length of the right side, and 3) if the mean length of the canals in females is different than the one in males. Results: In a sagittal plane, the average length of the greater palatine canal was 30.62 (30.64 mm on the right and 30.60 mm on the left). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample in a Lebanese population, the length of the greater palatine canal does not significantly vary according to age, gender, and side. PMID:28077902

  16. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  17. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 111.30-24 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's...

  18. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 111.30-24 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's...

  19. 46 CFR 111.30-24 - Generation systems greater than 3000 kw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 111.30-24 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-24 Generation systems greater than 3000 kw... Outer Continental Shelf facility, when the total installed electric power of the ship's...

  20. The Impact of English as a Global Language: Policy and Planning in Greater China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores the issue of the emergence of English as a global language and how this is affecting educational policies and practices. Considers this question in relation to the Greater China region looking specifically at Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Data are from multiple sources, including questionnaires, interviews, and documentary…