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Sample records for 5-10 times larger

  1. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  2. Distribution of Seismicity Before the Larger Earthquakes in Italy in the Time Interval 1994-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, S.

    2010-08-01

    The Region-Time-Length (RTL) algorithm has been applied to different instrumental catalogues to detect seismic quiescence before medium-to-large earthquakes in Italy in the last two decades. RTL performances are sensitive to the choice of spatial and temporal parameters. The method for automatic parameters selection developed by Chen and Wu has been applied to twelve Italian earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. The limits of the method in constructing maps of seismic quiescence before the earthquake are demonstrated, and a simple improvement is proposed. Then a new technique, namely RTLsurv, is proposed for routine surveys of the Italian seismicity. RTLsurv has been applied to all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 in the Italian area in the time interval 1994-2004; four different sub-areas have been identified, with different characteristics in the level of recorded seismicity. One subarea—Tyrrhenian Sea—was characterized by a too low level of recorded seismicity for the application of the method. In the other three subareas a seismic quiescence was detected before at least the 66% of the earthquakes with magnitude greater or equal to 4 and all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.

  3. Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger extent than between spatial contexts.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Emily A; Diehl, Geoffrey W; Sparks, Fraser T; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA2 subregion has a different anatomical connectivity pattern within the entorhino-hippocampal circuit than either the CA1 or CA3 subregion. Yet major differences in the neuronal activity patterns of CA2 compared with the other CA subregions have not been reported. We show that standard spatial and temporal firing patterns of individual hippocampal principal neurons in behaving rats, such as place fields, theta modulation, and phase precession, are also present in CA2, but that the CA2 subregion differs substantially from the other CA subregions in its population coding. CA2 ensembles do not show a persistent code for space or for differences in context. Rather, CA2 activity patterns become progressively dissimilar over time periods of hours to days. The weak coding for a particular context is consistent with recent behavioral evidence that CA2 circuits preferentially support social, emotional, and temporal rather than spatial aspects of memory. PMID:25569350

  4. Relative influence of upland and lowland headwaters on the isotope hydrology and transit times of larger catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Hrachowitz, M.; Speed, M.

    2011-04-01

    SummaryWeekly variation of δ 18O was measured over 2 years in precipitation and river water in four relatively large catchments in north east Scotland. The River Dee (1712 km 2) is predominantly upland, with impermeable geology and hydrologically responsive soils. The headwaters of the River North Esk (732 km 2) are similar, but the lower third of the catchment is underlain by a major sandstone aquifer and is lowland (i.e. <300 m altitude) in nature. The upper 20% of the River Don catchment (1273 km 2) is upland, but the remainder is lowland with freely draining soils recharging significant groundwater reservoirs in superficial drifts. The River Ythan catchment (662 km 2) is entirely lowland and similar to the lower Don. The hydrological responsiveness of the catchments was directly related to their upland area, with the Dee and the North Esk generating the highest specific discharges during high flow events. Conversely, the Don and Ythan had more subdued hydrological regimes, but higher specific discharge under baseflows. Despite broadly similar δ 18O variation in precipitation inputs, the variability of stream waters was increasingly damped in the order Ythan > Don > North Esk > Dee. Convolution integral models were used to estimate Mean Transit Times (MTTs) for the four catchments from the isotope data. These were reasonably well-constrained at around 2 years for the Dee and 3 years for the North Esk. Estimates for the Don and Ythan were poorly constrained and therefore highly uncertain, but are both likely to exceed 10 years. MTTs in upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands are relatively short (ca. 2 months-4 years) and have been shown to be strongly correlated with soil hydrology, topographic indices and precipitation intensity. However, these relationships change in lowland areas as catchments become less surface water dominated and greater groundwater storage and deeper mixing processes result in much higher MTTs. Nevertheless, a close correlation

  5. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Luca; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Effectively determining masses of proteins is critical to many biological studies (e.g. for structural biology investigations). Accurate mass determination allows one to evaluate the correctness of protein primary sequences, the presence of mutations and/or post-translational modifications, the possible protein degradation, the sample homogeneity, and the degree of isotope incorporation in case of labelling (e.g. 13C labelling). Electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for mass determination of denatured proteins, but its efficiency is affected by the composition of the sample buffer. In particular, the presence of salts, detergents, and contaminants severely undermines the effectiveness of protein analysis by ESI-MS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS is an attractive alternative, due to its salt tolerance and the simplicity of data acquisition and interpretation. Moreover, the mass determination of large heterogeneous proteins (bigger than 100 kDa) is easier by MALDI-MS due to the absence of overlapping high charge state distributions which are present in ESI spectra. Here we present an accessible approach for analysing proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-time of flight (TOF). We illustrate the advantages of using a mixture of two matrices (i.e. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the utility of the thin layer method as approach for sample deposition. We also discuss the critical role of the matrix and solvent purity, of the standards used for calibration, of the laser energy, and of the acquisition time. Overall, we provide information necessary to a novice for analysing intact proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS. PMID:24056304

  6. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  7. 5,10,15-Triferrocenylcorrole Complexes.

    PubMed

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Galloni, Pierluca; Mandoj, Federica; Nardis, Sara; Stefanelli, Manuela; Vecchi, Andrea; Lentini, Sara; Cicero, Daniel O; Cui, Yan; Zeng, Lihan; Kadish, Karl M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Complexes of 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrole were synthesized from the crude free-base corrole product obtained by the reaction of ferrocenyl aldehyde and pyrrole. Direct formation of the complex in this manner leads to an increase of the reaction yield by protecting the corrole ring toward oxidative decomposition. The procedure was successful and gave the expected product in the case of the copper and triphenylphosphinecobalt complexes, but an unexpected result was obtained in the case of the nickel derivative, where metal insertion led to a ring opening of the macrocycle at the 5 position, giving as a final product a linear tetrapyrrole nickel complex bearing two ferrocenyl groups. The purified 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrole complexes have been fully characterized by a combination of spectroscopic methods, electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and density functional theory calculations. Copper derivatives of 10-monoferrocenyl- and 5,15-diferrocenylcorrole were prepared to investigate how the number and position of the ferrocenyl groups influenced the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the resulting complexes. A complete assignment of resonances in the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra was performed for the cobalt and nickel complexes, and detailed electrochemical characterization was carried out to provide additional insight into the degree of communication between the meso-ferrocenyl groups on the conjugated macrocycle and the central metal ion of the ferrocenylcorrole derivatives. PMID:26460880

  8. Growth oscillation in larger foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the potential for applying three-dimensional biometry to studying cell growth in larger benthic foraminifera. The volume of each test chamber was measured from the three-dimensional model obtained by means of computed tomography. Analyses of cell growth based on the sequence of chamber volumes revealed constant and significant oscillations for all investigated specimens, characterized by periods of approximately 15, 30, 90, and 360 days. Possible explanations for these periods are connected to tides, lunar cycles, and seasonality. The potential to record environmental oscillations or fluctuations during the lifetime of larger foraminifera is pivotal for reconstructing short-term paleoenvironmental variations or for gaining insight into the influence of tides or tidal current on the shallow-water benthic fauna in both recent and fossil environments. PMID:26166912

  9. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a) No establishment offering food,...

  10. 29 CFR 5.10 - Restitution, criminal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restitution, criminal action. 5.10 Section 5.10 Labor... Procedures § 5.10 Restitution, criminal action. (a) In cases other than those forwarded to the Attorney... in violation of a criminal statute, the matter shall be forwarded to the Attorney General of...

  11. 29 CFR 5.10 - Restitution, criminal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Restitution, criminal action. 5.10 Section 5.10 Labor Office... Procedures § 5.10 Restitution, criminal action. (a) In cases other than those forwarded to the Attorney... in violation of a criminal statute, the matter shall be forwarded to the Attorney General of...

  12. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  13. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  14. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  15. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  16. 1 CFR 5.10 - Forms of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Forms of publication. 5.10 Section 5.10 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.10 Forms of publication. Pursuant to section 1506 of title 44, United States Code, the Administrative Committee...

  17. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  18. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  19. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Agency Records Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading...

  20. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Agency Records... at the National Library of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Plaza Level (Level B), Washington,...

  1. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Agency Records... at the National Library of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Plaza Level (Level B), Washington,...

  2. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Agency Records... at the National Library of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Plaza Level (Level B), Washington,...

  3. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks may be operated without a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. 5.10 Section 5.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 30 CFR 5.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.10 Purpose and scope... to process the application; (2) Clerical services, computer tracking and status reporting,...

  7. 30 CFR 5.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.10 Purpose and scope... to process the application; (2) Clerical services, computer tracking and status reporting,...

  8. 30 CFR 5.10 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.10 Purpose and scope... to process the application; (2) Clerical services, computer tracking and status reporting,...

  9. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  10. β-Nitro-5,10,15-tritolylcorroles

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, Manuela; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R.; McCandless, Gregory T.; Smith, Kevin M.; Manowong, Machima; Chen, Ping; Kadish, Karl M.; Rosa, Angela; Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Paolesse, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Functionalization of the β-pyrrolic positions of the corrole macrocycle with –NO2 groups is limited at present to metallocorrolates due to of the instability exhibited by corrole free bases under oxidizing conditions. A careful choice of the oxidant can limit the transformation of corroles into decomposition products or isocorrole species, preserving the corrole aromaticity, and thus allowing the insertion of nitro groups onto the corrole framework. Here we report results obtained by reacting 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole (TTCorrH3) with the AgNO2/NaNO2 system, to give mono- and di-nitrocorrole derivatives when stoichiometry is carefully controlled. Reactions were found to be regioselective, affording the 3-NO2TTCorrH3 and 3,17-(NO2)2TTCorrH3 isomers as the main products in the case of mono- and di-substitution, in 53 and 20% yields, respectively. In both cases, traces of other mono- and di-substituted isomers were detected, which were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The influence of the β-nitro substituents on the corrole properties is studied in detail by UV-visible, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical characterization of these functionalized corroles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the ground and excited state properties of these β-nitrocorrole derivatives also afforded significant information, closely matching the experimental observations. It is found that the β-NO2 substituents conjugate with the π-aromatic system of the macrocycle, which initiates significant changes in both the spectroscopic and redox properties of the so functionalized corroles. This effect is more pronounced when the nitro group is introduced at the 2-position, because in this case the conjugation is, for steric reasons, more efficient than in the 3-nitro isomer. PMID:22668242

  11. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  12. Purification and properties of NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, S W; Ljungdahl, L G

    1984-03-25

    An NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from autotrophically and heterotrophically grown cells of Acetobacterium woodii. The enzymes from the differently grown cells were indistinguishable by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis and have a final specific activity of 670 units mg-1. The enzyme is oxygen-labile; therefore, it was isolated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithiothreitol. The oxidized enzyme can be reactivated with 5 mM dithiothreitol, the half-time of activation being 19 min. The forward and reverse reaction initial velocity kinetics was studied and the enzyme was found to follow a substituted (ping-pong) reaction mechanism. With this model, the Km values for NAD and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate are 4.0 and 0.26 mM, while for NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, they are 2.0 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The equilibrium constant at pH 6.7, determined by the Haldane relationship, is approximately equal to 2.0, favoring the formation of NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. The purified enzyme is a Mr = 55,000 dimer which lacks 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. At pH 6.7, the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate occurs at a rate of 98,600 mol min-1 mol-1 of enzyme, while the reverse reaction occurs at a rate of 95,600 mol min-1 mol-1 of enzyme. PMID:6608524

  13. Purification and properties of NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from Acetobacterium woodii

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, S.W.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1984-03-25

    An NAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from autotrophically and heterotrophically grown cells of Acetobacterium woodii. The enzymes from the differently grown cells were indistinguishable by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis and have a final specific activity of 670 units mg/sup -1/. The enzyme is oxygen-labile; therefore, it was isolated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithiothreitol. The oxidized enzyme can be reactivated with 5 mM dithiothreitol, the half-time of activation being 19 min. The forward and reverse reaction initial velocity kinetics was studied and the enzyme was found to follow a substituted reaction mechanism. With this model, the K/sub m/ values for NAD and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate are 4.0 and 0.26 mM, while for NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, they are 2.0 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The equilibrium constant at pH 6.7, determined by the Haldane relationship, is approximately equal to 2.0, favoring the formation of NADH and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. The purified enzyme is a M/sub r/ = 55,000 dimer which lacks 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. At pH 6.7, the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate occurs at a rate of 98,600 mol min/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/ of enzyme, while the reverse reaction occurs at a rate of 95,600 mol min/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/ of enzyme.

  14. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  15. College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159931.html College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds These athletes will need help adopting healthy lifestyles after their careers end, researcher says To use the sharing features ...

  16. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  17. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  18. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  19. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  20. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes.

    PubMed

    Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-06-16

    The close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and tetraazaacenes, azapentacenes, azahexacenes, and

  1. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  2. Warm-hot baryons comprise 5-10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Dominique; Jauzac, Mathilde; Shan, HuanYuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Céline

    2015-12-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5 per cent of the Universe's total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of 10(5)-10(7) kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm-hot baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars and of hot gas between interacting clusters. These observations were, however, unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm-hot baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of gas at 10(7) kelvin associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous observations of this cluster were unable to resolve and remove coincidental X-ray point sources. After subtracting these, we find hot gas structures that are coherent over scales of 8 megaparsecs. The filaments coincide with over-densities of galaxies and dark matter, with 5-10 per cent of their mass in baryonic gas. This gas has been heated up by the cluster's gravitational pull and is now feeding its core. Our findings strengthen evidence for a picture of the Universe in which a large fraction of the missing baryons reside in the filaments of the cosmic web. PMID:26632589

  3. Spontaneous heating more likely with larger bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spontaneous heating in hay is caused generally by too much moisture in the plant at the time of baling. This costs livestock producers in terms of dry matter losses and forage quality. With conventional small rectangular bales (80 to 100 pounds), a positive linear relationship between moisture conte...

  4. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  5. 41 CFR 102-5.10 - What does this part cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this part cover? 102-5.10 Section 102-5.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 102-5.10 What does this part cover? This part covers the use of Government passenger carriers...

  6. 41 CFR 102-5.10 - What does this part cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this part cover? 102-5.10 Section 102-5.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 102-5.10 What does this part cover? This part covers the use of Government passenger carriers...

  7. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Adaptive evolution toward larger size in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joanna; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Venditti, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The notion that large body size confers some intrinsic advantage to biological species has been debated for centuries. Using a phylogenetic statistical approach that allows the rate of body size evolution to vary across a phylogeny, we find a long-term directional bias toward increasing size in the mammals. This pattern holds separately in 10 of 11 orders for which sufficient data are available and arises from a tendency for accelerated rates of evolution to produce increases, but not decreases, in size. On a branch-by-branch basis, increases in body size have been more than twice as likely as decreases, yielding what amounts to millions and millions of years of rapid and repeated increases in size away from the small ancestral mammal. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, from extant species that are compatible with Cope’s rule: the pattern of body size increase through time observed in the mammalian fossil record. We show that this pattern is unlikely to be explained by several nonadaptive mechanisms for increasing size and most likely represents repeated responses to new selective circumstances. By demonstrating that it is possible to uncover ancient evolutionary trends from a combination of a phylogeny and appropriate statistical models, we illustrate how data from extant species can complement paleontological accounts of evolutionary history, opening up new avenues of investigation for both. PMID:25848031

  9. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  10. Procrastination by pigeons: preference for larger, more delayed work requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J E

    1996-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons chose between alternatives that required the completion of a small ratio schedule early in the trial or a larger ratio schedule later in the trial. Completion of the ratio requirement did not lead to an immediate reinforcer, but simply allowed the events of the trial to continue. In Experiment 1, the ratio requirements interrupted periods in which food was delivered on a variable-time schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, each ratio requirement was preceded and followed by a delay, and only one reinforcer was delivered, at the end of each trial. Two of the experiments used an adjusting-ratio procedure in which the ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials so as to estimate an indifference point--a ratio size at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. These experiments found clear evidence for "procrastination"--the choice of a larger but more delayed response requirement. In some cases, subjects chose the more delayed ratio schedule even when it was larger than the more immediate alternative by a factor of four or more. The results suggest that as the delay to the start of a ratio requirement is increased, it has progressively less effect on choice behavior, in much the same way that delaying a positive reinforcer reduces it effect on choice. PMID:8583195

  11. Warm-hot baryons comprise 5-10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique; Jauzac, Mathilde; Shan, Huanyuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Erben, Thomas; Israel, Holger; Jullo, Eric; Klein, Matthias; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan; Tchernin, Céline

    2015-12-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5 per cent of the Universe’s total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of 105-107 kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium. There have been previous claims of the detection of warm-hot baryons along the line of sight to distant blazars and of hot gas between interacting clusters. These observations were, however, unable to trace the large-scale filamentary structure, or to estimate the total amount of warm-hot baryons in a representative volume of the Universe. Here we report X-ray observations of filamentary structures of gas at 107 kelvin associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744. Previous observations of this cluster were unable to resolve and remove coincidental X-ray point sources. After subtracting these, we find hot gas structures that are coherent over scales of 8 megaparsecs. The filaments coincide with over-densities of galaxies and dark matter, with 5-10 per cent of their mass in baryonic gas. This gas has been heated up by the cluster’s gravitational pull and is now feeding its core. Our findings strengthen evidence for a picture of the Universe in which a large fraction of the missing baryons reside in the filaments of the cosmic web.

  12. Kokes Awards for the 22nd North American Catalysis Society Meeting, June 5-10, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Fabio H. Ribeiro

    2011-06-05

    The biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meetings are the premiere conferences in the area of catalysis, surface science, and reaction engineering. The 22nd meeting will be held the week of June 5-10, 2011 in Detroit, Michigan. The objective of the Meetings is to bring together leading researchers for intensive scientific exchange and interactions. Financial support that offsets some of the associated costs (specifically, registration fee, airline tickets, and hotel accommodations) would encourage graduate students, and for the first time undergraduate students, to attend and participate meaningfully in this conference. The funds sought in this proposal will help support the Richard J. Kokes Travel Award program. Graduate students eligible for these merit-based Awards are those who study at a North American university and who will present at the Meeting. We have currently 209 applications and we expect to be able to fund about half of them. The NACS has traditionally sought to encourage graduate student, and this year for the first time undergraduate studies, participation at the National Meetings and providing financial support is the most effective means to do so. Their attendance would contribute significantly to their scientific training and communication and presentation skills. They would be exposed to the leading researchers from the US and abroad; they would meet their peers from other universities; they would learn about cutting-edge results that could benefit their research projects; and they may become interested in becoming active participants in the catalysis community. These young investigators represent the next generation of scientists and engineers, and their proper training will lead to future scientific breakthroughs and technological innovations that benefit the US economy. Advances in catalysis can come in the form of more energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly chemical processes, improved fuel cell performance, efficient

  13. Allelic variations in 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and susceptibility to cervical cancer in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Nandan, Naveen Kumar; Wajid, Saima; Biswas, Shilpie; Juneja, Sominder Singh; Rizvi, Moshahid; Prakash, Raminder; Naqvi, Samar Husain

    2008-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene located on chromosome 1p36.3 catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,methyltetrahydrofolate, the major methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene have been identified, 677C>T in exon 4, leading to substitution of alanine by valine and 1298A>C in exon 7 which leads to the replacement of glutamic acid by alanine resulting into reduced enzyme activity. The potential influence of MTHFR activity on DNA methylation and on the availability of uridylates and thymidylates for DNA synthesis and repair makes MTHFR an attractive candidate for cancer predisposing gene. In order to elucidate the role of MTHFR polymorphism in cervical cancer, both the exons for 677C>T and 1298A>C mutations were analyzed among 219 females, including 77 females with normal cervical cytology, 80 with cervical dysplasia and 62 with squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. Females with mutant allele at 677 position (CT/TT genotypes) were found to be almost three times the risk of cervical dysplasia than females with CC genotype [OR, 2.9; (CI, 1.5-5.7)], but were less likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma [OR, 1.5 (CI, 0.7-3.2)]. Similar findings were observed for mutation at 1298 position, females with AC/CC genotypes were almost four times the risk of cervical dysplasia [OR, 4.3 (CI, 2.1-9.0)], as compared to AA genotype. Our study lends further support to the hypothesis that the MTHFR polymorphism (677C>T or 1298A>C) is involved in susceptibility to cervical dysplasia. PMID:19356065

  14. Biochronology and palaeoenvironment of Cenozoic Circum-Caribbean Larger Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    to each other. Up to 40 UA result for the late Paleocene - middle Miocene time interval. However, many of these associations may have an ecologic significance, but nevertheless there is a high biochronologic potential in this dataset, that is now calibrated in more detail by co-occurring planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and strontium isotope data. The late Paleocene is characterized by the association of Ranikothalia spp. (R. bermudezi, catenula, soldadensis, tobleri , antillea) with Discocyclina , Hexagonocyclina, Athecocyclina, Neodiscocyclina , Actinosiphon and Amphistegina spp. The Eocene Larger Foraminifera facies are characterized by many species of Amphistegina, Asterocyclina, Cycloloculina, Dictyoconus, Discocyclina, Euconoloides, Eofabiania, Fabiania, Gypsina, ,Helicolepidina, Heterostegina, Homotrema, Lepidocyclina, Linderina, Neodiscocyclina, Nummulites, Operculina, Operculinoides, Orthophragmina, Polylepidina, Proporocyclina, Sphareogypsina and Yaberinella. The Oligocene is characterized by many species of Archaias, Heterostegina, Miogypsina , Miolepidocyclina, Miosorites, Lepidocyclina, and Nummulites. Lower-middle Miocene carbonates contain associations of Amphistegina, Archaias, Miosorites, Miogypsina, Miolepidocyclina and Operculina.

  15. Local Studies and Larger Issues: The Case of Sara Bagby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explains that students can study local events within a larger context that clarifies larger events or issues. Focuses on the 1861 case of Sara Lucy Bagby (Cleveland, Ohio), an escaped slave, to illuminate aspects of gender, racial relations, politics, and the origins of the U.S. Civil War. (CMK)

  16. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  17. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  18. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  19. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.10 Risk assessment... to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk assessment regulations as the Securities...

  20. The corrole and ferrocene marriage: 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrolato Cu.

    PubMed

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Vecchi, Andrea; Mandoj, Federica; Bortolini, Olga; Cicero, Daniel O; Galloni, Pierluca; Paolesse, Roberto

    2014-04-21

    Two synthetic routes have been defined for the preparation of a 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrole Cu derivative. This complex has been characterized and the preliminary electrochemical investigation shows a strong interaction among the corrole and meso ferrocenyl substituents. The results obtained suggest that peculiar properties are gained by combining the eccentric characteristics of ferrocenyl substitution with the corrole macrocycle. PMID:24616907

  1. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  2. Effects on cardiovascular risk factors of weight losses limited to 5-10.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua D; Buscemi, Joanna; Milsom, Vanessa; Malcolm, Robert; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of modest weight loss. To determine whether weight losses limited to 5-10 % are sufficient to produce cardiovascular health benefits, data from 401 overweight and obese adults who enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program from 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Primary outcomes were changes in fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Patients who lost 5-10 % showed significant reductions in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Patients who lost >10 % experienced significantly greater improvements in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol than patients losing less. For higher-risk patients, those who lost 5-10 % significantly reduced fasting glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol; those who lost >10 % improved on all risk factors (except HDL cholesterol) and to a significantly greater degree than those losing less. Five to 10 % weight losses produced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, but greater weight losses were associated with even greater improvement. PMID:27528523

  3. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    PubMed

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. PMID:27263761

  4. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  5. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  6. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  7. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  8. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  9. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  10. Can a secondary isotope effect be larger than a primary?

    PubMed

    Perrin, Charles L; Burke, Kathryn D

    2015-05-21

    Primary and secondary (18)O equilibrium isotope effects on the acidities of a variety of Brønsted and Lewis acids centered on carbon, boron, nitrogen, and phosphorus were computed by density-functional theory. For many of these acids, the secondary isotope effect was found to be larger than the primary isotope effect. This is a counterintuitive result, because the H atom that is lost is closer to the (18)O atom that is responsible for the primary isotope effect. The relative magnitudes of the isotope effects can be associated with the vibrational frequency and zero-point energy of the X═O vibrations, which are greater than those of the X-O vibrations. However, the difference between these contributions is small, and the major responsibility for the larger secondary isotope effect comes from the moment-of-inertia factor, which depends on the position of the (18)O atom relative to the principal axes of rotation. PMID:25879248

  11. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  12. Air pollution episodes in larger area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, C.; Iorga, G.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the fact that aerosol burdens in Eastern Europe may be heavily impacted by regional anthropogenic sources, this research is focused on analyses of air pollution episodes with the goal to quantify this impact in larger area of Bucharest. City of Bucharest is large size city (population 2.8 million) located in the Romanian Plain, characterised by environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in South-eastern Europe. It experiences intense photochemical processes. City environment includes intense emissions from traffic, thermo-electrical power-generation stations (CETs) that use mainly fossil fuels for power generation and domestic heating, and from industry. The data (PM10, SO2, CO, NOx) were collected at eight sampling sites in and around the urban area of Bucharest (three industrial and two traffic sites, one EPA urban background site, one suburban site and one regional site situated outside of Bucharest). Mass concentrations spanning over one year (2005 year) of continuous sampling were taken from data provided by the Air Quality Monitoring Network of the city. Analyses of temporal and spatial variability of PM10 were correlated with data of SO2, CO, NOx. The criterion for selecting the pollution episodes was the daily average concentration of PM10 to exceed by 35 times per year the limit value of 50 gm-3 (in accordance with Romanian Ministry Order 592/2002 criterion). Exceedances were considered as strong pollution events and were studied related to local pollution and long-range transport of pollutants provided by back-trajectories of air masses. As a general characteristics, the main contribution to the aerosol mass is due to anthropogenic local sources, but natural sources play a role, as well. The comparison between the concentration values at different sites indicates that industrial sources are responsible for a large part of the high concentrations in urban area followed by the traffic sources. The urban impact on nearby

  13. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring.

    PubMed

    Agnvall, B; Ali, A; Olby, S; Jensen, P

    2014-09-01

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected. PMID:24910136

  14. Structural distortions in 5-10 nm silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, Kristie J.; Kamp, Noelle M.; Kunz, Martin; Knight, Jason K.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Smith, R.K.

    2008-10-13

    We present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles in the size range of 5-10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. We have used x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron light source to investigate pressure-dependent and size-dependent trends in the crystal structure of silver nanoparticles in a hydrostatic medium compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. Results suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. We propose a mechanism for this transition that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. To further support this hypothesis, we also show that similar measurements of single-crystal platinum nanoparticles reveal no such distortions.

  15. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  16. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  17. Seven novel mutations at the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D.S.; Rozen, R.

    1994-09-01

    5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a flavoprotein, catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cofactor for methionine synthase in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Severe MTHFR deficiency, which causes homocysteinemia, is an autosomal recessive disorder with variable clinical features; developmental delay, perinatal death, mental retardation and asymptomatic individuals have been observed. A milder deficiency has been reported in patients with cardiovascular disease. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA for MTHFR and the identification of 2 mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. We report here the characterization of 7 additional mutations at this locus: 5 missense mutations and 2 splicing mutations. Mutation analysis was performed by SSCP on PCR products generated either from reverse transcription-PCR of patients` total fibroblast RNA or from PCR of patients` genomic DNA. The 5 missense mutations are as follows: 1 Arg to Cys substitution in a hydrophilic segment proposed to be the hinge region that connects the catalytic and regulatory domains, 2 different Arg to Cys substitutions in 2 patients whose enzymatic thermolability is responsive to FAD, 1 Thr to Met substitution affecting an evolutionarily-conserved residue and a Pro to Leu substitution. The 2 splicing mutations affect the 5{prime} splice site and the 3{prime} splice site of 2 introns, respectively. The 5{prime} splice site mutation generates a 57 bp in-frame deletion of the RNA through the utilization of a cryptic 5{prime} splice site within the coding sequence. The identification of 9 mutations at this locus has allowed us to make preliminary correlations between genotype and phenotype and to contribute to a structure:function analysis of the enzyme.

  18. Treatment and recovery of larger particles of fine oxidized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.E.

    1980-09-16

    This invention relates to a method and treating agent for increasing the yield of larger particles of fine oxidized coal where the particle size is 28 X 100 mesh and preferably 28 X 70 mesh and where said coal particles are concentrated by froth flotation. The method consists of utilizing as a promoter an alkali metal or ammonium polyacrylate. A preferred promoter is about 0.05-1.5 lbs of sodium polyacrylate latex per ton of dry coal (0.017-0.5 lb of dry sodium polyacrylate per ton of dry coal), having an average molecular weight of about 100,000, to 1, 000,000 and more, with a preferred range of 1,000,000 or more. This preferred promoter or frothing aid for oxidized coal is a water-in-oil latex of sodium polyacrylate used with a water-inoil emulsifier and preferably used with an alcohol-type frother. The latex may be utilized neat and self inverts with the assistance of an oil-in-water surfactant and the water in the system upon application to form an oil-in-water emulsion, or it may be used as a two part system with an activator (Aqueous) to promote inversion. Additionally, the latex emulsion recovers larger particles in the size 100 mesh and greater and preferably in the range 28 X 70 mesh.

  19. Improved GIA correction yields larger Antarctic mass loss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicogna, I.; Sutterley, T. C.; Ivins, E. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    New regional ice deglaciation models have recently been developed to match a variety of geologic, glaciological, and geodetic observations. In Antarctica, these new models exhibit a smaller East Antarctic ice loss since the Last Glacial Maximum, and hence yield a smaller GIA correction to the Antarctic estimates than those predicted by ICE5G. These revised models yield less negative ice mass losses when using GRACE data. Although these new models represent a significant advance in Antarctic GIA modeling, there are still large uncertainties associated with them. One of the large uncertainties is due to the fact that in the East Antarctica interior, the GIA reconstruction is poorly constrained by observations. These new models assume a monotonic decrease in loading in the last 5000 years. We examine the impact of this assumption on the GIA estimates and how a more realistic non-monotonic loading scenario could impact the results and the GRACE ice mass estimates. We use GRACE in combination with output products from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and recent studies of deglaciation history to derive an improved GIA correction, which include a non-monotonic loading scenario, is consistent with available geological and geodetic constraints and reconstruction of recent climate history. We find a larger correction, which implies larger losses of the Antarctica ice sheet by about 70 Gt/yr.

  20. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  1. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  2. Biostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous carbonate platforms based on larger foraminifera: the Late Cretaceous shallow benthic zones (LKSBZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caus, Esmeralda; Parente, Mariano; Albrich, Sergi; Boix, Carme; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Lucia, Matteo; Frijia, Gianluca; Robles, Raquel; Villalonga, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The larger foraminifera are single-celled organisms extremely abundant and diverse in tropical-to-subtropical shallow-water oligotrophic-to- mesotrophic environments, especially in carbonate platforms. They cover all the environments within the platform, from the littoral areas to the lower limit of the photic zone. In the geological past, starting from the Late Carboniferous, the same ecological niches where inhabited by different assemblages that evolved in subsequent global community maturation cycles (GCMCs). These cycles are bounded by global palaeoenvironmental crises marked by increased extinction rates or even mass extinctions. This work focuses on the Late Cretaceous Global Community Maturation cycle (LKGCMC), which is bracketed between two mass extinction events: the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event at the base and the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary event at the top. Ten shallow benthic zones (SBZs) are proposed for the time span going from the base of the Turonian up to the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. A SBZ is a composite zone of parallel phylogenetic lineages that covers at least the most common facies realms of shallow-water deposits. Each zone corresponds to the "total range zone" of some larger foraminifera taxa, and is defined using integrated evidence on multiple first appearances and last occurrences of taxa from all available neritic palaeoenvironments. The new biozonaton is based on an extensive regional data set derived from well exposed shallow-water carbonate successions on both sides of the Pyrenees (Northern Spain and Southern France). The LKSBZ 1 corresponds to the earliest phase of the LKGCM cycle. This biozone is characterized by the presence of few Cenomanian survivors. The LKSBZs 2-4 are characterized by the great development of the structurally complex porcellaneous groups and the first diversification of rotaliids. The LKSBZ 5-10 are dominated by lamellar-perforate foraminifera, with three main groups: Orbitoidids

  3. Lamin A is not synthesized as a larger precursor polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Lebel, S; Raymond, Y

    1987-12-16

    Isolation of rat liver nuclei in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to the recovery in the final nuclear matrix of a higher molecular weight form of lamin A. The 2 kDa larger form was identified as lamin A by isoelectric point determination, recognition by an anti-lamin A and C monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping using V8 protease and N-chlorosuccinimide. The 2 kDa extension was tentatively localized to the carboxy-terminus of lamin A. Pulse-chase labeling and immunoprecipitation studies using baby hamster kidney cells showed that lysis of the cells in the presence of NEM allowed the recovery of a stable higher molecular weight form of lamin A. We conclude from these results that NEM prevented the degradation of the native form of lamin A previously thought to represent a higher molecular weight transient precursor form. PMID:3426582

  4. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Kim, Chun K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left lower lobe basal segments by the hernia larger than the actual hernia. To our knowledge there has not been a case report of a large hiatal hernia as a cause of matched lower lobe defect. PMID:26420992

  5. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  6. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  7. Larger benthic foraminifera of the Paleogene Promina Beds (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosovic, V.; Mrinjek, E.; Drobne, K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to add more information about complex origin of Promina Beds (traditionally interpreted as Paleogene molasse of Dinarides), two sections (Lišani Ostrovački and Ostrovica, Central Dalmatia, Croatia) have been studied in detail. Sampled carbonate sequences contain predominantly coralline red algae, larger benthic foraminifera and corals. Based on sedimentary textures, nummulitid (Nummulites s.str and Asterigerina sp.) test shapes and the associated skeletal components, altogether three types of the Middle Eocene (Lutetian to Bartonian) facies were recognized. The Ostrovica section is composed of alternating couples of marly limestones and marls, several decimeters thick with great lateral continuity. Two facies which vertically alternate are recognized as Nummulites - Asterigerina facies, where patchily dispersed large, robust and party reworked larger benthic foraminifera constitute 20% and small bioclasts (fomaniniferal fragments and whole tests less than 3 mm in diameters) 10% of rock volume and, Coral - Red algal facies with coral fragments of solitary and colonial taxa up to 1 cm in size constitute 5 - 40%, red algae 15 - 60% and lager benthic foraminifera up to 5% of rock volume. The textural and compositional differences among the facies suggest rhythmic exchanges of conditions that characterize shallower part of the mesophotic zone with abundant nummulithoclasts with deeper mesophotic, lime mud-dominated settings where nummulitids with the flat tests, coralline red algae and scleractinian corals are common. The scleractinian corals (comprising up to 20% of rock volume) encrusted by foraminifera (Acervulina, Haddonia and nubeculariids) or coralline red algae and foraminiferal assemblage made of orthophragminid and nummulitid tests scattered in matrix, are distributed uniformly throughout the studied Lišani Ostrovački section. In the central part of section, wavy to smooth thin (< 1 mm) crusts (laminas) alternating with encrusted corals occur. The

  8. 5,10 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphism as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, C.Y.; Brown, V.K.; Khoury, M.J.

    1996-06-28

    Persons with a thermolabile form of the enzyme 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have reduced enzyme activity and increased plasma homocysteine which can be lowered by supplemental folic acid. Thermolability of the enzyme has recently been shown to be caused by a common mutation (677C{sup {r_arrow}}T) in the MTHFR gene. We studied 41 fibroblast cultures from NTD-affected fetuses and compared their genotypes with those of 109 blood specimens from individuals in the general population. 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T homozygosity was associated with a 7.2 fold increased risk for NTDs (95% confidence interval: 1.8-30.3; p value: 0.001). These preliminary data suggest that the 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for spina bifida and anencephaly that may provide a partial biologic explanation for why folic acid prevents these types of NTD. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  10. Super-size me: self biases increase to larger stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-04-01

    Prior work has shown that simple perceptual match responses to pairings of shapes and labels are more efficient if the pairing is associated with the participant (e.g., circle-you) than if it is associated with another familiar person (e.g., square-friend). There is a similar advantage for matching associations with high-value rewards (circle-£9) versus low-value rewards (square-£1) (Sui, He, & Humphreys Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012). Here we evaluated the relations between the self- and reward-bias effects by introducing occasional trials in which the size of a shape was varied unexpectedly (large or small vs. a standard medium). Participants favored stimuli that were larger than the standard when stimuli were associated with the self, and this enhancement of self bias was predicted by the degree of self bias that participants showed to standard (medium) sized stimuli. Although we observed a correlation between the magnitudes of the self and reward biases over participants, reward-bias effects were not increased to large stimuli. The data suggest both overlapping and independent components of the self and reward biases, and that self biases are uniquely enhanced when stimuli increase in size, consistent with previously reported motivational biases favoring large stimuli. PMID:25112393

  11. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  12. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  13. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  14. Microwave soft x-ray microscopy for nanoscale magnetization dynamics in the 5-10 GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Stefano; Kukreja, Roopali; Chen, Zhao; Spoddig, Detlef; Ollefs, Katharina; Schöppner, Christian; Meckenstock, Ralf; Ney, Andreas; Pinto, Jude; Houanche, Richard; Frisch, Josef; Stöhr, Joachim; Dürr, Hermann A.; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    We present a scanning transmission x-ray microscopy setup combined with a novel microwave synchronization scheme for studying high frequency magnetization dynamics at synchrotron light sources. The sensitivity necessary to detect small changes in the magnetization on short time scales and nanometer spatial dimensions is achieved by combining the excitation mechanism with single photon counting electronics that is locked to the synchrotron operation frequency. Our instrument is capable of creating direct images of dynamical phenomena in the 5-10 GHz range, with high spatial resolution. When used together with circularly polarized x-rays, the above capabilities can be combined to study magnetic phenomena at microwave frequencies, such as ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin waves. We demonstrate the capabilities of our technique by presenting phase resolved images of a ˜6 GHz nanoscale spin wave generated by a spin torque oscillator, as well as the uniform ferromagnetic precession with ˜0.1° amplitude at ˜9 GHz in a micrometer-sized cobalt strip.

  15. Microwave soft x-ray microscopy for nanoscale magnetization dynamics in the 5-10 GHz frequency range.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Stefano; Kukreja, Roopali; Chen, Zhao; Spoddig, Detlef; Ollefs, Katharina; Schöppner, Christian; Meckenstock, Ralf; Ney, Andreas; Pinto, Jude; Houanche, Richard; Frisch, Josef; Stöhr, Joachim; Dürr, Hermann A; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    We present a scanning transmission x-ray microscopy setup combined with a novel microwave synchronization scheme for studying high frequency magnetization dynamics at synchrotron light sources. The sensitivity necessary to detect small changes in the magnetization on short time scales and nanometer spatial dimensions is achieved by combining the excitation mechanism with single photon counting electronics that is locked to the synchrotron operation frequency. Our instrument is capable of creating direct images of dynamical phenomena in the 5-10 GHz range, with high spatial resolution. When used together with circularly polarized x-rays, the above capabilities can be combined to study magnetic phenomena at microwave frequencies, such as ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin waves. We demonstrate the capabilities of our technique by presenting phase resolved images of a ∼6 GHz nanoscale spin wave generated by a spin torque oscillator, as well as the uniform ferromagnetic precession with ∼0.1° amplitude at ∼9 GHz in a micrometer-sized cobalt strip. PMID:26429444

  16. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of [5,10,15,20-tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin] on tumor and nontumor cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, R.; Sabotinov, O.; Stoykova, Elena V.; Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Shurulinkov, Stanislav; Minchev, Georgi

    2004-06-01

    In this study we evaluate the cytotoxicity of 5,10,15,20- tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrins on a tumor cell line LSCC-SF-Mc29, obtained from a transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc29, a timor line LSR-SF-SR, obtained from a transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin and for normal mouse cell line (BALB/c-3T3-A31) and bovine kidney cell line (MDBK). The cells were exposed to irradiation from a pulsed CuBr vapor laser system at 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm at fluence rate 50 mW/cm2 and pulse frequency rate 20 kHz. The viability of cells was determined by the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. The light dose-response curves and light exposures that ensure viability drop to 50 % were obtained for each cell line. The cytotoxic effect of TS4PP is most distinguished for LSCC-SF-Mc29. The bovine cell line is more vulnerable than the mouse line, especially at 510.6 nm. The 2-4 times higher viability of the normal cell lines in comparison with the tumor lines has been obtained.

  17. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2013-04-15

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO{sub 2} at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to {+-}5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  18. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  19. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  20. Characterization of particulate, metallic elements of TSP, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) aerosols at a farm sampling site in Taiwan, Taichung.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Yang, I-Lin; Chen, Ming-Hsiang

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles and metallic concentrations were monitored at the Experimental Farm of Tunghai University (EFTU) sampling site in this study. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected by using a PS-1 sampler at the farm-sampling site, in central Taiwan, from July 2001 to April 2002. At the same time, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) were also measured with a Universal sampler from January 2002 to April 2002. Only subjects with the most complete data records on TSP sampling (N=43) and PM(10) sampling (N=23) were used in this analysis. Taichung Industrial Park, Taichung Kang Road (traffic) and a Hospital Incinerator surround the Experimental Farm of Tunghai University. Atmospheric concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-680/G). The results indicated that the metallic elements Mg, Cu and Mn were the largest components in the TSP fraction; the metallic elements Fe and Cd were the largest composition in the PM(2.5-10) fraction; however, the metallic elements Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni were the largest abundance in the PM(2.5) fraction. The atmospheric metallic elements in the TSP, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) fractions came different emission sources, such as soil, traffic, industry and resuspended particles. PMID:12738209

  1. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  2. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  3. Unbalanced translocation in a mother and her son in one of two 5;10 translocation families

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.K.; Barber, I.; Collinson, M.N.

    1996-03-01

    We present two families with different distal long arm 5;10 translocations. In one family the propositus and his mother inherited the same derived chromosome 10 from the maternal grandfather who has a balanced t(5;10)(q35.3;q26.13). The phenotype of both the affected patients is milder and only partially overlaps with that of previous cases of distal 10q deletion. Other previously reported cases of transmitted imbalance are also remarkable for mild phenotype, occurrence of deletions rather than duplications and a strong bias toward maternal as opposed to paternal transmission. In the second family, the propositus inherited a derived chromosome 10 from his mother who carries a balanced t(5;10)(q35.1;q26.3) translocation; his clinical manifestations are consistent with an emerging phenotype for distal 5q duplications. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Characterization of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 in ambient air, Yokohama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Firoz; Shirasuna, Yuichiro; Hirano, Koichiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-04-01

    This study elucidated the characteristics of ambient PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 with water soluble ions, i.e., Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ and carbonaceous aerosol, i.e., EC and OC in above size fractions from the samples collected for the period of 2007-2008. The total numbers of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 samples collected with MCI sampler were 91, 87 and 79, respectively. The ambient particulate samples were collected twice in a week for a period of 24 h at the roof of a three-storied building in Yokohama National University. The annual arithmetic mean concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 were 20.6, 9.6 and 5.1 µg m - 3 , respectively. The results of the daily PM 2.5 concentrations indicated that 67% of the daily PM 2.5 exceeded USEPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (15 µg m - 3 ) while 95% in respect of WHO ambient air quality guidelines (10 µg m - 3 ). The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 accounted for 40%, 31% and 19%, respectively. The estimation of non-sea-salt particles implies that the major sources of water soluble ions in PM 2.5 are anthropogenic. On the other hand, a large proportion of sea salt particles contributes to PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 . Spearman correlation indicated that the concentrations of OC and EC in PM 2.5 can originate from similar type of sources. However, the concentration of OC and EC in PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 can have multiple sources. In addition, some atmospheric reactions were also characterized in this study.

  5. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  6. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  7. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:15293734

  8. Synthesis and anti-tubercular activity of N(2)-arylbenzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione-3-iminium bromides.

    PubMed

    Rotthier, G; Cappoen, D; Nguyen, Quang Trung; Dang Thi, Tuyet Anh; Mathys, V; Nguyen, Van Tuyen; Huygen, K; Maes, L; Cos, P; Abbaspour Tehrani, K

    2016-02-14

    Tuberculosis has remained a challenge for medicinal chemists worldwide. In the framework of a collaborative program to identify and evaluate novel antitubercular candidate compounds, the biological properties of benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-diones have been found to be very promising. In this paper we have further expanded the library by incorporation of an amidinium moiety into the benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione scaffold. The presence of this functional group also increased the solubility of the quinones in polar solvents. To this purpose N(2)-arylbenzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione-3-iminium bromides were synthesized in a straightforward way by means of a reaction of anilines with 2-(bromomethyl)-3-(cyanomethyl)-1,4-dimethoxynaphthalene. Following the biological evaluation, N(2)-(4-chlorophenyl)-5,10-dioxobenzo[g]isoquinoline-3(2H)-iminium bromide (MIC = 1.16 μM, CC50 = 28.51 μM, SI = 24.58) was selected as the most promising representative. Apart from the nano-molar anti-mycobacterial activity, the compound was able to target intracellular residing Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the susceptibility of a multi-drug-resistant strain towards the compound was confirmed. PMID:26763748

  9. The 5-10 keV AGN luminosity function at 0.01 < z < 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, S.; Buchner, J.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Georgakakis, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Ranalli, P.; Hsu, L. T.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Miyaji, T.; Nandra, K.; Aird, J.; Paltani, S.

    2016-03-01

    The active galactic nuclei (AGN) X-ray luminosity function traces actively accreting supermassive black holes and is essential for the study of the properties of the AGN population, black hole evolution, and galaxy-black hole coevolution. Up to now, the AGN luminosity function has been estimated several times in soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard X-rays (2-10 keV). AGN selection in these energy ranges often suffers from identification and redshift incompleteness and, at the same time, photoelectric absorption can obscure a significant amount of the X-ray radiation. We estimate the evolution of the luminosity function in the 5-10 keV band, where we effectively avoid the absorbed part of the spectrum, rendering absorption corrections unnecessary up to NH ~ 1023 cm-2. Our dataset is a compilation of six wide, and deep fields: MAXI, HBSS, XMM-COSMOS, Lockman Hole, XMM-CDFS, AEGIS-XD, Chandra-COSMOS, and Chandra-CDFS. This extensive sample of ~1110 AGN (0.01 < z < 4.0, 41 < log Lx < 46) is 98% redshift complete with 68% spectroscopic redshifts. For sources lacking a spectroscopic redshift estimation we use the probability distribution function of photometric redshift estimation specifically tuned for AGN, and a flat probability distribution function for sources with no redshift information. We use Bayesian analysis to select the best parametric model from simple pure luminosity and pure density evolution to more complicated luminosity and density evolution and luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE). We estimate the model parameters that describe best our dataset separately for each survey and for the combined sample. We show that, according to Bayesian model selection, the preferred model for our dataset is the LDDE. Our estimation of the AGN luminosity function does not require any assumption on the AGN absorption and is in good agreement with previous works in the 2-10 keV energy band based on X-ray hardness ratios to model the absorption in AGN up to redshift three

  10. 2012 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 5-10, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Franz

    2012-08-10

    The Vibrational Spectroscopy conference brings together experimentalists and theoreticians working at the frontiers of modern vibrational spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on spectroscopies that probe the structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and at interfaces. The conference explores the wide range of state-of-the-art techniques based on vibrational motion. These techniques span the fields of time-domain, high-resolution frequency-domain, spatially-resolved, nonlinear, and multidimensional spectroscopies. The conference highlights both the application of these techniques in chemistry, materials, biology, the environment, and medicine as well as the development of theoretical models that enable one to connect spectroscopic signatures to underlying molecular motions including chemical reaction dynamics. The conference goal is to advance the field of vibrational spectroscopy by bringing together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of molecular systems ranging from small polyatomic molecules to large biomolecules, nanomaterials, and environmental systems.

  11. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  12. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten).

  13. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples. PMID:27472601

  14. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of prostates (HoLEP) larger than 80 g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2001-05-01

    In this prospective study, the efficiency of HoLEP inpatients with prostates larger than 80 grams was to be evaluated. 64 urodynamically obstructed patients with prostate glands of 103 (80-230) grams of weight underwent HoLEP (80 W, 2.0 J, 40 Hz, 550 nm bare laser fibers). The resected weight was 70 (50-200) grams, the resection time was 120.5 (83-170) min., the average resection weight was 0.7 gm/min. The postoperative catheter time was 1.3 (1-3) days. The postoperative hospital stay was 2.5 (1-7) days. HoLEP induced a significant, pronounced and immediate improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and micturition. The symptom score decreased from 22.3 preoperatively to 5.7 one week and 2.8 one year postoperatively. The peak urinary flow rate of 4.3 ml/sec preoperatively increased to 22 ml/sec one week and 32 ml/sec one year postoperatively. The residual urine dropped from 267 ml preoperatively to 11.5 ml one week and 5.0 ml one year postoperatively. There was one incident of postoperative arterial bleeding, one patient developed urethral stricture and two patients needed a second HoLEP. HoLEP appeared to be a highly effective treatment for prostates larger than 80 grams, with excellent functional results, minor blood loss, low complication rate and very short catheter time and hospital stay.

  15. Single mode, short cavity, Pb-salt diode lasers operating in the 5, 10, and 30-microns spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Pb-salt diode lasers are being used as frequency-tunable infrared sources in high resolution spectroscopy and heterodyne detection applications. Recent advances in short cavity, stripe-geometry laser configurations have led to significant increases in maximum CW operating temperature, single mode operation, and increased single mode tuning range. This paper describes short cavity, stripe geometry lasers operating in the 5, 10, and 30-microns spectral regions, with single mode tuning ranges of over 6/cm.

  16. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  17. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 and 1298 polymorphisms, folate intake, and microsatellite instability in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Allison M; Sandler, Robert; Carethers, John M; Millikan, Robert C; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O

    2005-08-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a critical role in folate metabolism. Studies on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and length changes in short tandem repeat DNA sequences [microsatellite instability (MSI)] are inconsistent. Using data from colon cancer cases (n=503) enrolled as part of an existing population-based case-control study, we investigated the association between MTHFR 677 and MTHFR 1298 polymorphisms and MSI. We also examined whether the association was modified by folate intake. Participants were case subjects enrolled as part of the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Consenting cases provided information about lifestyle and diet during in-home interviews as well as blood specimens and permission to obtain tumor blocks. DNA from normal and tumor tissue sections was used to determine microsatellite status (MSI). Tumors were classified as MSI if two or more microsatellite markers (BAT25, BAT26, D5S346, D2S123, and D17S250) had changes in the number of DNA sequence repeats compared with matched nontumor tissue. Tumors with one positive marker (MSI-low) or no positive markers (microsatellite stable) were grouped together as non-MSI tumors (microsatellite stable). MTHFR 677 and MTHFR 1298 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR using the 5' exonuclease (Taqman) assay. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). MSI was more common in proximal tumors (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7-8.4) and in current smokers (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6-9.7). Compared with MTHFR 677 CC referent, MTHFR 677 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with MSI among White cases (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81) but not significant among African Americans. Although not statistically significant, a similar inverse association was observed between MTHFR 677 CT/TT genotype and MSI among the entire case subjects (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.26-1.10). Among those with adequate folate intake (>400 microg total folate

  18. Interaction peculiarities of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridil) tetra iodide porphyrin with albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, N. Sh.; Malkova, E. A.; Popova, T. E.; Kutyrev, A. E.; Syrbu, S. A.; Parfenyuk, E. V.; Vyugin, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    In present work interactions of bovine serum albumin with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridil) tetra iodide porphyrin have been studied by electron absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The studies were carried out in aqueous media at different pH and in water-dimethylformamide mixtures containing up to 0.19 M of the organic solvent. It has been demonstrated that the porphyrin forms stable complexes with BSA in which the porphyrin is located subdomains IB and IIA. The stability constants of the complexes is practically independent of pH.

  19. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  20. Open Walls to a Larger World: What Handheld Computing Can Do for School Libraries and Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey Theresa A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers give students access to the larger world of information beyond the classroom. Wireless access allows students real time access to all networks resources, including downloading e-books and documents, searching the library media centres catalog and searching databases to which the library has subscribed.

  1. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

    1992-11-10

    A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

  2. Luminescence of microcrystals and solutions of 8-azagona-1,3,5(10),13-tetraene-12,17-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnich, S. A.; Khropik, N. N.; Knyukshto, V. N.; Bässler, H.; Mikhalchuk, A. L.

    2002-08-01

    We present the results of the investigation of delayed luminescence of 2,3-methoxy-8-azagona-1,3,5(10),13-tetraene-12,17-dione (8,9-dimethoxy-1,2,3,5,6,10b,11,12-octahydrocyclopentane[5,6]pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline-1,12dione) in solid solutions. Dual delayed luminescence with maxima in the region of 400 and 500 nm depending on the excitation wavelength has been revealed. It is shown that the observed delayed luminescence is a phosphorescence of individual molecules of the substance (short-wavelength luminescence) and molecular pairs (long-wavelength luminescence) resulting from the dipole-dipole (Coulomb) interaction of strongly polarized molecules. The conclusion has been drawn that the spectral features observed for the solutions of 8-azasteroids are due to both individual molecules and their aggregates.

  3. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1992-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques cna be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  4. Method using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine for treating cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1995-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  5. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  6. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  7. Regional characteristics of 5--10 m scale carbonate cycles of Late Mississippian Greenbrier depositional sequences, West Virginia; Comparison of field and modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Tawil, A.A.; Read, J.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Late Mississippian Greenbrier ramp carbonates contain depositional sequences (each up to tens of meters thick) which consists of a few transgressive shaly/muddy carbonates that shallow up into high energy skeletal/oolitic grainstones and associated shoreline facies and red beds. Sequence boundaries are characterized by erosional unconformities, caliches, breccias, channeling, and lowstand clastics. Superimposed on the larger scale third order cyclicity are high frequency, 5--10 m scale carbonate dominated cycles (parasequences), possibly of 100 to 400 KY duration each. Updip, few cycles are developed. These consist of grainstone-dominated facies with sharp/erosional tops, locally developed eolianites and caliches (especially where associated with a sequence boundary). Tidal flat facies are relatively rare and thin. In the much thicker downdip sections, more carbonate cycles are developed. Cycles are dominated by skeletal packstone grading up into skeletal/oolitic grainstone, and some thick (up to 8 m) tidal flat laminated dolomites. The oolites are sheets to channeled bodies that locally prograde out over local bioherms. Oolites are rare in the furthest downdip sections on the ramp. Cycle boundaries rarely have caliches, but erosional and microkarstic surfaces are common. Comparison of the observed sections with computer generated synthetic cross sections suggests that the cycles were developed under moderate amplitude (tens of meters) high frequency Milankovitch eustatic sea level fluctuations dominated by 100--400 KY periods. These likely mark the onset of the Late Carboniferous glaciation in Gondwana. The modeling closely simulates limited updip cycle development, and abundant cycle development downdip, along with locally well developed lowstand tidal flats.

  8. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  9. Editorial Commentary: Are Larger Screws the Answer When Anatomic Reconstruction of an Acromioclavicular Separation Fails?

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Although fixation methods have improved, failure after fixation of an acromioclavicular joint separation is not uncommon. This biomechanical study shows that in the setting of graft slippage through previously well-placed clavicular tunnels, a revision anatomic reconstruction is feasible with larger tenodesis screws. Although the risk of clavicular fracture increases with larger tunnels, anatomic revision with larger screws is an option in select cases. PMID:27495861

  10. INCREASED AIRWAYS INFLAMMATION AND MODIFIED BAL CELL SURFACE PHENOTYPES IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO COARSE SIZE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although associations between inhalation of PM10 and disease morbidity and mortality appear stronger for fine (PM2.5) vs coarse (PM2.5-10) or ultrafine/UF (PM<0.1) PM. In vitro studies suggest that PM2.5-10 are more potent in inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from alve...

  11. Effect of multivitamins on plasma homocysteine in patients with the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous state.

    PubMed

    Dell'edera, Domenico; Tinelli, Andrea; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Malvasi, Antonio; Domenico, Carone; Pacella, Elena; Pierluigi, Compagnoni; Giuseppe, Tarantino; Marcello, Guido; Francesco, Lomurno; Epifania, Annunziata Anna

    2013-08-01

    The role of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as a cardiovascular risk factor remains a matter of debate, while it correlates with folates, it demonstrates inverse correlation with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and vitamin B12 levels and reduces plasma Hcy levels following supplementation with multivitamins. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that administering multivitamins at specific doses for 90 days restores normal plasma Hcy levels in women who are homozygous for the thermolabile variant of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T). We enrolled 106 healthy females aged between 30 and 42 years, who were non-smokers, non-vegetarian, normotensive and who had no history of food abuse in the previous months. Only females were enrolled in order to rule out any bias due to the variation in Hcy plasma concentrations between males and females. Patient blood sampling was performed in order to determine plasma Hcy, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Furthermore, molecular characterization of the C677T polymorphism present in the MTHFR gene, was also performed. The results of this study demonstrated that supplementation with specific multivitamins restores normal plasma Hcy levels, regardless of the MTHFR genotype. Furthermore, it is unnecessary to adminster high doses of folate to reduce plasma Hcy levels, and administering high doses of folate may cause pro-inflammatory and pro-proliferative effects. PMID:23818036

  12. Augmentation of the therapeutic activity of lometrexol -(6-R)5,10-dideazatetrahydrofolate- by oral folic acid.

    PubMed

    Alati, T; Worzalla, J F; Shih, C; Bewley, J R; Lewis, S; Moran, R G; Grindey, G B

    1996-05-15

    Recent clinical trials with lometrexol [(6R)-5,10-dideazatetrahydrofolate] have revealed a level of toxicity in humans that was not predicted on the basis of previous in vivo preclinical studies. Because standard laboratory animal diets contain high levels of folic acid relative to human folate intake, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of lometrexol was studied in mice under conditions of restricted dietary folate intake. Remarkably, the lethality of this drug increased by three orders of magnitude in mildly folate-deficient mice, mimicking the unexpected toxicity seen in humans. Lometrexol had limited therapeutic activity in folate-deficient mice bearing the C3H mammary adenocarcinoma, compared with the substantial therapeutic index for treatment of this tumor in animals on standard diet. When folic acid was administered p.o. to mice that were mildly folate deficient, antitumor activity was again observed at nontoxic doses of lometrexol, and the range of lometrexol doses that allowed safe therapeutic use of this drug increased at higher dietary folate intake. At a fixed dose of lometrexol, the antitumor effects in animals were dependent on the level of dietary folate and went through a distinct optimum. Excessively high folate intake reversed the antitumor effects of lometrexol. Optimization of the folic acid content in the diet and of the lometrexol dosage are predicted to have substantial impact on the clinical activity of this class of drugs. PMID:8625328

  13. Insights into severe 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: molecular genetic and enzymatic characterization of 76 patients.

    PubMed

    Burda, Patricie; Schäfer, Alexandra; Suormala, Terttu; Rummel, Till; Bürer, Céline; Heuberger, Dorothea; Frapolli, Michele; Giunta, Cecilia; Sokolová, Jitka; Vlášková, Hana; Kožich, Viktor; Koch, Hans Georg; Fowler, Brian; Froese, D Sean; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2015-06-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of folate metabolism and causes severe hyperhomocysteinaemia. To better understand the relationship between mutation and function, we performed molecular genetic analysis of 76 MTHFR deficient patients, followed by extensive enzymatic characterization of fibroblasts from 72 of these. A deleterious mutation was detected on each of the 152 patient alleles, with one allele harboring two mutations. Sixty five different mutations (42 novel) were detected, including a common splicing mutation (c.1542G>A) found in 21 alleles. Using an enzyme assay in the physiological direction, we found residual activity (1.7%-42% of control) in 42 cell lines, of which 28 showed reduced affinity for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), one reduced affinity for methylenetetrahydrofolate, five flavin adenine dinucleotide-responsiveness, and 24 abnormal kinetics of S-adenosylmethionine inhibition. Missense mutations causing virtually absent activity were found exclusively in the N-terminal catalytic domain, whereas missense mutations in the C-terminal regulatory domain caused decreased NADPH binding and disturbed inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine. Characterization of patients in this way provides a basis for improved diagnosis using expanded enzymatic criteria, increases understanding of the molecular basis of MTHFR dysfunction, and points to the possible role of cofactor or substrate in the treatment of patients with specific mutations. PMID:25736335

  14. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males. PMID:26188521

  15. Stable isotope stratigraphy and larger benthic foraminiferal extinctions in the Melinau Limestone, Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Pearson, Paul N.; Renema, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Important long-ranging groups of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are known to have become extinct during a period of global cooling and climate disruption at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but the precise timing and mechanisms are uncertain. Recent study showed unexpectedly that the LBF extinction in Tanzania occurs very close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, as recognised by the extinction of the planktonic foraminiferal Family Hantkeninidae, rather than at the later period of maximum global ice growth and sea-level fall, as previously thought. Here we investigate the same phase of extinction in the Melinau Limestone of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, Malaysia one of the most complete carbonate successions spanning the Eocene to Lower Miocene. Assemblages of LBF from the Melinau Limestone were studied extensively by Geoffrey Adams during the 1960s-80s, confirming a major extinction during the EOT, but the section lacked independent means of correlation. By analysing rock samples originally studied by Adams and now in the Natural History Museum, London, we provide new bulk stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) records. This enables us to identify, albeit tentatively, the level of maximum stable isotope excursion and show that the LBF extinction event in the Melinau Limestone occurs below this isotope excursion, supporting the results from Tanzania and indicating that the extinction of LBF close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary may be a global phenomenon.

  16. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN. PMID:25624068

  17. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  18. RNA Interference in Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomula: Selectivity, Sensitivity and Operation for Larger-Scale Screening

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Martin; Braschi, Simon; Sojka, Daniel; Ruelas, Debbie S.; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, Kee-Chong; Hopkins, Stephanie D.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The possible emergence of resistance to the only available drug for schistosomiasis spurs drug discovery that has been recently incentivized by the availability of improved transcriptome and genome sequence information. Transient RNAi has emerged as a straightforward and important technique to interrogate that information through decreased or loss of gene function and identify potential drug targets. To date, RNAi studies in schistosome stages infecting humans have focused on single (or up to 3) genes of interest. Therefore, in the context of standardizing larger RNAi screens, data are limited on the extent of possible off-targeting effects, gene-to-gene variability in RNAi efficiency and the operational capabilities and limits of RNAi. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated in vitro the sensitivity and selectivity of RNAi using double-stranded (ds)RNA (approximately 500 bp) designed to target 11 Schistosoma mansoni genes that are expressed in different tissues; the gut, tegument and otherwise. Among the genes investigated were 5 that had been previously predicted to be essential for parasite survival. We employed mechanically transformed schistosomula that are relevant to parasitism in humans, amenable to screen automation and easier to obtain in greater numbers than adult parasites. The operational parameters investigated included defined culture media for optimal parasite maintenance, transfection strategy, time- and dose- dependency of RNAi, and dosing limits. Of 7 defined culture media tested, Basch Medium 169 was optimal for parasite maintenance. RNAi was best achieved by co-incubating parasites and dsRNA (standardized to 30 µg/ml for 6 days); electroporation provided no added benefit. RNAi, including interference of more than one transcript, was selective to the gene target(s) within the pools of transcripts representative of each tissue. Concentrations of dsRNA above 90 µg/ml were directly toxic. RNAi efficiency was transcript

  19. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  20. Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, dietary folate intake, and the risk of leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Min; Xie, Xing; Jin, Jie; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2016-03-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are critical enzymes in folate metabolism. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk, which may due to the lack of information on folate intake. We investigated the risks of adult leukemia with genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes (MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and TS) and evaluated if the associations varied by dietary folate intake from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Chinese. This study comprised 442 incident adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Dietary folate intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR 677TT genotype conferred a significant higher risk of leukemia in males than in females and exhibited an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but a decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype appeared to decrease the risks of leukemia in both genders, in AML and ALL. Stratified analysis by dietary folate intake showed the increased risks of leukemia with the MTHFR 677TT and TS 2R3R/2R2R genotypes were only significant in individuals with low folate intake. A significant interaction between TS polymorphism and dietary folate intake was observed (P = 0.03). This study suggests that dietary folate intake and gender may modify the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk. PMID:26438060

  1. Haplotype analysis of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.1298A>C (E429A) polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The polymorphism 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.1298A>C is associated with various diseases. 45 DNA samples homozygous for the A allele and 40 DNA probes homozygous for the C allele were taken from healthy German subjects of white Caucasian origin to analyze the haplotype of the two MTHFR c.1298A>C alleles. Samples were genotyped for the polymorphism MTHFR c.677C>T and for the silent polymorphisms MTHFR c.129C>T, IVS2 533 G>A, c.1068C>T and IVS10 262C>G. Findings Haplotype construction revealed that the C-allele of MTHFR c.1298A>C was more frequently observed in cis with c.129T, IVS2 533A, c.677C, c.1068T, and IVS10 262 G than expected from normal distribution. Estimation of the most recent common ancestor with the DMLE + 2.3 program resulted in an estimated age of approximately 36,660 years of the MTHFR c.1298C allele. Conclusion Given that the era from 30,000 to 40,000 years ago is characterised by the spread of modern humans in Europe and that the prevalence of the MTHFR c.1298C allele is significantly higher in Central Europe in comparison to African populations, a selective advantage of MTHFR c.1298C could be assumed, e. g. by adaption to changes in the nutritional environment. The known founder ancestry of the T allele of MTHFR c.677C>T allele, together with the present data suggests that the MTHFR mutant alleles c.677T and 1298C arose from two independent ancestral alleles, that both confer a selective advantage. PMID:22023786

  2. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  3. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  4. Nonlinear absorption properties of 5,10-A2B2 porphyrins--correlation of molecular structure with the nonlinear responses.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka, Monika; Wang, Jun; Blau, Werner J; Senge, Mathias O

    2013-06-01

    The nonlinear absorption properties of two series of novel free base and metalated meso 5,10-A2B2 substituted porphyrins, both bearing p-tolyl as an A substituent and TMS-ethynyl or bromine as a B substituent, were investigated with the open Z-scan technique at 532 nm in the ns time regime. Most of the compounds exhibited a transmission drop with increasing input fluence. This behavior is desirable for their applications in optical limiting. More complex responses: a drop in transmission followed by an increase in transmission or an increase in transmission followed by a transmission drop, with increasing input fluence, were detected for certain compounds. All of the recorded responses were successfully fitted with a four-level model with simultaneous two-photon absorption arising from the higher excited states (consecutive one- + one- + two-photon absorption). The TMS-ethynyl group was found to be a more efficient meso substituent in optical limiting than the bromine atom. Indium, lead and zinc complexes with TMS-ethynyl substituents were the strongest positive nonlinear absorbers amongst compounds studied which makes them the most interesting candidates for optical limiting application. PMID:23503655

  5. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  6. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    The cosmopolite foraminifer Heterostegina depressa has been a target of studies, describing its internal and external morphology, ecology and biology. During the last decades many researcher concentrated on test morphology and described its maturoevolute shape. Furthermore, a continuously increasing trend of test flattening along water depth has been described multiple times. However, the most common measurements, such as the thickness/diameter ratio, are too dependent on individual size to pose as an accurate tool. /newline Therefore a growth invariant character has been used to describe the change of thickness through the ontogeny of H. depressa. To compute this, the thickness at the half-radius, the so-called mediolateral thickness, of five whorls has been measured in 127 axial section of H. depressa. Based on this the ontogenetic change in thickness has been computed for specimens from different depth intervals of the slope of Sesoko-Jima, NW-Okinawa. In addition, this has been compared with the actual thickness and the corresponding radii at the same measuring points. The latter describes how thickness would change according to the thickness/diameter ratio./newline Hence, our analysis clearly quantifies a continuous transition of individuals with thicker central parts to individuals with flatter central parts along the water depth gradient. This is most likely controlled by light intensity, since photosymbionts (diatoms) of H. depressa are most active at low irradiation levels. Thus, shallower specimens grow thicker tests to reduce light penetration, while deeper specimens increase their surface to reach a better light exposure. Due to its broad water depth distribution H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. Since similar ecological constraints are assumed for fossil nummulitid taxa, useful palaeobathymetric information might be gathered from studying test flattening in extinct species

  7. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  8. Can We Prevent a Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma by Using Larger Diameter Suction Drains?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Chang, Byung Kwon; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious complication. According to previous studies, it is not prevented by suction drains. This study evaluated the following alternative hypothesis: the larger the diameter of a suction drain, the less the remaining epidural hematoma after spinal surgery. Methods This was a randomized prospective study. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion were divided into two groups: the large drain (LD, 2.8-mm-diameter tube) and small drain (SD, 1.6-mm-diameter tube) groups according to the diameter of the suction drains. All patients were consecutive and allocated alternately according to the date of operations. Suction drains were removed on day 3 and magnetic resonance imaging was performed on day 7 postoperatively. The size of remaining hematomas was measured by the degree of thecal sac compression in cross section using the following 4-point numeric scale: G1, less than one quarter; G2, between one quarter and half; G3, more than half; and G4, more than subtotal obstruction. Results There were 39 patients with LDs and 38 with SDs. They did not differ significantly in terms of sex, number of fusion segments, revision or not, antiplatelet medication, intraoperative injection of tranexamic acid. However, patient age differed significantly between the two groups (LD, 63.3 years and < SD, 68.6 years; p = 0.007). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet number, blood loss, or operation duration. However, platelet function analysis exhibited a significant difference (LD, 164.7 seconds and < SD, 222.3 seconds; p = 0.002). The two blinded readers showed high consistency (Kappa value = 0.740; p = 0.000). The results of reader 1 were as follows: LD and SD had 21 and 21 cases of G1, 9 and 11 cases of G2, 6 and 6 cases of G3, and 3 and 0 cases of G4, respectively. The results of reader 2 were as follows: LD and SD had 22

  9. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  10. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  11. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  12. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  13. Calorimetric Study of Phase Stability and Phase Transformation in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Subramanian, Raju; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rengachari, Mythili; Saibaba, Saroja

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive calorimetric study of high-temperature phase equilibria and phase transformation characteristics in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) alloys has been undertaken, as a function of heating and cooling rates. It is found that the following sequence of phase transformation takes place upon slow heating in annealed U-2 wt pct Zr alloy: α + α' + δ-UZr2 → α + γ 2 → β + γ 2 → β + γ 1 → γ. For alloys of 5 and 10 wt pct Zr, the additional presence of a miscibility gap ( γ 1 U-rich bcc + γ 2 Zr-rich bcc) in the high-temperature γ(bcc) phase region resulted in the following transformation sequence: α + α' + δ-UZr2 → α + γ 2 → β + γ 2 → γ 1 + γ 2 → γ. Further, it has been demonstrated that depending on the nature of starting microstructure, namely whether it is α eq + δ-UZr2, or a mix of α' + α eq + δ-UZr2 phases, the relative extents of two possible co-occurring modes of the first on-heating phase transformation step differ. In case of starting microstructure having mixture of three phases α' + α eq + δ-UZr2, it is found that α'-martensite relaxation via α' + α eq + δ-UZr2 → α eq + δ-UZr2 constitutes the first on-heating thermal response. The α'-martensitic relaxation is very closely followed by the dissolution of δ-UZr2. The co-occurrence of these two events gives rise to a composite thermal arrest in a normal dynamic calorimetry profile. However, if the starting microstructure is the one having the equilibrium mix of α eq and δ-UZr2, then only the peritectoidal dissolution of δ-UZr2 is found in the calorimetry profile. Unless, a very slow cooling rate of the order of 0.1 K min-1 is adopted from high-temperature γ(bcc) phase, it is not possible to obtain 100 pct of α eq phase along with equilibrium amount of δ-UZr2. At normal and high cooling rates, it is possible to suppress the diffusional decomposition of γ to varying extents. The direct γ → α'-martensite transformation has been observed at

  14. D5h [PhSiO1.5]10 synthesis via F(-) catalyzed rearrangement of [PhSiO1.5]n. An experimental/computational analysis of likely reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Joseph C; Goodson, Theodore; Laine, Richard M

    2016-01-21

    We describe here the synthesis and analysis of the reaction pathways leading to formation of the rare D5h decaphenylsilsesquioxane (SQ) [PhSiO1.5]10via F(-) catalyzed rearrangement of [PhSiO1.5]nn = 8, 12, and oligomers initially synthesized from PhSi(OEt)3. Isolated yields of ∼50% [PhSiO1.5]10 are obtained via rearrangement of all starting materials. The recovered starting materials can be re-equilibrated using catalytic F(-) to generate similar yields in second batches. These yields arise because [PhSiO1.5]10 exhibits higher solubility and better energy stabilization (10 kcal mol(-1) theory) in CH2Cl2 compared to [PhSiO1.5]8 or [PhSiO1.5]12. Reaction intermediates were identified using time dependent (19)F NMR and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry eventually equilibrating to form the 8 : 10 : 12 cages in a 1 : 3 : 1.3 equilibrium in CH2Cl2. Experimental results coupled with modeling using the Gamess computational package provide multiple reasonable pathways for SQ rearrangements to [RSiO1.5]10, starting from [RSiO1.5]8. Heats of reaction for interconversion of the model intermediates [HSiO1.5]x determined computationally, were used to select the most reasonable reaction pathways. The findings support a mechanism involving activation and cleavage of a T8 cage corner by F(-) attachment, followed by the corners stepwise removal as [i.e. RSi(OH)3], followed thereafter by reinsertion forming [RSiO1.5]9-OH followed by, insertion of another corner to form [RSiO1.5]10-(OH)2 and finally condensation to give [RSiO1.5]10. The most enthalpically favorable path (-24 kcal mol(-1)) involves a hybrid mechanism. PMID:26648403

  15. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  16. Manufacturing physics: using large(r) data sets and physical insight to develop great products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Early stage research does a fantastic job providing knowledge and proof-of-feasibility for new product concepts. However, the handful of data points required to validate a concept is typically insufficient to provide insight on the whole range of effects relevant to manufacturing the product. Moving to manufacturing brings larger data sets and variability; opportunistic analysis of these larger sets can yield better product design rules. In the early 2000s Corning developed an optical transmission fiber optimized to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Analyzing the larger data set provided by the manufacturing environment using the same theoretical framework developed by the original researchers refined our understanding of how to improve SBS in optical fibers beyond what was known from our early efforts. This greater understanding allowed us to design better performing products.

  17. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of new antitumor 3-aminomethyl-4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Shchekotikhin, Andrey E; Glazunova, Valeria A; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Luzikov, Yuri N; Buyanov, Vladimir N; Treshalina, Helena M; Lesnaya, Nina A; Romanenko, Vladimir I; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Balzarini, Jan; Agama, Keli; Pommier, Yves; Shtil, Alexander A; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2014-10-30

    A series of new 3-aminomethyl-4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones 6-13 bearing the cyclic diamine in the position 3 of the indole ring was synthesized. The majority of new compounds demonstrated a superior cytotoxicity than doxorubicin against a panel of mammalian tumor cells with determinants of altered drug response, that is, Pgp expression or p53 inactivation. For naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones 6-9 bearing 3-aminopyrrolidine in the side chains, the ability to bind double-stranded DNA and inhibit topoisomerases 1 and 2 mediated relaxation of supercoiled DNA were demonstrated. Only one isomer, (R)-4,11-dihydroxy-3-((pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)methyl)-1H-naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione (7) induced the formation of specific DNA cleavage products similar to the known topoisomerase 1 inhibitors camptothecin and indenoisoquinoline MJ-III-65, suggesting a role of the structure of the side chain of 3-aminomethylnaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones in interaction with the target. Compound 7 demonstrated an antitumor activity in mice with P388 leukemia transplants whereas its enantiomer 6 was inactive. Thus, 3-aminomethyl derivatives of 4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione emerge as a new prospective chemotype for the search of antitumor agents. PMID:25244612

  19. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  20. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately

  1. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...), 75 FR. 48458 (Aug. 10, 2010). \\35\\ Id. The CFPB seeks public comment on the following: What consumer... registration process to use in its larger participant determinations? C. Measurement Dates and Supervision... participant rule. See Act at Sec. 1024(a)(1)(A), (D), and (E). \\23\\ IBIS World Industry Report. Auto...

  2. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Register of October 31, 2012 (77 FR 65775) amending 12 CFR part 1090 by adding a new section to define... for substantive disagreement. Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2012-26467 published on October 31, 2012 (77 FR... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market;...

  3. Optimal Inventory Planning under Permissible Delay in Payments When a Larger Order Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuang-Hua; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    In the previous related studies, the inventory replenishment problems under permissible delay in payments are independent of the order quantity. In this study, the restrictive assumption of the trade credit independent of the order quantity is relaxed. This study discusses the inventory policies under permissible delay in payments when a larger order quantity.

  4. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...\\ The first two rules defined larger participants of markets for consumer reporting, 77 FR 42874 (July 20, 2012) (Consumer Reporting Rule), and for consumer debt collection, 77 FR 65775 (Oct. 31, 2012... participants of the student loan servicing market would become Sec. 1090.106 in subpart B. \\13\\ 77 FR...

  5. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  6. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin. PMID:22854118

  7. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  8. [Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, S

    1989-01-01

    The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12316673

  9. 77 FR 9592 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Product and Service Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... FR 38059. \\9\\ In July 2011, the Bureau held four roundtable discussions on the larger participant... closed-end credit at 120 days delinquency. See 65 FR 36903, June 12, 2000. Debt buying is another... data aggregators, law firms, data and record suppliers, account maintenance services, call...

  10. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  11. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  12. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  13. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  14. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  15. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  16. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  17. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  18. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  19. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  20. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl] chlorin as potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Darío D; Reynoso, Eugenia; Cordero, Paula; Spesia, Mariana B; Alvarez, M Gabriela; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2016-05-01

    A novel 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl]chlorin (TAPC) was synthesized by reduction of the corresponding porphyrin TAPP with p-toluenesulfonhydrazide, followed by selective oxidation with o-chloranil. Spectroscopic properties and the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers were compared in N,N-dimethylformamide. An increase in the absorption band at 650nm was found for the chlorin derivative with respect to TAPP. These photosensitizers emit red fluorescence with quantum yields of 0.15. Both compounds were able to photosensitize singlet molecular oxygen with quantum yields of about 0.5. Also, the formation of superoxide anion radical was detected in the presence of TAPC or TAPP and NADH. Photodynamic inactivation was investigated on a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and a fungal yeast Candida albicans cells. In vitro experiments showed that TAPC or TAPP were rapidly bound to microbial cells at short incubation periods. These photosensitizers, without intrinsic positive charges, contain four basic amino groups. These substituents can be protonated at physiological pH, increasing the interaction with the cell envelopment. Photosensitized inactivation improved with an increase of both photosensitizer concentrations and irradiation times. After 15min irradiation, a 7 log reduction of S. aureus was found for treated with 1μM photosensitizer. Similar result was obtained with E. coli after using 5μM photosensitizer and 30min irradiation. Also, the last conditions produced a decrease of 5 log in C. albicans cells. Therefore, TAPC was highly effective as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizer. PMID:26994333

  2. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  3. Numerical study of an oscillating smaller cylinder in the wake of an upstream larger cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Wang, Xikun; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study of flow around two tandem cylinders with unequal diameters was carried out. The upstream larger cylinder was fixed and the downstream smaller cylinder was allowed to oscillate in the transverse direction only. Comparisons of the experimental and numerical results were made to investigate the effects of the gap ratio on the maximum vibration amplitude and vortex shedding frequency. The results showed that the vibration response of the smaller cylinder was significantly affected by the presence of the upstream larger cylinder, and resulted in greatly reduced vibration amplitudes. With an increasing gap ratio, the vibration amplitude increased. However, the magnitude was lower than that corresponding to a single cylinder (with the same diameter as that of the downstream smaller cylinder) under the same flow conditions.

  4. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field. PMID:19962395

  5. Balance control impairment in obese individuals is caused by larger balance motor commands variability.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that various factors impaired balance control. Among them, heavy body weight is associated with poor balance control because the location of the center of mass is further away from the ankle joint. Thus, a larger active ankle torque is required to counter the greater gravitational torque. Because balance motor commands have signal-dependent noise whose standard deviation increases with the absolute value of the neural control signal, it was hypothesized that faster center of pressure speed observed in obese individuals would be related to larger balance motor commands variability. A feedback-control model and parametric system identification technique was used to estimate the variability in the balance motor commands and neural controller parameters based on previously published experimental data. Results of the neuromechanical model confirmed that the balance motor commands of obese individuals are more variable than that of lean individuals. PMID:25455209

  6. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  7. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  8. Do larger femoral heads improve the functional outcome in total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Allen, Charlotte L; Hooper, Gary J; Frampton, Christopher M A

    2014-02-01

    Use of larger diameter femoral heads has been popularised in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent studies have implicated larger femoral heads in early failure. We evaluated what effect the size of the femoral head had on the early functional outcome in order to determine the optimal head size for the maximal functional outcome. There were 726 patients who underwent elective THA and were divided into 3 groups according to head size then compared with respect to functional outcome scores and dislocation rates. This study failed to show that increasing the size of the femoral head significantly improved the functional outcome at 1 year after total hip arthroplasty but that the use of a 36 mm or greater femoral head did reduce the dislocation rate. PMID:23891058

  9. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called 'Peto's paradox' can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  10. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: Nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-07-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  11. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  12. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  13. Why have microsaccades become larger? Investigating eye deformations and detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hansen, Dan Witzner; Andersson, Richard; Hooge, Ignace

    2016-01-01

    The reported size of microsaccades is considerably larger today compared to the initial era of microsaccade studies during the 1950s and 1960s. We investigate whether this increase in size is related to the fact that the eye-trackers of today measure different ocular structures than the older techniques, and that the movements of these structures may differ during a microsaccade. In addition, we explore the impact such differences have on subsequent analyzes of the eye-tracker signals. In Experiment I, the movement of the pupil as well as the first and fourth Purkinje reflections were extracted from series of eye images recorded during a fixation task. Results show that the different ocular structures produce different microsaccade signatures. In Experiment II, we found that microsaccade amplitudes computed with a common detection algorithm were larger compared to those reported by two human experts. The main reason was that the overshoots were not systematically detected by the algorithm and therefore not accurately accounted for. We conclude that one reason to why the reported size of microsaccades has increased is due to the larger overshoots produced by the modern pupil-based eye-trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades. PMID:25481631

  14. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

  15. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  16. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  17. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15 percent of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% on energy balance in finishing cattle d...

  18. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets we...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3120...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3120...

  1. Source Parameters of the Bhuj Mainshock and Larger Aftershocks from Modeling of Broadband Teleseismic and Regional Waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.; Davuluri, S.

    2001-12-01

    The January 26, 2001 mb 6.9 Bhuj mainshock was well recorded at both teleseismic and regional distances. Many of the larger aftershocks were also well recorded at regional distances by digital broadband seismographs operated by the National Geophysical Research Institute of India, the University of Cambridge and the Indian Meteorological Office. We have modeled the teleseismic P- and SH-waveforms to retrieve the mechanism and focal depth of the mainshock and find a thrust faulting mechanism with a fault strike 281 degrees, dip 42 degrees, rake 107 degrees, a seismic moment of 2.31*E20 Nm and a centroid focal depth of 20 km. The long-period source time function shows a relatively simple source of about 15 seconds duration. We use the source parameters for the mainshock derived from the teleseismic inversion and the records for the mainshock at the regional stations mentioned above to calibrate the 1-D propagation characteristics for these regional paths. Using the calibrated regional propagation paths, we invert the complete regional broadband waveforms (P-wave through the surface wave-train) for the source parameters of the larger aftershocks (M0 1015 to 1017 Nm) which are too small to derive from teleseismic recordings. We model the broadband waveforms using the time-domain, linear moment-tensor inversion code of Randall et al, 1995.

  2. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  3. Initial Key Results from the NSAC Subcommittee Survey on Nuclear Science PhDs 5-10 Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerny, Joseph

    2004-05-01

    As a component of a study for the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee which has been asked, in part, to document the effectiveness of the current education in nuclear science, a web-based survey is being conducted by a Subcommittee on all US nuclear science PhDs who graduated 5 to 10 years ago. The survey questionnaire has six sections: (A) the overall career path from the time one received the PhD until the present and the demographic background; (B) the search for the first job after receiving the PhD; (C) the retrospective evaluation of one's doctoral education and experience; (D) the assessment of the usefulness of the doctoral degree; (E) the intersection of family and career; and (F) recommendations and opinions. Inital results of this survey will be presented, focussing on the doctoral and postdoctoral experience. Responses to two open-ended questions are of particular interest: What advice would you offer to graduate students who are just beginning studies in nuclear science; and what recommendations would you offer doctoral programs in nuclear science today?

  4. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  5. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  6. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  7. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  8. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to paratope mapping for larger antigen-Fab complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kato, K; Yamato, S; Igarashi, T; Matsunaga, C; Ohtsuka, H; Higuchi, A; Nomura, N; Noguchi, H; Arata, Y

    1994-06-13

    For the purpose of engineering the antibody combining site, mapping residues that are involved in antigen binding provide us with valuable information. By use of 13C NMR spectroscopy with selectively 13C-labeled Fv fragments, we have established a general strategy to identify the residues that are perturbed upon binding of small antigen (hapten) molecules [(1990) Biochemistry 30, 6604-6610]. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this strategy can be extended to molecular structural analyses of the complexes of an Fab fragment and a larger antigen molecule such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. PMID:8013642

  9. Accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules : gaussian-2 theory with bond separation energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-04-22

    Gaussian-2 (G2) theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

  10. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles. PMID:26104859

  12. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Larger than 100 ml: Simple Open Enucleation Versus Transurethral Laser Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2016-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men. Over the age of 60, more than a half of men have BPH and/or bothersome LUTS. Contemporary guidelines advocate surgery as the standard of care for symptomatic BPH after failure of medical therapy, where the choice of the appropriate surgical procedure depends on the prostate size. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and simple open prostatectomy (OP) have been considered for decades the reference-standard techniques for men with prostate smaller and larger than 80 ml, respectively. However, both procedures are potentially associated with considerable perioperative morbidity which prompted the introduction of a variety of minimally invasive surgical techniques with comparable long-term outcomes compared to TURP and OP. Nevertheless, the management of prostates larger than 100 ml remains a clinical challenge. Transurethral anatomical enucleation of the prostate utilizing different laser energy represents an excellent alternative concept in transurethral BPH surgery. These procedures gained popularity and demonstrated similar outcomes to OP with the advantages of favorable morbidity profiles and shorter catheter time and hospital stay. Despite the fact that OP remains a viable treatment option for patients with bothersome LUTS secondary to very large prostates, this procedure has been to a large extent replaced by these emerging enucleation techniques. Given the advent of surgical alternatives, the current review presents an evidence-based comparison of the efficacy and safety profile of the currently available transurethral laser techniques with the standard OP for the management of BPH due to adenomas larger than 100 ml. PMID:27048160

  13. "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect": Correction to Arend and Henik (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect" by Isabel Arend and Avishai Henik (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015[Nov], Vol 41[6], 1821-1830). In the article the wrong version of Figure 1 was published. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-23893-001.) The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by findings showing that the SiCE may be influenced by attention. The attentional contribution to the SiCE suggests that the effect is produced by an attention capture effect to the larger stimulus. Even though plausible, the attentional account overlooks 2 important factors in the study of magnitudes, namely, task (numerical vs. physical) and polarity of instructions (choose the larger vs. the smaller). We studied the influence of these factors using a size congruity task. Experiment 1 showed that the SiCE was modulated by task and instructions. In Experiment 2, we used a new set of numbers to examine a possible influence of the so-called end effect (i.e., responses to the smallest and to the largest numbers may not require number comparison). Experiment 2 successfully replicated the pattern of Experiment 1. We suggest that both feature saliency and long-term semantic processes modulate the SiCE. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359227

  14. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  15. Description of the Weatherization Assistance Program in larger multifamily buildings for Program Year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) in larger multifamily buildings were examined for Program Year 1989. The results show that about 20,000 dwellings in these multifamily buildings were served under the Program that year. This is 9% of the total number of units served nationally, while costs were 7% of total national costs. High levels of activity in larger multifamily buildings were reported for some States, with New York accounting for half of all the residences treated. Owner investment is an important strategy in New York for improving their efforts. A wide range of measures was installed, but the materials costs for the measures are dominated by the cost of windows (80% of the total for that year). Where the whole building was treated, $561 was invested per unit, while for partial-building work the total invested was $417. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program were not estimated, because energy use and cost data adequate for developing such estimates could not be obtained.

  16. Pharmacogenomic variants have larger effect sizes than genetic variants associated with other dichotomous complex traits.

    PubMed

    Maranville, J C; Cox, N J

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that pharmacogenomic phenotypes are influenced by genetic variants with larger effect sizes than other phenotypes, such as complex disease risk. This is presumed to reflect the fact that relevant environmental factors (drug exposure) are appropriately measured and taken into account. To test this hypothesis, we performed a systematic comparison of effect sizes between pharmacogenomic and non-pharmacogenomic phenotypes across all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported in the NHGRI GWAS catalog. We found significantly larger effect sizes for studies focused on pharmacogenomic phenotypes, as compared with complex disease risk, morphological phenotypes and endophenotypes. We found no significant differences in effect sizes between pharmacogenomic studies focused on adverse events versus those focused on drug efficacy. Furthermore, we found that this pattern persists among sample size-matched studies, suggesting that this pattern does not reflect overestimation of effect sizes due to smaller sample sizes in pharmacogenomic studies.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 7 July 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.47. PMID:26149738

  17. Functional convergence of tundra vegetation simplifies the interpretation of flux observations at larger spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, P. C.; Williams, M.; Evans, J. G.; Lloyd, C. R.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Disney, M.; Street, L. E.; Shaver, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    A central challenge in terrestrial carbon cycle research is upscaling measurements of vegetation function to larger spatial and temporal scales. A solution is required to, for example, make chamber-based measurements relevant at larger spatial scales and to make eddy covariance measurements applicable to leaf or chamber- based studies. Here we demonstrate that a simple model for photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration parameterized using pan-arctic chamber flux measurements closely matches eddy covariance flux observations in a tundra ecosystem near Abisko, Sweden. The agreement holds when using a generic parameter set that does not account for vegetation type or measurement location. Inverting the model to predict leaf area using eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange closely approximates tower-based LAI estimates across seasons and during periods of drought stress. Thus, recent findings documenting functional convergence of arctic vegetation holds at multiple spatial as well as temporal scales using both chamber and tower measurements. After validating the model using the eddy covariance measurements, we integrate the model with meteorological and LAI observations using a simple data assimilation scheme. The reduction of error achieved via data assimilation is compared to standard techniques of estimating eddy covariance error. Our analysis demonstrates that accurate estimates of C flux at multiple spatial scales across the tundra biome are possible given accurate estimates of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, and leaf area index given the observed functional convergence of tundra vegetation.

  18. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  19. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, F; Altenhoff, W; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Thum, C

    2006-02-01

    The most distant known object in the Solar System, 2003 UB313 (97 au from the Sun), was recently discovered near its aphelion. Its high eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic plane, along with its perihelion near the orbit of Neptune, identify it as a member of the 'scattered disk'. This disk of bodies probably originates in the Kuiper belt objects, which orbit near the ecliptic plane in circular orbits between 30 and 50 au, and may include Pluto as a member. The optical brightness of 2003 UB313, if adjusted to Pluto's distance, is greater than that of Pluto, which suggested that it might be larger than Pluto. The actual size, however, could not be determined from the optical measurements because the surface reflectivity (albedo) was unknown. Here we report observations of the thermal emission of 2003 UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, which in combination with the measured optical brightness leads to a diameter of 3,000 +/- 300 +/- 100 km. Here the first error reflects measurement uncertainties, while the second derives from the unknown object orientation. This makes 2003 UB313 the largest known trans-neptunian object, even larger than Pluto (2,300 km). The albedo is 0.60 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.05, which is strikingly similar to that of Pluto, suggesting that the methane seen in the optical spectrum causes a highly reflective icy surface. PMID:16452973

  20. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  1. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  2. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  3. The thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrate. II. Simultaneous occupation of larger and smaller cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Kiyohara, Kenji

    1993-05-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a clathrate hydrate encaging methane or xenon has been investigated by examining the free energy of formation. The total free energy is divided into several contributions: the interaction between water and guest molecules, the entropic contribution arising from the combinations of cage occupancy, and also the free energy arising from the guest molecular motions inside cages. Our method is based on the generalized van der Waals and Platteeuw theory used for the study of the hydrate encaging propane and is free from some of the fundamental assumptions in the original theory. This enables us to evaluate separately the factors which contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of the hydrate, and to address a question as to what extent the original theory is applicable to the prediction of the phase diagrams. While the potential energy curve of the guest molecule with surrounding water molecules in a smaller cage has a single minimum and the molecular motion can be accurately approximated to a collection of harmonic oscillators strongly coupled with the host molecules, the guest molecular motion in a larger cage does not couple with the host. To show evidence that the fixed lattice approximation is sufficient to describe molecular motions inside the larger cage, two kinds of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out. In one simulation, both host water and guest molecules move according to the classical equations of motion. In another simulation only guest molecules are allowed to move, interacting with fixed host molecules. We perform two kinds of analyses on those motions. In the first analysis, the velocity autocorrelation functions are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at several temperatures and the power spectra are obtained by the Fourier transform of the correlation functions. In the second, a so-called normal mode analysis is performed and the densities of state for intermolecular vibrations are

  4. Antireflection coating on germanium for dual channel (3-5 and 7.5-10.6 μm) thermal imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Kant, P.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.; Chandra, P.; Nijhawan, O. P.

    1999-02-01

    The dual channel thermal imager, operating in the 3-5 and 7.5-10.6 μm wavelength bands, is one of the latest achievements in instrumentation for target recognition and acquisition. While the 3-5 μm band is utilised for detecting hot objects such as engine exhausts of vehicles and fighter planes, the 7.5-10.6 μm band is employed for human bodies and objects at ambient temperatures. Many substrates are available which transmit in both these wavelength bands and their transmission can be enhanced by providing a suitable antireflection coating. In this paper, a broad band antireflection coating on germanium substrate is reported. The design approach involves achieving a continuously varying refractive index from that of the incident medium to the substrate. The continuously varying refractive index profile may be generated by using a sequence of thin layers of high and low refractive index materials. In this design a continuous refractive index profile is approximated by using a 13-layer stack of thorium fluoride and germanium as low and high index coating materials respectively. This coating conforms to environmental stability standards and shows an average transmission of 91% in 3-5 μm band and 94.5% in 7.5-10.6 μm band with a peak of 97% at 9 μm on 10 mm thick germanium substrate. Polycrystalline germanium has 2.5% absorption for a 10 mm thick substrate.

  5. Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A Randomized Trial of a Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Intervention for At-Risk 5-10 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G.; Anderson, Julie D.; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10 year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a contact control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well-child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The contact control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. PMID:23816490

  6. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  7. NMR Structure Determination for Larger Proteins Using Backbone-Only Data

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Lange, Oliver F.; Rossi, Paolo; Tyka, Michael; Wang, Xu; Aramini, James; Liu, Gaohua; Ramelot, Theresa; Eletsky, Alexander; Szyperski, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael; Prestegard, James; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2010-01-01

    Conventional protein structure determination from nuclear magnetic resonance data relies heavily on side-chain proton-proton distances. The necessary side-chain resonance assignment, however, is labor intensive and prone to error. Here we show that structures can be accurately determined without NMR information on the sidechains for proteins up to 25 kDa by incorporating backbone chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, and amide proton distances into the Rosetta protein structure modelling methodology. These data, which are too sparse for conventional methods, serve only to guide conformational search towards the lowest energy conformations in the folding landscape; the details of the computed models are determined by the physical chemistry implicit in the Rosetta all atom energy function. The new method is not hindered by the deuteration required to suppress nuclear relaxation processes for proteins greater than 15 kDa, and should enable routine NMR structure determination for larger proteins. PMID:20133520

  8. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Copestake, P T; Robinson, L

    2000-10-26

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not, for a series of test queries, assure superior retrieval of relevant papers. The specialist database, in which document selection and indexing is undertaken by the same expert toxicologists who use the database in their day-to-day work, achieved markedly better retrieval, using simpler search strategies, than the other databases. Specialist databases may offer a valuable alternative to the existing major bibliographic databases. The concept of relevance, as used to determine the effectiveness of bibliographic databases, is discussed. PMID:11074298

  9. Introgression of a rare haplotype from Southeastern Africa to breed California blackeyes with larger seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Mitchell R.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed size distinguishes most crops from their wild relatives and is an important quality trait for the grain legume cowpea. In order to breed cowpea varieties with larger seeds we introgressed a rare haplotype associated with large seeds at the Css-1 locus from an African buff seed type cultivar, IT82E-18 (18.5 g/100 seeds), into a blackeye seed type cultivar, CB27 (22 g/100 seed). Four recombinant inbred lines derived from these two parents were chosen for marker-assisted breeding based on SNP genotyping with a goal of stacking large seed haplotypes into a CB27 background. Foreground and background selection were performed during two cycles of backcrossing based on genome-wide SNP markers. The average seed size of introgression lines homozygous for haplotypes associated with large seeds was 28.7g/100 seed and 24.8 g/100 seed for cycles 1 and 2, respectively. One cycle 1 introgression line with desirable seed quality was selfed for two generations to make families with very large seeds (28–35 g/100 seeds). Field-based performance trials helped identify breeding lines that not only have large seeds but are also desirable in terms of yield, maturity, and plant architecture when compared to industry standards. A principal component analysis was used to explore the relationships between the parents relative to a core set of landraces and improved varieties based on high-density SNP data. The geographic distribution of haplotypes at the Css-1 locus suggest the haplotype associated with large seeds is unique to accessions collected from Southeastern Africa. Therefore this quantitative trait locus has a strong potential to develop larger seeded varieties for other growing regions which is demonstrated in this work using a California pedigree. PMID:25852699

  10. Compensatory larger cortical thickness in healthy elderly individuals with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana A; Barrios, Fernando A; Pasaye, Erick H; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Fernández, Thalía

    2016-06-15

    Excess theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been described as an accurate predictor for cognitive decline at least 7 years before symptom presentation. To test whether this predictor for cognitive decline correlates with structural changes in the brains of healthy elderly individuals, we compared the magnetic resonance structural images of healthy individuals with excess of theta activity [group with a risk for cognitive decline, risk group (RG); n=14] with healthy controls with normal EEG activity (control group; n=14). Neuropsychological and epidemiological analyses showed significant differences in only two features: more years of education and better performance in the visuospatial process task in the control group. Voxel-based morphometry results were not conclusive, but showed tendencies toward larger volumes in the prefrontal and parietal lobes, and smaller volumes in the right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and left cerebellum for the RG; these tendencies are in agreement with those proposed by the posterior-anterior shift in an aging model. Cortical-thickness analyses yielded a significant correlation between cortical thickness and years of education in the prefrontal and inferior-temporal regions, and larger cortical thickness in the RG, independent of age and years of education, in the right superior temporal region. These results suggest changes in the cortical thickness of structures related to memory and visuospatial functions in healthy, cognitively normal individuals before the appearance of cognitive decline. Thus, the performance of healthy elderly individuals with EEG risk may only be slightly different from normal because of compensation mechanisms allowing them to fulfill daily-life tasks, masking structural changes during preclinical neurocognitive disorders. PMID:27171033

  11. Fatigue acceptance test limit criterion for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1997-05-01

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process. This criterion is derived from a stress dependent, room temperature air fatigue database for test studs having a 0.625 inch diameter threads of Alloys X-750 HTH and direct aged 625. Anticipated fatigue lives of larger threads are based on thread root elastic stress concentration factors which increase with increasing thread diameters. Over the thread size range of interest, a 30% increase in notch stress is equivalent to a factor of five (5X) reduction in fatigue life. The resulting diameter dependent fatigue acceptance criterion is normalized to the aerospace rolled thread acceptance standards for a 1.0 inch diameter, 0.125 inch pitch, Unified National thread with a controlled Root radius (UNR). Testing was conducted at a stress of 50% of the minimum specified material ultimate strength, 80 Ksi, and at a stress ratio (R) of 0.10. Limited test data for fastener diameters of 1.00 to 2.25 inches are compared to the acceptance criterion. Sensitivity of fatigue life of threads to test nut geometry variables was also shown to be dependent on notch stress conditions. Bearing surface concavity of the compression nuts and thread flank contact mismatch conditions can significantly affect the fastener fatigue life. Without improved controls these conditions could potentially provide misleading acceptance data. Alternate test nut geometry features are described and implemented in the rolled thread stud specification, MIL-DTL-24789(SH), to mitigate the potential effects on fatigue acceptance data.

  12. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  13. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  14. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  15. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  16. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  17. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  18. Molecular Evidence for Lessepsian Invasion of Soritids (Larger Symbiont Bearing Benthic Foraminifera)

    PubMed Central

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Pawlowski, Jan; Abdu, Uri; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Bakhrat, Anna; Abramovich, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF) that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea) and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel) that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species. PMID:24204936

  19. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  20. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  1. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  2. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  3. A loophole-free Bell test and the route to larger quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiserer, Andreas; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Kalb, Norbert; Blok, Machiel; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond gives access to few-qubit nuclear-spin registers with exceptional coherence properties. Entanglement between remote registers can be established via a joint measurement of single photons that are each entangled with the electron spin of one NV center. The entanglement protocol is thus probabilistic but heralded, which has allowed us to perform the first loophole-free test of Bell's inequality using two NV centers at a distance of 1.3km. Extending the size of the network requires control over additional qubits at each node. To this end, we use nuclear spins that are controlled via the hyperfine interaction with the electronic spin. I will present our recent experimental results, where we keep a qubit locally in a single nuclear spin or in a decoherence-protected two-spin state while applying a sequence of optical pulses on the electronic spin that generates remote entanglement. Our results open perspectives toward the purification of remote entanglement and toward larger quantum networks.

  4. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  5. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  6. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  7. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. PMID:26282322

  8. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  9. Aspirations and common tensions: larger lessons from the third US national climate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Susanne C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Moss, Richard H.; Buizer, James L.

    2015-10-21

    The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) was produced by experts in response to the US Global Change Research Act of 1990. Based on lessons learned from previous domestic and international assessments, the NCA3 was designed to speak to a broad public and inform the concerns of policy- and decision-makers at different scales. The NCA3 was also intended to be the first step in an ongoing assessment process that would build the nation’s capacity to respond to climate change. This concluding paper draws larger lessons from the insights gained throughout the assessment process that are of significance to future US and international assessment designers. We bring attention to process and products delivered, communication and engagement efforts, and how they contributed to the sustained assessment. Based on areas where expectations were exceeded or not fully met, we address four common tensions that all assessment designers must confront and manage: between (1) core assessment ingredients (knowledge base, institutional set-up, principled process, and the people involved), (2) national scope and subnational adaptive management information needs, (3) scope, complexity, and manageability, and (4) deliberate evaluation and ongoing learning approaches. Managing these tensions, amidst the social and political contexts in which assessments are conducted, is critical to ensure that assessments are feasible and productive, while its outcomes are perceived as credible, salient, and legitimate.

  10. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  11. Larger receptive fields revealed using Battenberg stimuli to assess contrast summation with moving patterns.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Thomas J; Dickinson, J Edwin; Badcock, David R

    2016-09-01

    This study reevaluated the summation extent for moving stimuli using the Battenberg summation paradigm (Meese, 2010), which aims to circumvent internal noise changes with increasing stimulus size by holding display size constant. In the checkerboard stimulus, the size of the checks (luminance-modulated drifting gratings) was varied to measure dependence on signal area. Experiment 1 was a contrast detection task that used either signal checks alternating with uniform, mean luminance, checks (single-motion) or alternate checks containing gratings moving in opposite directions (opposing-motion). The latter was designed to test whether summation extent changes when segregating regions based on motion direction. Results showed summation over a square summation area with a side length of 3.33°, much larger than previous estimates of less than 1° for similar stimuli (Anderson & Burr, 1991). This was found for both motion combinations, providing no evidence that summation extent differs when segregating patterns based on direction, at contrast detection threshold. These results are in close agreement with those obtained for static patterns (Meese, 2010) and support the same underlying summation model. Experiment 2 was a contrast increment detection task conducted to determine whether differences in summation extent arise under suprathreshold contrast conditions. There was no dependence on check size for either condition across the range of sizes tested. This supports the suggestion that segmentation mechanisms dominate perception under high-contrast conditions, a potential adaptive strategy employed by the visual system. PMID:27604069

  12. The role of subsurface flows in solar surface convection: modeling the spectrum of supergranular and larger scale flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. W.; Rast, M. P.; Cameron, R. H.; Rempel, M.; Roudier, T.

    2014-09-20

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions. (1) The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. (2) Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also seen in the fully nonlinear three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations employing a realistic equation of state. This adds to other recent evidence suggesting that the amplitudes of large-scale convective motions in the Sun are significantly lower than expected. Employing the same feature tracking algorithm used with observational data on the simulation output, we show that the observed low wavenumber power can be reproduced in hydrodynamic models if the amplitudes of large-scale modes in the deep layers are artificially reduced. Since the large-scale modes have reduced amplitudes, modes on the scale of supergranulation and smaller remain important to convective heat flux even in the deep layers, suggesting that small-scale convective correlations are maintained through the bulk of the solar convection zone.

  13. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  14. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2015-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification

  15. Weapons Make the Man (Larger): Formidability Is Represented as Size and Strength in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans – and likely many other social vertebrates – navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  17. Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

  18. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  19. Microwaves create larger ablations than radiofrequency when controlled for power in ex vivo tissue

    PubMed Central

    Andreano, A.; Huang, Yu; Meloni, M. Franca; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ablation zones created with equal amounts of 2.45 GHz microwave and 480 kHz radiofrequency (RF) energy in ex vivo liver and lung. Methods: A total of 38 ablations were performed in ex vivo liver and lung for 10 min each. Nineteen RF ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were performed with a 480 kHz system (200 W max, impedance-based pulsing) and cooled electrode while measuring the average RF power applied. Nineteen microwave ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were then created using a cooled triaxial antenna to deliver 2.45 GHz at the same power level as in RF experiments. Ablation zones were then sectioned and measured for minimum, maximum and mean diameters, and circularity. Measurements were compared using t-tests, with P<0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: Mean diameters of microwave ablations were greater than RF ablations in both liver and lung (4.4±0.3 vs 3.3±0.2 cm in liver; 2.45±0.3 vs 1.6±0.5 cm in lungs; P<0.0005 all comparisons). There was no significant difference in the mean power applied during microwave or RF ablations in either organ (54.44±1.71 W vs 56.4±6.7 W in liver, P>0.05; 40±0.95 W vs 44.9±7.1 W in lung, P>0.05). Conclusions: Using a single cooled applicator, microwave energy at 2.45 GHz produces larger ablations than an equivalent amount of 480 kHz RF energy in normal liver and lung. This was more apparent in lung, likely due to the high baseline impedance which limits RF, but not microwave power delivery. PMID:20632609

  20. Low Concentrations of Methamphetamine Can Protect Dopaminergic Cells against a Larger Oxidative Stress Injury: Mechanistic Study

    PubMed Central

    El Ayadi, Amina; Zigmond, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mild stress can protect against a larger insult, a phenomenon termed preconditioning or tolerance. To determine if a low intensity stressor could also protect cells against intense oxidative stress in a model of dopamine deficiency associated with Parkinson disease, we used methamphetamine to provide a mild, preconditioning stress, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) as a source of potentially toxic oxidative stress, and MN9D cells as a model of dopamine neurons. We observed that prior exposure to subtoxic concentrations of methamphetamine protected these cells against 6-OHDA toxicity, whereas higher concentrations of methamphetamine exacerbated it. The protection by methamphetamine was accompanied by decreased uptake of both [3H] dopamine and 6-OHDA into the cells, which may have accounted for some of the apparent protection. However, a number of other effects of methamphetamine exposure suggest that the drug also affected basic cellular survival mechanisms. First, although methamphetamine preconditioning decreased basal pERK1/2 and pAkt levels, it enhanced the 6-OHDA-induced increase in these phosphokinases. Second, the apparent increase in pERK1/2 activity was accompanied by increased pMEK1/2 levels and decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2. Third, methamphetamine upregulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-2. Our results suggest that exposure to low concentrations of methamphetamine cause a number of changes in dopamine cells, some of which result in a decrease in their vulnerability to subsequent oxidative stress. These observations may provide insights into the development of new therapies for prevention or treatment of PD. PMID:22022363

  1. Weapons make the man (larger): formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  2. Photophysical Characterization and in Vitro Phototoxicity Evaluation of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin as a Potential Sensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Letícia D; e Silva, Joana de A; Fonseca, Sofia M; Arranja, Cláudia T; Urbano, Ana M; Sobral, Abilio J F N

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a selective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach, involving the combination of a light-sensitive compound, called a photosensitizer (PS), visible light and molecular oxygen. The interaction of these per se harmless agents results in the production of reactive species. This triggers a series of cellular events that culminate in the selective destruction of cancer cells, inside which the photosensitizer preferentially accumulates. The search for ideal PDT photosensitizers has been a very active field of research, with a special focus on porphyrins and porphyrin-related macrocycle molecules. The present study describes the photophysical characterization and in vitro phototoxicity evaluation of 5,10,15,20-tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin (2-TQP) as a potential PDT photosensitizer. Molar absorption coefficients were determined from the corresponding absorption spectrum, the fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) as a standard and the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation was determined by direct phosphorescence measurements. Toxicity evaluations (in the presence and absence of irradiation) were performed against HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cells. The results from this preliminary study show that the hydrophobic 2-TQP fulfills several critical requirements for a good PDT photosensitizer, namely a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation (Φ∆ 0.62), absence of dark toxicity and significant in vitro phototoxicity for concentrations in the micromolar range. PMID:27043519

  3. Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Jane; McCarron, Pearse; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-12-30

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11-502%) and 6 (range, 3-170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1-27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1-21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1-27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1-8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15. PMID:26631586

  4. Synthesis of 3-hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one and 3,17 beta-dihydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene 6 alpha-N-(epsilon-biotinyl) caproamide, tracer substances for developing immunoassays for estrone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Luppa, P; Birkmayer, C; Hauptmann, H

    1994-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of 3-hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one 6 alpha-N-(epsilon-biotinyl)caproamide and 3,17 beta-dihydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene 6 alpha-N-(epsilon-biotinyl) caproamide from 3-hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one and 3,17 beta-dihydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene, via the 6-keto estrogenic derivatives. The reductive amination of these compounds is an effective step toward an epimeric mixture of the respective amines, which are easily biotinylated by use of N-(epsilon-biotinylcaproyl)-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester. The 6 alpha-epimers could be isolated from the alpha/beta-composition by application of isocratic HPLC, and overall yields were about 20% for the epimeric end products. The structures of the stereoisomers could clearly be assigned through 1H NMR studies. The ratios of the respective isomers obtained from the reductive amination were found to be 3(alpha):2(beta). The biotinylated estrogens can be used as tracers in a novel immunoassay concept for the determination of these analytes in human serum. Ring position 6 was selected for derivatization because of its distance from the functionalized positions 3 and 17 and, therefore, of a negligible alteration of the tracer's structure in comparison to underivatized estrone or estradiol. PMID:8031881

  5. Why do oceanic negative cloud-to-ground lightning exhibit larger peak current values?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Koshak, W.; McCaul, E.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the temporal (monthly) and spatial climatology (2004-2010) of the first return stroke of the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash peak current (Ip) across various land/water boundaries over the contiguous United States. Four regions are examined: the Gulf of Mexico (region 1), the Florida peninsula (region 2), Lake Michigan (region 3), and part of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic (region 4). The crosss across the coastlines of regions 1, 2, and 4 show a gradual oceanward increase in the mean negative polarity CG peak current values (-Ip). This transition along the respective land/ocean boundaries is not sharp but gradual. In direct contrast with ocean, there is no consistent behavior in -Ip values as we move from land out across the fresh water of Lake Michigan (region 3). Meanwhile, the positive CG flash peak current (+Ip) values do not exhibit a consistent variation across any coastal boundary. For region 1, the -Ip values increase as we move toward the coast (southwards) especially during the wet season (June-October). This finding is in direct contrast with studies that documented winter as the season of maximum -Ip values. The zonal and seasonal variations of -Ip values across region 4 are not quite as pronounced, but the oceanic -Ip values are still larger than over the adjoining landmass. We explore in turn which up to date hypotheses pertinent to the oceanic -Ip enhancement are supported or refuted by our findings. It is concluded that the oceanic -Ip enhancement is not an artifact related to CG detection or Ip retrieval methods, nor is it likely related to the cloud top heights or CG activity. The study cannot refute the role of electrical conductivity and its contribution to CG leader attachment processes. However, given the observed "blurred transition" of the Ip values across the coastlines this paper suggests that likely the main physical mechanism is acting on the thundercloud potential. The recently suggested role of sodium chloride (Na

  6. How-to-Do-It: Why Don't Cells Grow Larger? A Lab Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanek, Joseph A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory investigation designed to analyze surface area to volume ratio related to cell division. Uses agar-gel "cells" with pH indicator added which are then "fed" acid for a measured time. Discusses procedures and materials used, providing a sample data table and important guiding questions. (JM)

  7. The slippery slope: how small ethical transgressions pave the way for larger future transgressions.

    PubMed

    Welsh, David T; Ordóñez, Lisa D; Snyder, Deirdre G; Christian, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Many recent corporate scandals have been described as resulting from a slippery slope in which a series of small infractions gradually increased over time (e.g., McLean & Elkind, 2003). However, behavioral ethics research has rarely considered how unethical behavior unfolds over time. In this study, we draw on theories of self-regulation to examine whether individuals engage in a slippery slope of increasingly unethical behavior. First, we extend Bandura's (1991, 1999) social-cognitive theory by demonstrating how the mechanism of moral disengagement can reduce ethicality over a series of gradually increasing indiscretions. Second, we draw from recent research connecting regulatory focus theory and behavioral ethics (Gino & Margolis, 2011) to demonstrate that inducing a prevention focus moderates this mediated relationship by reducing one's propensity to slide down the slippery slope. We find support for the developed model across 4 multiround studies. PMID:24865577

  8. Choosing the Larger versus Choosing the Smaller: Asymmetries in the Size Congruity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Isabel; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by…

  9. Expanding Coherent Array Processing to Larger Apertures Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ringdal, F; Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J

    2009-07-23

    necessary to divide event populations from a single mine into identifiable subpopulations. For this purpose, we perform cluster analysis using matched field statistics calculated on pairs of individual events as a distance metric. In our initial work, calibrations were derived from ensembles of events ranging in number to more than 100. We are considering the performance now of matched field calibrations derived with many fewer events (even, as mentioned, individual events). Since these are high-variance estimates, we are testing the use of cross-channel, multitaper, spectral estimation methods to reduce the variance of calibrations and detection statistics derived from single-event observations. To test the applicability of the technique in a different tectonic region, we have obtained four years of continuous data from 4 Kazakh arrays and are extracting large numbers of event segments. Our initial results using 132 mining explosions recorded by the Makanchi array are similar to those obtained in the European Arctic. Matched field processing clearly separates the explosions from three closely-spaced mines located approximately 400 kilometers from the array, again using waveforms in a band (6-10 Hz) normally considered incoherent for this array. Having reproduced ARCES-type performance with another small aperture array, we have two additional objectives for matched field processing. We will attempt to extend matched field processing to larger apertures: a 200 km aperture (the KNET) and, if data permit, to an aperture comprised of several Kazakh arrays. We also will investigate the potential of developing matched field processing to roughly locate and classify natural seismicity, which is more diffuse than the concentrated sources of mining explosions that we have investigated to date.

  10. Optimization of cold-active lipase production from psychrophilic bacterium Moritella sp. 2-5-10-1 by statistical experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanfu; Zhang, Chunyu; Hou, Yanhua; Lin, Xuezheng; Shen, Jihong; Guan, Xiangyu

    2013-01-01

    Statistical experimental designs were applied to optimize cold-active lipase production by the psychrophilic bacterium Moritella sp. 2-5-10-1. First, a Plackett-Burmen design (PBD) was used to evaluate the significant effects of various fermentation parameters. The results indicated that soybean meal, temperature, and Tween-80 had significant influences on lipase production. The levels of these variables were optimized subsequently using central composite design (CCD). A quadratic regression model of cold-active lipase production was built, and verification experiments confirmed its validity. On subsequent scale-up in a 10-L bioreactor using optimized conditions, cold-active lipase production (30.56 U/mL) was obtained. The results clearly indicated that the model was adequate even on a large scale. To our knowledge, this is the first report of statistical optimization of cold-active lipase production by a psychrophilic bacterium. PMID:23291744

  11. Do aircraft-based atmospheric observations indicate that anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are larger than reported?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Methane emissions over the United States are dominated by anthropogenic sources related to three major categories: fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas mining and distribution), landfills, and ruminants. Atmospheric signatures of these sources are evident in aircraft profiles, regularly showing enhancements of 50-100 ppb in the planetary boundary layer. Through a lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), we directly link atmospheric methane measurements from NOAA’s aircraft program in 2004 with prior source fields, focusing on EDGAR32FT2000 and EDGARv4.0 for anthropogenic emissions. The LPDM employed is the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT), driven by meteorological output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Forward model runs indicate EDGAR32FT2000 is more consistent (despite larger point to point noise) with atmospheric data, particularly when assessing the shapes of vertical profiles, than EDGARv4.0. Simple scalar optimizations and inverse analyses suggest that emissions in the new EDGARv4.0 inventory, an inventory consistent with reported US EPA values, are too small.

  12. Why is the bulk modulus of jammed solids and granular packings much larger than the shear modulus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Weaire, Denis

    2013-03-01

    In granular packings and metallic glasses, the rigidity to compression is much more pronounced than with respect to shear, resulting in the bulk modulus being much larger than the shear modulus. This state of affairs becomes dramatic in marginal jammed solids which are solid-like to compression but not to shear (Ellenbroek, Zeravcic, van Saarloos, van Hecke, EPL 87, 34004 (2009)). For metallic glasses, it was argued by Weaire et al. some time ago (Acta Metall. 19, 779 (1971)) that this effect might be due to the nonaffinity of the particle displacements. These arise because the force acting on a particle upon strain as a result of the strain-induced motion of its neighbors is not balanced in the absence of local order. Hence the particles undergo nonaffine displacements to relax these forces to the expense of the elastic storage energy, leading to lower values of the elastic moduli. Using the nonaffine theory of Zaccone and Scossa-Romano (PRB, 83, 184205 (2011)) we found a conclusive solution to this long standing problem. We show that in packings and related materials the excluded volume between neighbors induces geometric correlations which significantly reduce the nonaffinity under compression but leave the nonaffinity in shear substantially unaltered.

  13. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the rangelands of South Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or Landsat) scale. Since field surveys are time consuming and of limited spatial extent, the satellite based creation of training sites using Google Earth images is intended. Training pixels for woody vegetation and non-woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 sample Google Earth images. A Random Forests model was trained to delineate woody from non-woody pixels. The results indicate a high performance of the model (AUC = 0.97). The model was applied to a further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250 m × 250 m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa.

  14. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  15. Operating a Telescope Larger than the Earth: How the VSOP Space VLBI Mission is Scheduled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David L.; Fomalont, Edward B.

    The Japanese VLBI space observatory programme (VSOP) mission is one of the most complex scientific endeavors ever attempted. It involves coordinating a spacecraft with detailed pointing constraints that vary on time scales ranging from years to hours, tracking stations in four different countries, ground radio telescopes in nearly 20 different countries with different capabilities at the VSOP observing frequencies, and correlation and tape copying facilities with four different recording formats. Scientific constraints on the quality of (u,v)-coverage obtainable force the scheduling to be done far in advance of the observation - over about 1.5 years time - so that the sources are observed when the orbital orientation is most favorable. In order that all these facilities work as a single astronomical instrument, the constraints on them also must be taken into account in the scheduling to the satisfaction of all parties involved, including the principal investigators as well as mission and observatory personnel. In this paper we outline the entire VSOP mission scheduling process. Special emphasis is placed on software required to decide when to observe the proposed sources and how to ensure the highest quality science while preserving the health of the spacecraft. We also discuss application of the process to the future space VLBI missions VSOP2, RadioAstron, and ARISE

  16. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape. PMID:24045342

  17. Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele; boyd, danah; Korchmaros, Josephine; Oppenheim, Jay (Koby)

    2012-01-01

    Methods Two split-form surveys were conducted online among 6–17 year olds (n=1,200 each) to inform recommendations for cyberbullying measurement. Results Measures that use the word ‘bully’ result in prevalence rates similar to each other whether or not a definition is included, whereas measures not using the word ‘bully’ are similar to each other whether or not a definition is included. A behavioral list of bullying experiences without either a definition or the word ‘bully’ results in higher prevalence rates and likely measures experiences that are beyond the definition of ‘bullying’. Follow-up questions querying differential power, repetition, and bullying over time were used to examine misclassification. The measure using a definition but not the word ‘bully’ appeared to have the highest rate of false positives and, therefore, the highest rate of misclassification. Across two studies, an average of 25% reported being bullied at least monthly in person compared with an average of 10% bullied online, 7% via telephone (cell or landline), and 8% via text messaging. Conclusions Measures of bullying among English-speaking samples in the US should include the word ‘bully’ when possible. The definition may be a useful tool for researchers, but results suggest that it does not necessarily yield a more rigorous measure of bullying victimization. Directly measuring aspects of bullying (i.e., differential power, repetition, over time) reduces misclassification. To prevent double counting across categories, we conceptualize cyberbullying as bullying communicated through the online mode; type (e.g., verbal, relational), and environment (e.g., school, home) are additional domains of bullying. PMID:22727077

  18. Occurrence of Isospora suis in larger piglet production units and on specialized piglet rearing farms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Joachim, A; Daugschies, A

    1999-05-01

    Mixed fecal samples of 264 litters from five piglet production farms (155-238 sows/farm) were investigated three times during the suckling period for the occurrence of Isospora suis over the period of 1 year. On all five farms Isopora suis was found to be a common endoparasite with infection rates being highest in litters of 3-4 weeks of age. By the end of the third investigation period the cumulative infection rate was 53.8% of the litters ranging from 20.0% to 81.5% for the single farms. During the suckling period the infection rate increased from 18.6% to 32.6% and then to 37.7%. Diarrhea was present in 66.3% of the sampled litters with the highest rates at the end of the suckling period. 63.4% of the litters which showed diarrhea and 34.8% of those without diarrhea excreted I. suis within the study period. Diarrhea was recorded for 78.2% of the I. suis-positive litters and for 52.5% of the Isospora-negative litters. In summer and fall the occurrence of I. suis was higher (66.3% and 61.0%, respectively) than in spring and winter (47.7% and 37.9%, respectively). In litters with diarrhea and pathogenic E. coli I. suis often occurred simultaneously. Above-average hygiene measures and mainly perforated pen floors seemed to lower the risk of isosporosis. With the exception of Strongyloides ransomi other parasites were not found in the fecal samples of suckling piglets. Two specialized piglet rearing farms, a conventional large-scale rearing unit and a farm managed according to the segregated early weaning (SEW) system were examined three times during the 6-7 week rearing period. In both units I. suis was common, but was not correlated with diarrhea. In the SEW unit the infection rates decreased from 37.5% to 20.2% and to 4.1%, while the infection rate in the conventional unit slightly increased from the first (17.2%) to the second (21.9%) investigation and stayed at this level at the third sampling. PMID:10384903

  19. The phenomenon of drop in output at larger field sizes for telecobalt units.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhvir; Singh, Ajay K; Semwal, Manoj K; Suhag, Virender; Sarin, Arti; Kaushik, Aruna

    2016-07-01

    It is known that the output factors (OPFs) for external-beam radiotherapy units increase with field size due to increased scattered radiation from the collimator system. Saturation in the OPF value is generally reported beyond approximately 30 × 30 cm(2). For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report on a drop in OPF values, although marginal, measured for a telecobalt machine beyond the 38 × 38 cm(2) field size. We believe that reporting and explaining the results will lead to a better understanding of the scatter composition of the radiation from telecobalt machines. This also has the potential to impact the estimation of low dose regions in patients, in addition to being a purely scientific inquiry. We used Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to validate the measured values. The MC data showed that the decrease in OPF was due to decreased scatter from the machine head. PMID:27278958

  20. Performance of single carbon granules as perspective for larger scale capacitive bioanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsje, Casper; Liu, Dandan; Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.; Buisman, Cees J. N.; ter Heijne, Annemiek

    2016-09-01

    The use of high surface area electrodes, like carbon-based felt or granules, in Bioelectrochemical Systems is crucial for high volumetric current production. In case activated carbon granules are used, charge can also be stored in the form of an electric double layer in the pores, which has been shown to improve bioanode performance. So far, it is not known how much current can be generated by a single granule. In this study, we investigate the current production and charge storage behavior of a single carbon granule. Two types of activated carbon granules and one graphite granule are tested to find the untapped potential of granular bioanodes. A single activated carbon granule produces up to 0.6 mA, corresponding to 60 mA cm-3 granule volume at -300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl anode potential. Charge - discharge experiments show that capacitive granules produced 1.3-2.0 times more charge compared to a graphite granule with low surface area. When extrapolated to other granular systems, our study indicates that the current generated by granular bioanodes can be improved with several orders of magnitude, which could form the basis of an economically feasible Microbial Fuel Cell.

  1. Folding funnels and energy landscapes of larger proteins within the capillarity approximation

    PubMed Central

    Wolynes, Peter G.

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of protein-folding kinetics with increasing chain length under various thermodynamic conditions is addressed using the capillarity picture in which distinct spatial regions of the protein are imagined to be folded or trapped and separated by interfaces. The quantitative capillarity theory is based on the nucleation theory of first-order transitions and the droplet analysis of glasses and random magnets. The concepts of folding funnels and rugged energy landscapes are shown to be applicable in the large size limit just as for smaller proteins. An ideal asymptotic free-energy profile as a function of a reaction coordinate measuring progress down the funnel is shown to be quite broad. This renders traditional transition state theory generally inapplicable but allows a diffusive picture with a transition-state region to be used. The analysis unifies several scaling arguments proposed earlier. The importance of fluctuational fine structure both to the free-energy profile and to the glassy dynamics is highlighted. The fluctuation effects lead to a very broad trapping-time distribution. Considerations necessary for understanding the crossover between the mean field and capillarity pictures of the energy landscapes are discussed. A variety of mechanisms that may roughen the interfaces and may lead to a complex structure of the transition-state ensemble are proposed. PMID:9177189

  2. Recency gets larger as lesions move from anterior to posterior locations within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Guy; Yechiam, Eldad; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-11-12

    In the past two decades neuroimaging research has substantiated the important role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in decision-making. In the current study, we use the complementary lesion based approach to deepen our knowledge concerning the specific cognitive mechanisms modulated by prefrontal activity. Specifically, we assessed the brain substrates implicated in two decision making dimensions in a sample of prefrontal cortex patients: (a) the tendency to differently weigh recent compared to past experience; and (b) the tendency to differently weigh gains compared to losses. The participants performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a complex experience-based decision-making task, which was analyzed with a formal cognitive model (the Expectancy-Valance model). The results indicated that decisions become influenced by more recent, as opposed to older, events when the damage reaches the posterior sectors of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC). Furthermore, the degree of this recency deficit was related to the size of the lesion. These results suggest that the posterior area of the prefrontal cortex directly modulates the capacity to use time-delayed information. In contrast, we did not find similar modulation for the sensitivity to gains versus losses. PMID:20412820

  3. Controlled growth of larger heterojunction interface area for organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-12-29

    An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer having protrusions, a side of the first layer opposite the first electrode having a surface area at least three times greater than an underlying lateral cross-sectional area; depositing a second organic semiconductor material directly on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; depositing a third organic semiconductor material directly on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at least the second layer remaining exposed; depositing a fourth organic semiconductor material on the third layer to form a continuous fourth layer, filling any exposed gaps and recesses in the first, second, and third layers; and depositing a second electrode on the fourth layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is transparent, and the first and third organic semiconductor materials are both of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to second and fourth organic semiconductor materials, which are of the other material type.

  4. Safety and Effectiveness of UFE in Fibroids Larger than 10 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Bérczi, Viktor Valcseva, Éva Kozics, Dóra Kalina, Ildikó Kaposi, Pál; Sziller, Péter Várbíró, Szabolcs; Botos, Erzsébet Mária

    2015-10-15

    IntroductionEarly literature suggested that the size of the uterus, the size of the dominant fibroid, and the amount of applied embolization particles would be the risk factors for major postprocedural complications, but recent publications have confuted these early results. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the size of the dominant fibroid would influence the complication rate and effectiveness in a large single-center cohort.Patients and MethodsFrom 28 April 2008 until 31 December 2012, 303 patients had uterine artery embolization (UAE). 262 patients had small [largest diameter <10 cm (Group 1)], 41 patients had large [largest diameter >10 cm (Group 2)] fibroid. UAE was performed from unilateral femoral access using 500–710 and 355–500 µm polyvinyl alcohol particles. Periprocedural and postprocedural complications and numerical analog quality-of-life scores (0—unbearable symptoms; 100—perfect quality of life) were listed and statistically analyzed.ResultsDuring the mean follow-up time [7.79 ± 5.16 (SD) month], data on 275 patients (275/303 = 90.8 %) were available. Quality-of-life score was 33.3 ± 23.5 and 33.5 ± 24.1 before, whereas 85.6 ± 16.0 and 81.5 ± 23.5 after UAE in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, (Mann–Whitney U test one-sided, p = 0.365). There were 4 myoma expulsions, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies reported from Group 1, meanwhile 1 myoma expulsion, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies were documented from Group 2 (NS differences).ConclusionThere was no significant difference in the effectiveness and in the number of minor and major complications between fibroids with <10 cm largest diameter compared to those >10 cm.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  6. Illite precipitation and surface cracking during biotite dissolution under hydrothermal conditions: Effects of nanoscale system changes on larger scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    To ensure safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to have a better understanding of CO2-brine-caprock interactions under GCS conditions. In this work, using biotite (K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2) as a model abundant clay mineral of the caprock at GCS sites, CO2-brine-biotite interactions were studied under hydrothermal conditions relevant to GCS sites (at 95 deg C, under 102 atm CO2, in 1 M NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl2, or 0.4 M CaCl2 solution). In these salt solutions, after reaction for 3 hrs, fast growth of micron-sized fibrous illite on flat basal planes of biotite was observed. After 22 hrs reaction, microscale cracks formed on the biotite basal surface, resulting in fibrous illite detaching from the surface. After reaction in 1 M NaCl solution for longer time, the cracked biotite pieces detached from the surface layer and released into solution. In control experiments with water under the same temperature and pressure, neither micron-sized fibrous illite nor cracks were observed, while oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles starting to form the fibrous-shaped illite was observed. These nano- and micro-scale behaviors have great effects on the macroscopic biotite dissolution and the aquifer properties. The cracking of the biotite surface can increase the surface area in contact with solution and accelerate biotite dissolution. The fibrous illite formation and its later mobilization in the salt solutions after its detachment could decrease the permeability of the aquifers greatly. This work provides unique information on how nanoscale system changes induced by geochemical reactions can affect larger scale chemical interactions and geophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Ultimately, this information can help design safer and more efficient operations at not only GCS sites, but also other subsurface hydrothermal conditions.

  7. New Instruments for Spectrally-Resolved Solar Soft X-ray Observations from CubeSats, and Larger Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Shih, A.; Warren, H. P.; DeForest, C. E.; Woods, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics and evolution of these energetic processes; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport. A better understanding of the thermal plasma informs our interpretation of hard X-ray (HXR) observations of nonthermal particles, improving our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-SDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. An X123-CdTe cadmium-telluride detector is also included for ~5-100 keV HXR spectroscopy with ~0.5-1 keV FWHM resolution. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a pinhole aperture and X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide full-Sun imaging from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. We discuss scaled versions of these instruments, with greater sensitivity and dynamic range, and significantly improved spectral and spatial resolutions for the imager, for deployment on larger platforms such as Small Explorer missions.

  8. Recovery from adaptation to facial identity is larger for upright than inverted faces in the human occipito-temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mazard, Angelique; Schiltz, Christine; Rossion, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Human faces look more similar to each other when they are presented upside-down, leading to an increase of error rates and response times during individual face discrimination tasks. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that this perceived similarity leads to a lower recovery from identity adaptation for inverted faces than for upright faces in face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Ten subjects were presented with blocks of upright and inverted faces, with the same face identity repeated consecutively in half of the blocks, and different facial identities repeated in the other blocks. When face stimuli were presented upright, the percent signal change in the bilateral middle fusiform gyrus (MFG) was larger for different faces as compared to same faces, replicating previous observations of a recovery from facial identity adaptation in this region. However, there was no significant recovery from adaptation when different inverted faces were presented. Most interestingly, the difference in activation between upright and inverted faces increased progressively during a block when different facial identities were presented. A similar pattern of activation was found in the left middle fusiform gyrus, but was less clear-cut in bilateral face-sensitive areas of the inferior occipital cortex. These findings show that the differential level of activation to upright and inverted faces in the fusiform gyrus is mainly due to a difference in recovery from adaptation, and they explain the discrepancies in the results reported in previous fMRI studies which compared the processing of upright and inverted faces. The lack of recovery from adaptation for inverted faces in the fusiform gyrus may underlie the face inversion effect (FIE), which takes place during perceptual encoding of individual face representations. PMID:16229867

  9. Novel nanomaterials based on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin entrapped in silica matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Enache, Corina; Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Gheorghe; Vasile, Mihaela; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2009-12-15

    The present study is dealing with the obtaining of transparent hybrid silica materials encapsulating 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin designated for advanced optoelectronic devices. The porphyrin was synthesized by three methods: an Adler-type reaction between pyrrole and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in propionic acid medium; by Lindsey condensation of pyrrole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of BF{sub 3}.OEt{sub 2} and by a multicomponent reaction by simultaneously using of pyrrole and two different aldehydes: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl substituted porphyrin was characterized by HPLC, TLC, UV-vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR analysis. Excitation and emission spectra were also discussed in terms of pH conditions. The hybrid materials, consisting in the porphyrin encapsulated in silica matrices, have been prepared successfully via the two steps acid-base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate using different approaches of the sol-gel process: in situ, by impregnation and by sonication. The synthetic conditions and the compositions were monitored and characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, fluorescence and UV-vis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to observe the columnar or pyramidal nanostructures which are formed by the immobilization of porphyrin on the silica matrices.

  10. A true electron-transfer reaction between 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato cadmium(II) and the hexacyanoferrate couple at the nitrobenzene/water interface.

    PubMed

    Osakai, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Seiko; Hotta, Hiroki; Nagatani, Hirohisa

    2004-11-01

    The ability of some metal complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) to give a voltammetric wave due to the heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) at a nitrobenzene (NB)/water (W) interface has been examined. The previously-proposed, electron-conductor separating oil-water (ECSOW) system has been successfully employed to find that the TPP complex with cadmium(II) added to NB gives a well-defined, reversible wave for the heterogeneous (i.e., "true") ET with the hexacyanoferrate couple in W. A digital simulation analysis has entirely excluded the possibility of the ion-transfer mechanism due to the homogeneous ET in W. The a.c. impedance method has then been used to determine the kinetic parameters including the standard rate constant k0 (= 0.10 cm M(-1) s(-1)) and the transfer coefficient alpha (= 0.53 at the half-wave potential). These values are in good agreement with those predicted from the Marcus theory with the assumption that the heterogeneous ET due to molecular collision occurs at the "sharp" NB/W interface. PMID:15566151

  11. Mössbauer effect study of tight spin coupling in oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20- tetra(mesityl)porphyrinatoiron(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian; Lang, George; McMurry, Thomas J.; Groves, John T.

    1983-08-01

    Mössbauer spectra of a polycrystalline form of oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20-tetra(mesityl)porphyrin- atoiron(III) [Fe(TMP)Cl], compound A, were recorded over a range of temperatures (4.2-195 K) and magnetic fields (0-6 T). These spectra of compound A exhibit magnetic features which are markedly different from those of the analogous protein complexes, horse radish peroxidase compound I (HRP-I) and compound ES of cytochrome c peroxidase, even though chemical evidence and optical spectroscopy indicate that compound A is similar to the others in comprising a Fe(IV) complex within a porphyrin cation radical. We interpret the data by employing a spin Hamiltonian model in which the central Fe(IV) complex, with S=1, is tightly coupled to a S=1/2 system of the oxidized porphyrin to yield a net S=3/2 system as suggested by the susceptibility measurements. The theoretical treatment yields information on the d-electron energies which is similar to that more directly available in the peroxidase spectra. The strength of the axial crystal field is found to increase progressively in the series HRP-I, ES, compound A, while the spin coupling in A is the strongest of the three by several orders of magnitude. The good fits to experimental data confirm the efficacy of the theoretical treatment which may be applicable to a variety of other coupled systems.

  12. Dependence of retinopathy (and other complications) on glycaemic control and on weight over 5/10 years from diagnosis of type II diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, B J; Tsoumanis, J; Noonan, K; Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylated haemoglobins and weights were recorded for 200 consecutive diabetic clinic attenders seen yearly for 5 years, 76 of whom were also seen up to 10 years from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, representing 1380 patient years. Weight fluctuation (> 3 kg) was associated with increased final prevalence of hypertension, macroalbuminaemia and a raised creatinine (P < 0.002) but this relationship was abolished by correction for higher initial weight. Average glycaemia over 5/10 years [itself related to initial weight in women on tablets (N = 53) but not others, and to waist but not waist/hip ratio], correlated with prevalence and severity of retinopathy (N = 200; r = 0.38, P < 0.0006) seen also in the subgroup of patients on tablets (N = 145, P < 0.006). At HbA1 levels > 10.5% an increased prevalence of retinopathy was seen in those on insulin (N = 37, P < 0.001) and an increased prevalence of peripheral vascular disease was seen in men but not women (x2 = 2.87, P < 0.01) as well as in the prevalence of neuropathy. These findings suggest that good glycaemic control is of value in type 2 diabetes and less easily achieved in obesity. PMID:8709079

  13. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the formation of the supramolecular complexes bisacetato(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinate)zirconium(IV) with pyridine and imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyulyaeva, E. Yu.; Lomova, T. N.

    2010-05-01

    The equilibria and rates of step reactions for the formation of the supramolecular complexes of bisacetato(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinate)zirconium(IV) (AcO)2ZrTPP and bioactive bases pyridine (Py) and imidazole (Im) in toluene were studied using UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy. The step stoichiometric mechanism, including the reversible coordination of two Py molecules ( K 1 = 1.8 × 108 l2/mol2), the equilibrium of the displacement of two AcO- into the second coordination sphere by increasing the concentration of the solvent polar component ( K 2 = 2.4), and the coordination of the third and fourth Py molecules in a one step with the formation of [(Py)4ZrTPP]2+ · 2(AcO)- ( K 3 = 2.8 × 104 l2/mol2), was verified. It was established that the spectrophotometric titration is sensible for the two-stage π-π-complexation of [(Py)4ZrTPP]2+ · 2(AcO)- with Py molecules ( K 4 = 29 l/mol and K 5 = 1.8 l/mol). It was shown that the stronger base Im reacts irreversibly with (AcO)2ZrTPP. The thermodynamic and optical characteristics of (AcO)2ZrTPP required for using the complex in the detection of bioactive bases were studied.

  14. A direct sensitized fluorimetric determination of 5,10,15,20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin [m-THPC (Foscan)] in human plasma using a cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Desroches, M C; Kasselouri, A; Bourdon, O; Chaminade, P; Blais, J; Prognon, P

    2001-06-01

    The 5,10,15,20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) (Foscan) is a photosensitizer used in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers which is currently under clinical trial. The formation of a m-THPC inclusion complex with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Me-beta-CD) in solution was demonstrated on the basis of circular dichroism experiments. A 1:2 complex stoichiometry was found and an inclusion constant beta 2 = 2.8(+/- 0.4) x 10(10) M-2 was determined. The formation of such a complex was shown to enhance the m-THPC fluorescence intensity. It could be exploited to improve the sensitivity of the direct m-THPC detection in human plasma. Optimization of the operating conditions shows that the best results were obtained by the addition of 100 microL of a concentrated Me-beta-CD solution (3.2 x 10(-2) M) to 1 mL plasma samples. Compared to the standard conditions, a 90% increase in sensitivity was obtained. The proposed analytical method which showed a linear response function [0-300 ng mL-1 (440 pM)] and a low limit of detection [1.5 ng mL-1 (2 pM) (S/N = 3)] appears, especially due to the absence of metabolism, a simple and specific method suitable for pharmacokinetics studies in patients. PMID:11445963

  15. Surfactant assisted self-assembly of zinc 5,10-bis (4-pyridyl)-15,20-bis (4-octadecyloxyphenyl) porphyrin into supramolecular nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Renu; Chauhan, S M S

    2014-10-01

    The surfactant assisted self-assembly (SAS) method has been used in the formation of nanocubes, nanorods and microrods from zinc 5,10-bis (4-pyridyl)-15,20-bis (4-octadecyloxyphenyl) porphyrin. By the dropwise addition of chloroform solution of the zinc porphyrin into an aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cuboidal nanostructures are formed at the initial stage. The nanocubes are transformed into nanorods and microrods by aging under ambient conditions. The longer nanorods with well defined edges have been formed with lower concentration of porphyrin solution whereas the shorter nanorods have been formed with higher concentration of zinc porphyrin. The synergistic effect of hydrophobic interactions by the long alkyl chains substituted on the peripheral phenyl rings of porphyrin and axial coordination of pyridyl nitrogen atoms with central zinc is mainly responsible for the formation of different nanostructures. The nanostructures were characterized by UV-visible spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. PMID:25175235

  16. 5,10b-Ethanophenanthridine amaryllidaceae alkaloids inspire the discovery of novel bicyclic ring systems with activity against drug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sean; Kidner, Ria; Reisenauer, Mary R; Magedov, Igor V; Kiss, Robert; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Antonio; Yu, Xiaojie; Ma, Xiuye; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry; Cavazos, David A; Brenner, Andrew J; Aksenov, Alexander V; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander; Frolova, Liliya V

    2016-09-14

    Plants of the Amaryllidaceae family produce a large variety of alkaloids and non-basic secondary metabolites, many of which are investigated for their promising anticancer activities. Of these, crinine-type alkaloids based on the 5,10b-ethanophenanthridine ring system were recently shown to be effective at inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells resistant to various pro-apoptotic stimuli and representing tumors with dismal prognoses refractory to current chemotherapy, such as glioma, melanoma, non-small-cell lung, esophageal, head and neck cancers, among others. Using this discovery as a starting point and taking advantage of a concise biomimetic route to the crinine skeleton, a collection of crinine analogues were synthetically prepared and evaluated against cancer cells. The compounds exhibited single-digit micromolar activities and retained this activity in a variety of drug-resistant cancer cell cultures. This investigation resulted in the discovery of new bicyclic ring systems with significant potential in the development of effective clinical cancer drugs capable of overcoming cancer chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27218860

  17. Mitochondria and DNA Targeting of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(7-sulfonatobenzo[b]thiophene) Porphyrin-Induced Photodynamic Therapy via Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Ju, Hee; Um, Soohyun; Oh, Dong-Chan; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-09-10

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) selectively targets subcellular organelles and promises an excellent therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we report the synthesis of a new water-soluble photosensitizer, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (7-sulfonatobenzo[b]thiophene) porphyrin (SBTP). Rational design of the porphyrinic molecule containing benzo[b]thiophene moiety at the meso-position led to selective accumulation in both mitochondria and nucleus of MCF-7 cells. This multitarget ability of SBTP can cause damage to mitochondria as well as DNA simultaneously. FACS analysis showed rapid cellular uptake of SBTP. High-content cell-based assay was executed to concurrently monitor increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and caspase-3/7/8 activation in MCF-7 cells under the pathological condition caused by PDT action of SBTP. The study of cell death dynamics showed that PDT action of SBTP caused an increase in the MPT followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) level. The localization of SBTP in the mitochondria activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, localization of SBTP in the nucleus led to DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. The DNA fragmentation that occurred by PDT action of SBTP was thought to be responsible for extrinsic apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. SBTP demonstrated effective PDT activity of 5 μM IC50 value to MCF-7 cells by bitargeting mitochondria and DNA. PMID:26295496

  18. Significance of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Indian population: an experimental, computational and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bellampalli, Ravishankara; Phani, Nagaraja M; Bhat, Kamalakshi G; Prasad, Krishna; Bhaskaranand, Nalini; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Rai, Padmalatha S; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2015-05-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) arises due to several genetic alterations in progenitor cells, and methotrexate is frequently used as part of the treatment regimen. Although there is evidence for an effect of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C variations on drug response in ALL, its risk association for ALL is still unresolved. In a case-control study of 203 patients with ALL and 246 controls and meta-analysis in the Indian population, we showed an insignificant association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotypes with childhood and adult ALL. Comprehensive in silico characterization of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) and SNPs of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) revealed nine nsSNPs as deleterious, and three SNPs in the 3'UTR could possibly alter the binding of miRNAs. The study revealed that several overlooked SNPs may contribute to the risk of ALL susceptibility and further studies of these SNPs with functional characterization in a large sample size are required to understand the significant role of MTHFR in ALL development. PMID:25115513

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Loring Air Force Base, Operable Units 3, 5, 10, and 11, Limestone, ME, August 21, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Loring Air Force Base National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Aroostook County, Maine. This decision document presents the selected remedial actions for the source areas at the following sites located within OUs 3, 5, 10, and 11 at the Site: OU3 - Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Range Outdoor Firing Range; OU5 -- Base Exchange Service Station (BXSS); OU10 -- Pumphouse (PH) 8210; PH 8270; Former Solvent Storage Building (FSSB); and OU11 -- Refueling Maintenance Shop Area (RMSA); Vehicle Maintenance Building (VMB); The USAF has evaluated the potential risks to human health and the environment at each of the these sites and developed the site-specific remediation goals for the source areas at each of these sites based on the future land use determinations made in the April 1996 Record of Decision (PB96-963703) for the Disposal of Loring Air Force Base, Maine. Therefore, the No Further CERCLA Action decisions for the source areas at each of these sites is based on the assumption that future land use at each site shall be in accordance with the Disposal ROD (i.e., that real property comprising the site shall be parceled, disposed of, and reused in accordance with the Disposal ROD).

  20. Elevated total plasma homocysteine and 667C{r_arrow}T mutation of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in thrombotic vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    De Franchis, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G.

    1996-07-01

    Moderate elevation of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been reported as an independent risk factor for thrombotic vascular disease, a well-known multifactorial disorder. Possible genetic causes of elevated tHcy include defects of the sulfur-containing amino acids metabolism due to deficiencies of cystathionine {Beta}-synthase, of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and of the enzymes of cobalamin metabolism. An impaired activity of MTHFR due to a thermolabile form of the enzyme has been observed in {le}28% of hyperhomocysteinemic patients with premature vascular disease. More recently, the molecular basis of such enzymatic thermolability has been related to a common mutation of the MTHFR gene, causing a C-to-T substitution at nt 677 (677C{r_arrow}T). This mutation was found in 38% of unselected chromosomes from 57 French Canadian individuals. The homozygous state for the mutation was present in 12% of these subjects and correlated with significantly elevated tHcy. Preliminary evidence indicates that the frequency of homozygotes for the 677C{r_arrow}T mutation may vary significantly in populations from different geographic areas. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Structural, optical and dispersion properties of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin zinc thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyada, Hamdy M.; Makhlouf, Mohamed M.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-02-01

    The thin films of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin zinc, ZnTPP, were successfully prepared by the thermal evaporation technique. The structure formation and optical properties of ZnTPP thin films were studied. The surface morphology and structural characteristics of ZnTPP thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, respectively. The optical constants of ZnTPP films were measured by spectrophotometer measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at a normal incidence of light in the spectral wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The absorption spectrum of ZnTPP films showed four absorption bands, namely, the Q, B, N, and M bands. Anomalous dispersion was observed in the absorption region and normal dispersion occurred in the transparent region of the spectrum. We adopted the multi-oscillator and the single-oscillator models to interpret the results of anomalous and normal dispersion characteristics, respectively. The energy band gap of ZnTPP films was measured and the type of electron transition was determined to be the indirect allowed transition. The annealing process had an obvious effect on the morphology, structure, optical constants, and spectral dispersion parameters of ZnTPP thin films.

  2. Synthesis of 21,23-selenium- and tellurium-substituted 5-porphomethenes, 5,10-porphodimethenes, 5,15-porphodimethenes, and porphotrimethenes and their interactions with mercury.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohail; Yadav, Kumar Karitkey; Bhattacharya, Soumee; Chauhan, Prashant; Chauhan, S M S

    2015-04-17

    The 3+1 condensation of symmetrical 16-Selena/telluratripyrranes with symmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols in the presence of BF3-etheratre or BF3-methanol followed by oxidation with DDQ gave 5,10-porphodimethenes, whereas the process with unsymmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols gave 5-porphomethenes. In addition, the reaction of unsymmetrical 16-Selena/telluratripyrranes with symmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols gave the corresponding porphotrimethenes, whereas the process with unsymmetrical selenophene-2,5-diols/tellurophene-2,5-diols gave the 5,15-porphodimethenes. The structures of different products were characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, CHN analysis, and mass spectrometry. The binding of mercury with the calix[4]phyrins mentioned above had been observed in the decreasing order of porphodimethenes > porphomethenes > porphotrimethenes by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:25803565

  3. Crystal structure of 16-ferrocenylmethyl-3β-hydroxy-estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one: a potential chemotherapeutic drug.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Negrón, José A; Flores-Rivera, Mariola M; Díaz-Reyes, Zaibeth; Moore, Curtis E; Rheigold, Arnold L; Meléndez, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    A new ferrocene complex, 16-ferrocenylmethyl-3β-hy-droxy-estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate, [Fe(C5H5)(C24H27O2)]·C2H6OS, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The mol-ecule crystallizes in the space group P21 with one mol-ecule of dimethyl sulfoxide. A hydrogen bond links the phenol group and the dimethyl sulfoxide O atom, with an O⋯O distance of 2.655 (5) Å. The ferrocene group is positioned in the β face of the estrone moiety, with an O-C-C-C torsion angle of 44.1 (5)°, and the carbonyl bond length of the hormone moiety is 1.216 (5) Å, typical of a C=O double bond. The average Fe-C bond length of the substituted Cp ring [Fe-C(Cp*)] is similar to that of the unsubstituted one [Fe-C(Cp)], i.e. 2.048 (3) versus 2.040 (12) Å. The structure of the complex is compared with those of estrone and eth-oxy-methyl-estrone. PMID:27308062

  4. Crystal structure of 16-ferrocenylmethyl-3β-hydroxy­estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one: a potential chemotherapeutic drug

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Negrón, José A.; Flores-Rivera, Mariola M.; Díaz-Reyes, Zaibeth; Moore, Curtis E.; Rheigold, Arnold L.; Meléndez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A new ferrocene complex, 16-ferrocenylmethyl-3β-hy­droxy­estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate, [Fe(C5H5)(C24H27O2)]·C2H6OS, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The mol­ecule crystallizes in the space group P21 with one mol­ecule of dimethyl sulfoxide. A hydrogen bond links the phenol group and the dimethyl sulfoxide O atom, with an O⋯O distance of 2.655 (5) Å. The ferrocene group is positioned in the β face of the estrone moiety, with an O—C—C—C torsion angle of 44.1 (5)°, and the carbonyl bond length of the hormone moiety is 1.216 (5) Å, typical of a C=O double bond. The average Fe—C bond length of the substituted Cp ring [Fe—C(Cp*)] is similar to that of the unsubstituted one [Fe—C(Cp)], i.e. 2.048 (3) versus 2.040 (12) Å. The structure of the complex is compared with those of estrone and eth­oxy­methyl­estrone. PMID:27308062

  5. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  6. Larger than Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruopp, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Exploring idea and media while developing skills is always an interesting challenge in the middle grades. Often, the daunting task of having to draw a self-portrait turns some students away, so the author set out to create portraits with realistic likenesses while incorporating an exploration of multiple materials and allowing an expressive…

  7. The Larger View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a series of lessons that focuses on observation and documentation of organisms and that is appropriate for the second through fourth grades. By giving students the necessary initial support, they will have the ability to observe details and the skills and confidence to make realistic scientific drawings and…

  8. NiO nanoparticles modified with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin: promising peroxidase mimetics for H2O2 and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Yang, Yanting; Li, Hui; Zhu, Renren; Shao, Qian; Yang, Shanguang; Xu, Jingjing

    2015-02-15

    NiO nanoparticles (NPs) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin (H2TCPP) functionalized NiO nanoparticles (H2TCPP-NiO nanocomposites) have been prepared by a facile method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), respectively. NiO NPs and H2TCPP-NiO nanocomposites have been proven to function as peroxidase mimetics that can catalyze the reaction of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to produce a blue color reaction. Kinetic analysis indicated that the catalytic behavior was in accord with typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. And these nanoparticles also exhibited strong affinity for the substrates of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbiphenyl dihydrochloride (TMB). Experimental results showed that H2TCPP-NiO NPs exhibited a high sensitivity and a low detection limit towards H2O2 (8.0 × 10(-6) M). The H2TCPP-NiO NPs/glucose oxidase (GOx)/TMB system provides a novel colorimetric sensor for glucose and shows good response toward glucose detection over arrange of 0.05-0.50 mM with a limit of detection 2.0 × 10(-5)M. Fluorescence probe experiments demonstrated that the peroxidase-like activity of H2TCPP-NiO NPs originated from the generation of OH radical. Thus it may provide great potential applications in biomedicine, biotechnology and environmental chemistry. PMID:25212068

  9. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brestoff, Jonathan R.; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z.; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E.; Reynolds, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression. PMID:26397111

  10. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity.

    PubMed

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E; Reynolds, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression. PMID:26397111

  11. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-20

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ{sub UV}, at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ{sub e}, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease and the large τ {sub e}. It is possible that the ρ{sub UV} decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei.

  12. The effect of carbonate chemistry and light levels on calcification and photosynthesis in the larger benthic foraminifera Operculina ammonoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Shai; Abramovich, Sigal; Evans, David; Erez, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We present data on metabolic measurements and growth experiments conducted on Operculina ammonoides, a symbiont bearing larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) of the family Nummulitidae, which is the closest living descendant of the Eocene Nummulites. The large size, the high abundance and wide distribution of Nummulitids and other LBF make them a vital archive for ancient and recent oceanic environments. LBF are also an important component of the ocean tropical and subtropical benthic ecosystem, where they have a significant contribution to primary production, and are major calcium carbonate producers. Their symbiosis, calcification physiology, and ecological response to environmental changes are poorly understood. The present study is part of an ongoing research effort focused on those topics. Calcification, respiration and symbiont photosynthesis were measured during long-term experiments that included manipulation of carbonate chemistry parameters and light levels. The experiments were done with large number of individuals (1500 in total) divided into incubation groups of 60-100. Diurnal and nocturnal data was obtained, along with cumulative incubations on a time span of a few days. The metabolic rates were estimated from measurements of dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and pH before and after the incubations. This technique does not interfere with the experimental populations and allow a series of measurements to be performed on the same specimens. In all experiments, both for the diurnal cycles and for the long incubations, we observed significantly higher photosynthesis rates than respiration (positive O2 budget) for the holobiont. This oxygen excess has increased with light intensity, suggesting a significant growth of the symbionts within their host. Calcification was enhanced during the day compared to the night but did not increase with light intensity or with photosynthesis. In normal seawater, higher calcification rates were observed during the cumulative

  13. Association of bedding types with management practices and indicators of milk quality on larger Wisconsin dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify associations of bedding type and selected management practices with bulk milk quality and productivity of larger Wisconsin dairy farms. Dairy herds (n=325) producing ≥11,340 kg of milk daily were surveyed during a single farm visit. Monthly bulk milk SCC and total bacteria counts were obtained from milk buyers for 255 farms for a 2-yr period. Of farms with the same type of bedding in all pens during the study period, most used inorganic bedding (IB), followed by organic nonmanure bedding (OB) and manure products (MB). Almost all bulk milk total bacterial counts were <10,000 cfu/mL and total bacterial count was not associated with bedding type. Bulk milk somatic cell score (BMSCS) was least for farms using IB, varied seasonally, and was greatest in the summer. The BMSCS was reduced when new bedding was added to stalls at intervals greater than 1 wk and when teats were dried before attaching the milking unit. The BMSCS for farms using OB was reduced when bedding in the backs of stalls was removed and replaced regularly and when fewer cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were present. The BMSCS for farms using MB was reduced when the proportion of cows with milk discarded was less. The rolling herd average (RHA) of herds using IB was 761 and 1,153 kg greater than the RHA of herds using OB and MB, respectively. The RHA was 353 kg greater on farms where farmers understood subclinical mastitis and 965 kg greater on farms milking 3 times daily. Each 1% increase of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters was associated with a decrease of 57 kg of RHA. The BMSCS, proportions of cows with milk discarded and proportion of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were least for herds using IB and were associated with increased productivity. Large Wisconsin dairy farms that used inorganic bedding had greater productivity and better milk quality compared with herds using other bedding types. PMID:26298761

  14. The Perceived Efficacy by Educational Stakeholders of the Move to Smaller Learning Communities from Larger Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Jay V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of key stakeholders, including teachers, board members, administrators, community members and parents in a larger suburban, formerly comprehensive high school that adopted a schools-within-a-school reform model (SWAS). The research illuminated similarities and differences in perceptions…

  15. Something Larger than Ourselves: Redefining the Young Artists at Work Program as an Art-as-Activism Residency for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    The Young Artists at Work Program at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) recently shifted its model from an afterschool arts program to a young artists' residency. This decision arose from a desire to reposition the youth program as a priority within the larger organization, coupled with a commitment to deepening the pedagogical values of…

  16. Sponsoring Institutions with Five or Fewer Residency Programs Produce a Larger Proportion of General Internists and Family Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hemeida, Sarah; Klink, Kathleen; Bazemore, Andrew; Petterson, Stephen; Peterson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly interested in addressing the US primary care physician shortage and achieving measurable accountability for the products of the nation's $15 billion investment in graduate medical education (GME). Using one such measure, we found that sponsoring institutions (SIs) with ≤5 residency programs produce a higher percentage of general internists and family physicians than larger SIs. PMID:27170786

  17. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  18. LIGHT MODULATION OF RUBISCO ACTIVATION IN SPECIES WITHOUT A LARGER ACTIVASE ISOFORM - EXISTANCE OF AN ACTIVASE REGULATORY PROTEIN?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco activase in some species like tobacco consists of only the shorter isoform. In Arabidopsis lack of the redox regulated, larger isoform results in an inability to modulate Rubisco activity in response to light intensity. However, light modulation can be observed in tobacco with characteristic...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3117 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3117 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. (a)...

  1. Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO(2) particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bojeong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Colman, Benjamin P; Hochella, Michael F

    2012-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is the most extensively used engineered nanoparticle to date, yet its fate in the soil environment has been investigated only rarely and is poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted two field-scale investigations to better describe TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in their most likely route of entry into the environment, i.e., the application of biosolids to soils. We particularly concentrated on the particles in the nano-size regime due to their novel and commercially useful properties. First, we analyzed three sewage sludge products from the US EPA TNSSS sampling inventory for the occurrence, qualitative abundance, and nature of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles by using analytical scanning electron microscopy and analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Nano- and larger particles of TiO(2) were repeatedly identified across the sewage sludge types tested, providing strong evidence of their likely concentration in sewage sludge products. The TiO(2) particles identified were as small as 40 nm, and as large as 300 nm, having faceted shapes with the rutile crystal structure, and they typically formed small, loosely packed aggregates. Second, we examined surface soils in mesocosms that had been amended with Ag nanoparticle-spiked biosolids for the occurrence of TiO(2) particles. An aggregate of TiO(2) nanoparticles with the rutile structure was again identified, but this time TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to contain Ag on their surfaces. This suggests that TiO(2) nanoparticles from biosolids can interact with toxic trace metals that would then enter the environment as a soil amendment. Therefore, the long-term behavior of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in sewage sludge materials as well as their impacts in the soil environment need to be carefully considered. PMID:22349742

  2. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing. PMID:26939775

  3. Buprenorphine 5, 10 and 20 μg/h transdermal patch: a review of its use in the management of chronic non-malignant pain.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L

    2011-12-24

    This article reviews the pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy and tolerability profile of the 7-day lower-dose (5, 10 and 20 μg/h) buprenorphine transdermal patch (BuTrans®, Norspan®) in the management of chronic non-malignant pain, with a focus on European labelling for the drug. Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic that acts primarily as a partial agonist at the mu opioid receptor. The transdermal formulation provides continuous delivery of buprenorphine, resulting in relatively consistent plasma drug concentrations throughout the 7-day dosing interval. The analgesic efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials, which have shown the formulation to be equivalent to sublingual buprenorphine, noninferior to prolonged-release tramadol tablets, noninferior to codeine plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) combination tablets (when transdermal buprenorphine was used together with regularly scheduled oral paracetamol) and generally superior to a matching transdermal placebo patch. Transdermal buprenorphine was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing chronic low back pain of at least moderate severity in two randomized, double-blind, crossover trials. Other clinical trials, including a randomized, double-blind, maintenance-of-analgesia study, have also demonstrated the analgesic efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine in patients with chronic non-malignant pain of various causes. In general, serious adverse events with transdermal buprenorphine are similar to those for other opioid analgesics. Transdermal buprenorphine has a ceiling effect for respiratory depression, and the main risk is when it is combined with other CNS depressants. The most frequently reported adverse events with transdermal buprenorphine are headache, dizziness, somnolence, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, erythema, application site pruritus and

  4. The Bartonian-Priabonian marine record of the Eastern South Pyrenean Foreland Basin (NE Spain): A new calibration of the larger foraminifers and calcareous nannofossil biozonations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Garcés, M.; López-Blanco, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Bernaola, G.; Cabrera, L.; Beamud, E.

    2012-04-01

    The up to 5000-m-thick sedimentary infill of the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin (in NE Spain) records the Cenozoic evolution of the NE Iberian plate. This region is an excellent area where to perform a combined biomagnetostratigraphic study of a Paleogene succession as the present level of erosion of the basin infill and its surrounding mountain ranges is at an optimal stage for studying a continuous and thick stratigraphic record. In this sense, a biochronological framework of the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin has been developed since the early 1950's, which was later combined with magnetostratigraphic studies. This biochronological framework, together with all the available literature on the biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy of the Paleocene and Eocene Tethys, were integrated in a general chronostratigraphic framework used to define and calibrate the larger foraminifer biozonation (Shallow Benthic Zones, SBZ). However, in the Gelogical Time Scale 2004 no correlation of the Paleogene SBZ zonation with the geomagnetic polarity time scale was provided. Here we present a combined biostratigraphic (larger foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils) and magnetostratigraphic study of the Middle and Late Eocene marine units of the Igualada area, on the eastern Ebro Basin. The studied sections of Santa Maria de Miralles and La Tossa encompass the complete marine succession of the Santa Maria Group. A total of 224 paleomagnetic sites and 64 biostratigraphic samples were collected along a 1350-m-thick section that ranges from chron C20n to chron C16n (ca. 43-36 Ma). The resulting magnetostratigraphy-based chronology challenges existing chronostratigraphic interpretations of these units and results in a new calibration of the larger foraminifers and calcareous nannofossil biozonations. The traditional division of the Bartonian stage into two complete larger foraminifers zones, SBZ17 and SBZ18, is challenged. Zone SBZ17 embraces most of the Bartonian, while Zone SBZ18 extends

  5. 24-Month-Old Children with Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher-quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  6. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts. PMID:23776706

  7. 24-Month-Old Children With Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  8. Larger Right Posterior Parietal Volume in Action Video Game Experts: A Behavioral and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts. PMID:23776706

  9. Lateralization produced by interaural intensitive disparities appears to be larger for high- vs low-frequency stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report the results of a study indicating that a given magnitude of interaural intensitive disparity (IID) produced a larger extent of laterality, as measured via an acoustic pointer, for stimuli centered at 4 kHz than for stimuli centered at 500 Hz. The data and their analysis, taken together, suggest that the findings reflect true across-frequency differences rather than being manifestations of response-related factors. PMID:21302976

  10. Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles

    PubMed Central

    Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K.; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn (68Zn) from 68ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in 68Zn/64Zn ratios, 68Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of 68Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of 68ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 68Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing 68ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger 68ZnO particles. However, no ZnO-mediated change in total Zn concentration in any of the major organs was observed. Thus, despite 68Zn absorption, which may have been in the form of soluble 68Zn species or 68ZnO particles (not known), Zn homeostasis was largely maintained, and the presence of ZnO particles in sunscreen did not elicit an adverse biological response in the mice following short-term topical applications. PMID:24266363

  11. A proof that tidal heating in a synchronous rotation is always larger than in an asymptotic nonsynchronous rotation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levrard, B.

    2008-02-01

    In a recent paper, Wisdom [Wisdom, J., 2008. Icarus, 193, 637-640] derived concise expressions for the rate of tidal dissipation in a synchronously rotating body for arbitrary orbital eccentricity and obliquity. He provided numerical evidence than the derived rate is always larger than in an asymptotic nonsynchronous rotation state at any obliquity and eccentricity. Here, I present a simple mathematical proof of this conclusion and show that this result still holds for any spin-orbit resonance.

  12. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) - polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi; Basu, Saibal

    2016-09-01

    Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30-60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV-vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  13. Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Giovanni A; Legramandi, Mario A

    2015-10-01

    A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss. PMID:26347555

  14. The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.

    PubMed

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Buhrs, Elfi; Verheijen, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    The locality Schöningen (Germany) is an important source of knowledge about Lower Paleolithic hominin subsistence. The locality includes a series of sites dated to the late Middle Pleistocene with a Holsteinian (MIS 11) and Reinsdorf Interglacial (MIS 9) age. One of the youngest sites is Schöningen 13 II-4, the Spear Horizon site also known as the Horse Butchery site. The organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in an area where the groundwater is rich in calcium carbonate. The fossil assemblage is ideal for the study of patterns in hominin interference with the mammalian species encountered at the site. The vertebrate record is extensive and very diverse. The fossil larger carnivore guild of the Spear Horizon faunal assemblage includes saber-toothed cat, fox, and wolf. Herbivores are represented by an elephant species, two equid species, two rhinoceros species, two cervid species, and two large bovid species. Evidence of hominin interference presents itself as either marks on skeletal remains related to the use of bones as knapping tools or hammers, or as marks that indicate butchering activities such as skinning, dismembering, defleshing, filleting, and marrow extraction. The humerus of the saber-toothed cat clearly shows that the bone has been used as a knapping tool. The fossil remains of the other larger carnivores do not show any signs of hominin interference or exploitation. This also applies to the limited number of elephant and rhinoceros remains found at the site. The large horse Equus mosbachensis dominates the larger mammal record and played a major role in hominin subsistence. Marks on the horse bones indicate that a large number of carcasses have been butchered. Traces on the fossil remains of both red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the large bovids also indicate exploitation by Lower Paleolithic hominins. PMID:26607346

  15. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development of individuaĺs behavioral and morphological characteristics. In recent decades, digit ratio attracted a great attention in biology and psychology. However, for unmasking the biological basis of the phenomenon, extensive studies on non-human animals are necessary. Despite it was hypothesized that digit ratio is well conserved in all Tetrapoda, and there exist studies on mammals, birds, and reptiles, there are only two such study on anuran amphibians. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the 2D:4D in the most basal salamanders, Caudata. We have studied digit ratio in four species of newts: Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, and Lissotriton vulgaris, using museum collection. We used computerized measuring of each limbś photos. We have found out that, in M. alpestris, females 2D:4D of all four limbs were significantly larger than in males. In L. montandoni and L. vulgaris, only 2D:4D of rear limbs significantly differed, in females being larger. In T. cristatus, digit ratios of males and females did not statistically differ. Thus, the results confirmed our hypothesis that at least in M. alpestris, L. montandoni, and L. vulgaris, females seem to have larger 2D:4D comparing to males, the pattern known from most mammals and opposite to birds, reptiles and anuran amphibians. PMID:25704339

  16. Low local recurrence rate without postmastectomy radiation in node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm and larger

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, Scott R.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Raad, Rita Abi; Oswald, Mary J.; Sullivan, Timothy; Strom, Eric A.; Powell, Simon N.; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse G. . E-mail: ataghian@partners.org

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the need for adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with node-negative breast tumors 5 cm or larger. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 2002, a total of 70 patients with node-negative breast cancer and tumors 5 cm or larger were treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapies but without radiotherapy at three institutions. We retrospectively assessed rates and risk factors for locoregional failure (LRF), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) in these patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 85 months, the 5-year actuarial LRF rate was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 3%-16%). LRF was primarily in the chest wall (4/5 local failures), and lymphatic-vascular invasion (LVI) was statistically significantly associated with LRF risk by the log-rank test (p = 0.017) and in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p 0.038). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 83% and 86% respectively. LVI was also significantly associated with OS and DFS in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This series demonstrates a low LRF rate of 7.6% among breast cancer patients with node-negative tumors 5 cm and larger after mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Our data indicate that further adjuvant radiation therapy to increase local control may not be indicated by tumor size alone in the absence of positive lymph nodes. LVI was significantly associated with LRF in our series, indicating that patients with this risk factor require careful consideration with regard to further local therapy.

  17. Relationship of the 1793G-A and 677C-T polymorphisms of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kebert, Cory B; Eichner, June E; Moore, William E; Schechter, Eliot; Yaoi, Takuro; Vogel, Steve; Allen, Richard A; Dunn, S Terence

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms, in particular 677C-T and 1298A-C, of the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) with conflicting results. This study investigates the potential association of two point mutations in MTHFR, 677C-T and 1793G-A, along with other risk factors, with CAD. This is the first hospital-based study to investigate 1793G-A in this context. Genotype analysis was performed on 729 Caucasians and 66 African Americans undergoing coronary angiography using a novel PCR-based assay involving formation of Holliday junctions. Allelic frequencies for 677C-T were 66.2% C and 33.8% T for Caucasians and 90.9% C and 9.1% T for African Americans. With respect to the 1793G-A polymorphism, allelic frequencies were 94.7% G and 5.3% A for Caucasians and 99.2% G and 0.8% A for African Americans. Disease associations were examined in the Caucasian patients due to their greater genotype variability and larger number in the patient cohort. Results suggest that neither 677CT heterozygotes (OR-1.36; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.96) nor mutant homozygotes (OR-0.73; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.20) have either an increased or decreased risk for CAD compared to the 677CC genotype. Likewise, the 1793GA genotype did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with CAD compared to 1793GG patients (OR-0.79; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.33). Mean homocysteine levels (mumol/L) increased from normal to mutant for 677C-T (677CC: 10.2; 677CT: 11.0; 677TT: 11.6) and normal to heterozygous in 1793G-A (1793GG: 10.7; 1793GA: 11.5). These MTHFR polymorphisms did not contribute to the prediction of clinically defined CAD in Caucasians. PMID:17264399

  18. Relationship of the 1793G-A and 677C-T Polymorphisms of the 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene to Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kebert, Cory B.; Eichner, June E.; Moore, William E.; Schechter, Eliot; Yaoi, Takuro; Vogel, Steve; Allen, Richard A.; Dunn, S. Terence

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms, in particular 677C-T and 1298A-C, of the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) with conflicting results. This study investigates the potential association of two point mutations in MTHFR, 677C-T and 1793G-A, along with other risk factors, with CAD. This is the first hospital-based study to investigate 1793G-A in this context. Genotype analysis was performed on 729 Caucasians and 66 African Americans undergoing coronary angiography using a novel PCR-based assay involving formation of Holliday junctions. Allelic frequencies for 677C-T were 66.2% C and 33.8% T for Caucasians and 90.9% C and 9.1% T for African Americans. With respect to the 1793G-A polymorphism, allelic frequencies were 94.7% G and 5.3% A for Caucasians and 99.2% G and 0.8% A for African Americans. Disease associations were examined in the Caucasian patients due to their greater genotype variability and larger number in the patient cohort. Results suggest that neither 677CT heterozygotes (OR-1.36; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.96) nor mutant homozygotes (OR-0.73; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.20) have either an increased or decreased risk for CAD compared to the 677CC genotype. Likewise, the 1793GA genotype did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with CAD compared to 1793GG patients (OR-0.79; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.33). Mean homocysteine levels (μmol/L) increased from normal to mutant for 677C-T (677CC: 10.2; 677CT: 11.0; 677TT: 11.6) and normal to heterozygous in 1793G-A (1793GG: 10.7; 1793GA: 11.5). These MTHFR polymorphisms did not contribute to the prediction of clinically defined CAD in Caucasians. PMID:17264399

  19. Potassium monopersulfate oxidation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol catalyzed by a SiO2-supported iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Mizutani, Yusuke; Maeno, Shohei; Nishimoto, Ryo; Miyamoto, Takafumi; Fukushima, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Iron(III)-porphyrin complexes are generally regarded as green catalysts, since they mimic the catalytic center of cytochrome-P450 and widely used as green catalysts for degrading halogenated phenols in wastewater, such as landfill leachates. However, iron(III)-porphyrins are deactivated by self-oxidation in the presence of an oxygen donor, such as KHSO5. In the present study, to enhance the reusability of an iron(III)-porphyrin catalyst, iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (FeTCPP) was immobilized on a functionalized silica gel. The oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TrBP), a widely used brominated flame retardant that is found in landfill leachates, was examined using the prepared catalyst. In addition, the influence of humic substances (HSs), major components of leachates, on the TrBP oxidation was investigated. Concerning the effect of pH, more than 90% of the TrBP was degraded in the pH range of 3-8 in the absence of HS, while the optimal pH for the reaction was in the range of pH 5-7 in the presence of HS. Although the oxidation of TrBP was inhibited in the presence of HSs, more than 90% of the TrBP was degraded in the presence of 50 mg L(-1) of HS. Thus, the prepared catalyst, SiO2-FeTCPP, showed a high catalytic activity and could be reused up to 10 times even in the presence of HS. PMID:23947696

  20. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3‧, 2‧-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; J. Potscavage, William, Jr.; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Rong-Juan

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a photodetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7% for an α-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with a low-concentration donor. Project supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R & D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, the Fund from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant Nos. 14DZ2280900 and 14XD1401800), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 15ZR1416600).

  1. Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated with Larger Left Thalamic Gray Matter Volume in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Li, Zexuan; Lu, Shaojia; Wu, Weiwei; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition. Methods Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Results Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients. Conclusions These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD. PMID:23951265

  2. Combined Ethanol Injection Therapy and Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy in Percutaneous Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Larger than 4 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallone, Paolo; Catalano, Orlando Izzo, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo

    2006-08-15

    Background. Optimal treatment of large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still debated, because percutaneous ablation therapies alone do not always achieve complete necrosis. Objective. To report our experience in the treatment of patients with HCC larger than 4 cm in diameter by combined percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation. Methods. In a 5-year period there were 40 consecutive patients meeting the inclusion criteria (24 men and 16 women; age range 41-72 years, mean 58 years). These subjects had a single HCC larger than 4 cm. Twelve subjects also had one or two additional nodules smaller than 4 cm (mean 1.2 nodules per patient). Patients were submitted to one to three sessions consisting of ethanol injection at two opposite tumor poles (mean 12 ml) and then of radiofrequency application through one or two electrodes placed at the tumor center (mean treatment duration 30 min). Results. Complete necrosis was obtained in all cases with one to three sessions (mean 1.3 sessions per patient). All patients experienced pain and fever but one only subject had a major complication requiring treatment (abscess development and fistulization). Overall follow-up was 7-69 months. Two patients showed local recurrence and 9 developed new etherotopic HCC nodules. Seven subjects died during follow-up while 33 were free from recurrence 8-69 months after treatment. Conclusion. A combination of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation is effective in the treatment of large HCC.

  3. Podocyte-Specific GLUT4-Deficient Mice Have Fewer and Larger Podocytes and Are Protected From Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Johanna; Jauregui, Alexandra N.; Merscher-Gomez, Sandra; Maiguel, Dony; Muresan, Cristina; Mitrofanova, Alla; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Szust, Joel; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Pedigo, Christopher; Molano, R. Damaris; Johnson, Kevin; Kahn, Barbara; Hartleben, Bjoern; Huber, Tobias B.; Saha, Jharna; Burke, George W.; Abel, E. Dale; Brosius, Frank C.; Fornoni, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their ability to sense insulin is essential to prevent proteinuria. Here we identify the insulin downstream effector GLUT4 as a key modulator of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice with a podocyte-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4 KO) did not develop albuminuria despite having larger and fewer podocytes than wild-type (WT) mice. Glomeruli from G4 KO mice were protected from diabetes-induced hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria and failed to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In order to investigate whether the protection observed in G4 KO mice was due to the failure to activate mTOR, we used three independent in vivo experiments. G4 KO mice did not develop lipopolysaccharide-induced albuminuria, which requires mTOR activation. On the contrary, G4 KO mice as well as WT mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin developed worse adriamycin-induced nephropathy than WT mice, consistent with the fact that adriamycin toxicity is augmented by mTOR inhibition. In summary, GLUT4 deficiency in podocytes affects podocyte nutrient sensing, results in fewer and larger cells, and protects mice from the development of DN. This is the first evidence that podocyte hypertrophy concomitant with podocytopenia may be associated with protection from proteinuria. PMID:24101677

  4. Wear resistance of the biocompatible phospholipid polymer-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner against larger femoral head.

    PubMed

    Moro, Toru; Takatori, Yoshio; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Masami; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-07-01

    The use of larger femoral heads to prevent the dislocation of artificial hip joints has recently become more common. However, concerns about the subsequent use of thinner polyethylene liners and their effects on wear rate have arisen. Previously, we prepared and evaluated the biological and mechanical effects of a novel highly cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner with a nanometer-scaled graft layer of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). Our findings showed that the PMPC-grafted particles were biologically inert and caused no subsequent bone resorptive responses and that the PMPC-grafting markedly decreased wear in a hip joint simulator. However, the metal or ceramic femoral heads used in this previous study had a diameter of 26 mm. Here, we investigated the wear-resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner with a 40-mm femoral head during 10 × 10(6) cycles of loading in the hip joint simulator. The results provide preliminary evidence that the grafting markedly decreased gravimetric wear rate and the volume of wear particles, even when coupled with larger femoral heads. Thus, we believe the PMPC-grafting will prolong artificial hip joint longevity both by preventing aseptic loosening and by improving the stability of articular surface. PMID:25764495

  5. Evolution of the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifera in the Tethyan Himalaya of Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinghai; Willems, Helmut; Ding, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) in the far eastern Neo-Tethyan Ocean of Tibet still remain poorly known. Here, we present a novel, high-resolution larger foraminiferal biozonation from the shallow-water limestones in Tibet, which will improve our current understanding of the larger foraminiferal evolution in the eastern Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Based on one continuous section at Tingri and three separate sections at Gamba, ten Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ 1-10) have been designated in Tibet by following the principle of Oppel Zone. In contrast to those in Europe, the Paleocene LBFs in Tibet are characterized by high diversification of Lockhartia, Kathina, Daviesina, Miscellanea, Ranikothalia, and Operculina and show progressively increasing diversity of genera and species during SBZ 2-5. Adult dimorphism and large shell size of some LBFs as well as differentiation of the diversity between genera and species initiated as early as SBZ 3. It suggests that the occurrence of the Larger Foraminifera Turnover (LFT) was probably not synchronous in the entire Neo-Tethyan Ocean, because in Europe, the LFT was generally thought to occur at the beginning of SBZ 5. During the Early Eocene, the LBFs in Tibet decreased markedly on the generic level and increased on the species level, and some new genera ( Alveolina, Orbitolites, Nummulites, Assilina, Discocyclina) have gained predominance in Tibet. It is nearly identical to the evolution of the LBFs in Europe and indicates a high-degree homogenization of the LBFs in the entire Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Furthermore, the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary in shallow-water environments has been clearly identified by us, and it is situated in the upper part of SBZ 5 and associated with no evident biotic turnover of shallow benthic foraminiferal communities. The possible diachroneity of the LFT in the Neo-Tethyan Ocean and the evident lagging of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) behind the LFT imply that the LFT

  6. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    PubMed Central

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225–300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention. PMID:25237303

  7. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change. PMID:23417331

  8. The larger mammal fossil assemblage from JK2, Bed III, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: implications for the feeding behavior of Homo erectus.

    PubMed

    Pante, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the type and amount of animal proteins consumed by Homo erectus, a species distinguished from its predecessors by more human-like brain and body proportions and its association with more advanced stone tool technology. Here I present an interpretation of the feeding behavior of African H. erectus based upon the first taphonomic analysis of the larger mammal fossil assemblage from the JK2 site, Bed III, Olduvai Gorge. Results indicate that both hominins and carnivores consumed some flesh and bone marrow at the site. A low incidence of percussion marking suggests hominins did not break all long bones in the assemblage. Relatively high carnivore tooth mark frequencies and low cut mark frequencies independently suggest that both hominins and carnivores had access to flesh, while specimens that are both tooth- and butchery-marked demonstrate occasional hominin and carnivore feeding from the same carcass. Together, the bone surface modification data suggest a mixed and possibly time-averaged taphonomic history for the assemblage with at least some carcasses accessed by hominins early in the consumption sequence and others only by carnivores. The results for the JK2 assemblage contribute to a growing literature concerning the feeding behavior of African H. erectus, a species that appears to have relied on carcass foods to meet some of the nutritional demands of its larger brain and body size. PMID:23273772

  9. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  10. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. PMID:26480952

  11. Examining the form-function relationship of convective organization and the larger scale with observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Emily Marie

    This work uses a two-pronged approach to study the form-function relationship of convective organization and the larger scale. Form is simply the visual shape of convection and function is how the convection and larger scale interact. First, CloudSat observations are used to study cloud modulation during the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Second, a cloud systems resolving model (CSRM) with parameterized large-scale dynamics is used to examine how convective organization affects the interdependence of convection and the larger-scale. Using CloudSat observations, cloud type, total cloud cover, and temperature and moisture evolution are document across MJO phases. Deep cloud types were classified as wide or narrow as a proxy for designating organized and unorganized convective systems. For locally defined phases, the MJO exhibits a familiar progression of cloud types from shallow clouds mixed with deep, isolated convection in the growing stages of the MJO, to deep, widespread, organized convection during the mature stages, to more anvil dominated conditions during the decay stages. Comparison to the convectively coupled Kelvin wave reveals both wave types exhibit similar cloud type evolution, though, the MJO was found to be modulated more by moisture variation, while the Kelvin wave was modulated more by temperature variations. In terms of globally defined MJO phases, the wide deep precipitating systems were modulated more than other cloud types by MJO phases, with the well-known progression of cloud cover from the Indian Ocean to the central Pacific. The narrow deep precipitating systems only propagated from the Indian Ocean to the Maritime Continent. The modeling component of this work involved periodic domains, where convective organization was controlled by adding shear to a three-dimensional (3D) isotropic CSRM domain or by altering the 3D domain to be longer and narrower, until eventually becoming a 2D domain. Snapshots of convective activity in various

  12. Mesorbitolina (Cretaceous larger foraminifera) from the Yezo Group in Hokkaido, Japan and its stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic significance

    PubMed Central

    Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an Aptian (Early Cretaceous) larger foraminiferal species Orbitolina (Mesorbitolina) parva from the limestone olistoliths in the lower part of the Yezo Group in the Yubari–Ashibetsu area, central Hokkaido and from limestone pebbles in the lowermost part of the Yezo Group in the Nakagawa area, northern Hokkaido. This is the first report of this species from the circum-North Pacific regions. Based on its occurrences, the shallow-marine carbonates, re-deposited in the lower part of the Yezo Group, are precisely assigned in age to the Late Aptian. Comparison of the lower part of the Yezo Group in central and northern Hokkaido indicates differences of the Aptian–Albian depositional history between the two areas. This study reveals that after Late Aptian, Mesogean key taxa (typical Cretaceous Tethyan biota) demised in the Northwest Pacific. PMID:25792785

  13. Survival and breeding advantages of larger Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) goslings: Within- and among-cohort variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mass late in the first summer and survival and return to the natal breeding colony for 12 cohorts (1986-1997) of female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). We used Cormack-Jolly-Seber methods and the program MARK to analyze capture-recapture data. Models included two kinds of residuals from regressions of mass on days after peak of hatch when goslings were measured; one based on the entire sample (12 cohorts) and the other based only on individuals in the same cohort. Some models contained date of peak of hatch (a group covariate related to lateness of nesting in that year) and mean cohort residual mass. Finally, models allowed survival to vary among cohorts. The best model of encounter probability included an effect of residual mass on encounter probability and allowed encounter probability to vary among age classes and across years. All competitive models contained an effect of one of the estimates of residual mass; relatively larger goslings survived their first year at higher rates. Goslings in cohorts from later years in the analysis tended to have lower first-year survival, after controlling for residual mass, which reflected the generally smaller mean masses for these cohorts but was potentially also a result of population-density effects additional to those on growth. Variation among cohorts in mean mass accounted for 56% of variation among cohorts in first-year survival. Encounter probabilities, which were correlated with breeding probability, increased with relative mass, which suggests that larger goslings not only survived at higher rates but also bred at higher rates. Although our findings support the well-established linkage between gosling mass and fitness, they suggest that additional environmental factors also influence first-year survival. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  14. Pressures at larger spatial scales strongly influence the ecological status of heavily modified river water bodies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kail, Jochem; Wolter, Christian

    2013-06-01

    River biota are influenced by anthropogenic pressures that operate at different spatial scales. Understanding which pressures at which spatial scales affect biota is essential to manage and restore degraded rivers. In Europe, many river reaches were designated as Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), where the ecological potential might mainly be determined by pressures at larger spatial scales outside the HMWB (e.g. hydromorphological alterations at the river network and land use at the catchment scale). In Germany, hydromorphological alterations and diffuse pollution were the main pressures. Therefore, the three objectives of this study were to (i) identify the hydromorphological pressures at the site, reach, and river network scale, and land use categories at the catchment scale which significantly affect the ecological status of HMWB in Germany, (ii) quantify the relative importance of these pressures at different spatial scales, and (iii) analyse the differences in response between fish and macroinvertebrates. The results indicated that: (i) At the reach scale, fish were most strongly influenced by channel-bank conditions whilst the naturalness of channel-planform was the best proxy for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. At the catchment scale, urbanization was the most detrimental land use. (ii) The pressures at larger spatial scales (catchment land use and hydromorphological alterations in the river network) generally were more important than hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale. (iii) Fish were affected equally by both, hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale and large-scale pressures whereas the latter were far more important for the ecological status of macroinvertebrates. In conclusion, these results indicated that large-scale pressures may often limit the efficiency of reach-scale restoration, especially for macroinvertebrates, even in the absence of saprobic

  15. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  16. Cu(OAc)2-Mediated Cascade Annulation of Diarylalkyne Sulfonamides through Dual C-N Bond Formation: Synthesis of 5,10-Dihydroindolo[3,2-b]indoles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junchao; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Du, Yunfei

    2016-07-15

    An unusual cascade reaction featuring annulation of diarylalkyne sulfonamides to form 5,10-dihydroindolo[3,2-b]indoles has been realized with Cu(OAc)2 as the sole oxidant. This unprecedented process encompasses two sequential C-N bond formations, allowing for an efficient synthesis of the biologically important indoloindole derivatives. PMID:27366912

  17. Age-dependent fracture risk in hip revisions with radial impaction grafting technique: a 5-10 year medium-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chomrikh, Laila; Gebuhr, Peter; Bierling, Roelf; Lind, Ulla; Zwart, Hendrik J J

    2014-02-01

    Radial impaction grafting (RIG) potentially improves the durability and reliability of cementing the femoral components in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this multicenter, prospective study, 88 revision THAs (87 patients) with RIG technique were performed. The average follow-up time was 7.0 years (range, 5.0-10.2). There were 14 femur fractures: 2 intraoperative, 5 within 3 months after surgery, and 7 later in the postoperative stage (range, 5-84 months). Sixteen patients were lost to follow-up and 20 died without stem re-revision. None of the patients have been re-revised for any reason during follow-up. Age was observed to be a significant factor for determining fracture risk. In conclusion, RIG can be considered a reliable surgical technique, especially for younger patients. PMID:23891061

  18. Diversity in deep-sea benthic macrofauna: the importance of local ecology, the larger scale, history and the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, John D.

    2004-07-01

    High diversity in macrobenthos in the deep sea still lacks satisfactory explanation, even if this richness may not be exceptional compared to that in coastal soft sediments. Explanations have assumed a highly ecologically interactive, saturated local community with co-existence controlled by either niche heterogeneity, or spatio-temporal heterogeneity embodying disturbance. All have failed to provide convincing support. Local/regional scale biodiversity relationships support the idea of local richness in macrobenthos being predominantly dependent on the larger, rather local scale. Local-scale ecological interactions seem unlikely to have overriding importance in co-existence of species in the deep sea, even for relatively abundant, 'core' species with wide distributions. Variety in observed larger-scale pattern and the strong inter-regional pattern, particularly in the poorly known southern hemisphere, seem to have a pluralistic causation. These include regional-scale barriers and extinctions (e.g., Arctic), and ongoing adaptive zone re-colonisation (e.g., Mediterranean), along with other historical constraints on speciation and migration of species caused by changes in ocean and ocean-basin geometry. At the global scale lack of knowledge of the Antarctic deep sea, for example, blocks coherent understanding of latitudinal species diversity gradients. We need to reconcile emerging understanding of large-scale historical variability in the deep-sea environment—with massive extinctions among microfossil indicators as recently as the Pliocene—to results from cladistic studies indicating ancient lineages, such as asellote isopods, that have evolved entirely within the deep sea. The degree to which the great age, diversity, and high degree of endemism in Antarctic shelf benthos might have enriched biodiversity in the adjacent deep seas basins remains unclear. Basin confluence with the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans may have encouraged northwards dispersion of

  19. SU-E-T-567: A Three-Field Mono-Isocentric Inverse Treatment Planning Method for the Patients with Larger Breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T; Marina, O; Chen, P; Teahan, M; Liu, Q; Benedetti, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a three-field monoisocentric inverse breast treatment planning technique without the use of half-beam block. Methods: Conventional three-field breast treatment with supraclavicular half-beam blocked requires two isocenters when the breast is too large to be contained within half-beam. The inferior border of the supraclavicular field and superior borders of the breast fields are matched on patient's skin with the light field. This method causes a large dose variation in the matching region due to daily setup uncertainties and requires a longer treatment setup time. We developed a three-field mono-isocentric planning method for the treatment of larger breasts. The three fields share the same isocenter located in the breast. Beam matching is achieved by rotating collimator, couch and gantry. Furthermore, we employed a mixed open-IMRT inverse optimization method to improve dose uniformity and coverage. Results: Perfect geometric beam matching was achieved by rotating couch, collimator and gantry together. Treatment setup time was significantly reduced without light-field matching during treatment deliveries. Inverse mixed open-IMRT optimization method achieved better dose uniformity and PTV coverage while keeping sufficient air flash to compensate setup and breast shape changes in daily treatments. Conclusion: By eliminating light field matching, the three-field mono-isocentric treatment method can significantly reduce setup time and uncertainty for large breast patients. Plan quality is further improved by inverse IMRT planning.

  20. Too much of a good thing: stronger bilingual inhibition leads to larger lag-2 task repetition costs.

    PubMed

    Prior, Anat

    2012-10-01

    Inhibitory control and monitoring abilities of Hebrew-English bilingual and English monolingual university students were compared, in a paradigm requiring participants to switch between performing three distinct tasks. Inhibitory control was gauged by lag-2 task repetition costs, namely decreased performance on the final trial of sequences of type ABA relative to CBA, due to persisting inhibition of the recently abandoned task. Bilinguals had larger lag-2 repetition costs, which reflect stronger inhibition of a no-longer relevant task to facilitate a switch into a new task. Monitoring ability was measured by the fadeout effect, which reflects adaptation to simpler task demands when a single task block immediately and unexpectedly follows mixed task blocks. Bilinguals did not differ from monolinguals in the magnitude or trajectory of the fade-out effect. Thus, results support the notion of increased bilingual inhibitory control, even when it is detrimental to performance, and do not demonstrate a specific bilingual advantage in monitoring. These findings are discussed in the context of the recent debate concerning the locus of bilingual advantages. PMID:22841300

  1. [Direct cloning of gene encoding a novel amylomaltase from soil bacterial DNA for large-ring cyclodextrin production].

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, K; Rudeekulthamrong, P; Zimmermann, W; Murakami, S; Pongsawasdi, P; Kaulpiboon, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate a novel amylomaltase gene from community DNA of soil samples collected from Ban Nong Khrok hot spring in Thailand without bacterial cultivation. Using PCR, a 1.5 kb full-length gene was amplified and ligated with pGEM-T easy vector to transform into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha for sequencing. The obtained gene encoding an amylomaltase consisted of 1.503 bp that translated into 500 amino acids. Amino acid sequence deduced from this gene was highly homologous with that of amylomaltase from Thermus thermophillus ATCC 33923. In order to express the enzyme, the cloned gene was subcloned into plasmid pET-17b and introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The maximum expression was observed when the cloned cells were cultured at 37 degrees C for 6 h with 0.5 mM IPTG induction. By 10% SDS-PAGE, the relative molecular mass of the purified amylomaltase was approximately 58 kDa. This enzyme was optimally active at 70 degrees C and pH 9.0. In addition, the enzyme could hydrolyze pea starch to yield the large-ring cyclodextrins with degrees of polymerization of 23 and higher. It is noted that CD29 was the product in the largest quantity under all tested conditions. PMID:25272748

  2. Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO2 on global river runoff trends

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Shilong; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Labat, David; Zaehle, Sönke

    2007-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in observed river runoff has been tentatively attributed to the stomatal “antitranspirant” response of plants to rising atmospheric CO2 [Gedney N, Cox PM, Betts RA, Boucher O, Huntingford C, Stott PA (2006) Nature 439: 835–838]. However, CO2 also is a plant fertilizer. When allowing for the increase in foliage area that results from increasing atmospheric CO2 levels in a global vegetation model, we find a decrease in global runoff from 1901 to 1999. This finding highlights the importance of vegetation structure feedback on the water balance of the land surface. Therefore, the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration does not explain the estimated increase in global runoff over the last century. In contrast, we find that changes in mean climate, as well as its variability, do contribute to the global runoff increase. Using historic land-use data, we show that land-use change plays an additional important role in controlling regional runoff values, particularly in the tropics. Land-use change has been strongest in tropical regions, and its contribution is substantially larger than that of climate change. On average, land-use change has increased global runoff by 0.08 mm/year2 and accounts for ≈50% of the reconstructed global runoff trend over the last century. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of land-cover change in forecasting future freshwater availability and climate. PMID:17878298

  3. The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cordatum at the edge of the salinity tolerance: The growth is slower but cells are larger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenina, Irina; Vaičiukynas, Evaldas; Šulčius, Sigitas; Paškauskas, Ričardas; Verikas, Antanas; Gelžinis, Adas; Bačauskienė, Marija; Bertašiūtė, Vilma; Olenin, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine how the projected climate change driven decrease in the Baltic Sea salinity can impact the growth, cell size and shape of the recently invaded dinoflagellate Prorocentrum cordatum. In laboratory treatments we mimicked salinity conditions at the edge of the mesohaline south-eastern Baltic and oligohaline-to-limnic Curonian Lagoon. We used an innovative computer-based method allowing detection of P. cordatum cells and quantitative characterization of cell contours in phytoplankton images. This method also made available robust indicators of the morphometric changes, which are not accessible for an expert studying cells under light microscope. We found that the salinity tolerance limit of P. cordatum ranges between 1.8 and 3.6, and that the mean cell size of its population is inversely proportional to both salinity and nutrient content. Under ambient south-eastern Baltic salinity (7.2) the nutrients were stimulating the growth of P. cordatum; while at the edge of its salinity tolerance the nutrient availability did not have such effect. We suggest that in the future Baltic the decline in salinity and increase in nutrient loads may result in larger cells of P. cordatum and extended duration of their presence in plankton, causing longer periods of algal blooms.

  4. Cesarean section on maternal request: a societal and professional failure and symptom of a much larger problem.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    The scientific literature was silent about a relationship of pelvic floor, urinary, and fecal incontinence and sexual issues with mode of birth until 1993, when Sultan et al's impressive rectal ultrasound studies were published. They showed that perirectal fibers were damaged in many vaginal births, but not as a result of a cesarean section. These findings helped to pioneer a new area of research, ultimately leading to increasing support among health professionals and the public that maternal choice of cesarean delivery could be justified-even that maternal choice and autonomous decision-making trump other considerations, including evidence. A growing number of birth practitioners are choosing cesarean section for themselves-usually on the basis of concerns over pelvic floor, urinary incontinence, and sexual issues. Behind this choice is a training experience that focuses on the abnormal, interprets the literature through a pathological lens, and lacks sufficient opportunity to see normal childbirth. Cesarean section on maternal request is a complex issue based on fear and misinformation that is a symptom of a system needing reform, that is, a major change in community and professional education, governmental policy making, and creation of environments emphasizing the normal. Systemic change will require the training of obstetricians mainly as consultants and the education of a much larger cadre of midwives and family physicians who will provide care for most pregnant women in settings designed to facilitate the normal. Tinkering with the system will not work-it requires a complete refit. PMID:23281950

  5. TALENs-mediated gene disruption of myostatin produces a larger phenotype of medaka with an apparently compromised immune system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-An; Kinoshita, Masato; Maekawa, Shun; Kulkarni, Amod; Lo, Chu-Fang; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Wang, Han-Ching; Aoki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Although myostatin, a suppressor of skeletal muscle development and growth, has been well studied in mammals, its function in fish remains unclear. In this study, we used a popular genome editing tool with high efficiency and target specificity (TALENs; transcription activator-like effector nucleases) to mutate the genome sequence of myostatin (MSTN) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). After the TALEN pair targeting OlMyostatin was injected into fertilized medaka eggs, mutant G0 fish carrying different TALENs-induced frameshifts in the OlMSTN coding sequence were mated together in order to transmit the mutant sequences to the F1 generation. Two F1 mutants with frameshifted myostatin alleles were then mated to produce the F2 generation, and these F2 OlMSTN null (MSTN(-/-)) medaka were evaluated for growth performance. The F2 fish showed significantly increased body length and weight compared to the wild type fish at the juvenile and post-juvenile stages. At the post-juvenile stage, the average body weight of the MSTN(-/-) medaka was ∼25% greater than the wild type. However, we also found that when the F3 generation were challenged with red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), the expression levels of the interferon-stimulated genes were lower than in the wild type, and the virus copy number was maintained at a high level. We therefore conclude that although the MSTN(-/-) medaka had a larger phenotype, their immune system appeared to be at least partially suppressed or undeveloped. PMID:26578247

  6. Larger Centers Produce Better Outcomes in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Regionalization is a Superior Model - The Con Prospective.

    PubMed

    Danton, Mark H D

    2016-01-01

    Regionalization, in the context of congenital heart surgery, describes a process where smaller units close and patients are redistributed to larger centers. Proponents argue this will produce superior patient outcome based primarily on a volume-outcome effect. The potential disadvantage is that, as distance to center increases, access to service is compromised. In this article the volume-outcome effect is appraised and the effect of risk-stratification and threshold volumes explored. Access to service, and how certain congenital lesions and demographics might be disadvantaged, is reviewed. Alternative models are considered including collaborative programing and a standardizing approach of agreed parameters in personnel and infrastructure. Finally the influence of newer developments and quality metrics, including outcome databases, digital technologies and team-cognitive performance, needs to be factored in as the future unfolds. Ultimately, the design of a national congenital cardiac program should aspire to deliver care that is optimal, equitable and economic for the whole population. The solution lies in the distillation of competing variables cognizant of regional demographics and geography. PMID:27060038

  7. Cost-optimized methods extending the solution space of lightweight spaceborne monolithic ZERODUR® mirrors to larger sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Antoine; Hull, Tony; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We address the problem that larger spaceborne mirrors require greater sectional thickness to achieve a sufficient first eigen frequency that is resilient to launch loads, and to be stable during optical telescope assembly integration and test, this added thickness results in unacceptable added mass if we simply scale up solutions for smaller mirrors. Special features, like cathedral ribs, arch, chamfers, and back-side following the contour of the mirror face have been considered for these studies. For computational efficiency, we have conducted detailed analysis on various configurations of a 800 mm hexagonal segment and of a 1.2-m mirror, in a manner that they can be constrained by manufacturing parameters as would be a 4-m mirror. Furthermore each model considered also has been constrained by cost-effective machining practice as defined in the SCHOTT Mainz factory. Analysis on variants of this 1.2-m mirror has shown a favorable configuration. We have then scaled this optimal configuration to 4-m aperture. We discuss resulting parameters of costoptimized 4-m mirrors. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages this analysis reveals of going to cathedral rib architecture on 1-m class mirror substrates.

  8. OBJECTS IN KEPLER'S MIRROR MAY BE LARGER THAN THEY APPEAR: BIAS AND SELECTION EFFECTS IN TRANSITING PLANET SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of large surveys for transiting planets such as the Kepler mission must account for systematic errors and biases. Transit detection depends not only on the planet's radius and orbital period, but also on host star properties. Thus, a sample of stars with transiting planets may not accurately represent the target population. Moreover, targets are selected using criteria such as a limiting apparent magnitude. These selection effects, combined with uncertainties in stellar radius, lead to biases in the properties of transiting planets and their host stars. We quantify possible biases in the Kepler survey. First, Eddington bias produced by a steep planet radius distribution and uncertainties in stellar radius results in a 15%-20% overestimate of planet occurrence. Second, the magnitude limit of the Kepler target catalog induces Malmquist bias toward large, more luminous stars and underestimation of the radii of about one-third of candidate planets, especially those larger than Neptune. Third, because metal-poor stars are smaller, stars with detected planets will be very slightly (<0.02 dex) more metal-poor than the target average. Fourth, uncertainties in stellar radii produce correlated errors in planet radius and stellar irradiation. A previous finding, that highly irradiated giants are more likely to have 'inflated' radii, remains significant, even accounting for this effect. In contrast, transit depth is negatively correlated with stellar metallicity even in the absence of any intrinsic correlation, and a previous claim of a negative correlation between giant planet transit depth and stellar metallicity is probably an artifact.

  9. Palliative Care Teams' Cost-Saving Effect Is Larger For Cancer Patients With Higher Numbers Of Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    May, Peter; Garrido, Melissa M; Cassel, J Brian; Kelley, Amy S; Meier, Diane E; Normand, Charles; Stefanis, Lee; Smith, Thomas J; Morrison, R Sean

    2016-01-01

    Patients with multiple serious conditions account for a high proportion of health care spending. Such spending is projected to continue to grow substantially as a result of increased insurance eligibility, the ever-rising cost of care, the continued use of nonbeneficial high-intensity treatments at the end of life, and demographic changes. We evaluated the impact of palliative care consultation on hospital costs for adults with advanced cancer, excluding those with dementia. We found that compared to usual care, the receipt of a palliative care consultation within two days of admission was associated with 22 percent lower costs for patients with a comorbidity score of 2-3 and with 32 percent lower costs for those with a score of 4 or higher. Earlier consultation was also found to be systematically associated with a larger cost-saving effect for all subsamples defined by multimorbidity. Given ongoing workforce shortages, targeting early specialist palliative care to hospitalized patients with advanced cancer and higher numbers of serious concurrent conditions could improve care while complementing strategies to curb the growth of health spending. PMID:26733700

  10. Cas5d processes pre-crRNA and is a member of a larger family of CRISPR RNA endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Garside, Erin L.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Gesner, Emily M.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mehta, Garima; MacMillan, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci in bacteria and archaea are involved in an adaptable and heritable gene-silencing pathway. Resistance to invasive genetic material is conferred by the incorporation of short DNA sequences derived from this material into the genome as CRISPR spacer elements separated by short repeat sequences. Processing of long primary transcripts (pre-crRNAs) containing these repeats by a CRISPR-associated (Cas) RNA endonuclease generates the mature effector RNAs that target foreign nucleic acid for degradation. Here we describe functional studies of a Cas5d ortholog, and high-resolution structural studies of a second Cas5d family member, demonstrating that Cas5d is a sequence-specific RNA endonuclease that cleaves CRISPR repeats and is thus responsible for processing of pre-crRNA. Analysis of the structural homology of Cas5d with the previously characterized Cse3 protein allows us to model the interaction of Cas5d with its RNA substrate and conclude that it is a member of a larger family of CRISPR RNA endonucleases. PMID:23006625

  11. Utilising a loop structure to allow a microfiber coupler with larger taper diameters to be used for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fangfang; Farrell, Gerald; Wu, Qiang; Semenova, Yuliya

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines a technique that utilizes a Sagnac loop with a microfiber coupler (MFC) as a coupler which allows the MFC to operate effectively as a sensor but with larger than normal tapered fiber diameters. The proposed structure is found to be suitable for temperature and refractive index (RI) sensing. It is shown that a variation in the surrounding of the MFC RI results in a shift of the output spectrum, while a temperature variation leads to changes in the intensity of the interference dips. A decrease in the waist diameter of the MFC results in an increase in the sensitivity to temperature. For MFC structures based on a 5.6 μm and a 3 μm fiber waist diameter, the minimum transmission power level of a selected spectral dip decreases by 1.7 dB and 5.03 dB respectively, as the temperature changes from 18 °C to 44 °C. A change in the surrounding RI from 1.334 to 1.395 results in the spectral redshift of 8 nm using a 5.6 μm fiber waist diameter. By functionalizing the surface of the MFC with various materials, the structure could potentially be used for sensing of other parameters.

  12. A lower volume culture method for obtaining a larger yield of neuron-like cells from mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Atsushi; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nomura, Ryuji

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell source for stem cell therapy to replace neurons damaged by neurodegenerative diseases. A system designed for in vitro neuronal differentiation of MSCs is an indispensable technique, which provides MSC-derived functional neurons for cell-replacement therapies and valuable information in pre-clinical research. This study investigated the effects of reducing the volume of neural induction medium on cell viability and neural differentiation of MSCs. When MSCs were differentiated in low volumes of neural induction medium, rather than using the conventional method, the cell density on culture dishes significantly increased. The % cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis, was significantly lower in the lower volume method than in the conventional method. There were no significant differences between the lower volume and conventional methods in the expression levels of the neuronal marker genes. In an analysis of immunostaining for a mature neuronal marker, no significant difference was detected between the media volumes. These findings demonstrate that neuronal induction of MSCs in low volumes of differentiation medium promoted survival during differentiation and resulted in larger numbers of MSC-derived neurons, compared to the conventional method. This novel lower volume method offers both financial and cell-yield advantages over the conventional method. PMID:26700227

  13. Urbanisation at Multiple Scales Is Associated with Larger Size and Higher Fecundity of an Orb-Weaving Spider

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Elizabeth C.; Wilder, Shawn M.; Hochuli, Dieter F.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local and landscape scales on the body size, lipid reserves and ovary weight of Nephila plumipes, an orb weaving spider commonly found in both urban and natural landscapes. Habitat variables at landscape, local and microhabitat scales were integrated to create a series of indexes that quantified the degree of urbanisation at each site. Spider size was negatively associated with vegetation cover at a landscape scale, and positively associated with hard surfaces and anthropogenic disturbance on a local and microhabitat scale. Ovary weight increased in higher socioeconomic areas and was positively associated with hard surfaces and leaf litter at a local scale. The larger size and increased reproductive capacity of N.plumipes in urban areas show that some species benefit from the habitat changes associated with urbanisation. Our results also highlight the importance of incorporating environmental variables from multiple scales when quantifying species responses to landscape modification. PMID:25140809

  14. Transient formation of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation during the reaction of iron(III) tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Karmaker, Subarna; Tamagake, Keietsu

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of iron(III) tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (Fe(III)TMPyP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the catalytic activity of the reaction intermediates on the luminescent peroxidation of luminol in aqueous solution were studied by using a double-mixing stopped-flow system. The observed luminescence intensities showed biphasic decay depending on the conditions. The initial flashlight decayed within <1 s followed by a sustained emission for more than 30 s. Computer deconvolution of the time-resolved absorption spectra under the same conditions revealed that the initial flashlight appeared during the formation of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin, TMPyPFe(IV) = O, which is responsible for the sustained emission. The absorption spectra 0.0-0.5 s did not reproduce well by a simple combination of the two spectra of Fe(III)TMPyP and TMPyPFe(IV) = O, indicating that transient species was formed at the initial stage. Addition of uric acid (UA) caused a significant delay in the initiation of the luminol emission as well as in the formation of the TMPyPFe(IV) = O. Both of them were completely diminished in the presence of UA equimolar with H(2)O(2), while mannitol had no effect at all. The delay of the light emission as well as the appearance of TMPyPFe(IV) = O was directly proportional to the [UA](0) but other kinetic profiles were not changed significantly. Based on these observations and the kinetic analysis, we confirmed the involvement of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation, (TMPyP)(.+)Fe(IV) = O, as an obligatory intermediate in the rate-determining step of the overall reaction, Fe(III)TMPyP + H(2)O(2) --> TMPyPFe(IV) = O, with a rate constant of k = 4.3 x 10(4)/mol/L/s. The rate constants for the reaction between the (TMPyP)(.+)Fe(IV) = O and luminol, and between the TMPyPFe(IV) = O and luminol were estimated to be 3.6 x 10(6)/mol/L/s and 1.31 x 10(4)/mol/L/s, respectively. PMID:12701092

  15. Increase of larger-sized islets in C57/black mice during the long-term space flight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proshchina, Alexandra; Krivova, Yulia

    groups are of unequal size. The P-value was considered significant if less than 0.05. The islets in all three groups have a typical for murine pancreas architecture. The insulin-containing cells occupied the central position in pancreatic islets and the glucagon-containing cells were localized at the periphery. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant increase of islets size in flight group compared with vivarium ground control. Moreover, the islets in group of the delayed synchronous ground control were significant larger then in group of vivarium control. No significant differences were found in islet size between flight and delayed synchronous ground control groups, but analyses indicated the increase of larger-sized islets in mice of flight group compared with synchronous control. Thus the mean islets size correlated with the body weight. The literature data indicates that similar changes are also observed in mice under conditions of an increased demand for insulin such as pregnancy, obesity, diabetes etc. According to the literature data, the researches of activity of pancreas have shown the increase of pancreatic hormones (insulin and C-peptide) in blood of astronauts in the early period after completion of space flights of various durations. In our study, the increase of islets size occurred not only in mice from flight group, but also in synchronous ground control. For this group, the live conditions imitated those of flight group without the factors of spaceflight such as microgravity. Therefore, we supposed that the hypokinesia play an important role in alteration of islets size. Thus, our data confirms the hypothesis of association microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of physical inactivity and diabetes.

  16. Impact of a Glaucoma Severity Index on Results of Trabectome Surgery: Larger Pressure Reduction in More Severe Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Parikh, Hardik A.; Dang, Yalong; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To stratify outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT) by glaucoma severity using a simple and clinically useful glaucoma index. Based on prior data of trabectome after failed trabeculectomy, we hypothesized that more severe glaucoma might have a relatively more reduced facility compared to mild glaucoma and respond with a larger IOP reduction to trabecular meshwork ablation. Methods Patients with primary open angle glaucoma who had undergone AIT without any other same session surgery and without any second eye surgery during the following 12 months were analyzed. Eyes of patients that had less than 12 months follow up or were diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma were excluded. A glaucoma index (GI) was created to capture glaucoma severity based on visual field, number of preoperative medications, and preoperative IOP. Visual field (VF) was separated into 3 categories: mild, moderate, and advanced (assigned 1, 2, and 3 points, respectively). Preoperative number of medications (meds) was divided into 4 categories: ≤1, 2, 3 or ≥4, and assigned with a value of 1 to 4. Baseline IOP (IOP) was divided into 3 categories: <20 mmHg, 20–29 mmHg, and greater than 30 mmHg and assigned with 1 to 3 points. GI was defined as IOP × meds × VF and separated into 4 groups: <6 (Group 1), 6–12 (Group 2), >12–18 (Group 3) and >18 (Group 4). Linear regression was used to determine if there was an association between GI group and IOP reduction after one year or age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc (C/D) ratio, and Shaffer grade. Results Out of 1340 patients, 843 were included in the analysis. The GI group distribution was GI1 = 164, GI2 = 202, GI3 = 260, and GI4 = 216. Mean IOP reduction after one year was 4.0±5.4, 6.4±5.8, 9.0±7.6, 12.0±8.0 mmHg for GI groups 1 to 4, respectively. Linear regression showed that IOP reduction was associated with GI group after adjusting for age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc ratio, and Shaffer grade

  17. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Holguín, Socorro Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory), processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9), less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years) binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03) and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08) to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9) in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT) total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory. PMID:24789323

  18. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  19. Two highly homologous ribonuclease genes expressed in mouse eosinophils identify a larger subgroup of the mammalian ribonuclease superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, K A; Olson, E V; Madden, B J; Gleich, G J; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    1996-01-01

    Two putative ribonucleases have been isolated from the secondary granules of mouse eosinophils. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from peptide sequence data were used in reverse transcriptase-PCR reactions of bone marrow-derived cDNA. The resulting PCR product was used to screen a C57BL/6J bone marrow cDNA library, and comparisons of representative clones showed that these genes and encoded proteins are highly homologous (96% identity at the nucleotide level; 92/94% identical/similar at the amino acid level). The mouse proteins are only weakly homologous (approximately 50% amino acid identity) with the human eosinophil-associated ribonucleases (i.e., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein) and show no sequence bias toward either human protein. Phylogenetic analyses established that the human and mouse loci shared an ancestral gene, but that independent duplication events have occurred since the divergence of primates and rodents. The duplication event generating the mouse genes was estimated to have occurred < 5 x 10(6) years ago (versus 30 to 40 x 10(6) years ago in primates). The identification of independent duplication events in two extant mammalian orders suggests a selective advantage to having multiple eosinophil granule ribonucleases. Southern blot analyses in the mouse demonstrated the existence of three additional highly homologous genes (i.e., five genes total) as well as several more divergent family members. The potential significance of this observation is the implication of a larger gene subfamily in primates (i.e., humans). Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8901588

  20. A simple yet accurate correction for winner's curse can predict signals discovered in much larger genome scans

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, T. Bernard; Lee, Donghyung; Webb, Bradley Todd; Riley, Brien P.; Vladimirov, Vladimir I.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: For genetic studies, statistically significant variants explain far less trait variance than ‘sub-threshold’ association signals. To dimension follow-up studies, researchers need to accurately estimate ‘true’ effect sizes at each SNP, e.g. the true mean of odds ratios (ORs)/regression coefficients (RRs) or Z-score noncentralities. Naïve estimates of effect sizes incur winner’s curse biases, which are reduced only by laborious winner’s curse adjustments (WCAs). Given that Z-scores estimates can be theoretically translated on other scales, we propose a simple method to compute WCA for Z-scores, i.e. their true means/noncentralities. Results:WCA of Z-scores shrinks these towards zero while, on P-value scale, multiple testing adjustment (MTA) shrinks P-values toward one, which corresponds to the zero Z-score value. Thus, WCA on Z-scores scale is a proxy for MTA on P-value scale. Therefore, to estimate Z-score noncentralities for all SNPs in genome scans, we propose FDR Inverse Quantile Transformation (FIQT). It (i) performs the simpler MTA of P-values using FDR and (ii) obtains noncentralities by back-transforming MTA P-values on Z-score scale. When compared to competitors, realistic simulations suggest that FIQT is more (i) accurate and (ii) computationally efficient by orders of magnitude. Practical application of FIQT to Psychiatric Genetic Consortium schizophrenia cohort predicts a non-trivial fraction of sub-threshold signals which become significant in much larger supersamples. Conclusions: FIQT is a simple, yet accurate, WCA method for Z-scores (and ORs/RRs, via simple transformations). Availability and Implementation: A 10 lines R function implementation is available at https://github.com/bacanusa/FIQT. Contact: sabacanu@vcu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27187203

  1. Inter-species and Seasonal Variability in Mg / Ca in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: Implications for Paleo-proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Saraswati, P. K.; Pande, K.; Sanyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The reports of inter-species variability to intra-test heterogeneity in Mg/Ca in several species of foraminifera have raised question about its use in estimation of seawater temperatures and necessitate field and culture studies to verify it for species from different habitats. In this study, we attempt to investigate if Mg/Ca in larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) could be a potential proxy of seawater temperatures for shallow marine carbonates. The samples were collected in different seasons from coral reef at Akajima (Okinawa, Japan). The Ca and Mg of 13 species of LBF and small benthic foraminifera from the same season were determined to examine variation in Mg/Ca among the species calcified under presumably the same temperature and salinity conditions. We also analyzed Amphistegina lessoni from different seasons for Ca, Mg and δ18O to determine variation in Mg/Ca with temperature and see how the two proxies of temperatures, Mg/Ca and δ18O, correlate in the same species. The species cluster about two distinctly separated Mg/Ca values. The first group comprising species of Amphistegina, Gypsina, Ammonia and Elphidium have relatively lower Mg/Ca, varying from 30 to 45 mmol/mol. The second group, having average Mg/Ca ranging from ~110 to 170 mmol/mol, includes species of Schlumbergerella, Baculogypsinoides, Baculogypsina, Heterostegina, Operculina, Calcarina, Amphisorus, Alveolinella and Poroeponides. The result suggests large interspecies variability implying vital effect in foraminiferal Mg/Ca. There is no distinct difference in Mg/Ca values between porcelaneous and hyaline types or symbiont-bearing and symbiont-free types. In Amphistegina lessoni the variation in Mg/Ca between individuals of the same season is as large as variation across the seasons. There is no correlation between Mg/Ca and seawater temperature. Lack of correlation between Mg/Ca and δ18O further suggests that Mg/Ca in the species is not primarily controlled by temperature.

  2. Has the introduction of plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings changed adolescents’ perceptions of cigarette packs and brands?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on adolescents’ perceptions of pack image and perceived brand differences. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of new cigarette packaging) and in 2013 (7–12 months afterwards). Students aged 12–17 years (2011 n=6338; 2013 n=5915) indicated whether they had seen a cigarette pack in previous 6 months. Students rated the character of four popular cigarette brands, indicated level of agreement regarding differences between brands in ease of smoking, quitting, addictiveness, harmfulness and look of pack; and indicated positive and negative perceptions of pack image. Changes in responses of students seeing cigarette packs in the previous 6 months (2011: 60%; 2013: 65%) were examined. Results Positive character ratings for each brand reduced significantly between 2011 and 2013. Changes were found for four of five statements reflecting brand differences. Significantly fewer students in 2013 than 2011 agreed that ‘some brands have better looking packs than others’ (2011: 43%; 2013: 25%, p<0.001), with larger decreases found among smokers (interaction p<0.001). Packs were rated less positively and more negatively in 2013 than in 2011 (p<0.001). The decrease in positive image ratings was greater among smokers. Conclusions The introduction of standardised packaging has reduced the appeal of cigarette packs. Further research could determine if continued exposure to standardised packs creates more uncertainty or disagreement regarding brand differences in ease of smoking and quitting, perceived addictiveness and harms.

  3. Larger Mid-Dorsolateral Prefrontal Gray Matter Volume in Young Binge Drinkers Revealed by Voxel-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Holguín, Socorro Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory), processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9), less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years) binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43±1.03) and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18±1.08) to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9) in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT) total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol −that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence− throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory. PMID:24789323

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of two new radiolabelled estrogens: [125I](E)-3-methoxy-17alpha-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17beta-ol and.

    PubMed

    Melo e Silva, M C; Patrćio, L; Gano, L; Sá e Melo, M L; Inohae, E; Mataka, S; Thiemann, T

    2001-02-01

    The synthesis of two novel radiolabelled estrogen derivatives, [125I](E)-3-methoxy-17alpha-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17beta-ol (E[125I]IVDE) and [125I](Z)-3-methoxy-17alpha-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17beta-ol (Z[125I]IVDE), was carried out aiming to study the influence of the introduction of a C6-C7 double bond on the biological properties of the estradiol molecule. 3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17-one was synthesised starting from a suitably protected estrone and subsequently converted into the 17alpha-ethynyl derivative. The radioiodinated derivatives were stereoselectively formed by radioiododestannylation of the corresponding tributylstannyl precursors. The biodistribution of the novel [125I]iodovinylestradiol derivatives was evaluated in immature female mice. Biological data indicated that the Z-isomer, owing to its higher in vivo uptake by the target tissue, has the preferable configuration for further development of similar compounds for estrogen receptor detection. PMID:11200884

  5. nem_spread Ver. 5.10

    2009-06-08

    Nem_spread reads it's input command file (default name nem_spread.inp), takes the named ExodusII geometry definition and spreads out the geometry (and optionally results) contained in that file out to a parallel disk system. The decomposition is taken from a scalar Nemesis load balance file generated by the companion utility nem_slice.

  6. This Week @ NASA - 11/5/10

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Postponement of Mission STS-133 tops the billboard on This Week @ NASA. Also, EPOXI meets a Comet, NASA and LEGO build a future together, Administrator Bolden heralds ten years of ISS, KSC Twee...

  7. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river.

    PubMed

    Boëchat, I G; Krüger, A; Chaves, R C; Graeber, D; Gücker, B

    2014-06-01

    Land-use change, such as agricultural expansion and urbanization, can affect riverine biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the major stressors associated with catchment land-use change is a prerequisite for devising successful river conservation and restoration strategies. Here, we analyzed land-use effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition and concentrations in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) along a fourth-order tropical river, the Rio das Mortes. Thereby, we aimed at testing the potential of fatty acids in riverine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM-FAs) as indicators of land-use change in tropical catchments, and at identifying major human impacts on the biochemical composition of SPOM, which represents an important basal energy and organic matter resource for aquatic consumers. River water SPOM and total FA concentrations ranged between 2.8 and 10.2mg dry weight(DW)L(-1) and between 130.6 and 268.2μg DW L(-1), respectively, in our study. Urbanization was the only land-use category correlating with both FA composition and concentrations, despite its low contribution to whole catchment (1.5-5.6%) and riparian buffer land cover (1.7-6.6%). Higher concentrations of saturated FAs, especially C16:0 and C18:0, which are the main components of domestic sewage, were observed at sampling stations downstream of urban centers, and were highly correlated to urbanization, especially within the 60m riparian buffer zone. Compared to water chemical characteristics (inorganic nutrients, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance) and river habitat structural integrity, FA variables exhibited a higher variability along the investigated river and were more strongly correlated to urban land use, suggesting that SPOM-FA profiles may be an efficient indicator of urban land-use impacts on larger tropical rivers. High total FA concentrations in the SPOM of urbanized tropical rivers may represent high-energy biochemical subsidies to food

  8. Warmer Boreal Forest Organic Soil Horizons are Associated with Larger Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon than their Cooler Climate Counterparts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, K.; Edwards, K. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are characterized by large stocks of carbon associated with relatively slow decomposition and deep organic horizons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss from organic soil horizons occurs through hydrologically-mediated leaching processes, and contributes to downstream carbon both in deeper mineral soils and also in connected aquatic systems. However, the amount of DOC that leaves organic horizons and the environmental controls on this flux are poorly understood and are likely to be affected by climate changes. We sampled zero-tension lysimeters along 3 forested sites of a boreal climate transect to estimate DOC export from organic soil horizons of mesic boreal podzols (spodosols), and to investigate the climatic drivers of this flux. The sites are part of the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystems Latitudinal Transect (NL-BELT) and span approximately 5°C in mean annual temperature. Lysimeters were sampled over 4 years and DOC flux was calculated for each seasonal period (summer, fall, and winter) of each year. DOC flux was greatest in the warmest site (114 mg C day-1 m-2), with the two cooler sites having lower flux rates (40 and 36 mg C day-1 m-2 in the intermediate and coolest sites respectively). Seasonal variation was most pronounced in the warmest site where more DOC exited the organic soil horizons during fall than during summer or winter. DOC flux was correlated with the volume of soil solution collected in the lysimeters (R2 = .46), however the larger sample volumes collected in the warmest climate do not reflect greater overall precipitation. During the 4-year period of this study, similar amounts of precipitation were recorded in all regions, and the number of days with >10mm precipitation did not differ. The greater DOC flux in the warmer climate site may be due to higher rates of both litterfall and decomposition, contributing to increased labile DOC sources in the warmer climate. Analyses of the carbon quality of these samples

  9. Analysis of a short beam with application to solder joints: could larger stand-off heights relieve stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-08-01

    Physically meaningful and easy-to-use analytical (mathematical) stress model is developed for a short beam with clamped and known-in-advance offset ends. The analysis is limited to elastic deformations. While the classical Timoshenko short-beam theory seeks the beam's deflection caused by the combined bending and shear deformations for the given loading, an inverse problem is considered here: the lateral force is sought for the given ends offset. In short beams this force is larger than in long beams, since, in order to achieve the given displacement (offset), the applied force has to overcome both bending and shear resistance of the beam. It is envisioned that short beams could adequately mimic the state of stress in solder joint interconnections, including ball-grid-array (BGA) systems, with large, compared to conventional joints, stand-off heights. When the package/printed-circuit-board (PCB) assembly is subjected to the change in temperature, the thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and the PCB results in an easily predictable relative displacement (offset) of the ends of the solder joint. This offset can be determined from the known external thermal mismatch strain (determined as the product of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion and the change in temperature) and the position of the joint with respect to the mid-cross-section of the assembly. The maximum normal and shearing stresses could be viewed as suitable criteria of the beam's (joint's) material long-term reliability. It is shown that these stresses can be brought down by employing beam-like joints, i.e., joints with an increased stand-off height compared to conventional joints. It is imperative, of course, that, if such joints are employed, there is still enough interfacial real estate, so that the BGA bonding strength is not compromised. On the other hand, owing to the lower stress level, reliability assurance might be much less of a challenge than in the case of

  10. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabey, A. M.; Stanley, W. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kaye, P. H.

    2011-06-01

    UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter) and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical) using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3). These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA) influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2-3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP) of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm. The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310-400 nm (channel F1) and 400-600 nm (F2), and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400-600 nm (F3). In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8-1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2-4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8-1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3-4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2-3 across the size spectrum in Manchester. The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing fluorescent particle concentrations demonstrate the additional discrimination provided by the F1 channel in Manchester. The relationships between

  11. Radioastron (Spectr-R Project)—a radio telescope much larger than the earth: main parameters and prelaunch tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Yu. A.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Zinoviev, A. N.; Komaev, R. V.; Kanevskiy, B. Z.; Kardashev, N. S.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Larionov, M. G.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Sakharov, B. A.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Yakimov, V. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Federal Space Agency are planning to launch Radioastron in 2011, which is a unique space observatory with a 10-meter reflector antenna. In conjunction with the largest ground-based radio telescopes and tracking stations, it forms the first system that will be able to carry out studies with a resolution millions of times greater than that of eyesight.

  12. The preliminary results of larger foraminifera analysis from the Paleocene-Early Eocene of Southern Yemen, based on museums collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrevskaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    The recent work is based on collections, which were sampled in 1980-th by soviet geologists and preserving now in funds of Vernadsky State Geological Museum. They include litological samples with larger foraminifera (LF) and separated tests of LF from Paleogene of Atag area and Hadramaut plateau (Souternn Yemen). The planctonic foraminifera are very rare in considered samples. According to lithological and foraminiferal composition all samples (about 100 numbers) are divided into three parts. The first one includes the LF tests, washed from sandy marls and shales of wells. The second unit represented by bioclastic limestones, partly silicified and dolomitized and rare marls, collected from the exposed sections. These units belong to Umm er Radhuma formation, which in Yemen dated by Paleocene-Eocene (Pignatti et al., 1998) or only Eocene (Ismail and Boukhary, 2008). The third, Lower Eocene unit in collections (Jeza formation) represented mainly by non carbonatic, gypsiferous argillaceous papery shales and marls. The most lower, marly part of section is opened by wells. The LF assemblages from marls of wells include the next rotaliids in lower part: Lokhartia lobulata Sander, L. haimei spirahordata Sander, L. cf. conditi Smout, Rotalia sp., Diktiokathina sp. The rests of Saudia tests are rare. In upper part Kathina erki (Sirel), Rotalia dukhani Smout and first small nummulites are marked. The lasts belong to Nummulites deserti group, having smaller protoconch and more compressed spire. Due to absence of true Eocene forms we consider these assemblages as paleocenic. The next association, represented by abundant Lockhartia sp., Lockhartia diversa Smout, Sakesaria sp. and rare Daviesina khatyahi Smout, Operculina cf. ornata Hott. and established in hard limestones of Umm er Radhuma formation, identified as transitional from Paleocene to Eocene (Lower Ilerdian). In marls and shales, alternated with limestones in upper part of this formation the middle Ilerdian assemblage

  13. The use of MODIS data to derive acreage estimations for larger fields: A case study in the south-western Rostov region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Massart, M.; Savin, I.; Gallego, J.; Rembold, F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent developments in remote sensing technology, in particular improved spatial and temporal resolution, open new possibilities for estimating crop acreage over larger areas. Remotely sensed data allow in some cases the estimation of crop acreage statistics independently of sub-national survey statistics, which are sometimes biased and incomplete. This work focuses on the use of MODIS data acquired in 2001/2002 over the Rostov Oblast in Russia, by the Azov Sea. The region is characterised by large agricultural fields of around 75 ha on average. This paper presents a methodology to estimate crop acreage using the MODIS 16-day composite NDVI product. Particular emphasis is placed on a good quality crop mask and a good quality validation dataset. In order to have a second dataset which can be used for cross-checking the MODIS classification a Landsat ETM time series for four different dates in the season of 2002 was acquired and classified. We attempted to distinguish five different crop types and achieved satisfactory and good results for winter crops. Three hundred and sixty fields were identified to be suitable for the training and validation of the MODIS classification using a maximum likelihood classification. A novel method based on a pure pixel field sampling is introduced. This novel method is compared with the traditional hard classification of mixed pixels and was found to be superior.

  14. Evidence for Late Eocene emplacement of the Malaita Terrane, Solomon Islands: Implications for an even larger Ontong Java Nui oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Robert J.

    2013-06-01

    Most tectonic models for the Solomon Islands Arc invoke a Miocene collision with the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) to halt cessation of Pacific Plate subduction, initiate Australian Plate subduction, and emplace the Malaita Terrane, which shares the characteristic basement age and geochemistry of OJP. Existing paleomagnetic evidence, however, required the Malaita Terrane to have been fixed to the arc from at least the Late Eocene. New sampling has yielded a paleomagnetic pole from Aptian-Albian limestones and mudstones that falls between the apparent polar wander paths for the Australian Plate and OJP, confirming the extended period of residence of the Malaita Terrane on the arc. Arc-derived turbidities within Late Eocene through Miocene limestones on Malaita and Santa Isabel, and related clasts in broadly contemporary sandstones and conglomerates on Santa Isabel, also attest to early emplacement. Modeling the emplacement at 35 Ma satisfies both the paleomagnetic data and the sediment provenance. Continuing the reconstruction to 125 Ma leaves the Malaita Terrane far from OJP at the time of plateau formation. OJP is now understood to have formed as part of a larger Ontong Java Nui, also comprising the Hikurangi and Manihiki plateaus, separated by spreading during the Cretaceous. Restoring the separation of the known elements, and invoking an additional triple junction, unites the (now largely subducted) Malaita Terrane with the rest of Ontong Java Nui. Subduction of substantial areas of the Ontong Java Nui plateau, with little geological signal other than a reduction in arc volcanism, is a corollary.

  15. Two reaction regimes in the oxidation of larger cationic tantalum clusters (Tan(+), n = 13-40) under multi-collision conditions.

    PubMed

    Neuwirth, D; Eckhard, J F; Visser, B R; Tschurl, M; Heiz, U

    2016-03-21

    The reaction of cationic tantalum clusters (Tan(+), n = 13-40) with molecular oxygen is studied under multi-collision conditions and at different temperatures. Consecutive reaction proceeds in several steps upon subsequent attachment of O2. All cluster sizes exhibit fast reaction with oxygen and form a characteristic final reaction product. The time-dependent product analysis enables the fitting to a kinetic model with the extraction of all the rate constants. Determined rate constants reveal the existence of two different regimes, which are interpreted as a change in the reaction mechanism. Based on the temperature-dependent reaction behavior, it is proposed that the reaction changes from a dissociative to a molecular adsorption of oxygen on the clusters. It is found that both regimes appear for all cluster sizes, but the transition takes place at different intermediate oxides TanOx(+). In general it is observed that transition occurs later for larger clusters, which is attributed to an increased cluster surface. PMID:26924176

  16. New Regimes of Implosions of Larger Sized Wire Arrays With and Without Modified Central Plane at 1.5-1.7 MA Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Petkov, E. E.; Lorance, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2013-10-01

    The recent experiments at 1.5-1.7 MA on Zebra at UNR with larger sized planar wires arrays (compared to the wire loads at 1 MA current) have demonstrated higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions. Such multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-Z material to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and mid-Z plasma flow between them. Also, they included a modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction. The stationary shock waves which existed over tens of ns on shadow images and the early x-ray emissions before the PCD peak on time-gated spectra were observed. The most recent experiments with similar loads but without the central wires demonstrated a very different regime of implosion with asymmetrical jets and no precursor formation. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Orbital Survival of Meter-size and Larger Bodies During Gravitationally Unstable Phases of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2015-07-01

    A long-standing problem in the collisional accretion of terrestrial planets is the possible loss of m-size bodies through their inward migration onto the protostar as a result of gas drag forces. Such inward migration can be halted, and indeed even reversed, in a protoplanetary disk with local pressure maxima, such as marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU) phases of evolution, e.g., FU Orionis events. Results are presented for a suite of three-dimensional models of MGU disks extending from 1 to 10 AU and containing solid particles with sizes of 1 cm, 10 cm, 1 m, or 10 m, subject to disk gas drag and gravitational forces. These hydrodynamical models show that over disk evolution time scales of ∼ 6× {10}3 years or longer, during which over half the gaseous disk mass is accreted by the protostar, very few 1 and 10 m bodies are lost through inward migration: most bodies survive and orbit stably in the outer disk. A greater fraction of 1 and 10 cm particles are lost to the central protostar during these time periods, as such particles are more closely tied to the disk gas accreting onto the protostar, but even in these cases, a significant fraction survive and undergo transport from the hot inner disk to the cold outer disk, perhaps explaining the presence of small refractory particles in Comet Wild 2. Evidently MGU disk phases offer a means to overcome the m-sized migration barrier to collisional accumulation.

  18. When larger brains do not have more neurons: increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Messeder, Débora J.; Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Pantoja, Nilma A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease. PMID:26082686

  19. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Makran considering recently suggested larger maximum magnitudes and sensitivity analysis for GNSS-based early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, N.; Hoechner, A.; Babeyko, A. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Iran and Pakistan are countries frequently affected by destructive earthquakes, as for instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30 000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, nevertheless a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Furthermore, some recent publications discuss the possiblity of rather rare huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We analyze the seismicity at the subduction plate interface and generate various synthetic earthquake catalogs spanning 100000 years. All the events are projected onto the plate interface using scaling relations and a tsunami model is run for every scenario. The tsunami hazard along the coast is computed and presented in the form of annual probability of exceedance, probabilistic tsunami height for different time periods and other measures. We show how the hazard reacts to variation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters and maximum magnitudes.We model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by using an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast by applying it to the 1945 event and by performing a sensitivity analysis.

  20. Canopy BRF simulation of forest with different crown shape and height in larger scale based on Radiosity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinling; Qu, Yonghua; Wang, Jindi; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2007-06-01

    Radiosity method is based on the computer simulation of 3D real structures of vegetations, such as leaves, branches and stems, which are composed by many facets. Using this method we can simulate the canopy reflectance and its bidirectional distribution of the vegetation canopy in visible and NIR regions. But with vegetations are more complex, more facets to compose them, so large memory and lots of time to calculate view factors are required, which are the choke points of using Radiosity method to calculate canopy BRF of lager scale vegetation scenes. We derived a new method to solve the problem, and the main idea is to abstract vegetation crown shapes and to simplify their structures, which can lessen the number of facets. The facets are given optical properties according to the reflectance, transmission and absorption of the real structure canopy. Based on the above work, we can simulate the canopy BRF of the mix scenes with different species vegetation in the large scale. In this study, taking broadleaf trees as an example, based on their structure characteristics, we abstracted their crowns as ellipsoid shells, and simulated the canopy BRF in visible and NIR regions of the large scale scene with different crown shape and different height ellipsoids. Form this study, we can conclude: LAI, LAD the probability gap, the sunlit and shaded surfaces are more important parameter to simulate the simplified vegetation canopy BRF. And the Radiosity method can apply us canopy BRF data in any conditions for our research.

  1. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos D; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2016-01-01

    Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals. PMID:26863416

  2. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals. PMID:26863416

  3. An acidified thermostabilizing mini-peptide derived from the carboxyl extension of the larger isoform of the plant Rubisco activase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengru; Li, Xujuan; Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2015-10-20

    Thermostable fusion peptide partners are valuable in engineering thermostability in proteins. We evaluated the Arabidopsis counterpart (AtRAce) and an acidified derivative (mRAce) of the conserved carboxyl extension (RAce) of plant Rubisco activase (RCA) for their thermostabilizing properties in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a protein fusion strategy. We used AtRAce and mRAce as fusion tails for the thermolabile protein RCA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The homologous fusion of AtRAce with Arabidopsis RCA2 and the heterologous fusion of AtRAce with tobacco RCA2 increased the thermostability of both proteins. The acidified derivative mRAce conferred greater thermostability upon both proteins as compared with AtRAce. Moreover, mRAce enhanced the thermostability of other two thermolabile proteins from Jatropha curcas: the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 (JcAPX1) and the TATA-box binding protein isoform 1 (JcTBP1). We further report - for the first time - that JcTBP1 mediates heat tolerance in vivo in yeast. Thus, our study identifies a C-terminal acidic mini-peptide - the acidified derivative mRAce - with potential uses in improving the thermostability of heat-labile proteins and their associated heat tolerance in host organisms. PMID:26321073

  4. Computational study on the conformations of CD38 and inclusion complexes of some lower-size large-ring cyclodextrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Petko; Atanassov, Emanouil; Jaime, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The conformations of CD38 were examined by conformational search with molecular dynamics simulations using the Glycam04 force field. The results were compared with previous ones for CD26, the largest cyclodextrin for which crystal data are available. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for post-processing of the simulation trajectories. Limited number of modes determine the overall deformations of the macroring of CD38. The longer perimeter of the macroring allowed the formation of a form not observed so far - a three-turn helix shaped as a short tube. In analogy with CD26, significant participation was monitored for conformations of CD38 with one-turn spirals at the opposite sides of the macroring linked together from the 'bottom' and from the 'top' with extended bridge spacers. Computationally were examined for the first time inclusion complexes of some lower-size LR-CDs, namely complexes of CDn (n = 13, 14, 26) with adamantane and of CD14 with 1-hydroxyadamantane. The macroring conformation of CD13 was not altered by the inclusion of the substrate molecule which acquired preferred positioning not in the middle of the cavity but rather close to the glucose residues at one of the sides. The same positioning of the small molecule in the cavity of the more flexible CD14 macroring enhanced the appearance of bent onto two conformation of this cyclodextrin. The most interesting behaviour presented the complex of CD26 with adamantane in which case the small molecule acts as a 'nucleation center' for the formation of a second helical turn about the substrate molecule.

  5. Classifying Google Earth images as training sites for application to a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Higginbottom, Thomas; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Bush encroachment of rangelands in South Africa is a common form of land degradation with negative economic consequences. A monitoring of bush encroachment is needed for several reasons: on the one hand, it allows farmers to identify locations with upcoming bushes which gives them a tool for management (e.g. poisoning of bushes) and would further allow them to assess the current carrying capacity of their land. On the other hand, it serves scientists as a baseline to reveal the still unknown causes of bush encroachment. This study aimed at providing training sites applicable for a satellite-based monitoring of woody vegetation in South Africa on the scale of medium spatial resolution satellite sensors (e.g. MODIS or Landsat). Since field surveys are time consuming and only of limited spatial extent, a satellite based creation of training sites on the basis of Google Earth images was intended. In view to an automatic classification of the Google Earth RGB images, training pixels for woody vegetation and non woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 example images. A Random Forests model was then trained to delineate woody from non woody pixels. With an area under the ROC-curve of 0.97, the model was highly able to classify the images. The model was applied to classify further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250x250m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for a MODIS based monitoring of woody vegetation in upcoming studies.

  6. 249 TP53 mutation has high prevalence and is correlated with larger and poorly differentiated HCC in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ser-249 TP53 mutation (249Ser) is a molecular evidence for aflatoxin-related carcinogenesis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and it is frequent in some African and Asian regions, but it is unusual in Western countries. HBV has been claimed to add a synergic effect on genesis of this particular mutation with aflatoxin. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of 249Ser mutation in HCC from patients in Brazil. Methods We studied 74 HCC formalin fixed paraffin blocks samples of patients whom underwent surgical resection in Brazil. 249Ser mutation was analyzed by RFLP and DNA sequencing. HBV DNA presence was determined by Real-Time PCR. Results 249Ser mutation was found in 21/74 (28%) samples while HBV DNA was detected in 13/74 (16%). 249Ser mutation was detected in 21/74 samples by RFLP assay, of which 14 were confirmed by 249Ser mutant-specific PCR, and 12 by nucleic acid sequencing. All HCC cases with p53-249ser mutation displayed also wild-type p53 sequences. Poorly differentiated HCC was more likely to have 249Ser mutation (OR = 2.415, 95% CI = 1.001 – 5.824, p = 0.05). The mean size of 249Ser HCC tumor was 9.4 cm versus 5.5 cm on wild type HCC (p = 0.012). HBV DNA detection was not related to 249Ser mutation. Conclusion Our results indicate that 249Ser mutation is a HCC important factor of carcinogenesis in Brazil and it is associated to large and poorly differentiated tumors. PMID:19558663

  7. Synthesis, structure, electronic spectroscopy, photophysics, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly-electron-deficient [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Goll, J.G.; Moore, K.T.; Therien, M.J.; Ghosh, A.

    1996-09-04

    The synthesis, optical spectroscopy, photophysical properties, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base analogs are reported. The title compounds were prepared by a condensation methodology that utilizes perfluoro-1-(2`-pyrrolyl)-1-alkanol precursors and employs continuous water removal throughout the course of the reaction to yield the meso perfluorocarbon-substituted porphyrins. The nature of the porphyrin-pendant meso-perfluoroalkyl group exerts considerable influence over the macrocycle`s solubility properties. The structure of the monopyridyl adduct of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(heptafluoropropyl)porphinato] zinc(II) features an S{sub 4}-distorted porphyrin core; X-ray data are given. Electrochemical studies carried out on these porphyrin and (porphinato)zinc(II) complexes indicate that meso-perfluoroalkylporphyrins are among the most electron-deficient porphyrinic species known. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments corroborate the electron poor nature of these systems and evince extreme stabilization of the nitrogen ls orbitals, consonant with particularly effective removal of electron density from the macrocycle by the meso-perfluoroalkyl moieties that is modulated by {sigma}-symmetry orbitals. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. A case study of two M~5 mainshocks in Anza, California: Is the footprint of an aftershock sequence larger than we think?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Karen R.; Kilb, Debi

    2009-01-01

    It has been traditionally held that aftershocks occur within one to two fault lengths of the mainshock. Here we demonstrate that this perception has been shaped by the sensitivity of seismic networks. The 31 October 2001 Mw 5.0 and 12 June 2005 Mw 5.2 Anza mainshocks in southern California occurred in the middle of the densely instrumented ANZA seismic network and thus were unusually well recorded. For the June 2005 event, aftershocks as small as M 0.0 could be observed stretching for at least 50 km along the San Jacinto fault even though the mainshock fault was only ∼4.5 km long. It was hypothesized that an observed aseismic slipping patch produced a spatially extended aftershock-triggering source, presumably slowing the decay of aftershock density with distance and leading to a broader aftershock zone. We find, however, the decay of aftershock density with distance for both Anza sequences to be similar to that observed elsewhere in California. This indicates there is no need for an additional triggering mechanism and suggests that given widespread dense instrumentation, aftershock sequences would routinely have footprints much larger than currently expected. Despite the large 2005 aftershock zone, we find that the probability that the 2005 Anza mainshock triggered the M 4.9 Yucaipa mainshock, which occurred 4.2 days later and 72 km away, to be only 14%±1%. This probability is a strong function of the time delay; had the earthquakes been separated by only an hour, the probability of triggering would have been 89%.

  9. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  10. Kepler Mission: A Wide-FOV Photometer Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-like stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 m aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  11. Soil phosphorous and endogenous rhythms exert a larger impact than CO2 or temperature on nocturnal stomatal conductance in Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Víctor Resco; Turnbull, Matthew H; Barbour, Margaret M; Ontedhu, Josephine; Ghannoum, Oula; Tissue, David T

    2013-11-01

    High nocturnal transpiration rates (5-15% of total water loss in terrestrial plants) may be adaptive under limited fertility, by increasing nutrient uptake or transport via transpiration-induced mass flow, but the response of stomata in the dark to environmental variables is poorly understood. Here we tested the impact of soil phosphorous (P) concentration, atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) during early and late periods in the night, as well as at midday in naturally, sun-lit glasshouse-grown Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Soil P was the main driver of nocturnal gs, which was consistently higher in low soil P (37.3-79.9 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) than in high soil P (17.7-49.3 mmol m(-2)(-1)). Elevated temperature had only a marginal (P = 0.07) effect on gs early in the night (gs decreased from 34.7 to 25.8 mmol m(-2) s(-1) with an increase in temperature of 4 °C). The effect of CO2 depended on its interaction with temperature. Stomatal conductance responses to soil P were apparently driven by indirect effects of soil P on plant anatomy, since gs was significantly and negatively correlated with wood density. However, the relationship of gs with environmental factors became weaker late in the night, relative to early in the night, likely due to apparent endogenous processes; gs late in the night was two times larger than gs observed early in the night. Time-dependent controls over nocturnal gs suggest that daytime stomatal models may not apply during the night, and that different types of regulation may occur even within a single night. We conclude that the enhancement of nocturnal gs under low soil P availability is unlikely to be adaptive in our species because of the relatively small amount of transpiration-induced mass flow that can be achieved through rates of nocturnal water loss (3-6% of daytime mass flow). PMID:24271087

  12. Effects of collision energy and rotational quantum number on stereodynamics of the reactions: H(2S) + NH( υ = 0, j = 0, 2, 5, 10)→N(4S) + H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Yong-Jiang; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Chuan-Lu

    2016-08-01

    The stereodynamical properties of H(2S) + NH(v = 0, j = 0, 2, 5, 10) → N(4S) + H2 reactions are studied in this paper by using the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method with different collision energies on the double many-body expansion (DMBE) potential energy surface (PES) (Poveda L A and Varandas A J C 2005 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7 2867). In a range of collision energy from 2 to 20 kcal/mol, the vibrational rotational quantum numbers of the NH molecules are specifically investigated on v = 0 and j = 0, 2, 5, 10 respectively. The distributions of P(θ r ), P(ϕ r ), P(θ r ,ϕ r ), (2π/σ)(dσ 00/dω t ) differential cross-section (DCSs) and integral cross-sections(ICSs) are calculated. The ICSs, computed for collision energies from 2 kcal/mol to 20 kcal/mol, for the ground state are in good agreement with the cited data. The results show that the reagent rotational quantum number and initial collision energy both have a significant effect on the distributions of the k – j ‧, the k – k ‧– j ‧, and the k – k ‧ correlations. In addition, the DCS is found to be susceptible to collision energy, but it is not significantly affected by the rotational excitation of reagent. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 2016ZRB01066) and the University Student’s Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Ludong University, China (Grant No. 131007).

  13. Radiological evaluation of the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold (HA+TCP) with 5, 10 and 20 percentage of porosity on healing of segmental bone defect in rabbit radius.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, M R; Sharifi, D; B, A A; Veshkini, A; Soheil, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to radiologically evaluate the effects of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold with 5, 10 and 20 percentage of porosity on cortical bone repair in rabbits. In this study, 28 male white rabbits were examined. Rabbits were divided into four groups. After induction of general anesthesia, a segmental bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radius shaft. In group A, the defect was stabilized with miniplate and 2 screws and left untreated. In groups B, C and D tricalcium phosphate scaffold mixed with hydroxyapatite (TCP+HA) with 5%, 10% and 20% porosity was used to fi ll the bone defect. Bone regeneration and HA+TCP scaffold resorption were assessed by X-ray at 1, 2 and 3 months after the surgery. In group A, 3 months after surgery, periosteal callus was not found but intercortical callus was observed. In groups B and C, 3 months after surgery medullary bridging callus and intercortical callus were found, periosteal callus was not found, TCP+HA scaffold were observed. In group D, 2 months after the surgery, medullary bridging callus and intercortical callus were found, 3 months later, periosteal callus was not found, most of scaffold had disappeared and were unclear and partial bone formation was recognized. Differences observed in radiological findings were significant between group A and groups B, C, D. Differences between groups B and C were not significant, but between group D and groups B and C were significant. The results of this study showed that TCP+HA scaffold is an osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterial. Scaffold of TCP+HA can increase the amount of newly formed bone and more rapid regeneration of bone defects. These results suggest TCP+HA scaffold may considerably be used in the treatment of cortical bone defect and other orthopaedic defects PCL (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 20). PMID:22979907

  14. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  15. Fiber separation from distillers dried grains with solubles using a larger elutriation apparatus and use of fiber as a feedstock for corn fiber gum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation (air flow) was found to be effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); the elutriation column diameter used was 63 mm. Larger quantities of fractions were needed for carrying out studies on producti...

  16. Elevated Levels of Serum Fibrin and Fibrinogen Degradation Products Are Independent Predictors of Larger Coronary Plaques and Greater Plaque Necrotic Core

    PubMed Central

    Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y; Mekonnen, Girum; Eshtehardi, Parham; Eapen, Danny J; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; Kassem, Hatem Al; Manocha, Pankaj; Ko, Yi-An; Sperling, Laurence S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Samady, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-existence of vulnerable plaque and pro-thrombotic state may provoke acute coronary events. It was hypothesized that elevated serum levels of fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) are associated with larger total plaque and necrotic core (NC) areas. Methods and Results Seventy-five patients presenting with stable anginal symptoms (69%) or stabilized acute coronary syndrome (ACS; 31%), and found to have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with a fractional flow reserve >0.8, were studied. Invasive virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) was performed in 68 LAD arteries, 6 circumflex arteries, and 1 right coronary artery. Serum FDP levels were measured using ELISA technique. Plaque volumetrics and composition were assessed in each VH-IVUS frame and averaged. The median age of patients was 56 (47–63) years; 52% were men and 23% had diabetes. The average length of coronary artery studied was 62 mm. After adjustment for systemic risk factors, medications, CRP levels and ACS, male gender (P<0.001) and serum FDP levels (P=0.02) were independent predictors of a larger NC area. Older age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.0001) and increased serum FDP level (P=0.03) were associated with a larger plaque area. Conclusions In patients with CAD, a higher serum level of FDP is independently associated with larger plaques and greater plaque NC. PMID:26911453

  17. Surface heat flow and lithosphere thermal structure of the larger Luxembourg area as a basis for the evaluation of its geothermal potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of the geothermal potential and the type of geothermal use necessitates knowledge of the subsurface temperature distribution in combination with hydraulic properties (e.g. porosity, permeability and hydraulic conductivity). In the larger Luxembourg area, only a few subsurface temperature data are available restricted to shallow depth. This paucity in data required to assess the thermal regime to drillable depths by modeling. The thermal model was constrained by surface heat flow and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) characterized by the 1300° C isotherm. A surface heat-flow value of 75 ± 7 (2σ) mW m-2 was determined in central Luxembourg, which corroborates most values known from adjacent areas. The conceptual geological model for thermal modeling has a high resolution in the upper 15 km due to a wealth of geological data, while refraction seismic data and xenoliths provide petrological constraints for the lower part of the model down to the crust/mantle boundary. Thermal rock properties assigned to geological units are based on a large set of laboratory data, complemented by some literature data for the lower parts of the crust. The thermal structure is investigated by calculating 2-D steady-state thermal models along three crustal cross sections developed for the study area assuming a purely conductive lithosphere. The location of the LAB at 100 km depth, as typical for the Ardennes, provides the best fit with the measured surface heat flow of about 75 mW m-2. This LAB model provides temperatures at 5 km of 115-118° C on average and of about 600° C at the Moho. The resulting mantle heat flow in this model is 39-40 mW m-2. A reduced lithosphere thickness of 50 km as typical for the Eifel area to the east results in an increase of surface heat flow to 97 mW m-2 and of the mantle heat flow to 65 mW m-2, respectively. If heating from the Eifel plume had reached the surface yet, temperatures at 5 km would be about 20° C higher (and

  18. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Nesrine; Nasri, Soumaya; Roisnel, Thierry; Simonneaux, Gérard; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Mg(C44H24Br4N4)(H2O)2] or [Mg(TBrPP)(H2O)2], where TBrPP is the 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato ligand, was obtained unintentionally as a by-product of the reaction of the [Mg(TBrPP)] complex with an excess of di­methyl­glyoxime in di­chloro­methane. The entire mol­ecule exhibits point group symmetry 4/m. In the asymmetric unit, except for two C atoms of the phenyl ring, all other atoms lie on special positions. The MgII atom is situated at a site with symmetry 4/m, while the N and the C atoms of the porphyrin macrocycle, as well as two C atoms of the phenyl ring and the Br atom lie in the mirror plane containing the porphyrin core. The H atoms of the axially bonded water mol­ecule are incompatible with the fourfold rotation axis and are disordered over two sites. In the crystal, mol­ecules are packed in rows along [001]. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π and C—H⋯Br inter­actions, as well as O—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:25844215

  19. Synthesis, FT-IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua-(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrinato-κ(4) N)manganese(III) tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-05-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [Mn(III)(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin), the Mn(III) cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn-O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central Mn(III) ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [Mn(III)(TPP)(H2O)](+) cation and the tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯F inter-actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  20. Electrical and physical characterization of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-GaSb interface for 1%, 5%, 10%, and 22% (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S surface treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Peralagu, Uthayasankaran Thayne, Iain G.; Povey, Ian M.; Carolan, Patrick; Lin, Jun; Hurley, Paul K.; Contreras-Guerrero, Rocio; Droopad, Ravi

    2014-10-20

    In this work, the impact of ammonium sulfide ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S) surface treatment on the electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-GaSb interface is studied for varying sulfide concentrations. Prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, GaSb surfaces were treated in 1%, 5%, 10%, and 22% (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S solutions for 10 min at 295 K. The smallest stretch-out and flatband voltage shifts coupled with the largest capacitance swing, as indicated by capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements, were obtained for the 1% treatment. The resulting interface defect trap density (D{sub it}) distribution showed a minimum value of 4 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at E{sub v} + 0.27 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination revealed the formation of interfacial layers and increased roughness at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-GaSb interface of samples treated with 10% and 22% (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S. In combination, these effects degrade the interface quality as reflected in the CV characteristics.

  1. Reversible thermally induced phase transition in ordered domains of Co(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-porphyrin on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Michael; Ditze, Stefanie; Thomann, Michael; Lungerich, Dominik; Jux, Norbert; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the adsorption behavior of Co(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-porphyrin (CoTTBPP) on Cu(111) by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At room temperature (RT), the coverage dependent adsorption behavior follows an expected scheme: at low coverage step decoration is found, which evolves into supramolecular domains with a hexagonal order at higher coverage. Interestingly, upon cooling the sample to 180 K the occurrence of a clearly distinguishable coexisting herringbone phase is observed. Upon heating to RT again, the herringbone phase vanishes. Thus a temperature dependent, fully reversible phase transition was observed. High resolution STM micrographs allow for the determination of the intramolecular conformations which are different for the two supramolecular arrangements. In addition, we studied the bias voltage dependent appearance of the molecule in STM and assigned a dominant contribution of the central Co at negative bias voltages close to the Fermi edge to the occupied dz2 orbital. Interestingly, the herringbone phase, which dominates at 180 K, exhibits a significantly higher molecular density than the monomodal hexagonal arrangement at RT, which is in line with the "normal" behavior of freezing substances.

  2. A method for the detection of alcohol vapours based on optical sensing of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin thin film by an optical spectrometer and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-12-13

    In this work we have proposed a method for the detection of alcohol vapours, i.e. methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, based on the optical sensing response of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin (MgTPP) thin films, as measured by optical spectrometry with the assistance of chemometric analysis. We have implemented a scheme which allows a laboratory UV-vis spectrometer to act as a so-called "electronic nose" with very little modification. MgTPP thin films were prepared by a spin coating technique, using chloroform as the solvent, and then subjected to thermal annealing at 280°C in an argon atmosphere. These MgTPP optical gas sensors presented significant responses with methanol compared to ethanol and isopropanol, based on the dynamic flow of alcohol vapours at the same mol% of alcohol concentration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to model the underlying mechanism of this selectivity. The performance of the optical gas sensors was optimised by varying the fabrication parameters. It is hoped that the MgTPP thin film together with an off-the-shelf optical spectrometer and a simple chemometrics algorithm can be a valuable tool for the analysis of alcoholic content in the beverage industry. PMID:23206399

  3. Crystal structure of bis-(benzyl-amine-κN)[5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)porphyrinato-κ(4) N]iron(II) n-hexane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Dhifaoui, Selma; Harhouri, Wafa; Bujacz, Anna; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(II)(C44H24Cl4N4)(C6H5CH2NH2)2]·C6H14 or [Fe(II)(TPP-Cl)(BzNH2)2]·n-hexane [where TPP-Cl and BzNH2 are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)porphyrinate and benzyl-amine ligands, respectively], the Fe(II) cation lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin ligand in the equatorial plane and by two amine N atoms of the benzyl-amine ligand in the axial sites. The crystal structure also contains one inversion-symmetric n-hexane solvent mol-ecule per complex mol-ecule. The average Fe-Npyrrole bond length [1.994 (3) Å] indicates a low-spin complex. The crystal packing is sustained by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions and by C-H⋯π inter-molecular inter-actions, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:26870596

  4. Crystal structure of bis­(benzyl­amine-κN)[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-chloro­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]iron(II) n-hexane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Dhifaoui, Selma; Harhouri, Wafa; Bujacz, Anna; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [FeII(C44H24Cl4N4)(C6H5CH2NH2)2]·C6H14 or [FeII(TPP-Cl)(BzNH2)2]·n-hexane [where TPP-Cl and BzNH2 are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-chloro­phen­yl)porphyrinate and benzyl­amine ligands, respectively], the FeII cation lies on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin ligand in the equatorial plane and by two amine N atoms of the benzyl­amine ligand in the axial sites. The crystal structure also contains one inversion-symmetric n-hexane solvent mol­ecule per complex mol­ecule. The average Fe—Npyrrole bond length [1.994 (3) Å] indicates a low-spin complex. The crystal packing is sustained by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions and by C—H⋯π inter­molecular inter­actions, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:26870596

  5. Crystal structure of chlorido­{5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[2-(2,2-di­methyl­propanamido)­phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Awasabisah, Dennis; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C64H64N8O4)Cl], is a five-coordinate square-pyramidal porphyrin complex with a chloride ion in the axial position, being coordinated from the protected side of the porphyrin; the FeIII atom is displaced by 0.474 (5) Å from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin core towards the chloride. The porphyrin moiety is a ‘picket-fence’ 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[2-(2,2-di­methyl­propanamido)­phen­yl]porph­yrinate (por) group. The Fe—Cl bond length is 2.221 (2) Å and the Fe—N(por) bond lengths are in the range 2.043 (5)–2.063 (5) Å. The supra­molecular architecture of the crystal is sustained by C—H⋯O inter­actions between the pyrrolic and phenyl H atoms of one mol­ecule and the carbonyl O atoms of the 2,2-di­methyl­propanamido groups of adjacent mol­ecules. The methyl groups of three of the four tert-butyl substituents exhibited rotational disorder over two positions. The investigated crystal was twinned by a twofold rotation about the (001) axis with a refined twin ratio of 0.4086 (16). PMID:25878847

  6. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra­kis­(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)tetra­zinc(II) dimethyl­formamide octa­solvate trihydrate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn4(C40H24N8)4]·8C3H7NO·3H2O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol­ecules. The mol­ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra­mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol­ecule. The tetra­mer so formed exhibits mol­ecular S 4 symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl­formamide and water mol­ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21522892

  7. Sol-gel synthesis of quaternary (P2O5)55-(CaO)25-(Na2O)(20-x)-(TiO2) x bioresorbable glasses for bone tissue engineering applications (x = 0, 5, 10, or 15).

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Farzad; Walters, Nick J; Owens, Gareth J; Mordan, Nicola J; Kim, Hae-Won; de Leeuw, Nora H; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we report a new and facile sol-gel synthesis of phosphate-based glasses with the general formula of (P2O5)55-(CaO)25-(Na2O)(20-x)-(TiO2) x , where x = 0, 5, 10 or 15, for bone tissue engineering applications. The sol-gel synthesis method allows greater control over glass morphology at relatively low processing temperature (200 °C) in comparison with phosphate-based melt-derived glasses (~1000 °C). The glasses were analyzed using several characterization techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, which confirmed the amorphous and glassy nature of the prepared samples. Degradation was assessed by measuring the ion release and pH change of the storage medium. Cytocompatibility was also confirmed by culturing osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 on the glass microparticles over a seven-day period. Cell attachment to the particles was imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results revealed the potential of phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses containing 5 or 10 mol% TiO2, with high surface area, ideal dissolution rate for cell attachment and easily metabolized dissolution products, for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26306553

  8. Synthesis, FT–IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato-κ4 N)manganese(III) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin), the MnIII cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn—O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central MnIII ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)]+ cation and the tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  9. Ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) prefers the parallel propeller-type human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over its other polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:25526532

  10. Crystal structure of chlorido-{5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[2-(2,2-di-methyl-propanamido)-phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}iron(III).

    PubMed

    Awasabisah, Dennis; Powell, Douglas R; Richter-Addo, George B

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C64H64N8O4)Cl], is a five-coordinate square-pyramidal porphyrin complex with a chloride ion in the axial position, being coordinated from the protected side of the porphyrin; the Fe(III) atom is displaced by 0.474 (5) Å from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin core towards the chloride. The porphyrin moiety is a 'picket-fence' 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[2-(2,2-di-methyl-propanamido)-phen-yl]porph-yrinate (por) group. The Fe-Cl bond length is 2.221 (2) Å and the Fe-N(por) bond lengths are in the range 2.043 (5)-2.063 (5) Å. The supra-molecular architecture of the crystal is sustained by C-H⋯O inter-actions between the pyrrolic and phenyl H atoms of one mol-ecule and the carbonyl O atoms of the 2,2-di-methyl-propanamido groups of adjacent mol-ecules. The methyl groups of three of the four tert-butyl substituents exhibited rotational disorder over two positions. The investigated crystal was twinned by a twofold rotation about the (001) axis with a refined twin ratio of 0.4086 (16). PMID:25878847

  11. First hyperpolarizabilities of 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene derivatives: origin of larger beta values for the octupoles than for the dipoles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hae; Park, Jo Ryoung; Jeong, Mi-Yun; Kim, Hwan Myung; Li, Shaojun; Song, Jongwon; Ham, Sihyun; Jeon, Seung-Joon; Cho, Bong Rae

    2006-01-16

    A series of donor-acceptor substituted stilbene and diphenylacetylene derivatives and their octupolar analogues have been synthesized and the linear and nonlinear optical properties (beta) studied by both experiments and theoretical calculation. The lambda(max) of the dipoles increases with the conjugation length and is always larger when the C=C bond is used, instead of the C[triple bond]C bond, as the conjugation bridge. Although the lambda(max) values of the octupoles show no clear trend, they are much larger than those of the dipoles. The beta(0) values of the dipoles increase with conjugation length and as the conjugation bridge is changed from the C[triple bond]C to C=C bond. This increase is accompanied by an increase in either lambda(max) or the oscillator strength. Similarly, the beta(0) values of the octupoles increase with the conjugation length and with a change in the donor in the order: NEt2 < N(i-amyl)Ph < NPh2. Moreover, beta(yyy)/beta(zzz) ratios are in the range of 1.6-3.9 and decrease with the conjugation length. Beta values calculated by the finite-field and sum-over-states methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. Also, there is a parallel relationship between the calculated beta values and bond length alternation (BLA). From these results, the origin of the larger beta values for octupoles than for dipoles is assessed. PMID:16323225

  12. Crystal structure of (4-cyano­pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc–4-cyano­pyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra­phenyl­benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano­pyridine, respectively], the ZnII cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn—N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano­pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol­ecules are linked together via weak C—H⋯N, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming supra­molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol­ecules, via weak C—H⋯N inter­actions and π-π stacking or via weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  13. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin­ation geometry about the central ZnII atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro­gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn— N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra­molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter­layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:27555935

  14. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin-ation geometry about the central Zn(II) atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro-gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn- N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra-molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter-layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules. PMID:27555935

  15. Crystal structure of (4-cyano-pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc-4-cyano-pyridine (1/1).

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra-phenyl-benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano-pyridine, respectively], the Zn(II) cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn-N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano-pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol-ecules are linked together via weak C-H⋯N, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming supra-molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano-pyridine mol-ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol-ecules, via weak C-H⋯N inter-actions and π-π stacking or via weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano-pyridine mol-ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  16. INO-4885 [5,10,15,20-tetra[N-(benzyl-4'-carboxylate)-2-pyridinium]-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride], a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, protects the heart against reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiang-Ying; Gao, Erhe; Yuan, Yuexin; Wang, Yajing; Lau, Wayne Bond; Koch, Walter; Ma, Xin-Liang; Tao, Ling

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative/nitrative stress caused by peroxynitrite, the reaction product of superoxide (O2(.-)) and nitric oxide (NO), is the primary cause of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study determined whether INO-4885 [5,10,15,20-tetra[N-(benzyl-4'-carboxylate)-2-pyridinium]-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride], a new peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, may provide cellular protection and protect heart from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult male mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 3 or 24 h of reperfusion. Mice were randomized to receive vehicle, INO-4885 without catalytic moiety, or INO-4885 (3-300 microg/kg i.p.) 10 min before reperfusion. Infarct size, apoptosis, nitrotyrosine content, NO/O2(.-) production, and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)/NADPH oxidase expression were determined. INO-4885 treatment reduced ischemia/reperfusion-induced protein nitration and caspase 3 activation in a dose-dependent fashion in the range of 3 to 100 microg/kg. However, doses exceeding 100 microg/kg produced nonspecific effects and attenuated its protective ability. At the optimal dose (30 microg/kg), INO-4885 significantly reduced infarct size (p < 0.01), decreased apoptosis (p < 0.01), and reduced tissue nitrotyrosine content (p < 0.01). As expected, INO-4885 had no effect on ischemia/reperfusion-induced iNOS expression and NO overproduction. To our surprise, this compound significantly reduced superoxide production and partially blocked NADPH oxidase overexpression in the ischemic/reperfused cardiac tissue. Additional experiments demonstrated that INO-4885 provided better cardioprotection than N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine (1400W, a selective iNOS inhibitor), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or Tiron (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger). Taken together, our data demonstrated that INO-4885 is a cardioprotective molecule that attenuates myocardial reperfusion injury by facilitating peroxynitrite decomposition and

  17. Effective exciton blocking by the hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI) in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Yanqiong; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zixing; Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Changzhu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the novel application of the hole-transporting material (HTM) as exciton blocking layer (EBL) in small molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, we introduce a recently reported HTM, 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), and the other two traditional HTMs, N,N‧-diphenyl-N,N‧-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1‧-biphenyl-4,4‧-diamine (NPB) and 1,1‧-bis(di-4-tolylaminophenyl) cyclohexane (TAPC), to serve as EBLs in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based planar heterojunction cells. Due to the large band gap of these materials, the EBLs successfully block the misdirected electrons. The optimized devices including the EBLs of TBDI, NPB and TAPC achieve power conversion efficiency (ηPCE) of 1.70%, 1.33%, and 1.33%, respectively, whereas the control device without any EBL shows a ηPCE of only 1.25%. The optical simulation indicates that the maximum optical electric fields for the PHJs including 10-nm EBLs at the wavelength of 610 nm are significantly enhanced relative to that for the 20-nm DBP based control device. By impedance spectroscopy measurement, the device with TBDI EBL shows lower series resistance and total resistance than the device without TBDI, suggesting fast internal carrier mobility and smaller carrier recombination. The novel HTM TBDI better contributes to the device performance relative to the other two HTMs, stemming from its shallower lowest unoccupied molecule orbits (LUMO) level, stronger prevention of exciton quenching, and a smoother TBDI/DBP surface. These results suggest that TBDI is an excellent candidate as EBL for the DBP based OPVs. The overall ηPCE is further enhanced via optimizing the cathode buffer.

  18. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  19. A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Njau, Jackson K; Blumenschine, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    Neotaphonomic studies have determined the patterns of bone damage created by larger mammalian carnivores when consuming mammalian carcasses. Typically, mammalian carnivores gnaw and break bones to various degrees in order to access marrow, grease, and brain tissue. In contrast, crocodiles attempt to swallow whole parts of mammal carcasses, inflicting in the process tooth marks and other feeding traces on some of the bones they are unable to ingest. Although crocodiles are major predators of larger mammals along the margins of protected tropical rivers and lakes, their feeding traces on bone have received little systematic attention in neotaphonomic research. We present diagnostic characteristics of Crocodylus niloticus damage to uningested mammal bones resulting from a series of controlled observations of captive crocodile feeding. The resulting bone assemblages are composed of primarily complete elements from articulating units, some of which bear an extremely high density of shallow to deep, transversely to obliquely oriented tooth scores over often large areas of the bone, along with shallow to deep pits and punctures. Some of the tooth marks (bisected pits and punctures, hook scores) have a distinctive morphology we have not observed to be produced by mammalian carnivores. The assemblages are also characterized by the retention of both low- and high-density bone portions, an absence of gross gnawing, and minimal fragmentation. Together, the damage characteristics associated with feeding by crocodiles are highly distinctive from those produced by mammalian carnivores. Modern surface bone assemblages along the Grumeti River in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park contain a mixture of specimens bearing damage characteristic of crocodiles and mammalian carnivores. Comparison of Plio-Pleistocene fossil bones from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, to bones damaged by captive and free-ranging Nile crocodiles reveals direct evidence of fossil crocodilian feeding from larger

  20. Circularization time of binary galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, S.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    1994-11-01

    We report the results of numerical experiments performed to study the orbital circularization time of binary galaxies. We find that the time scale is quite long (larger than the Hubble time), confirming earlier calculations. The results depend on the initial conditions. From our simulations we obtained a fitting formula for the circularization time as a function of the initial orbital parameters like the pericentric distance, mass ratio, and eccentricity.

  1. Hard Times Hit Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Hard-to-grasp dollar amounts are forcing real cuts in K-12 education at a time when the cost of fueling buses and providing school lunches is increasing and the demands of the federal No Child Left Behind Act still loom larger over states and districts. "One of the real challenges is to continue progress in light of the economy," said Gale Gaines,…

  2. Investigation of the interactions between Pt(II) and Pd(II) derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin and G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Navin C; Mendoza, Oscar; Nicoludis, John M; Ruan, Thomas; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Yatsunyk, Liliya A

    2016-04-01

    G-quadruplexes are non-canonical DNA structures formed by guanine-rich DNA sequences that are implicated in cancer and aging. Understanding how small molecule ligands interact with quadruplexes is essential both to the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and to the design of new quadruplex-selective probes needed for elucidation of quadruplex biological functions. In this work, UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopies, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assays, and resonance light scattering were used to investigate how the Pt(II) and Pd(II) derivatives of the well-studied 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) interact with quadruplexes formed by the human telomeric DNA, Tel22, and by the G-rich sequences from oncogene promoters. Our results suggest that Pt- and PdTMPyP4 interact with Tel22 via efficient π-π stacking with a binding affinity of 10(6)-10(7) M(-1). Under porphyrin excess, PtTMPyP4 aggregates using Tel22 as a template; the aggregates reach maximum size at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] ~8 and dissolve at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] ≤ 2. FRET assays reveal that both porphyrins are excellent stabilizers of human telomeric DNA, with stabilization temperature of 30.7 ± 0.6 °C for PtTMPyP4 and 30.9 ± 0.4 °C for PdTMPyP4 at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] = 2 in K(+) buffer, values significantly higher as compared to those for TMPyP4. The porphyrins display modest selectivity for quadruplex vs. duplex DNA, with selectivity ratios of 150 and 330 for Pt- and PdTMPyP4, respectively. This selectivity was confirmed by observed 'light switch' effect: fluorescence of PtTMPyP4 increases significantly in the presence of a variety of DNA secondary structures, yet the strongest effect is produced by quadruplex DNA. PMID:26748794

  3. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? - Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-09-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators. PMID:26380697

  4. Fiber-optic-based laser vapor screen flow visualization system for aerodynamic research in larger scale subsonic and transonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Inenaga, Andrew S.

    1994-01-01

    Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization systems that are fiber-optic based were developed and installed for aerodynamic research in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel. Fiber optics are used to deliver the laser beam through the plenum shell that surrounds the test section of each facility and to the light-sheet-generating optics positioned in the ceiling window of the test section. Water is injected into the wind tunnel diffuser section to increase the relative humidity and promote condensation of the water vapor in the flow field about the model. The condensed water vapor is then illuminated with an intense sheet of laser light to reveal features of the flow field. The plenum shells are optically sealed; therefore, video-based systems are used to observe and document the flow field. Operational experience shows that the fiber-optic-based systems provide safe, reliable, and high-quality off-surface flow visualization in smaller and larger scale subsonic and transonic wind tunnels. The design, the installation, and the application of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) LVS flow visualization systems in larger scale wind tunnels are highlighted. The efficiency of the fiber optic LVS systems and their insensitivity to wind tunnel vibration, the tunnel operating temperature and pressure variations, and the airborne contaminants are discussed.

  5. Radiofrequency Thermoablation of HCC Larger Than 3 cm and Less Than 5 cm Proximal to the Gallbladder without Gallbladder Isolation: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Orlacchio, Antonio; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Costanzo, Elisa; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective minimally invasive treatment for nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but ablation of tumors close to the gallbladder could be associated with several complications. We report our experience on the treatment of HCC close to the gallbladder with RFA. Eight RFA procedures were performed in eight patients with HCC larger than 3 cm and less than 5 cm close to the gallbladder. In all cases, a percutaneous approach was used. There were no major complications. Only in two patients a minimal wall thickening of the gallbladder was observed. Contrast enhanced computed tomography carried out after 30 days from the first procedure showed complete necrosis in seven patients (87%). Only one patient had local recurrence at 11 months of followup. Although limited, our experience suggests that, after careful preprocedural planning, in experienced hands and with appropriate technology, percutaneous RFA could be safely performed even for lesions larger than 3 cm located in close adjacency to the gallbladder. PMID:25247192

  6. Radiofrequency thermoablation of HCC larger than 3 cm and less than 5 cm proximal to the gallbladder without gallbladder isolation: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Orlacchio, Antonio; Chegai, Fabrizio; Del Giudice, Costantino; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Costanzo, Elisa; Di Caprera, Elena; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective minimally invasive treatment for nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but ablation of tumors close to the gallbladder could be associated with several complications. We report our experience on the treatment of HCC close to the gallbladder with RFA. Eight RFA procedures were performed in eight patients with HCC larger than 3 cm and less than 5 cm close to the gallbladder. In all cases, a percutaneous approach was used. There were no major complications. Only in two patients a minimal wall thickening of the gallbladder was observed. Contrast enhanced computed tomography carried out after 30 days from the first procedure showed complete necrosis in seven patients (87%). Only one patient had local recurrence at 11 months of followup. Although limited, our experience suggests that, after careful preprocedural planning, in experienced hands and with appropriate technology, percutaneous RFA could be safely performed even for lesions larger than 3 cm located in close adjacency to the gallbladder. PMID:25247192

  7. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? – Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators. PMID:26380697

  8. Small Sample Properties of Bayesian Multivariate Autoregressive Time Series Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the small sample (N = 1, 3, 5, 10, 15) performance of a Bayesian multivariate vector autoregressive (BVAR-SEM) time series model relative to frequentist power and parameter estimation bias. A multivariate autoregressive model was developed based on correlated autoregressive time series vectors of varying…

  9. More Docked Vesicles and Larger Active Zones at Basket Cell-to-Granule Cell Synapses in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Ruth; Thind, Khushdev

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common and challenging clinical problem, and its pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is insufficient inhibition in the hippocampal formation where seizures tend to initiate. Normally, hippocampal basket cells provide strong and reliable synaptic inhibition at principal cell somata. In a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy, basket cell-to-granule cell (BC→GC) synaptic transmission is more likely to fail, but the underlying cause is unknown. At some synapses, probability of release correlates with bouton size, active zone area, and number of docked vesicles. The present study tested the hypothesis that impaired GABAergic transmission at BC→GC synapses is attributable to ultrastructural changes. Boutons making axosomatic symmetric synapses in the granule cell layer were reconstructed from serial electron micrographs. BC→GC boutons were predicted to be smaller in volume, have fewer and smaller active zones, and contain fewer vesicles, including fewer docked vesicles. Results revealed the opposite. Compared with controls, epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats displayed boutons with over twice the average volume, active zone area, total vesicles, and docked vesicles and with more vesicles closer to active zones. Larger active zones in epileptic rats are consistent with previous reports of larger amplitude miniature IPSCs and larger BC→GC quantal size. Results of this study indicate that transmission failures at BC→GC synapses in epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats are not attributable to smaller boutons or fewer docked vesicles. Instead, processes following vesicle docking, including priming, Ca2+ entry, or Ca2+ coupling with exocytosis, might be responsible. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One in 26 people develops epilepsy, and temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form. Up to one-third of patients are resistant to currently available treatments. This study tested a potential underlying mechanism for previously reported

  10. Mice with an induced mutation in collagen 8A2 develop larger eyes and are resistant to retinal ganglion cell damage in an experimental glaucoma model

    PubMed Central

    Steinhart, Matthew R.; Cone, Frances E.; Nguyen, Cathy; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary E.; Puk, Oliver; Graw, Jochen; Oglesby, Ericka N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study susceptibility to glaucoma injury as it may be affected by mutations in ocular connective tissue components. Methods Mice homozygous for an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea induced G257D exchange (Gly to Asp) missense mutation (Aca23) in their collagen 8A2 gene were studied to measure intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length and width, number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), and inflation responses. Three month old homozygous Aca23 mutant and wild type (WT) mice had 6 weeks exposure to elevated IOP induced by polystyrene microbead injection. Additional Aca23 and matched controls were studied at ages of 10 and 18 months. Results Aca23 mice had no significant difference from WT in IOP level, and in both strains IOP rose with age. In multivariable models, axial length and width were significantly larger in Aca23 than WT, became larger with age, and were larger after exposure to glaucoma (n=227 mice). From inflation test data, the estimates of scleral stress resultants in Aca23 mice were similar to age-matched and younger WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, while the strain estimates for Aca23 were significantly less than those for either WT group in the mid-sclera and in some of the more anterior scleral measures (p<0.001; n=29, 22, 20 eyes in Aca23, older WT, younger WT, respectively). With chronic IOP elevation, Aca23 eyes increased 9% in length and 7% in width, compared to untreated fellow eyes (p<0.05, <0.01). With similar elevated IOP exposure, WT eyes enlarged proportionately twice as much as Aca23, increasing in length by 18% and in nasal—temporal width by 13% (both p<0.001, Mann–Whitney test). In 4 month old control optic nerves, mean RGC axon number was not different in Aca23 and WT (46,905±7,592, 43,628±11,162, respectively; p=0.43, Mann–Whitney test, n=37 and 29). With chronic glaucoma, Aca23 mice had a mean axon loss of only 0.57±17%, while WT mice lost 21±31% (median loss: 1% versus 10%, n=37, 29, respectively; p=0.001; multivariable model adjusting for

  11. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  12. Sequence analysis demonstrates that Onion yellow dwarf virus isolates from China contain a P3 region much larger than other potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Adams, M J; Zheng, H-Y; Chen, J-P

    2003-06-01

    The complete sequence of an isolate of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) from Yuhang, Zhejiang province, China, was determined. It was 10538 nts in length and was predicted to encode a polyprotein 3403 amino acids (aa) long with a calculated M(r) of 385.1 kDa. The predicted P3 protein (530 aa) was larger than that of any of the potyviruses sequenced to date (344-378 aa). The additional sequence occurs at the N-terminus of the protein, does not represent a duplication from elsewhere in the OYDV genome and could not be matched to any other sequences in the databases. Similar sequences were found in 4 other Chinese OYDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of the polyprotein showed that OYDV is distantly related to Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and the potyviruses of grasses and cereals. PMID:12756621

  13. Preliminary results in larger benthic foraminifera assemblage in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate platform from the Upper Cretaceous of the External Prebetic Domain (Valencia province, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Salcedo, Raquel; Vicedo, Vicent

    2016-04-01

    In the External Prebetic Domain (Betic Mountain Range, Valencia province, SE Spain) it is difficult to find good outcrops to study larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), particularly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits, because of three main reasons. During the Upper Cretaceous, the complex paleogeography in the northern Prebetic Domain developed a complex system of shallow-water platforms. This is directly linked to the complexity in the distribution of the facies observed nowadays, which may change drastically in lateral, closely related outcrops having a special negative impact in the lateral extension of stratigraphical levels containing LBF. The second reason is the nature of the shallow water environments in which the larger foraminifera lived. The local continental influence derived in the establishment of very complex mixed platforms. Thus, there is not a complete register through carbonate rocks, but an alternation of microconglomerates, sandstones, calcarenites and carbonates that can be observed in the stratigraphic series of the Upper Cretaceous. This affects negatively in observing changes in the evolutionary trends of taxa. The third reason difficulting the study of LBF in northern localities of the Prebetic Domain is diagenetic. Dolomitization affects a huge part of the Mesozoic rocks deleting all fossil microfauna in the affected rocks. Such three reasons are behind the difficulty in developing correlations and having a comprehensive understanding of the biostratigraphy and phylogeny of the taxa involved. However, after several field trips developed in the northern Prebetic area, an excellent reference section for the study of the LBF in the Prebetic Domain has been identified in the surroundings of the Pinet village (Valencia province). Here, a relatively continuous section with scarce dolomitization and good conditions of accessibility exists. The larger foraminifera assemblages appering in the Pinet section will be compared with other paleobiogeographic

  14. The Contradiction Between the Measurement Theory of Quantum Mechanics and the Theory that the Velocity of Any Particle Can Not be Larger than the Velocity of Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Y.; Shen, Z. J.; Shen, G. T.; Yang, B. C.

    1996-01-01

    By the measurement theory of quantum mechanics and the method of Fourier transform,we proved that the wave function psi(x,y,z,t)= (8/((2(pi)(2L(exp (1/2)))(exp 3))(Phi(L,t,x)Phi(L,t,y)Phi(L,t,z)). According to the theory that the velocity of any particle can not be larger than the velocity of light and the Born interpretation, when absolute value of delta greater than (ct+ L),Phi(L,t,delta) = 0. But according to the calculation, we proved that for some delta, even if absolute value of delta is greater than (ct+L), Phi(L,t,delta) is not equal to 0.

  15. Fiber optic-based laser vapor screen flow visualization systems for aerodynamic research in larger-scale subsonic and transonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Inenaga, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    The design, installation, and application of the NASA laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization systems developed by 10-foot high speed tunnel and 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel are discussed. Sufficient quantity of water is injected into the wind tunnel diffuser section to increase the relative humidity and promote condensation of the water vapor in the flow field about the model. Vortex-dominated flows are illuminated with an intense sheet of laser light. Fiber optics are used to deliver the laser beam through the plenum shell that surrounds the test section of each facility and to the light sheet-generating optics positioned in the ceiling window of the test section. Operational experience indicates that fiber optic-based systems are safe, reliable, and capable of proving high-quality off-surface flow visualization in larger scale subsonic and transonic wind tunnels.

  16. Does body size influence nest attendance? A comparison of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and the larger, sympatric lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    The body-size hypothesis predicts that nest attendance is positively related to body size among waterfowl and that recess duration is inversely related to body size. Several physiological and behavioral characteristics of Ross's geese (Chen rossii) suggest that females of this species should maintain high nest attendance despite their relatively small body size. Accordingly, we used 8-mm films to compare the incubation behavior of Ross's geese to that of the larger, closely-related lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter, snow geese) nesting sympatrically at Karrak lake, Nunavut, Canada in 1993. We found that nest attendance averaged 99% for both species. Our results offer no support for the body-size hypothesis. We suggest that temperature requirements of embryos in relation to short incubation duration and a low foraging efficiency of females select for high nest attendance in both snow geese and Ross's geese. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  17. Spiral Galaxies with a Larger Fraction of Dark Matter in the Region of 3-10 Mpc Around the Virgo and Fornax Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogoshvili, N. G.; Borchkhadze, T. M.; Kalloghlian, A. T.

    2015-09-01

    This is a study of the dynamic characteristics of spiral galaxies with absolute magnitudes M ≥ -20m.6 at distances of 3 to 10 Mpc from the Virgo and Fornax clusters based on data from the Merged Catalog of Galaxies MERCG. The diameters of the galaxies are used to determine the radius RD corresponding to the region with the greatest concentration of dark matter. Based on the condition of centrifugal equilibrium, the dynamic parameters of the spiral galaxies with M ≥ -20m.6 are calculated and compared with the dynamic characteristics of spiral galaxies with M ≥ -20m.6. It is found that there are many fewer spiral galaxies with M ≥ -20m.6 and a larger fraction of dark matter in the regions surrounding these clusters, estimated at 12.7% in the vicinity of the Virgo cluster and 15.3% in the vicinity of the Fornax cluster.

  18. Effects of solvation on the spin state of iron(III) in 2,8,12,18-tetrabutyl-3,7,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10-diazaporphyrinatoiron(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Stuzhin, Pavel A; Nefedov, Sergei E; Kumeev, Roman S; Ul-Haq, Anwar; Minin, Vadim V; Ivanova, Svetlana S

    2010-06-01

    The chloroiron(III) complex of 2,8,12,18-tetrabutyl-3,7,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10-diazaporphyrin, [(Cl)FeMBDAP], was prepared and studied by X-ray crystallography and by solution (1)H NMR and UV-vis measurements. In the crystal structure of hemisolvate [(Cl)FeMBDAP] x 0.5CHCl(3), two nonequivalent [(Cl)FeMBDAP] units containing Fe1 and Fe2 are arranged in pi-dimers with considerable overlap on their concave sides. Axial chloride bonded to Fe2 is solvated by hydrogen bonding with CHCl(3). Parameters of the coordination pyramid have typical values for the spin-mixed (S = 3/2 / 5/2) Fe(III) complexes in the case of Fe1 and are characteristic for the pure intermediate-spin state for Fe2 (displacement from the (N(Pyr))(4) planes - 0.385 and 0.290 A and the average N(Pyr)-Fe bond lengths -1.992 and 1.954 A for Fe1 and Fe2, respectively). Effective magnetic moments in CHCl(3) and CH(2)Cl(2) capable of specific solvation of chloride by hydrogen bonding (4.5-4.6 micro(B) at 298 K) are indicative about mixed intermediate/high-spin state S = 3/2 / 5/2, with the S = 3/2 contribution increasing upon lowering of the temperature (4.02 micro(B) in CD(2)Cl(2) at 193 K). In nonsolvating CCl(4), C(6)D(6), and THF-d(8), the mu(eff) values are consistent with the predominantly high-spin state at ambient temperature (5.5-5.75 micro(B) at 298 K) and almost pure S = 5/2 state at low temperature (ca. 5.9 micro(B) in THF-d(8) below 270 K). Downfield isotropic shifts from 35 to 50 ppm are observed for alpha-alkyl protons and upfield shifts from -5 to -15 ppm for meso-CH protons, which is characteristic for the presence of the intermediate-spin state. The splitting of signals of the diastereotopic alpha-CH(2) protons is increased with growth of the S = 3/2 state contribution from 1.5 to 4 ppm in nonsolvating to 11 ppm in specifically solvating solvents at 298 K and further to 31 ppm at 193 K (in CD(2)Cl(2)). In the presence of DMSO addition and in methanol solution, the single CH(2) signal is

  19. Excitotoxic brain damage involves early peroxynitrite formation in a model of Huntington's disease in rats: protective role of iron porphyrinate 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III).

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, V; González-Cortés, C; Galván-Arzate, S; Medina-Campos, O N; Pérez-Severiano, F; Ali, S F; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxic brain damage produced by the glutamate analog quinolinic acid. The purpose of this work was to study a possible role of peroxynitrite, a reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, in the course of excitotoxic events evoked by quinolinic acid in the brain. The effects of Fe(TPPS) (5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III)), an iron porphyrinate and putative peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, were tested on lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial function in brain synaptic vesicles exposed to quinolinic acid, as well as on peroxynitrite formation, nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation, caspase-3-like activation, DNA fragmentation, and GABA levels in striatal tissue from rats lesioned by quinolinic acid. Circling behavior was also evaluated. Increasing concentrations of Fe(TPPS) reduced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by quinolinic acid (100 microM) in synaptic vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner (10-800 microM). In addition, Fe(TPPS) (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2 h before the striatal lesions, prevented the formation of peroxynitrite, the increased nitric oxide synthase activity, the decreased superoxide dismutase activity and the increased lipid peroxidation induced by quinolinic acid (240 nmol/microl) 120 min after the toxin infusion. Enhanced caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation were also reduced by the porphyrinate 24 h after the injection of the excitotoxin. Circling behavior from quinolinic acid-treated rats was abolished by Fe(TPPS) six days after quinolinic acid injection, while the striatal levels of GABA, measured one day later, were partially recovered. The protective effects that Fe(TPPS) exerted on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in synaptic vesicles suggest a primary action of the porphyrinate as an antioxidant molecule. In vivo findings

  20. Direct stoichiometric evidence that the untransformed M sub r 300,000, 9S, glucocorticoid receptor is a core unit derived from a larger heteromeric complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnick, E.H.; Dalman, F.C.; Pratt, W.B. )

    1990-01-16

    The authors have used three methods to measure the stoichiometry of the glucocorticoid receptor and the 90-kDa heat shock protein (hsp90) in L-cell glucocorticoid receptor complexes that were purified by immunoadsorption to protein A-sepharose with an anti-receptor monoclonal antibody, followed by a minimal washing procedure that permits retention of receptor-associated protein. In two of the methods, receptor was quantitated by radioligand binding, and receptor-specific hsp90 was quantitated against a standard curve of purified hsp90, either on Coomassie blue stained SDS gels by laser densitometry or on Western blots by quantitative immunoblotting with {sup 125}I-labeled counterantibody. The stoichiometry values obtained by densitometry and immunoblotting are 7 and 6 mol of hsp90/mol of receptor, respectively. In a third method, which detects total receptor protein rather than just steroid-bound receptor, the ratio of hsp90 to receptor was determined by immunopurifying receptor complexes from ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled L cells, and the amount of {sup 35}S incorporated into receptor and hsp90 was corrected for the established methionine content of the respective proteins. These observations lead to the conclusion that the untransformed L-cell glucocorticoid receptor exists in cytosol in a much larger heteromeric complex than considered to date. The authors propose that the 9S receptor form that is commonly observed by density gradient centrifugation, and by gel filtration chromatography, must be a core unit containing two hsp90 and one GR which is derived from this larger structure.

  1. Are quitting-related cognitions and behaviours predicted by proximal responses to plain packaging with larger health warnings? Findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementation of tobacco plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) in Australia had positive effects on responses reflecting the specific objectives of the PP policy and on follow-up quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relationships between these proximal and distal outcomes. Methods A nationally representative sample of Australian adult cigarette smokers completed a baseline survey and a 1-month follow-up survey within the first year of policy implementation (n(weighted)=3125). Logistic regression analyses tested whether baseline measures of cigarette appeal, GHW effectiveness, perceived harm and concern/enjoyment predicted each of seven follow-up measures of quitting-related cognitions and behaviours, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Results In multivariable models, we found consistent evidence that several baseline measures of GHW effectiveness positively and significantly predicted the likelihood that smokers at follow-up reported thinking about quitting at least daily, intending to quit, having a firm date to quit, stubbing out cigarettes prematurely, stopping oneself from smoking and having attempted to quit. Two of the quitting-related outcomes were also predicted by feeling more smoking-related concern than enjoyment. A smaller number of the appeal variables were prospectively associated with quitting-related outcomes, while believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness did not positively predict any outcomes. Conclusions These findings provide an initial insight into the pathways through which PP with larger GHWs may lead to changes in smoking behaviour. Future research should examine whether the effects are conditional on individual demographic and smoking characteristics.

  2. Larger voids in mechanically stable, loose packings of 1.3μm frictional, cohesive particles: Their reconstruction, statistical analysis, and impact on separation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Reising, Arved E; Godinho, Justin M; Hormann, Kristof; Jorgenson, James W; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Lateral transcolumn heterogeneities and the presence of larger voids in a packing (comparable to the particle size) can limit the preparation of efficient chromatographic columns. Optimizing and understanding the packing process provides keys to better packing structures and column performance. Here, we investigate the slurry-packing process for a set of capillary columns packed with C18-modified, 1.3μm bridged-ethyl hybrid porous silica particles. The slurry concentration used for packing 75μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries was increased gradually from 5 to 50mg/mL. An intermediate concentration (20mg/mL) resulted in the best separation efficiency. Three capillaries from the set representing low, intermediate, and high slurry concentrations were further used for three-dimensional bed reconstruction by confocal laser scanning microscopy and morphological analysis of the bed structure. Previous studies suggest increased slurry concentrations will result in higher column efficiency due to the suppression of transcolumn bed heterogeneities, but only up to a critical concentration. Too concentrated slurries favour the formation of larger packing voids (reaching the size of the average particle diameter). Especially large voids, which can accommodate particles from>90% of the particle size distribution, are responsible for a decrease in column efficiency at high slurry concentrations. Our work illuminates the increasing difficulty of achieving high bed densities with small, frictional, cohesive particles. As particle size decreases interparticle forces become increasingly important and hinder the ease of particle sliding during column packing. While an optimal slurry concentration is identified with respect to bed morphology and separation efficiency under conditions in this work, our results suggest adjustments of this concentration are required with regard to particle size, surface roughness, column dimensions, slurry liquid, and external effects utilized during the

  3. Residue contacts predicted by evolutionary covariance extend the application of ab initio molecular replacement to larger and more challenging protein folds

    PubMed Central

    Simkovic, Felix; Thomas, Jens M. H.; Keegan, Ronan M.; Winn, Martyn D.; Mayans, Olga; Rigden, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    For many protein families, the deluge of new sequence information together with new statistical protocols now allow the accurate prediction of contacting residues from sequence information alone. This offers the possibility of more accurate ab initio (non-homology-based) structure prediction. Such models can be used in structure solution by molecular replacement (MR) where the target fold is novel or is only distantly related to known structures. Here, AMPLE, an MR pipeline that assembles search-model ensembles from ab initio structure predictions (‘decoys’), is employed to assess the value of contact-assisted ab initio models to the crystallographer. It is demonstrated that evolutionary covariance-derived residue–residue contact predictions improve the quality of ab initio models and, consequently, the success rate of MR using search models derived from them. For targets containing β-structure, decoy quality and MR performance were further improved by the use of a β-strand contact-filtering protocol. Such contact-guided decoys achieved 14 structure solutions from 21 attempted protein targets, compared with nine for simple Rosetta decoys. Previously encountered limitations were superseded in two key respects. Firstly, much larger targets of up to 221 residues in length were solved, which is far larger than the previously benchmarked threshold of 120 residues. Secondly, contact-guided decoys significantly improved success with β-sheet-rich proteins. Overall, the improved performance of contact-guided decoys suggests that MR is now applicable to a significantly wider range of protein targets than were previously tractable, and points to a direct benefit to structural biology from the recent remarkable advances in sequencing. PMID:27437113

  4. Residue contacts predicted by evolutionary covariance extend the application of ab initio molecular replacement to larger and more challenging protein folds.

    PubMed

    Simkovic, Felix; Thomas, Jens M H; Keegan, Ronan M; Winn, Martyn D; Mayans, Olga; Rigden, Daniel J

    2016-07-01

    For many protein families, the deluge of new sequence information together with new statistical protocols now allow the accurate prediction of contacting residues from sequence information alone. This offers the possibility of more accurate ab initio (non-homology-based) structure prediction. Such models can be used in structure solution by molecular replacement (MR) where the target fold is novel or is only distantly related to known structures. Here, AMPLE, an MR pipeline that assembles search-model ensembles from ab initio structure predictions ('decoys'), is employed to assess the value of contact-assisted ab initio models to the crystallographer. It is demonstrated that evolutionary covariance-derived residue-residue contact predictions improve the quality of ab initio models and, consequently, the success rate of MR using search models derived from them. For targets containing β-structure, decoy quality and MR performance were further improved by the use of a β-strand contact-filtering protocol. Such contact-guided decoys achieved 14 structure solutions from 21 attempted protein targets, compared with nine for simple Rosetta decoys. Previously encountered limitations were superseded in two key respects. Firstly, much larger targets of up to 221 residues in length were solved, which is far larger than the previously benchmarked threshold of 120 residues. Secondly, contact-guided decoys significantly improved success with β-sheet-rich proteins. Overall, the improved performance of contact-guided decoys suggests that MR is now applicable to a significantly wider range of protein targets than were previously tractable, and points to a direct benefit to structural biology from the recent remarkable advances in sequencing. PMID:27437113

  5. The interplay between interpersonal dynamics, treatment barriers, and larger social forces: an exploratory study of drug-using couples in Hartford, CT

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Janie

    2006-01-01

    Background The drug treatment field tends to place emphasis on the individual rather than the individual in social context. While there are a growing number of studies indicating that drug-using intimate partners are likely to play an important role in determining treatment options, little attention has been given to the experience and complex treatment needs of illicit drug-using (heroin, cocaine, crack) couples. Methods This exploratory study used in-depth interviews and ethnographic engagement to better understand the relationship between interpersonal dynamics and the treatment experience of ten relatively stable drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. Semi-structured and open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with each couple and separately with each partner. Whenever possible, the day-to-day realities and contexts of risk were also observed via participant and non-participant observation of these couples in the community. A grounded theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze nearly 40 transcripts of 60–90 minute interviews as well as fieldnotes. Results This study builds on a concept of complex interpersonal dynamics among drug users. Interpersonal dynamics of care and collusion were identified: couples cared for each other and colluded to acquire and use drugs. Care and collusion operate at the micro level of the risk environment. Treatment barriers and inadequacies were identified as part of the risk environment at the meso or intermediate level of analysis, and larger social forces such as gender dynamics, poverty and the "War on Drugs" were identified at the macro level. Interpersonal dynamics posed problems for couples when one or both partners were interested in accessing treatment. Structural barriers presented additional obstacles with the denial of admittance of both partners to treatment programs which had a sole focus on the individual and avoided treating couples. Conclusion Detoxification and treatment facilities need to

  6. Allometry in the distribution of material properties and geometry of the felid skull: why larger species may need to change and how they may achieve it.

    PubMed

    Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-08-21

    Extant members of the cat family (Felidae) have been considered behaviourally and morphologically conservative, i.e., despite great differences in size, there is relatively little variation in either the shape of the felid skull and dentition across species, or in the way in which these structures are used to kill and dismember prey. Consequently felids have been considered an appropriate focus for a number of investigations into the influence of allometry on craniomandibular mechanics and morphology. However, although previous treatments have considered the role of shape, they have not investigated the influence of differences in the distribution of relatively stiff cortical and more compliant cancellous bone on performance. Here, using models that incorporate material properties for both cortical and cancellous bone, we apply three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) to models representing the skulls of seven extant felid species. Our objectives being to determine allometric trends regarding both overall geometry and the relative distributions of cortical and cancellous bone tissue. We also more comprehensively assess variation in the efficiency with which muscular force is converted to bite force and the capacity to resist associated stresses. Our results show that the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) may be exceptional regarding both the efficiency with which muscular force is converted to bite force and the distribution of stress. We found a negative allometric trend between cortical bone volume and total skull bone volume, and positive allometry between the total skull bone volume and skull surface area. Results gained from mathematical modelling of beam analogies suggest that these trends reflect a need for larger species to respond to physical challenges associated with increased size, and, that changes in skull shape, bone composition, or a combination of both may be required to accommodate these challenges. With geometrical scaling stress increases

  7. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    PubMed

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  8. Creating Larger and Better Connected Protected Areas Enhances the Persistence of Big Game Species in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T. B.; Balme, Guy A.; Smith, Robert J.; Goodman, Peter S.; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  9. Larger and faster: revised properties and a shorter orbital period for the WASP-57 planetary system from a pro-am collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.; Dominik, M.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Haugbølle, T.; Lendl, M.; Arena, C.; Barbieri, L.; Barbieri, M.; Corfini, G.; Lopresti, C.; Marchini, A.; Marino, G.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Jaimes, R. Figuera; Hinse, T. C.; Henning, Th.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.

    2015-12-01

    Transits in the WASP-57 planetary system have been found to occur half an hour earlier than expected. We present 10 transit light curves from amateur telescopes, on which this discovery was based, 13 transit light curves from professional facilities which confirm and refine this finding, and high-resolution imaging which show no evidence for nearby companions. We use these data to determine a new and precise orbital ephemeris, and measure the physical properties of the system. Our revised orbital period is 4.5 s shorter than found from the discovery data alone, which explains the early occurrence of the transits. We also find both the star and planet to be larger and less massive than previously thought. The measured mass and radius of the planet are now consistent with theoretical models of gas giants containing no heavy-element core, as expected for the subsolar metallicity of the host star. Two transits were observed simultaneously in four passbands. We use the resulting light curves to measure the planet's radius as a function of wavelength, finding that our data are sufficient in principle but not in practise to constrain its atmospheric properties. We conclude with a discussion of the current and future status of transmission photometry studies for probing the atmospheres of gas-giant transiting planets.

  10. Large, larger, largest--a family of cluster-based tantalum copper aluminides with giant unit cells. II. The cluster structure.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthias; Harbrecht, Bernd; Weber, Thomas; Jung, Daniel Y; Steurer, Walter

    2009-06-01

    This is the second of two papers, where we discuss the cluster structures of a novel family of cluster-based intermetallic phases of unprecedented complexity: cF444-Al(63.6)Ta(36.4) (AT-19), a = 19.1663 (1) A, V = 7040 A3, cF(5928-x)-Al(56.6)Cu(3.9)Ta(39.5), x = 20 (ACT-45), a = 45.376 (1) A, V = 93,428 A3 and cF(23,256-x)-Al(55.4)Cu(5.4)Ta(39.1), x = 122 (ACT-71), a = 71.490 (4) A, V = 365,372 A3. The space group is F43m in all three cases. The structures can be described as packings of clusters such as fullerenes, dodecahedra, pentagonal bifrusta and Friauf polyhedra. A characteristic feature of the two larger structures are nets of hexagonal bipyramidal Ta clusters (h.b.p.). The extremely short distance of 2.536-2.562 A between their apical Ta atoms indicates unusually strong bonding. The large h.b.p. nets are sandwiched between slabs of Friauf polyhedra resembling the structure of the mu phase. PMID:19461141

  11. Larger amygdala but no change in hippocampal volume in 10-year-old children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth.

    PubMed

    Lupien, Sonia J; Parent, Sophie; Evans, Alan C; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-08-23

    Maternal separation and poor maternal care in animals have been shown to have important effects on the developing hippocampus and amygdala. In humans, children exposed to abuse/maltreatment or orphanage rearing do not present changes in hippocampal volumes. However, children reared in orphanages present enlarged amygdala volumes, suggesting that the amygdala may be particularly sensitive to severely disturbed (i.e., discontinous, neglectful) care in infancy. Maternal depressive symptomatology has been associated with reductions in overall sensitivity to the infant, and with an increased rate of withdrawn, disengaged behaviors. To determine if poor maternal care associated with maternal depressive symptomatology has a similar pattern of association to the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in children, as is the case for severely disturbed infant care (orphanage rearing), we measured hippocampal and amygdala volumes as well as stress hormone (glucocorticoid) levels in children exposed (n = 17) or not (n = 21) to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth. Results revealed no group difference in hippocampal volumes, but larger left and right amygdala volumes and increased levels of glucocorticoids in the children of mothers presenting depressive symptomatology since birth. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between mothers' mean depressive scores and amygdala volumes in their children. The results of this study suggest that amygdala volume in human children may represent an early marker of biological sensitivity to quality of maternal care. PMID:21844357

  12. Creating larger and better connected protected areas enhances the persistence of big game species in the maputaland-pondoland-albany biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Hunter, Luke T B; Balme, Guy A; Smith, Robert J; Goodman, Peter S; Slotow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The ideal conservation planning approach would enable decision-makers to use population viability analysis to assess the effects of management strategies and threats on all species at the landscape level. However, the lack of high-quality data derived from long-term studies, and uncertainty in model parameters and/or structure, often limit the use of population models to only a few species of conservation concern. We used spatially explicit metapopulation models in conjunction with multi-criteria decision analysis to assess how species-specific threats and management interventions would affect the persistence of African wild dog, black rhino, cheetah, elephant, leopard and lion, under six reserve scenarios, thereby providing the basis for deciding on a best course of conservation action in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. Overall, the results suggest that current strategies of managing populations within individual, small, fenced reserves are unlikely to enhance metapopulation persistence should catastrophic events affect populations in the future. Creating larger and better-connected protected areas would ensure that threats can be better mitigated in the future for both African wild dog and leopard, which can disperse naturally, and black rhino, cheetah, elephant, and lion, which are constrained by electric fences but can be managed using translocation. The importance of both size and connectivity should inform endangered megafauna conservation and management, especially in the context of restoration efforts in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:23977144

  13. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  14. Source time function properties indicate a strain drop independent of earthquake depth and magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallee, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Movement of the tectonic plates leads to strain build-up in the Earth, which can be released during earthquakes when one side of a seismic fault suddenly slips with respect to the other one. The amount of seismic strain release (or 'strain drop') is thus a direct measurement of a basic earthquake property, i.e. the ratio of seismic slip over the dimension of the ruptured fault. SCARDEC, a recently developed method, gives access to this information through the systematic determination of earthquakes source time functions (STFs). STFs describe the integrated spatio-temporal history of the earthquake process, and their maximum value can be related to the amount of stress or strain released during the earthquake. Here I analyse all earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 6 occurring in the last 20 years, and thus provide a catalogue of 1700 STFs which sample all the possible seismic depths. Analysis of this new database reveals that the strain drop remains on average the same for all earthquakes, independent of magnitude and depth. In other words, it is shown that, independent of the earthquake depth, magnitude 6 and larger earthquakes keep on average a similar ratio between seismic slip and dimension of the main slip patch. This invariance implies that deep earthquakes are even more similar than previously thought to their shallow counterparts, a puzzling finding as shallow and deep earthquakes should originate from different physical mechanisms. Concretely, the ratio between slip and patch dimension is on the order of 10-5-10-4, with extreme values only 8 times lower or larger at the 95% confidence interval. Besides the implications for mechanisms of deep earthquake generation, this limited variability has practical implications for realistic earthquake scenarios.

  15. Pure manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) is not a superoxide dismutase mimic in aqueous systems: a case of structure-activity relationship as a watchdog mechanism in experimental therapeutics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Júlio S; Spasojević, Ivan; Batinić-Haberle, Ines

    2008-02-01

    Superoxide is involved in a plethora of pathological and physiological processes via oxidative stress and/or signal transduction pathways. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics have, thus, been actively sought for clinical and mechanistic purposes. Manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) is one of the most intensely explored "SOD mimics" in biology and medicine. However, we show here that this claimed SOD activity of MnTBAP in aqueous media is not corroborated by comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies for a wide set of Mn porphyrins and that MnTBAP from usual commercial sources contains different amounts of noninnocent trace impurities (Mn clusters), which inhibited xanthine oxidase and had SOD activity in their own right. In addition, the preparation and thorough characterization of a high-purity MnTBAP is presented for the first time and confirmed that pure MnTBAP has no SOD activity in aqueous medium. These findings call for an assessment of the relevance and suitability of using MnTBAP (or its impurities) as a mechanistic probe and antioxidant therapeutic; conclusions on the physiological and pathological role of superoxide derived from studies using MnTBAP of uncertain purity should be examined judiciously. An unequivocal distinction between the biological effects due to MnTBAP and that of its impurities can only be unambiguously made if a pure sample is/was used. This work also illustrates the contribution of fundamental structure-activity relationship studies not only for drug design and optimization, but also as a "watchdog" mechanism for checking/spotting eventual incongruence of drug activity in chemical and biological settings. PMID:18046586

  16. Time management situation assessment (TMSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Michael B.; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    TMSA is a concept prototype developed to support NASA Test Directors (NTDs) in schedule execution monitoring during the later stages of a Shuttle countdown. The program detects qualitative and quantitative constraint violations in near real-time. The next version will support incremental rescheduling and reason over a substantially larger number of scheduled events.

  17. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    porosity. Preliminary data also suggest a different behaviour at increasing confining pressure for clean and-oil bearing samples: almost perfectly elastic behaviour for oil-bearing samples and more inelastic behaviours for cleaner samples. Thus HC presence appears to contrast the increase of confining pressure acting as semi-fluids, reducing the rock inelastic compaction and enhancing its elastic behaviour. Trying to upscale our rock-physics results, we started from wells and laboratory data on stratigraphy, porosity and Vp in order to simulate the effect of the HC presence at larger scale, using Petrel® software. The developed synthetic model highlights that Vp, which is primarily controlled by porosity, changes significantly within oil-bearing portions, with a notable impact on the velocity model that should be adopted. Moreover we are currently performing laboratory tests in order to evaluate the changes in the elastic parameters with the aim of modelling the effects of the HC on the mechanical behaviour of the involved rocks at larger scale.

  18. Larger low voltage zone in endocardial unipolar map compared with that in epicardial bipolar map indicates difficulty in eliminating ventricular tachycardia by catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Noda, Takashi; Satomi, Kazuhiro; Wada, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Okamura, Hideo; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Shimizu, Wataru; Aiba, Takeshi; Kamakura, Shiro; Kusano, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    . The location of the LVZ in the EPI BIP map matched that in 45 ± 28 % of ENDO UNI voltage maps. The LVZ in the ENDO UNI voltage map was larger than that in the EPI BIP voltage map in 6 of 11 patients, and RFCA failed in 5 of these 6 patients. In the remaining 5 patients with a smaller LVZ in the ENDO UNI voltage map compared with the EPI BIP voltage map or no LVZ both at ENDO UNI and EPI BIP voltage map, VT was successfully eliminated in 4 of 5 patients. The LV ENDO UNI voltage map is useful in detecting EPI substrate in patients with cardiomyopathy. A larger LVZ in the ENDO UNI voltage map compared to that in the EPI BIP voltage map may indicate the presence of intramural substrate, which leads to difficulty in eliminating VT, even with combined ENDO- and EPI RFCA. PMID:26266635

  19. Why must a solar forcing be larger than a CO2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, Angshuman; Bala, Govindasamy; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that a solar forcing must be greater than a CO2 forcing to cause the same global mean surface temperature change but a process-based mechanistic explanation is lacking in the literature. In this study, we investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for the lower efficacy of solar forcing compared to an equivalent CO2 forcing. Radiative forcing is estimated using the Gregory method that regresses top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux against the change in global mean surface temperature. For a 2.25% increase in solar irradiance that produces the same long term global mean warming as a doubling of CO2 concentration, we estimate that the efficacy of solar forcing is ∼80% relative to CO2 forcing in the NCAR CAM5 climate model. We find that the fast tropospheric cloud adjustments especially over land and stratospheric warming in the first four months cause the slope of the regression between the TOA net radiative fluxes and surface temperature to be steeper in the solar forcing case. This steeper slope indicates a stronger net negative feedback and hence correspondingly a larger solar forcing than CO2 forcing for the same equilibrium surface warming. Evidence is provided that rapid land surface warming in the first four months sets up a land-sea contrast that markedly affects radiative forcing and the climate feedback parameter over this period. We also confirm the robustness of our results using simulations from the Hadley Centre climate model. Our study has important implications for estimating the magnitude of climate change caused by volcanic eruptions, solar geoengineering and past climate changes caused by change in solar irradiance such as Maunder minimum.

  20. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  1. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in an urban and a PBA-dominated location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabey, A. M.; Stanley, W. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kaye, P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Dual-wavelength Ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) measurements were performed on ambient environmental aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter) and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical), which are taken to represent environments with negligible and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA) influences, respectively. Single-particle fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter were measured with a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Sensor, version 3 (WIBS3) in the diameter range 0.8 μm≤DP≤20 μm for 2-3 weeks and filters were analysed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, which revealed mostly non-PBA dominated particle sizes larger than 1 μm in Manchester. The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: Fluorescence excited at 280 nm is recorded at 310-400 nm and 400-600 nm and fluorescence excited at 370 nm is detected at 400-600 nm. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was at 1.2 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3-4 μm. The fluorescence intensity at 400-600 nm generally increased with DP at both sites, as did the 310-400 nm intensity in Borneo. In Manchester the 310-400 m fluorescence decreased at DP>4 μm, suggesting this channel offers additional discrimination between fluorescent particle types. Finally, the ratio of fluorescence intensity in two pairs of channels was investigated as a function of particle diameter and this varied significantly between the two environments, demonstrating that the fluorescent aerosol in each can in principle be distinguished using a combination of fluorescence and elastic scattering measurements.

  2. Time outs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000756.htm Time outs To use the sharing features on this ... children, 2 to 12 years old. Why Does Time out Work? When you put children in time ...

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance-paramagnetic relaxation enhancements: Influence of spatial quantization of the electron spin when the zero-field splitting energy is larger than the Zeeman energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abernathy, S. M.; Miller, J. C.; Lohr, L. L.; Sharp, R. R.

    1998-09-01

    Dissolved paramagnetic ions generally provide an efficient mechanism for the relaxation of nuclear spins in solution, a phenomenon called the nuclear magnetic resonance-paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (NMR-PRE). Metal ions with electron spins S⩾1 exhibit rich NMR relaxation phenomena originating in the properties of the zero-field splitting (zfs) interaction, which vanishes for spin-1/2 ions but which is nonzero for S⩾1 ions in site symmetry lower than cubic. For S⩾1 ions in the vicinity of the zfs-limit, i.e., at magnetic-field strengths low enough that the zfs energy exceeds the Zeeman energy, the NMR-PRE depends strongly on the detailed structure of the electron spin energy levels as well as on the spatial quantization of the spin motion. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the NMR-PRE produced by integer spins can be influenced strongly by the small intradoublet zero-field splittings, i.e., the splittings between the components of the non-Kramers doublets, which are produced by noncylindrical components of the crystal field potential. These small splittings produce relatively low-frequency oscillations in the dipolar field associated with (the spin component along the molecule-fixed ẑ axis). These motions decouple the nuclear spin from the electron spin, thereby depressing, in some cases very strongly, the NMR-PRE. The presence of a relatively small Zeeman field, comparable in magnitude to the intradoublet spacing but small compared to the larger interdoublet zfs splittings, causes a major change in the spin wave functions which has profound effects on the motions of the electron spin. When the Zeeman energy exceeds the small zfs splitting, the oscillatory motion of damps out, with the result that the electron spin couples more effectively to the nuclear spin, providing a more efficient NMR relaxation pathway. NMR-PRE data are presented for the S=1 complex Ni(II)(o-pda)2Cl2 (o-pda=ortho-phenylenediamine) which confirm the

  4. Repeated Radiofrequency Ablation Combined With Ablated Lesion Elimination and Transarterial Chemoembolization Improves the Outcome of Solitary Huge Hepatocellular Carcinomas 10 cm or Larger.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shan; Gao, Jun; Kong, Jian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Niu, Hai-Gang; Xin, Zong-Hai; Ning, Chun-Min; Guo, Shi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Long; Dong, Yong-Hong; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a new strategy, repeated radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with ablated lesion elimination following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)/transarterial embolization (TAE), for solitary huge hepatocellular carcinoma (SHHCC) 10 cm or larger.From July 2008 to October 2015, 39 consecutive patients with SHHCC were screened. Of these, 12 were treated with TACE/TAE and repeated RF ablation (TACE/TAE + RF ablation group) and the remaining 27 patients were treated with the aforementioned new strategy (new strategy group). Local tumor progression (LTP)-free survival, intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR)-free survival, and overall survival (OS) rates were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on several clinicopathological variables to identify factors affecting long-term outcome and intrahepatic recurrence. Correlation analysis was also performed.The 1-, 2-, and 3-year LTP-free survival rates and OS rates were significantly higher in the new strategy group than in the TACE/TAE + RF ablation group (82.9% vs 58.3%, 73.9% vs 29.2%, 18.5% vs 9.7%, P = 0.002; 92.0% vs 75.0%, 84.0% vs 33.3%, 32.7% vs 16.7%, P = 0.025). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the 1-, 2-, and 3-year IDR-free survival rates (P = 0.108). Using univariate analysis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP > 200 ng/mL), ablative margin (AM > 1.0 cm), and well-differentiated cells were found to be significant factors for predicting LTP, IDR, and OS. Surgical elimination was found to be a significant factor only for predicting OS. In multivariate analyses, AFP (>200 ng/mL), AM (>1.0 cm), and well-differentiated cells were found to be significant independent factors linked to LTP, IDR, and OS. Correlation analysis indicated that AM > 1.0 cm was strongly associated with surgical elimination (P < 0.001, correlation coefficient = 0.877).For patients with SHHCC

  5. Repeated Radiofrequency Ablation Combined With Ablated Lesion Elimination and Transarterial Chemoembolization Improves the Outcome of Solitary Huge Hepatocellular Carcinomas 10 cm or Larger

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shan; Gao, Jun; Kong, Jian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Niu, Hai-Gang; Xin, Zong-Hai; Ning, Chun-Min; Guo, Shi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Long; Dong, Yong-Hong; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of a new strategy, repeated radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with ablated lesion elimination following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)/transarterial embolization (TAE), for solitary huge hepatocellular carcinoma (SHHCC) 10 cm or larger. From July 2008 to October 2015, 39 consecutive patients with SHHCC were screened. Of these, 12 were treated with TACE/TAE and repeated RF ablation (TACE/TAE + RF ablation group) and the remaining 27 patients were treated with the aforementioned new strategy (new strategy group). Local tumor progression (LTP)-free survival, intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR)-free survival, and overall survival (OS) rates were obtained using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on several clinicopathological variables to identify factors affecting long-term outcome and intrahepatic recurrence. Correlation analysis was also performed. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year LTP-free survival rates and OS rates were significantly higher in the new strategy group than in the TACE/TAE + RF ablation group (82.9% vs 58.3%, 73.9% vs 29.2%, 18.5% vs 9.7%, P = 0.002; 92.0% vs 75.0%, 84.0% vs 33.3%, 32.7% vs 16.7%, P = 0.025). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the 1-, 2-, and 3-year IDR-free survival rates (P = 0.108). Using univariate analysis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP > 200 ng/mL), ablative margin (AM > 1.0 cm), and well-differentiated cells were found to be significant factors for predicting LTP, IDR, and OS. Surgical elimination was found to be a significant factor only for predicting OS. In multivariate analyses, AFP (>200 ng/mL), AM (>1.0 cm), and well-differentiated cells were found to be significant independent factors linked to LTP, IDR, and OS. Correlation analysis indicated that AM > 1.0 cm was strongly associated with surgical elimination (P < 0.001, correlation coefficient = 0.877). For patients

  6. Flushing Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flushing time of an estuary is generally defined as the turnover time of fresh water in the estuary, that is, the time required to replace the fresh water contained in the estuary with freshwater inflow. Thus, the flushing time of an estuary is the ratio of the volume of fres...

  7. Reinventing Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    What do planet Earth, a swinging pendulum, a quartz crystal, and a Cesium atom have in common? They have all been used by humans to measure time. They represent humanity's progress through time in measuring time itself. But what is it, really, that humans set out to measure? Before time could be measured, somebody had to decide what to actually…

  8. It's all about water: from small scale hydrologic processes in ice wedge polygonal tundra and thermokarst lakes to larger scale river runoff (Lena River Delta, Siberia) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Fedorova, I.; Muster, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Cresto Aleina, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Lena River Delta in Northern Yakutia forms one of the largest deltas in the Arctic and its catchment area (2 430 000 km2) is one of the largest in the whole of Eurasia. The Lena River distributes water and sediment in four main channels before discharging in total about 30 km3 of water through the delta into the Arctic Ocean every year and its discharge has been observed to be increasing. The goal of this presentation is to characterize the hydrologic processes that are strongly affected by a transient climate component- the permafrost. Permafrost plays a major role for storage and release of water to rivers and surface and subsurface water bodies. Conversely, the coupled water and heat fluxes in the atmosphere and below ground have a marked influence on the permafrost's thermal regime. Our study site, the Lena River Delta, is also one of the coldest and driest places on Earth, with mean annual air temperatures of about -13 °C, a large annual air temperature range of about 44 °C and summer precipitation usually less than 150 mm. Very cold continuous permafrost of about -8.6 °C (11 m depth) underlays the area between about 400 and 600 m below surface and since 2006 the permafrost has warmed than 1 °C at 10.7 m. Roughly half of the land surface is dominated by wet surfaces, such as polygons, ponds and thermokarst lakes. This contribution summarizes past and ongoing research on hydrologic processes across spatial scales, from microtopographic processes of polygonal tundra to regional scale deltaic processes to assess short and long term changes in water fluxes. We quantify unfrozen water in soils, streams and river discharges and water bodies' storage at larger scales. Water bodies were mapped using optical and radar satellite data with resolutions of 4 m or better, Landsat-5 TM at 30 m and the MODIS water mask at 250 m resolution. Ponds, i. e. water bodies with surface are smaller than 104 m, make over 95 % of the total number of water bodies and are not

  9. Chua's Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the idea of time of the philosopher Bergson and the concept of time recurrence in chaotic systems. By taking into account the Chua's circuit, we saw that the "Chua's time", i.e., the average recurrence time of trajectories in the Chua's circuit, is able to qualitatively represent the features of the Bergon's time. Numerical and experimental results are presented.

  10. A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm is described. The algorithm allows one to take much larger time steps with an explicit time-marching scheme than would otherwise be the case. Sample calculations of a scalar advection equation and the Euler equations for an oscillating airfoil are shown. For the oscillating airfoil, time steps an order of magnitude larger than the single-grid algorithm are possible.

  11. Bleeding time

    MedlinePlus

    Bleeding time is a medical test that measures how fast small blood vessels in the skin stop bleeding. ... until the bleeding stops. The provider records the time it takes for the cuts to stop bleeding.

  12. Entropic Time

    SciTech Connect

    Caticha, Ariel

    2011-03-14

    The formulation of quantum mechanics within the framework of entropic dynamics includes several new elements. In this paper we concentrate on one of them: the implications for the theory of time. Entropic time is introduced as a book-keeping device to keep track of the accumulation of changes. One new feature is that, unlike other concepts of time appearing in the so-called fundamental laws of physics, entropic time incorporates a natural distinction between past and future.

  13. Time Honoured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mora; Timmerman, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of literature and practices in environmental education focuses on places and spaces. Little attention has been paid to time and temporalities as elements of environments, and the ways in which how we experience time affects our experience of place. This paper is an examination of the ways in which reflection on time can be…

  14. Studies of 3D-cloud optical depth from small to very large values, and of the radiation and remote sensing impacts of larger-drop clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Wiscombe, Warren; Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Chiu, Christine

    2007-05-04

    We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.

  15. A single glance at natural face images generate larger and qualitatively different category-selective spatio-temporal signatures than other ecologically-relevant categories in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Corentin; Retter, Talia L; Rossion, Bruno

    2016-08-15

    Although humans discriminate natural images of faces from other categories at a single glance, clarifying the neural specificity and spatio-temporal dynamics of this process without low-level visual confounds remains a challenge. We recorded high-density scalp electroencephalogram while presenting natural images of various objects at a fast periodic rate (5.88images/s). In different stimulation sequences, numerous variable exemplars of three categories associated with cortical specialization in neuroimaging - faces, body parts, or houses - appeared every five images (5.88Hz/5=1.18Hz). In these fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) sequences, common low- and high-level visual processes between these categories and other objects are captured at the 5.88Hz frequency, while high-level category-selective responses are objectively quantified at the 1.18Hz frequency and harmonics. Category-selective responses differed quantitatively and qualitatively between faces, body parts and houses. First, they were much larger (2-4 times) for faces over the whole scalp. Second, specific and reliable scalp topographical maps of category-selective responses pointed to distinct principle neural sources for faces (ventral occipito-temporal), body parts (lateral occipito-temporal) and houses (dorso-medial occipital). Category-selective EEG responses were found at multiple time-windows from 110 to 600ms post-stimulus onset. Faces elicited the most complex spatio-temporal profile with up to four selective responses, although body parts and houses also elicited selective responses more complex than previously described. These observations indicate that a single glance at natural face images inserted in a rapid stream of natural objects generates a quantitatively and qualitatively unique category-selective spatio-temporal signature in occipito-temporal cortical areas of the human brain. PMID:27138205

  16. Bipolar transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate versus bipolar resection of the prostate for prostates larger than 60gr: A retrospective study at a single academic tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yong; Xu, Ning; Chen, Shao-Hao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Lin, Yun-Zhi; Xue, Xue-Yi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bipolar transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate (B-TUERP) versus bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) in the treatment of prostates larger than 60g. Material and Methods: Clinical data for 270 BPH patients who underwent B-TUERP and 204 patients who underwent B-TURP for BPH from May 2007 to May 2013 at our center were retrospectively analyzed. Outcome measures included operative time, decreased hemoglobin level, total prostate specific antigen (TPSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax), quality of life (QoL) score, post void residual urine volume (RUV), bladder irrigation duration, hospital stay, and the weight of resected prostatic tissue. Other measures included perioperative complications including transurethral resection syndrome (TURS), hyponatremia, blood transfusion, bleeding requiring surgery, postoperative acute urinary retention, urine incontinence and urinary sepsis. Patients in both groups were followed for two years. Results: Compared with the B-TURP group, the B-TUERP group had shorter operative time, postoperative bladder irrigation duration and hospital stay, a greater amount of resected prostatic tissue, less postoperative hemoglobin decrease, better postoperative IPSS and Qmax, as well as lower incidences of hyponatremia, urinary sepsis, blood transfusion requirement, urine incontinence and reoperation (P<0.05 for all). Conclusions: B-TUERP is superior to B-TURP in the management of large volume BPH in terms of efficacy and safety, but this finding needs to be validated in further prospective, randomized, controlled studies. PMID:27564286

  17. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information.

  18. Efficient and automatic calculation of optical band shapes and resonance Raman spectra for larger molecules within the independent mode displaced harmonic oscillator model.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Taras; Neese, Frank

    2012-12-21

    In this work, an improved method for the efficient automatic simulation of optical band shapes and resonance Raman (rR) intensities within the "independent mode displaced harmonic oscillator" is described. Despite the relative simplicity of this model, it is able to account for the intensity distribution in absorption (ABS), fluorescence, and rR spectra corresponding to strongly dipole allowed electronic transitions with high accuracy. In order to include temperature-induced effects, we propose a simple extension of the time dependent wavepacket formalism developed by Heller which enables one to derive analytical expressions for the intensities of hot bands in ABS and rR spectra from the dependence of the wavepacket evolution on its initial coordinate. We have also greatly optimized the computational procedures for numerical integration of complicated oscillating integrals. This is important for efficient simulations of higher-order rR spectra and excitation profiles, as well as for the fitting of experimental spectra of large molecules. In particular, the multimode damping mechanism is taken into account for efficient reduction of the upper time limit in the numerical integration. Excited state energy gradient as well as excited state geometry optimization calculations are employed in order to determine excited state dimensionless normal coordinate displacements. The gradient techniques are highly cost-effective provided that analytical excited state derivatives with respect to nuclear displacements are available. Through comparison with experimental spectra of some representative molecules, we illustrate that the gradient techniques can even outperform the geometry optimization method if the harmonic approximation becomes inadequate. PMID:23267471

  19. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  20. Larger Maximum Tumor Diameter at Radical Prostatectomy Is Associated With Increased Biochemical Failure, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer After Salvage Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit; Sandler, Howard; Feng, Felix Y.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients