Science.gov

Sample records for 5-18 36-37b 51-58

  1. 28 CFR 51.58 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.58... which minorities have been denied an equal opportunity to participate meaningfully in the political process in the jurisdiction. (2) The extent to which minorities have been denied an equal opportunity...

  2. 4. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 1013 (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 10-13 (LEFT TO RIGHT) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  3. 5. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 1417 (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 14-17 (LEFT TO RIGHT) (see photograph VI-50-1 for plan of Kongensgade 17) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  4. 2. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 57 (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 5-7 (LEFT TO RIGHT) (see photograph VI-50-1 for plan of Kongensgade 6) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  5. 3. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 8 AND 9 (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 8 AND 9 (LEFT TO RIGHT) (see photograph VI-50-1 for plans of Kongensgade 8 & 9) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  6. 49 CFR 1242.57 - Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). 1242.57 Section 1242.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.57 Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). Separate common expenses on the basis of...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.57 - Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). 1242.57 Section 1242.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.57 Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). Separate common expenses on the basis of...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.57 - Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). 1242.57 Section 1242.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.57 Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). Separate common expenses on the basis of...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.57 - Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). 1242.57 Section 1242.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.57 Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). Separate common expenses on the basis of...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.57 - Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). 1242.57 Section 1242.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.57 Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). Separate common expenses on the basis of...

  11. 8. (First sheet of a twosheet set entitled "Kongensgade 5558") ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. (First sheet of a two-sheet set entitled "Kongensgade 55-58") KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 55 & 56 (LEFT TO RIGHT) (see photograph VI-50-1 for plan of Kongensgade 56) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  12. 7. (Second sheet of a twosheet set entitled 'Kongensgade 5154') ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. (Second sheet of a two-sheet set entitled 'Kongensgade 51-54') KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 53 (only part of this elevation shown, for full elevation overlap with complementary photograph VI-50-6), & KONGENSGADE 54 (LEFT TO RIGHT) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  13. 9. (Second sheet of a twosheet set entitled "Kongensgade 5558") ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. (Second sheet of a two-sheet set entitled "Kongensgade 55-58") KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 57 & 58 (LEFT TO RIGHT) (see photograph VI-50-1 for plan of Kongensgade 57) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  14. 6. (First sheet of a twosheet set entitled 'Kongensgade 5154') ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. (First sheet of a two-sheet set entitled 'Kongensgade 51-54') KONGENSGADE (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 51, 52 & 53 (only part of Kongensgade 53 elevation shown, for full elevation overlap with complementary photograph VI-50-7) (LEFT TO RIGHT) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  15. 1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI-50 50-2 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 8 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 9 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 17 (see photograph VI-50-5 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 56 (see photograph VI-50-8 for elevation), & KONGENSGADE 57 (see photograph VI-50-9 for elevation) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  16. A 5-18 micron array camera for high-background astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Folz, Walter C.; Woods, Lawrence A.; Varosi, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A new infrared array camera system using a Hughes/SBRC 58 x 62 pixel hybrid Si:Ga array detector has been successfully applied to high-background 5-18-micron astronomical imaging observations. The off-axis reflective optical system minimizes thermal background loading and produces diffraction-limited images with negligible spatial distortion. The noise equivalent flux density (NEFD) of the camera at 10 microns on the 3.0-m NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility with broadband interference filters and 0.26 arcsec pixel is NEFD = 0.01 Jy/sq rt min per pixel (1sigma), and it operates at a frame rate of 30 Hz with no compromise in observational efficiency. The electronic and optical design of the camera, its photometric characteristics, examples of observational results, and techniques for successful array imaging in a high- background astronomical application are discussed.

  17. The effects of natural and synthetic retinoids on the differentiation of RCJ C5.18 chondrogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Von Schroeder, H P; Hashimoto, Y; Heersche, J N

    1994-07-01

    RCJ C 5.18 (C 5.18) is a chondrogenic clonal cell line which, under standard culture conditions, develops chondroblastic features including the production of a cartilagenous matrix. Retinoic acid (RA) is known to inhibit the chondrogenic differentiation of C 5.18 cells and this may parallel the teratogenic effects of retinoids in vivo; however, the question as to which of the 3 retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, beta, gamma) or the 3 retinoid X receptors (RXR alpha, beta, gamma) mediate this RA-induced inhibition remains unanswered. We tested several retinoids with different receptor binding characteristics. Cartilage formation in C 5.18 cultures was evaluated by counting the number of cartilage nodules formed, and by quantitating the glycosaminoglycan content of the cultures using alcian blue staining. All of the retinoids prevented cartilage formation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with the retinoids did not affect cell number, thereby ruling out any toxic effects. RA, which binds to all 3 RARs with similar affinity, produced a 50% inhibition (IC50) of cartilage formation at 4 x 10(-10) M. We also tested Ch55, which also binds to all 3 RARs, but with higher affinity than RA. This compound was approximately 10 times more potent than RA (IC50 2 x 10(-11) M). 9-cis RA, which binds to the 3 RARs with affinities similar to RA and also binds to the 3 RXRs, was less active (IC50 8 x 10(-9) M), suggesting that RXR binding interferes with the inhibitory effect of ligand-activated RARs. 9-cis retinal, for which the binding characteristics are unknown, had the same effect as 9-cis RA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F; Elmore, Susan A

    2010-10-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxicity studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. Authors' note: All digital images can be viewed online at https://niehsimagesepl-inc.com with the username "ToxPathLiver" and the password "embryolivers."

  19. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  20. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is... than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  1. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my fixed amount is more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my fixed... more than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you. Effective Date...

  2. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is... than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  3. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my fixed amount is more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my fixed... more than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  4. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is... than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  5. 10 CFR 51.58 - Environmental report-number of copies; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall submit a copy to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, as... instructions issued by the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of...

  6. 10 CFR 51.58 - Environmental report-number of copies; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall submit a copy to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, as... instructions issued by the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of...

  7. 10 CFR 51.58 - Environmental report-number of copies; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall submit a copy to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, as... instructions issued by the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of...

  8. 10 CFR 51.58 - Environmental report-number of copies; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall submit a copy to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, as... instructions issued by the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of...

  9. 10 CFR 51.58 - Environmental report-number of copies; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall submit a copy to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, as... instructions issued by the Director of the Office of New Reactors, the Director of the Office of...

  10. SDSS J013127.34–032100.1: A NEWLY DISCOVERED RADIO-LOUD QUASAR AT z = 5.18 WITH EXTREMELY HIGH LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Wei-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, William N.; Kim, Minjin; Wang, Ran; and others

    2014-11-10

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34–032100.1 (J0131–0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131–0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ∼100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L {sub bol} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1}, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131–0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  11. SDSS J013127.34-032100.1: A Newly Discovered Radio-loud Quasar at z = 5.18 with Extremely High Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Bai, Jin-Ming; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, William N.; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Kim, Minjin; Wang, Ran; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ai, Yanli; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li; Xin, Yu-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34-032100.1 (J0131-0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131-0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ~100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L bol ~ 1.1 × 1048 erg s-1, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131-0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 109 M ⊙, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  12. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Swartley, Olivia M; Foley, Julie F; Livingston, David P; Cullen, John M; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-07-01

    A critical event in embryo development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has led researchers to use transgenic mice to identify the critical steps involved in developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Vascular development is dependent upon normal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and the transformation of vessels into their adult counterparts. Any alteration in vascular development has the potential to cause deformities or embryonic death. Numerous publications describe specific stages of vascular development relating to various organs, but a single resource detailing the stage-by-stage development of the vasculature pertaining to the hepatobiliary system has not been available. This comprehensive histology atlas provides hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical-stained sections of the developing mouse blood and lymphatic vasculature with emphasis on the hepatobiliary system between embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5 and the early postnatal period. Additionally, this atlas includes a 3-dimensional video representation of the E18.5 mouse venous vasculature. One of the most noteworthy findings of this atlas is the identification of the portal sinus within the mouse, which has been erroneously misinterpreted as the ductus venosus in previous publications. Although the primary purpose of this atlas is to identify normal hepatobiliary vascular development, potential embryonic abnormalities are also described.

  13. 34 CFR 5.18 - Destroyed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified form or character are destroyed after the lapse of time specified in the Records Disposal Act of 1943 (44 U.S.C. 366-380), the Federal Property Management Regulations (41 CFR parts 101-111), and...

  14. 18 CFR 5.18 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... outlined in 50 CFR 600.920(e). (iv) Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Section 307(c)(3) of the CZMA... affected Indian tribes, where applicable. (vi) Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act... consult with Federal and state fish and wildlife agencies, appropriate Indian tribes, and the...

  15. 18 CFR 5.18 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... outlined in 50 CFR 600.920(e). (iv) Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Section 307(c)(3) of the CZMA... affected Indian tribes, where applicable. (vi) Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act... consult with Federal and state fish and wildlife agencies, appropriate Indian tribes, and the...

  16. 18 CFR 5.18 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... outlined in 50 CFR 600.920(e). (iv) Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Section 307(c)(3) of the CZMA... affected Indian tribes, where applicable. (vi) Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act... consult with Federal and state fish and wildlife agencies, appropriate Indian tribes, and the...

  17. 18 CFR 5.18 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... outlined in 50 CFR 600.920(e). (iv) Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Section 307(c)(3) of the CZMA... affected Indian tribes, where applicable. (vi) Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act... consult with Federal and state fish and wildlife agencies, appropriate Indian tribes, and the...

  18. 18 CFR 5.18 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... outlined in 50 CFR 600.920(e). (iv) Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). Section 307(c)(3) of the CZMA... affected Indian tribes, where applicable. (vi) Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act... consult with Federal and state fish and wildlife agencies, appropriate Indian tribes, and the...

  19. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H{sub 2}O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 ({+-} 133) mg/m{sup 3} and 659 ({+-} 88) mg/m{sup 3}, respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m{sup 3} at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m{sup 3} at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m{sup 3} at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 {+-} 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound.

  20. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section: (1) The term retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate: (i) A retail foreign exchange... this part. (2) The term related person when used in reference to a retail forex counterparty means any... person or employee of the retail forex counterparty, and any relative or spouse of any of the...

  1. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., establish and enforce internal rules, procedures and controls to: (1) Ensure, to the extent possible, that... second, and the trading volume at that time and price; and (iv) Any method or algorithm used to determine... indirectly controls such retail foreign exchange dealer or futures commission merchant; or (viii) A...

  2. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., establish and enforce internal rules, procedures and controls to: (1) Ensure, to the extent possible, that... second, and the trading volume at that time and price; and (iv) Any method or algorithm used to determine... indirectly controls such retail foreign exchange dealer or futures commission merchant; or (viii) A...

  3. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management of the partnership business or any part thereof, (B) The handling of retail forex transactions of... section: (1) The term retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate: (i) A retail foreign exchange... this part. (2) The term related person when used in reference to a retail forex counterparty means...

  4. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  5. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Boutoux, G. Rabhi, N.; Batani, D.; Ducret, J.-E.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.-P.; Reverdin, C.; Thfoin, I.; Jakubowska, K.

    2015-11-15

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments.

  6. 43 CFR 5.18 - What wages must I pay to Indian employees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... picture or television producer who obtains a lease or permit for the use of Indian land under 25 CFR part... AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION...

  7. 43 CFR 5.18 - What wages must I pay to Indian employees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... picture or television producer who obtains a lease or permit for the use of Indian land under 25 CFR part... AND SIMILAR PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION...

  8. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generally is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations of the Department of State (22 CFR... enumerated in the U.S. Munitions List (22 CFR part 121). However, if a patent applicant complies with... §§ 5.11 and 5.12 (22 CFR part 125). (b) When a patent application containing subject matter on...

  9. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... generally is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations of the Department of State (22 CFR... enumerated in the U.S. Munitions List (22 CFR part 121). However, if a patent applicant complies with... §§ 5.11 and 5.12 (22 CFR part 125). (b) When a patent application containing subject matter on...

  10. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... generally is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations of the Department of State (22 CFR... enumerated in the U.S. Munitions List (22 CFR part 121). However, if a patent applicant complies with... §§ 5.11 and 5.12 (22 CFR part 125). (b) When a patent application containing subject matter on...

  11. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... generally is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations of the Department of State (22 CFR... enumerated in the U.S. Munitions List (22 CFR part 121). However, if a patent applicant complies with... §§ 5.11 and 5.12 (22 CFR part 125). (b) When a patent application containing subject matter on...

  12. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generally is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations of the Department of State (22 CFR... enumerated in the U.S. Munitions List (22 CFR part 121). However, if a patent applicant complies with... §§ 5.11 and 5.12 (22 CFR part 125). (b) When a patent application containing subject matter on...

  13. Manitoba Physical Fitness Performance Test Manual and Fitness Objectives for Manitoba Youth 5-18 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The physical fitness and lifestyle of Canadian school children has been deteriorating in recent years. The main objectives of physical education are directed toward the development of physical fitness and a positive lifestyle. This manual provides an opportunity for measuring the components of physical fitness. Physical fitness testing involves…

  14. Electron Resonance Decay into a Biological Function: Decrease in Viability of E. coli Transformed by Plasmid DNA Irradiated with 0.5-18 eV Electrons.

    PubMed

    Kouass Sahbani, S; Cloutier, P; Bass, A D; Hunting, D J; Sanche, L

    2015-10-01

    Transient negative ions (TNIs) are ubiquitous in electron-molecule scattering at low electron impact energies (0-20 eV) and are particularly effective in damaging large biomolecules. Because ionizing radiation generates mostly 0-20 eV electrons, TNIs are expected to play important roles in cell mutagenesis and death during radiotherapeutic cancer treatment, although this hypothesis has never been directly verified. Here, we measure the efficiency of transforming E. coli bacteria by inserting into the cells, pGEM-3ZfL(-) plasmid DNA that confers resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Before transformation, plasmids are irradiated with electrons of specific energies between 0.5 and 18 eV. The loss of transformation efficiency plotted as a function of irradiation energy reveals TNIs at 5.5 and 9.5 eV, corresponding to similar states observed in the yields of DNA double strand breaks. We show that TNIs are detectable in the electron-energy dependence of a biological process and can decrease cell viability.

  15. 31 CFR 5.18 - How does a debtor request a special review based on a change in circumstances such as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... review based on a change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? 5... change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? (a) Material change..., catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability. (b) Inability to pay. For purposes of this section,...

  16. Distance Learning Systems and Structures: Training Manual. Volume II. Report of a Sub-Regional Training Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, July 5-18, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Directed toward the training needs of distance education systems which are in a mixed stage of development, this three-part manual sets out training modules for an assortment of specialists currently contributing to distance learning systems. The first part discusses basic principles, including the aims of training, who should be trained, what…

  17. Bioreactor performance and methanogenic population dynamics in a low-temperature (5-18 °C) anaerobic fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhu, Wanbin; Tang, Can; Suo, Yali; Gao, Lijuan; Yuan, Xufeng; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the functionality of microbial community structure in a low temperature, anaerobic fixed-bed reactor was studied by decreasing the operating temperature from 18 °C to 5 °C. The reactor was productive within 20 days and produced stable methane content in biogas (above 77%) throughout the trial period. At 17 °C and 15 °C, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biogas production of reactor were significantly reduced. These might be temperature thresholds when fixed-bed reactors are operated under low temperatures. The methanogen community composition was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone library screening and quantitative PCR. At low ambient temperatures, Methanomicrobiales were dominant methanogens, and they preferentially adhered to the carbon fiber carrier. The results indicated that 16S rRNA levels of Methanomicrobiales and Methanosaetaceae in adhering sludge were higher than in deposited sludge, and they all contributed to the efficient performance of the fixed-bed reactor at low operating temperatures. PMID:22137750

  18. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary hemolymphatic vascular system with emphasis on embryonic days 11.5-18.5 and early postnatal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical event in fetal development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has lead pathologists and scientists to utilize transgenic mice to identify developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Va...

  19. 31 CFR 5.18 - How does a debtor request a special review based on a change in circumstances such as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... review based on a change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? 5... change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? (a) Material change..., catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability. (b) Inability to pay. For purposes of this section,...

  20. 31 CFR 5.18 - How does a debtor request a special review based on a change in circumstances such as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... review based on a change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? 5... change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? (a) Material change..., catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability. (b) Inability to pay. For purposes of this section,...

  1. 31 CFR 5.18 - How does a debtor request a special review based on a change in circumstances such as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... review based on a change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? 5... change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? (a) Material change..., catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability. (b) Inability to pay. For purposes of this section,...

  2. 31 CFR 5.18 - How does a debtor request a special review based on a change in circumstances such as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... review based on a change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? 5... change in circumstances such as catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability? (a) Material change..., catastrophic illness, divorce, death, or disability. (b) Inability to pay. For purposes of this section,...

  3. Distance Learning Systems and Structures--Training of Distance Educators. Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop. Vol. I. (Colombo, Sri Lanka, July 5-18, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop whose objectives were to: (1) review and examine the functions of distance educational systems for the nine participating countries with respect to the training needs of staff responsible for distance education; (2) review, examine, and refine a draft training manual and develop exemplar modules…

  4. [Report from the 1st korean-Polish seminar: "Theoretical, technical and clinical aspects of renal replacement therapy (5/18-21/2000)].

    PubMed

    Wańkowicz, Z

    2000-12-01

    This was the first Korean-Polish seminar on renal replacement therapies which provided a survey of current research being carried out in both countries, delivered by leading experts in this field. The topics included malnutrition in uremia, biocompatibility, risk factors and complications in renal replacement therapy, diabetic nephropathy, new solutions for peritoneal dialysis, and peritoneal transport. The organizers strove to select the topics which are currently of interest to researchers from both countries with the purpose to compare results and stimulate discussion concerning possible collaboration in the future.

  5. Multiple Nonconformities in Ice-Walled Lake Successions Indicate Periods with Cold Summers (24.4 - 22.5 ka, 21.1 - 19.2 ka, 18.5 - 18.1 ka) during the Last Deglaciation in Northeastern Illinois, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented age control on many last glacial stratigraphic units and morainal ice-margin positions are interpreted from AMS radiocarbon ages of tundra plant macrofossils archived in low-relief ice-walled lake plain (IWLP) deposits the Lake Michigan Lobe (south-central Laurentide Ice Sheet). IWLPs are periglacial features that formed on morainal dead-ice permafrost. Lacustrine sediment, and the fossils contained therein, had physical and temporal proximity to the glacier which formed the underlying moraine. In modern ice-walled lakes, as the lake's ice cover begins to melt, moats form which allows access of sloughing tundra-mantled active layer sediment (soil) into the lakes. Multiple AMS ages from two sites with proglacial sediment buried by glacial max LIS diamicton, and IWLPs reveal evidence of episodic plant growth and sedimentation including ca. 24.0 to 24.4 ka (post Shelby Phase), 22.5 to 21.1 ka (post Livingston Phase), 18.1 to 17.4 ka (post Woodstock Phase). Although presently based on negative evidence, the associated nonconformities (listed in title) indicate periods when cold conditions did not promote development of the estival moat. Although the evidence does not preclude tundra growth during the cold summers, there was little landscape modification due to limited thawing of the active layer. At approximately the onset of the 19.2-18.5 "warm" period, at least two large deglacial discharge events flooded the Fox and Kankakee tributary valleys of the Illinois River. The latter, known as the Kankakee Torrent, occurred at 19.05 - 18.85 ka (σ1 range) at the Oswego channel complex. The temporal coincidence of the torrents and sedimentation in ice-walled lakes suggests that the post-Livingston Phase nonconformity (21.1 - 19.2 ka) was a period of lessened meltwater discharge through subglacial conduits (tunnel valleys) as the frozen toe promoted formation of subglacial lakes, buildup of pore-water pressures, and the release of subglacial water as "torrents". In the case of the Fox and Kankakee torrents, ice-marginal discharge first flowed into proglacial lakes which ultimately breached moraines, resulting in catastrophic "torrents". Hence, present knowledge does not allow determination of the nature of the subglacial release (catastrophic vs. large, steady discharge).

  6. 40 CFR 180.590 - 2, 6-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2, 6-DIPN); tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hog, liver 0.5 5/18/12 Hog, meat 0.2 5/18/12 Hog, meat byproducts 0.4 5/18/12 Horse, fat 1.0 5/18/12 Horse, liver 0.5 5/18/12 Horse, meat 0.2 5/18/12 Horse, meat byproducts 0.4 5/18/12 Milk, fat 0.5 5/18..., liver 0.5 5/18/12 Cattle, meat 0.2 5/18/12 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.4 5/18/12 Goat, fat 1.0...

  7. 40 CFR 180.590 - 2, 6-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2, 6-DIPN); tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hog, liver 0.5 5/18/12 Hog, meat 0.2 5/18/12 Hog, meat byproducts 0.4 5/18/12 Horse, fat 1.0 5/18/12 Horse, liver 0.5 5/18/12 Horse, meat 0.2 5/18/12 Horse, meat byproducts 0.4 5/18/12 Milk, fat 0.5 5/18..., liver 0.5 5/18/12 Cattle, meat 0.2 5/18/12 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.4 5/18/12 Goat, fat 1.0...

  8. 10 CFR 51.66 - Environmental report-number of copies; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-number of copies; distribution. 51.66 Section 51.66 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... supplement to an environmental report in the manner specified in § 51.58(a). The applicant shall maintain...

  9. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones. Materials and Methods: The ethno-medicinal data were collected between July and September 2012 through face-to-face interview with local herbalist. Results: A total of 18 species belonging to 19 botanical families were recorded in study area. Species with the highest frequency of mentions were Alhagi maurorum (51.58%), Tribulus terrestris (51.58%), and Nigella sativa (48.14). The most frequently used plant parts were aerial parts (38%), leaf (33%) and fruits (17%). Decoction (68%) was the most frequently prescribed method of preparation. Most of the medicinal plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have not been investigated in animal and humane models of renal stone which provides a new area of research. Conclusion: In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27689108

  10. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones. Materials and Methods: The ethno-medicinal data were collected between July and September 2012 through face-to-face interview with local herbalist. Results: A total of 18 species belonging to 19 botanical families were recorded in study area. Species with the highest frequency of mentions were Alhagi maurorum (51.58%), Tribulus terrestris (51.58%), and Nigella sativa (48.14). The most frequently used plant parts were aerial parts (38%), leaf (33%) and fruits (17%). Decoction (68%) was the most frequently prescribed method of preparation. Most of the medicinal plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have not been investigated in animal and humane models of renal stone which provides a new area of research. Conclusion: In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  11. [Etiology of pleural effusion based on material from the Hospital of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kolczyński, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of the changes in incidence of tuberculosis and lung cancer on the etiology of pleural effusion among the patients of the Hospital of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis. To this end 349 patients with pleural effusion were separated from the total number of 9786 patients treated in years 1990-1999. The most numerous group--180 patients (51.58%)--consisted of the cases of malignant neoplasms, 109 (31.25%)--tuberculosis and 60 (17.17%)--remaining diseases altogether. At the time, the statistically significant increase of the whole number of patients with pleural effusion as well as the increase of patients with pleural effusion caused by malignant tumors were recorded. It was shown that the increasing incidence of lung cancer in Silesia at that time caused the change of the profile of the Hospital of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis.

  12. Degradation and behavior of natural steroid hormones in cow manure waste during biological treatments and ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ermawati, Rahyani; Morimura, Shigeru; Tang, Yueqin; Liu, Kai; Kida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    An efficient treatment process for screened cow manure waste, particularly for the degradation of natural steroid hormones, was developed. The first step in this process was a draw-and-fill process for thermophilic anaerobic digestion. After fourfold dilution with tap water, continuous feeding was performed for the aerobic treatment of the effluent from the anaerobic treatment. Batchwise ozone oxidation was then carried out for the degradation of the natural steroid hormones that remained in the effluent from the aerobic treatment. A yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to evaluate hormonal degradation. Significant reductions in the concentrations of total VFA, BOD(5), COD(Cr), TOC, TS, VSS, and natural steroid hormones were demonstrated in the effluent from the biological treatments. The removal ratios of such concentrations were 99.7%, 90%, 79%, 84%, 51%, 58%, and 99%, respectively. Although the concentrations of the remaining TOC and COD(Cr) remained constant, natural steroid hormones were completely removed by ozone oxidation.

  13. Protesting Identity: Memories of the Kwangju Uprising and Effects on Identity Formation of Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2013-01-01

    The Kwangju Democratic Uprising, variously referred to as the Kwangju democratization movement, the Kwangju people's uprising, 5.18, and 5.18 Democratic uprising, is considered a pivotal moment in Korean history. Once framed as a communist disturbance by the ruling military regime, the uprising served a central role in Korea's transition from…

  14. 76 FR 31963 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Rescission of Order of Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Published: FR: 5/18/11 (Volume 76, No. 96, Pg. 28780) Sandra L. Kusumoto, Director, Bureau of Certification... pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. Chapter 409) and the regulations of...

  15. 78 FR 30912 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-582); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    .... \\5\\ 18 CFR 382.201. Respondents file requests for waivers and exemptions of fees and charges \\6... respondent responses response annual burden (A) (B) (A) x (B) = (C) (D) (C) x (D) FERC-582 \\8\\ 114 1 114...

  16. 77 FR 41377 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/11/2012 (77 FR 27737-27738) and 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596), the Committee..., Blue, 4 Piece. MR 1168--Carrier, Cake and Cupcake, Collapsible. NPA: Industries for the Blind,...

  17. 76 FR 38115 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... hot/cold cathode fluorescent lights. Sharpe Mixers, Inc 1541 South 92nd Place, 5/18/2011 The firm... Minneapolis, MN 55449- micro miniature dies and stamped 7264. components. Victoria Precision, Inc...

  18. 77 FR 42700 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596) and 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the Committee... Highway 6 West, Iowa City, IA NPA: Genesis Development, Jefferson, IA Contracting Activity: Department...

  19. Embryo formation from low sperm concentration by using dielectrophoretic force

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Kao, Wei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    A biochip system imitates the oviduct of mammals with a microfluidic channel to achieve fertilization in vitro of imprinting-control-region (ICR) mice. We apply a method to manipulate and to position the oocyte and the sperm of ICR mice at the same time in our microfluidic channel with a positive dielectrophoretic (DEP) force. The positive dielectrophoretic response of the oocyte and sperm was exhibited under applied bias conditions AC 10 Vpp waveform, 1 MHz, 10 min. With this method, the concentration of sperm in the vicinity of the oocyte was increased and enhanced the probability of natural fertilization. We used commercial numerical software (CFDRC-ACE+) to simulate the square of the electric field and analyzed the location at which the oocyte and sperm are trapped. The microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated with poly(dimethylsiloxane). The results of our experiments indicate that a positive DEP served to drive the position of the oocyte and the sperm to natural fertilization (average rate of fertilization 51.58%) in our microchannel structures at insemination concentration 1.5 × 106 sperm ml−1. Embryos were cultured to two cells after 24 h and four cells after 48 h. PMID:25825615

  20. The characteristics of a novel heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium, Bacillus methylotrophicus strain L7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Liu, Ying; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-03-01

    Bacillus methylotrophicus strain L7, exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification ability, with maximum NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N removal rate of 51.58 mg/L/d and 5.81 mg/L/d, respectively. Strain L7 showed different gaseous emitting patterns from those strains ever described. When (15)NH(4)Cl, or Na(15)NO(2), or K(15)NO(3) was used, results of GC-MS indicated that N(2)O was emitted as the intermediate of heterotrophic nitrification or aerobic denitrification, while GC-IRMS results showed that N(2) was produced as end product when nitrite was used. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for heterotrophic nitrification were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N 6, pH 7-8, 0 g/L NaCl, 37 °C and a wide range of NH(4)(+)-N from 80 to 1000 mg/L. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal conditions for aerobic denitrification were C/N 20, pH 7-8, 10 g/L NaCl and DO 4.82 mg/L (shaking speed 50 r/min) when nitrite was served as substrate.

  1. Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and its impact on soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Xu, Jingming

    2015-11-01

    Compared to soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants, soil pollution by fluorides is usually ignored in China. Actually, fluorine-contaminated soil has an unfavorable influence on human, animals, plants, and surrounding environment. This study reports on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and the effects of this remediation technology on soil fertility. Experimental results showed that electrokinetic remediation using NaOH as the anolyte was a considerable choice to eliminate fluorine in contaminated soils. Under the experimental conditions, the removal efficiency of fluorine by the electrokinetic remediation method was 70.35%. However, the electrokinetic remediation had a significant impact on the distribution and concentrations of soil native compounds. After the electrokinetic experiment, in the treated soil, the average value of available nitrogen was raised from 69.53 to 74.23 mg/kg, the average value of available phosphorus and potassium were reduced from 20.05 to 10.39 mg/kg and from 61.31 to 51.58 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents of soil available nitrogen and phosphorus in the anode regions were higher than those in the cathode regions, but the distribution of soil available potassium was just the opposite. In soil organic matter, there was no significant change. These experiment results suggested that some steps should be taken to offset the impacts, after electrokinetic treatment.

  2. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions.

    PubMed

    Forn, C; Barros-Loscertales, A; Escudero, J; Belloch, V; Campos, S; Parcet, M A; Avila, C

    2006-06-01

    Cortical reorganization in multiple sclerosis (MS) is defined as a compensatory mechanism which requires MS patients to overactivate specific brain areas in order to perform the task as controls. To investigate this process with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) task, we selected 15 MS patients who performed the PASAT task within-normal limits and 10 healthy controls. Once selected, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain areas involved in PASAT performance in both groups. Results showed that the task activated the left frontal (BA6 and 9) and parietal cortex (BA7 and 40) in both groups, but MS patients showed a stronger activation in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9, 44 and 45) when compared with controls. These results confirmed those obtained post hoc by Audoin et al. [Audoin, B., Ibarrola, D., Ranjeva, J.P., Confort-Gouny, S., Malikova, I., Ali-Chérif, A.M., Pelletier, J., Cozzone, P., et al., 2003. Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS. Hum. Brain Mapp. 20, 51-58], and we interpreted this as showing true cortical reorganization.

  3. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  4. The influence of morphine on the absorption of paracetamol from various formulations in subjects in the supine position, as assessed by TDx measurement of salivary paracetamol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Julia M; Tyers, Nicola M; Davey, Andrew K

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the type of paracetamol formulation on the rate of absorption when subjects are in the supine position, with or without taking concomitant morphine. Two groups of healthy volunteers were used, who were in the fasting state and remained in the supine position during the study. One group took 1,500 mg of paracetamol on three occasions as conventional tablets, dispersible tablets or a suspension in a randomized crossover design. Seventeen saliva samples per subject were obtained (time zero to 360 min post-dose), which were then centrifuged and kept at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. The second group repeated the study following four doses of morphine syrup (10 mg 4 hourly) in the 12 h preceding paracetamol ingestion. In this phase of the study, paracetamol absorption from suspension was not investigated. A TDx assay was used to determine salivary paracetamol concentrations. The tmax for conventional tablets when taken concomitantly with morphine was 160 (+/- 81) min compared to 51 (+/- 58) min for subjects not taking morphine. For dispersible tablets the tmax in the morphine group was 14 (+/- 9) min compared to 15 (+/- 12) min without morphine. The results suggest that patients who are confined to bed and taking morphine will have an unacceptably long delay between taking conventional paracetamol tablets and the paracetamol reaching therapeutic plasma concentrations. Conversely, there is little effect on the absorption of dispersible paracetamol under the same conditions. PMID:14607015

  5. [Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zha, Tong-Gang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Wang, Gao-min

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (< or =0.25 mm), which accounted for 51% -58% and 42% -49%, respectively. Both the mean mass diameter and the geometrical mean mass diameter of the soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

  6. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients. PMID:27275199

  7. Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Mölling, Paula; Herrmann, Björn

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. PMID:23541117

  8. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen. PMID:26620080

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and its impact on soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Xu, Jingming

    2015-11-01

    Compared to soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants, soil pollution by fluorides is usually ignored in China. Actually, fluorine-contaminated soil has an unfavorable influence on human, animals, plants, and surrounding environment. This study reports on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and the effects of this remediation technology on soil fertility. Experimental results showed that electrokinetic remediation using NaOH as the anolyte was a considerable choice to eliminate fluorine in contaminated soils. Under the experimental conditions, the removal efficiency of fluorine by the electrokinetic remediation method was 70.35%. However, the electrokinetic remediation had a significant impact on the distribution and concentrations of soil native compounds. After the electrokinetic experiment, in the treated soil, the average value of available nitrogen was raised from 69.53 to 74.23 mg/kg, the average value of available phosphorus and potassium were reduced from 20.05 to 10.39 mg/kg and from 61.31 to 51.58 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents of soil available nitrogen and phosphorus in the anode regions were higher than those in the cathode regions, but the distribution of soil available potassium was just the opposite. In soil organic matter, there was no significant change. These experiment results suggested that some steps should be taken to offset the impacts, after electrokinetic treatment. PMID:26109225

  10. Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate gel beads having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these beads extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the beads containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating beads (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h.

  11. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions.

    PubMed

    Forn, C; Barros-Loscertales, A; Escudero, J; Belloch, V; Campos, S; Parcet, M A; Avila, C

    2006-06-01

    Cortical reorganization in multiple sclerosis (MS) is defined as a compensatory mechanism which requires MS patients to overactivate specific brain areas in order to perform the task as controls. To investigate this process with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) task, we selected 15 MS patients who performed the PASAT task within-normal limits and 10 healthy controls. Once selected, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain areas involved in PASAT performance in both groups. Results showed that the task activated the left frontal (BA6 and 9) and parietal cortex (BA7 and 40) in both groups, but MS patients showed a stronger activation in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9, 44 and 45) when compared with controls. These results confirmed those obtained post hoc by Audoin et al. [Audoin, B., Ibarrola, D., Ranjeva, J.P., Confort-Gouny, S., Malikova, I., Ali-Chérif, A.M., Pelletier, J., Cozzone, P., et al., 2003. Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS. Hum. Brain Mapp. 20, 51-58], and we interpreted this as showing true cortical reorganization. PMID:16466933

  12. Murine skin and vaginal mucosa are similarly susceptible to infection by pseudovirions of different papillomavirus classifications and species

    PubMed Central

    Handisurya, Alessandra; Day, Patricia M.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Buck, Christopher B.; Kwak, Kihyuck; Roden, Richard B. S.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Depending upon viral genotype, productive papillomavirus infection and disease display preferential tropism for cutaneous or mucosal stratified squamous epithelia, although the mechanisms are unclear. To investigate papillomavirus entry tropism, we used reporter pseudovirions based on various cutaneous and mucosal papillomavirus species, including the recently identified murine papillomavirus. Pseudovirus transduction of BALB/c mice was examined using an improved murine skin infection protocol and a previously developed cervicovaginal challenge model. In the skin, HPV5, HPV6, HPV16, BPV1 and MusPV1 pseudovirions preferentially transduced keratinocytes at sites of trauma, similar to the genital tract. Skin infection, visualized by in vivo imaging using a luciferase reporter gene, peaked between days 2–3 and rapidly diminished for all pseudovirion types. Murine cutaneous and genital tissues were similarily permissive for pseudovirions of HPV types 5,6,8,16,18,26,45,51,58 and animal papillomaviruses BPV1 and MusPV1, implying that papillomavirus’ tissue and host tropism is governed primarily by post-entry regulatory events in the mouse. PMID:22985477

  13. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  14. The effect of gallium substitution on the microstructure and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Zaini, N. Z. M. Ibrahim, N. B.

    2015-09-25

    Y{sub 3}Fe{sub (5-y)}Ga{sub y}O{sub 12} (y = 0, 0.4, 1.4 and 2,4) thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and annealed for 2h in oxygen. The thin film’s characteristic were studied by an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD show that all films have the garnet phase structure. The grain size particles measured using FESEM were between 45.08 nm to 51.58 nm, and the thickness were between 42 nm to 90 nm. The magnetic properties measured using VSM showed that result was shown with hysteresis loop. The magnetization saturation decreased from 144.26 to 2.76 emu/cm{sup 3} with the increasing substitution gallium. The substitution for y = 2.4 was shown the saturation magnetization was very low. The coercivity increased 35 to 75 Oe due the the increasing grain size.

  15. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Rehan; Dahleen, Lynn; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-04-01

    Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06) and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17). Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC) was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06) and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17). Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group. PMID:21734828

  16. Vegetation dieback as a proxy for temperature within a wet pyroclastic density current: A novel experiment and observations from the 6th of August 2012 Tongariro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efford, Jackson T.; Bylsma, Rebecca J.; Clarkson, Bruce D.; Pittari, Adrian; Mauriohooho, Kate; Moon, Vicki G.

    2014-10-01

    The 6th of August 2012 eruption of Te Maari (Mt Tongariro, New Zealand) generated wet pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which caused widespread dieback of vegetation (singed, brown foliage) in their path. An absence of significant charcoal formation suggests that PDC temperatures were mostly below 250 °C. Textural evidence for liquid water being present in the matrices during emplacement (vesicles) suggests that temperatures were < 100 °C. We determined a probable minimum PDC temperature using an experiment replicating the critical temperatures required to induce foliar browning in seven species affected by the eruption. In locations where all species exhibited browned foliage (or were defoliated), temperatures were probably ≥ 64 °C assuming a PDC duration of 60 s. In the more distal areas, where only the most susceptible species were browned while others remained healthy and unaffected, temperatures were probably around 51-58 °C. These results have relevance to volcanic hazard mitigation and risk assessment, especially on the popular Tongariro Alpine Crossing.

  17. Characterization of the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians concentricus Say) transcriptome and identification of growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sigang; Zhang, Dongling; Guo, Yihui; Liu, Baosuo; Yu, Dahui

    2015-12-01

    The bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus is a commercially important bivalve species for aquaculture in China. However, the scarcity of transcripotomic and genomic resources of the bay scallop has hindered the progress of genetic improvement of the animal. To change this situation, de novo transcriptome sequencing with Illumina HiSeq™2000 sequencing platform was carried out for the bay scallop. Through de novo assembly, 107,145 high quality unigenes were obtained. Totally, 44,901 and 34,673 unigenes were annotated in the Nr database and Swiss-Prot database, respectively. With gene ontology (GO) annotations, 77,834 (51.58%), 49,367 (32.72%) and 23,695 (15.70%) were involved in biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions, respectively. One hundred and thirty seven unigenes putatively involved in growth were identified through blastx. More than 2706 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 82,116 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also detected. These genes and markers may serve as new valuable resources for functional genomic and genetic studies on the scallop A. i. concentricus.

  18. Lidar measurement as support to the ocular hazard distance calculation using atmospheric attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, K. Ove S.; Persson, Rolf; Gustafsson, Frank; Berglund, Folke; Malmquist, Jonas

    2015-10-01

    The reduction of the laser hazard distance range using atmospheric attenuation has been tested with series of lidar measurements accomplished at the Vidsel Test Range, Vidsel, Sweden. The objective was to find situations with low level of aerosol backscatter during this campaign, with the implications of low extinction coefficient, since the lowest atmospheric attenuation gives the highest ocular hazards. The work included building a ground based backscatter lidar, performing a series of measurements and analyzing the results. The measurements were performed during the period June to November, 2014. The results of lidar measurements showed at several occasions' very low atmospheric attenuation as a function of height to an altitude of at least 10 km. The lowest limit of aerosol backscatter coefficient possible to measure with this instrument is less than 0.3•10-7 m-1 sr-1. Assuming an aerosol lidar ratio between 30 - 100 sr this leads to an aerosol extinction coefficient of about 0.9 - 3•10-6 m-1. Using a designator laser as an example with wavelength 1064 nm, power 0.180 W, pulse length 15 ns, PRF 11.5 Hz, exposure time of 10 sec and beam divergence of 0.08 mrad, it will have a NOHD of 48 km. With the measured aerosol attenuation and by assuming a molecule extinction coefficient to be 5•10-6 m-1 (calculated using MODTRAN (Ontar Corp.) assuming no aerosol) the laser hazard distance will be reduced with 51 - 58 %, depending on the lidar ratio assumption. The conclusion from the work is; reducing of the laser hazard distance using atmospheric attenuation within the NOHD calculations is possible but should be combined with measurements of the attenuation.

  19. Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  20. On the agalactia post partum in the sow. A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, I; Einarsson, S; Larsson, K; Bäckström, L

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the clinical symptoms of agalactic sows post partum in randomly selected swine herds. The study comprised 71 sows affected with agalactia post partum and 71 healthy sows from the same herds used as controls. Average morbidity of the disease in these 50 herds, consisting of an average of 25 sows, was 12.8%. Sixty-three per cent of the agalactic sows were affected within one day after farrowing. There was no difference in gestation length between healthy sows and agalactic sows. The body temperature was significantly higher for affected than for healthy sows. Mastitis was diagnosed in 35 out of 71 agalactic sows. The criteria for mastitis were swelling and herdening of one or several udder glands. Vaginal discharge was recorded for affected sows (55/57) as well as for healthy sows (51/58) and is therefore not significantly associated with agalactia. The temperament of the agalactic sows was moderately or severely affected in 62 out of 71 agalactic sows. Constipation was recorded for 13/59 agalactic sows and for 3/57 normal sows. The agalactic sows had significantly higher number of piglets per litter at birth while the litter size was higher for healthy sows at weaning. Numerically, more sows were culled among agalactic sows (16/48) than among normal sows (6/42). Moreover, sows affected with agalactia at the previous parturition were more inclined to meet with the disease at the next parturition. Further studies comprising large groups of animals are, however, necessary for evaluation of this question.

  1. Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens.

    PubMed

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; Robison, Steven H

    2009-12-01

    The need to understand and estimate quantitatively the aggregate exposure to ingredients used broadly in a variety of product types continues to grow. Currently aggregate exposure is most commonly estimated by using a very simplistic approach of adding or summing the exposures from all the individual product types in which the chemical is used. However, the more broadly the ingredient is used in related consumer products, the more likely this summation will result in an unrealistic estimate of exposure because individuals in the population vary in their patterns of product use including co-use and non-use. Furthermore the ingredient may not be used in all products of a given type. An approach is described for refining this aggregate exposure using data on (1) co-use and non-use patterns of product use, (2) extent of products in which the ingredient is used and (3) dermal penetration and metabolism. This approach and the relative refinement in the aggregate exposure from incorporating these data is illustrated using methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, the most widely used preservative system in personal care and cosmetic products. When these refining factors were used, the aggregate exposure compared to the simple addition approach was reduced by 51%, 58%, 90% and 92% for methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, respectively. Since biomonitoring integrates all sources and routes of exposure, the estimates using this approach were compared to available paraben biomonitoring data. Comparison to the 95th percentile of these data showed that these refined estimates were still conservative by factors of 2-92. All of our refined estimates of aggregate exposure are less than the ADI of 10mg/kg/day for parabens.

  2. Characterization of gamma-crystallin from a catfish: structural characterization of one major isoform with high methionine by cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pan, F M; Chang, W C; Lin, C H; Hsu, A L; Chiou, S H

    1995-04-01

    gamma-Crystallin is the major and most abundant lens protein present in the eye lens of most teleostean fishes. To facilitate structural characterization of gamma-crystallins isolated from the lens of the catfishes (Clarias fuscus), a cDNA mixture was synthesized from the poly(A)+mRNA isolated from fresh eye lenses, and amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was adopted to obtain cDNAs encoding various gamma-crystallins. Plasmids of transformed E. coli strain JM109 containing amplified gamma-crystallin cDNAs were purified and prepared for nucleotide sequencing by the dideoxynucleotide chain-termination method. Sequencing more than five clones containing DNA inserts of 0.52 kb revealed the presence of one major isoform with a complete reading frame of 534 base pairs, covering a gamma-crystallin (gamma M1) with a deduced protein sequence of 177 amino acids excluding the initiating methionine. It was of interest to find that this crystallin of pI 9.1 contains a high-methionine content of 15.3% in contrast to those gamma-crystallins of low-methionine content from most mammalian lenses. Sequence comparisons of catfish gamma M1-crystallin with those published sequences of gamma-crystallins from carp, bovine and mouse lenses indicate that there is approx. an 82% sequence homology between the catfish and the carp species of piscine class whereas only 51-58% homology is found between mammals and the catfish. Moreover the differences in the hydropathy profiles for these two groups of gamma-crystallins, i.e. one with a high-methionine content from teleostean fishes and the other with a low-methionine content from mammalian species, reflect a distinct variance in the polarity distributions of surface amino acids in these crystallins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Epidemiologic profile of oriental sore caused by Leishmania parasites in a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Khosravani, Moosa; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sharafi, Mehdi; Rafat-Panah, Azam

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the first and most important vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand flies in Iran. As a parasitic disease in the Old World, it is a complex zoonosis with multiple vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors of pathogenic flagellate protozoan in the genus of Leishmania in different parts of its range. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of this parasite which can be transmitted through the bite of an infected female sand fly distributed in almost all parts of Iran. This research performed on all CL patients as that were registered into special forms by physicians and experts during the study period 2006-2013 in the county town of Fasa, Iran. Data were analyzed by Chi square test using SPSS 17 statistics software. Overall, 1,908 patients (59.18 %) lived in rural and 1,316 (40.82 %) lived in urban areas. All ages were between 1 and ≥30 year. The most frequent age group was ≥20 years (54.6 %). Sex ratio of patients was almost 1:1 (1,561; 48.42 % male vs. 1,663; 51.58 % female). Most of them (66.84 %) had wet lesions and those with dry lesions were less frequent (33.16 %). There was a significant difference between the frequencies of these two groups (P < 0.05). Hand ulcers were the most prevalent part of body (43.24 %). The highest prevalence rate (35.14 %) of lesions occurred in autumn. The unstable trend of this disease in different years and its relatively high disease burden affecting all age groups in Fasa with respect to other counties in Iran showed that it was most likely an endemic disease in this region. PMID:27605840

  4. Genomic Structure and Identification of Novel Mutations in Usherin, the Gene Responsible for Usher Syndrome Type IIa

    PubMed Central

    Weston, M. D.; Eudy, J. D.; Fujita, S.; Yao, S.-F.; Usami, S.; Cremers, C.; Greenburg, J.; Ramesar, R.; Martini, A.; Moller, C.; Smith, R. J.; Sumegi, J.; Kimberling, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Usher syndrome type IIa (USHIIa) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This disorder maps to human chromosome 1q41. Recently, mutations in USHIIa patients were identified in a novel gene isolated from this chromosomal region. The USH2A gene encodes a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 171.5 kD and possesses laminin epidermal growth factor as well as fibronectin type III domains. These domains are observed in other protein components of the basal lamina and extracellular matrixes; they may also be observed in cell-adhesion molecules. The intron/exon organization of the gene whose protein we name “Usherin” was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products and cloned genomic DNA with cDNA-specific primers. The gene is encoded by 21 exons and spans a minimum of 105 kb. A mutation search of 57 independent USHIIa probands was performed with a combination of direct sequencing and heteroduplex analysis of PCR-amplified exons. Fifteen new mutations were found. Of 114 independent USH2A alleles, 58 harbored probable pathologic mutations. Ten cases of USHIIa were true homozygotes and 10 were compound heterozygotes; 18 heterozygotes with only one identifiable mutation were observed. Sixty-five percent (38/58) of cases had at least one mutation, and 51% (58/114) of the total number of possible mutations were identified. The allele 2299delG (previously reported as 2314delG) was the most frequent mutant allele observed (16%; 31/192). Three new missense mutations (C319Y, N346H, and C419F) were discovered; all were restricted to the previously unreported laminin domain VI region of Usherin. The possible significance of this domain, known to be necessary for laminin network assembly, is discussed in the context of domain VI mutations from other proteins. PMID:10729113

  5. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. Objectives: This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Materials and Methods: Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Results: Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. Conclusion: The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27689107

  6. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L−1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L−1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  7. Wheat proteins enhance stability and function of adhesion molecules in cryopreserved hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Mélanie; Hamel, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A; Sarhan, Fathey

    2009-01-01

    Cryopreserved hepatocytes with good hepatospecific functions upon thawing are important for clinical transplantation and for in vitro drug toxicity testing. However, cryopreservation reduces viability and certain hepatospecific functions, but the most pronounced change is diminished attachment efficiency of hepatocytes. Adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix and cell-cell contacts are crucial for many aspects of cellular function. These processes are partly mediated and controlled by cellular adhesion molecules. The mechanisms responsible for reduced attachment efficiency of cryopreserved hepatocytes are not well understood. To address this question, we investigated the effect of a new cryopreservation procedure, using wheat proteins (WPs) or mixtures of recombinant forms of wheat freezing tolerance-associated proteins, on the stability of three important adhesion molecules (beta1-integrin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin). Immunoblot analyses revealed that the levels of beta1-integrin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were much lower in cryopreserved rat hepatocytes, when compared to fresh cells. Protein expression of the adhesion molecules was generally lower in cells cryopreserved with DMSO, compared to WPs. Moreover, the stability of the adhesion molecules was not affected by cryopreservation to the same degree, with more pronounced decreases occurring for beta1-integrin (62-74%) > beta-catenin (51-58%) > E-cadherin (21-37%). However, when hepatocytes were cryopreserved with partially purified WPs (SulWPE, AcWPE) or with mixtures of recombinant wheat proteins, there was a clear protective effect against the loss of protein expression of beta1-integrin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin. Protein expression was only 10-20% lower than that observed in fresh hepatocytes. These findings clearly demonstrate that WPs, and more particularly, partially purified WPs and recombinant wheat proteins, were more efficient for cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes by maintaining good

  8. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis: molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the female reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in vertebrate reproduction, with the actions of FSH mediated by FSH receptors (FSHRs) on the granulosa cells of the ovary. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of FSHR in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis (caFSHR), and its tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the reproductive cycle. The mature protein of caFSHR displays typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, but also contains some remarkable differences when compared with other vertebrate FSHRs. The deduced amino acid sequence of the caFSHR shares identity of 85% with Chinese softshell turtle, 84-87% with birds, 77-78% with mammals, 67-73% with amphibians and 51-58% with fishes. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSHR amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue expression analysis showed that caFSHR was not only expressed in the ovary, but also in the stomach, intestine, pancreas liver and oviduct at similar levels, while it was not detectable in heart, thymus or thyroid. Expression of caFSHR in the ovary is high in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July during the breeding period, where it is maintained at high levels through September (breeding anaphase). Expression decreases significantly in November (hibernating period) and then remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes in FSHR expression suggest that it plays an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle of Chinese alligator. PMID:25765682

  9. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers

    PubMed Central

    Shimoji, Shigehiro; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Shibutani, Tohru; Ogasawara, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%), 6 splash exposures (18.8%), and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66) reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58) and 60.3% (35/58) in dentists and 88.6% (39/44) and 61.4% (27/44) in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58) for dentists and 34.1% (15/44) for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood’ (90%, 99/110) and ‘dental operations at our clinic are performed based only on a questionnaire without serious examinations for HBV, HCV, and HIV’ (71.8%, 79/110). The reason of low compliance of protective eyewear among dentists might relate to fine dental procedures. Appropriate information is important for the motive of wearing personal protective equipment, and an early educational program may have a potential to increase compliance with the use of that equipment. PMID:23745061

  10. Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  11. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. Objectives: This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Materials and Methods: Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Results: Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. Conclusion: The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  12. Advance care planning: identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Howlett, J.; Sharma, N.C.; Biondo, P.; Holroyd-Leduc, J.; Fassbender, K.; Simon, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning (acp) is an important process in health care today. How to prospectively identify potential local barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp across a complex, multi-sector, publicly funded health care system and how to develop specific mitigating strategies have not been well characterized. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of clinical and administrative health care opinion leaders across the province of Alberta to characterize system-specific barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp. The survey was based on published literature about the barriers to and facilitators of acp and on the Michie Theoretical Domains Framework. Results Of 88 surveys, 51 (58%) were returned. The survey identified system-specific barriers that could challenge uptake of acp. The factors were categorized into four main domains. Three examples of individual system-specific barriers were “insufficient public engagement and misunderstanding,” “conflict among different provincial health service initiatives,” and “lack of infrastructure.” Local system-specific barriers and facilitators were subsequently explored through a semi-structured informal discussion group involving key informants. The group identified approaches to mitigate specific barriers. Conclusions Uptake of acp is a priority for many health care systems, but bringing about change in multi-sector health care systems is complex. Identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators to the uptake of innovation are important elements of successful knowledge translation. We developed and successfully used a simple and inexpensive process to identify local system-specific barriers and enablers to uptake of acp, and to identify specific mitigating strategies. PMID:26300673

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Health-Related Quality of Life and Family Impact between Children with ADHD Treated in a General Pediatric Clinic and a Psychiatric Clinic Utilizing the PedsQL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbers, Christine A.; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Boutton, Kelly; Ransom, Daniel; Varni, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the perspective of children with ADHD and their parents being seen in a Pediatric Clinic in comparison to healthy children and children with ADHD being seen in a Psychiatric Clinic. Method: Participants were children with a physician diagnosis of ADHD ages 5-18 years and their…

  14. Summer Students in Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study on Educational Applications of Virtual Reality Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricken, Meredith; Byrne, Chris M.

    The goal of this study was to take a first step in evaluating the potential of virtual reality (VR) as a learning environment. The context of the study was The Technology Academy, a technology-oriented summer day camp for students ages 5-18, where student activities center around hands-on exploration of new technology (e.g., robotics, MIDI digital…

  15. An extended mini-complement factor H molecule ameliorates experimental C3 glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Eva-Maria; Barbour, Thomas D; Pappworth, Isabel Y; Wong, Edwin K S; Palmer, Jeremy M; Sheerin, Neil S; Pickering, Matthew C; Marchbank, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal regulation of the complement alternative pathway is associated with C3 glomerulopathy. Complement factor H is the main plasma regulator of the alternative pathway and consists of 20 short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. Although recombinant full-length factor H represents a logical treatment for C3 glomerulopathy, its production has proved challenging. We and others have designed recombinant mini-factor H proteins in which ‘non-essential' SCR domains have been removed. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of a mini-complement factor H protein, FH1–5^18–20, using the unique factor H–deficient (Cfh−/−) mouse model of C3 glomerulopathy. FH1–5^18–20 is comprised of the key complement regulatory domains (SCRs 1–5) linked to the surface recognition domains (SCRs 18–20). Intraperitoneal injection of FH1–5^18–20 in Cfh−/− mice reduced abnormal glomerular C3 deposition, similar to full-length factor H. Systemic effects on plasma alternative pathway control were comparatively modest, in association with a short half-life. Thus, FH1–5^18–20 is a potential therapeutic agent for C3 glomerulopathy and other renal conditions with alternative pathway-mediated tissue injury. PMID:26221753

  16. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item scores,…

  17. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  18. Thought-Bubbles Help Children with Autism Acquire an Alternative to a Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Henry M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Caswell, Robert; Gomez, Juan Carlos; Swettenham, John; Toye, Eleanor; Lagattuta, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Two studies with a total of 17 children (ages 5-18) with autism tested a picture-in-the-head strategy for dealing with thoughts and behavior using cartoon thought-bubbles to represent various mental states. The thought-bubble training led to the children passing not only false belief tests but also theory of mind tests. (Contains references.)…

  19. Sport Commitment among Competitive Female Gymnasts: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and…

  20. 76 FR 29131 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-12546 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... May 19, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8674--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011 Proclamation 8675--National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2011 Proclamation...

  1. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  2. Interventions to Promote Physical Activity among Young and Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho-Minano, Maria J.; LaVoi, Nicole M.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2011-01-01

    A narrative systematic review was conducted to describe the available evidence from physical activity (PA) interventions that targeted girls aged 5-18 years and to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Systematic literature searches were conducted using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo and SPORTDiscus…

  3. Impacting Children's Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy A.; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity…

  4. 76 FR 29135 - National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... respond to crises or natural disasters at home and abroad with urgency. Maintaining the transportation...-efficient, more environmentally sustainable, and offers more transportation choices to our citizens than the.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-12547 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P...

  5. Evaluating the Utility of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Discriminating among "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Kelly M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate how the inclusion of 3 Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria influences the external validity of the ADHD subtypes. The sample comprised 228 children (166 boys, 62 girls) ranging in age from 5-18 years who were referred to…

  6. 11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July 5, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #3988, 7/5/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Comet Hale-Bopp photographed from Merritt Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Comet Hale-Bopp is seen in the constellation Lacerta at 5:18 a.m. on March 9, 1997. North is to the left of the comet in this photograph, which was taken on Merritt Island, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center.

  8. 76 FR 29137 - Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-12548 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8676 of May 13, 2011 Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2011 By the..., colleagues, and community. In the past year, we have seen a tragic wave of police officer fatalities,...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mission model. 3 years before launch (Ref. § 1215.109(c). Submit general user requirements to permit preliminary planning. Begin payment for pre-mission activities (Ref. § 1215.115(b)(5)). 18 months before... development of operational documents and ICD's. (Ref. § 1215.109(e)). If appropriate, initiate action with...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR, part... CFR, part 5). 18. Include in all contracts in excess of $2,500 a provision for compliance with... and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... race, color, national origin, religion, sex, marital status, age, physical or mental handicap. 4. Use... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR, part... CFR, part 5). 18. Include in all contracts in excess of $2,500 a provision for compliance...

  12. Whose Fault Is It Anyway: How Do Parents Respond to Their Child's Setbacks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Marnie; Kazemi, Ellie; Weiner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We documented what parents report as the cause of their child's academic and conduct setbacks and what they say they do in response. We recruited an opportunity sample of 479 parents and narrowed our sample to parents of children without disabilities between the ages of 5-18 (N = 312). Parents responded to open-ended questions, and we coded…

  13. Temperamental Profiles of Dysregulated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Rettew, David C.; Baer, Julie R.; Hudziak, James J.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined. Temperamental profiles were…

  14. Combat Sports Bloggers, Mad Scientist Poets, and Comic Scriptwriters: Engaging Boys in Writing on Their Own Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeper, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As the program director of a community writing center that serves children and youth ages 5-18, Rachel Loeper sees it all, from 15-year-old spoken word poets to six-year-olds whose first "books" are strung together with yarn. In all of her roles--administrator, teacher, volunteer trainer--she values engaging the most reluctant of young…

  15. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  16. Clozapine: Its Impact on Aggressive Behavior among Children and Adolescents with Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, Harvey; Roofeh, David; Gerbino-Rosen, Ginny; Dombrowski, Carolyn; McMeniman, Marjorie; DeThomas, Courtney; Frederickson, Anne; Nusser, Laurie; Bienstock, Mark D.; Fisch, Gene S.; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of clozapine on aggressive behavior for treatment-refractory adolescents (age range 8.5-18) with schizophrenia (295.X) at Bronx Children's Psychiatric Center. Method: Clozapine treatment was administered in an open-label fashion using a flexible titration schedule. The frequency of administration of…

  17. School Choice: The Parent View. Survey of Parents 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wespieser, Karen; Durbin, Ben; Sims, David

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative report presents parents' views of school choice, local accountability, and academy schools. The survey was conducted in December 2014 and January 2015 with a representative sample of 1,005 parents of children aged 5-18 in England. Samples selected included 50% male and 50% female respondents from across England. Other variables…

  18. 66 FR 14919 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Funding Opportunities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-03-14

    ... for the Development of Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Treatment Systems for Homeless Persons, and Part... Drug May 10, 2001 $9.5 18-20 3 and Alcohol Treatment Systems for Homeless Persons. The actual amount... strengthen their drug and alcohol treatment systems for homeless individuals with substance abuse...

  19. 76 FR 29141 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-12551 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest,...

  20. 77 FR 30181 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-12487 Filed 5-18-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national...

  1. A Data Generating Review that Bops,Twists and Pulls at Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is an integral part of the K-12 mathematics curriculum (age 5-18). Naturally, students construct misconceptions of what they learn. This article discusses The Bop It[C]Challenge, a review activity assesses student understanding and reveals their misunderstandings of statistical concepts. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  2. 18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A FIRE THAT OCCURRED ON MAY 11, 1969. THE FIRE OCCURRED FROM THE SPONTANEOUS IGNITION OF A BRIQUETTE OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM ALLOY METAL. (5/18/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 40 CFR 52.2270 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Section 101.338 Emission Reductions Achieved Outside the United States 10/04/2006 1/3/2011, 76 FR 16... Reductions Achieved Outside the United States 10/4/2006 5/18/2010, 75 FR 27644 Section 101.376 Discrete...) Purpose and scope. This section sets forth the applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Texas...

  4. 75 FR 27644 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the Discrete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... where document begins]. Section 101.378 Discrete Emission 10/4/2006 5/18/2010 [Insert FR Credit Banking..., 2008 (see 73 FR 73562). Additionally, in both the October 24, 2006, and August 16, 2007, SIP submittals... March 30, 2010, at 75 FR 15648- 15655. Today, we are approving the DERC program revisions as...

  5. 77 FR 27041 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...-5275. Comments Due: 5 p.m. ET 5/18/12. Docket Numbers: ER12-1635-000. Applicants: Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative, Inc. Description: Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative, Inc. submits tariff filing per.... Applicants: Spring Canyon Energy LLC, Judith Gap Energy LLC, Invenergy TN LLC, Wolverine Creek Energy...

  6. Typical and Atypical Neurodevelopment for Face Specialization: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; Gundran, Andrew; Davies, Faraday; Clark, Jonathan D.; Ruble, Lisa; Glaser, Paul; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their relatives process faces differently from typically developed (TD) individuals. In an fMRI face-viewing task, TD and undiagnosed sibling (SIB) children (5-18 years) showed face specialization in the right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with left fusiform and right amygdala face…

  7. Double-input compartmental modeling and spectral analysis for the quantification of positron emission tomography data in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, G.; Kimberley, S.; Rosso, L.; Aboagye, E.; Turkheimer, F.

    2012-04-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) studies involving organs different from the brain, ignoring the metabolite contribution to the tissue time-activity curves (TAC), as in the standard single-input (SI) models, may compromise the accuracy of the estimated parameters. We employed here double-input (DI) compartmental modeling (CM), previously used for [11C]thymidine, and a novel DI spectral analysis (SA) approach on the tracers 5-[18F]fluorouracil (5-[18F]FU) and [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT). CM and SA were performed initially with a SI approach using the parent plasma TAC as an input function. These methods were then employed using a DI approach with the metabolite plasma TAC as an additional input function. Regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to healthy liver, kidneys and liver metastases for 5-[18F]FU and to tumor, vertebra and liver for [18F]FLT were analyzed. For 5-[18F]FU, the improvement of the fit quality with the DI approaches was remarkable; in CM, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) always selected the DI over the SI model. Volume of distribution estimates obtained with DI CM and DI SA were in excellent agreement, for both parent 5-[18F]FU (R2 = 0.91) and metabolite [18F]FBAL (R2 = 0.99). For [18F]FLT, the DI methods provided notable improvements but less substantial than for 5-[18F]FU due to the lower rate of metabolism of [18F]FLT. On the basis of the AIC values, agreement between [18F]FLT Ki estimated with the SI and DI models was good (R2 = 0.75) for the ROIs where the metabolite contribution was negligible, indicating that the additional input did not bias the parent tracer only-related estimates. When the AIC suggested a substantial contribution of the metabolite [18F]FLT-glucuronide, on the other hand, the change in the parent tracer only-related parameters was significant (R2 = 0.33 for Ki). Our results indicated that improvements of DI over SI approaches can range from moderate to substantial and are more significant for tracers with

  8. Evidence for Impact Vaporization As a Source of Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Hahn, J. M.; Burger, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere with six known components: H, He, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Of these components, Ca is of extreme temperature and has been observed in Mercury's exosphere for the past decade, after its discovery by Bida et al. (2000) from observations with the Keck telescope on Mauna Kea. Observations of the Ca exosphere by MESSENGER show a source concentrated on the dawn side. The time variation in that Ca signal repeats every Mercury year (Burger et al., 2014). Figure 1 shows how the Ca source rate varies with true anomaly angle, ν, which is the planet's orbital longitude measured from the direction of periapse. We suspect that these variations are due to impact vaporization resulting from infalling interplanetary dust. Our models of this scenario show that much of the seasonal variation in Ca is due to Mercury's substantial radial motion through the interplanetary dust cloud that results from Mercury's large orbital eccentricity (e=0.2). The seasonal Ca variation is enhanced further by Mercury's large orbital inclination (7° relative to the ecliptic), which causes additional periodic variations in the dust infall rate as Mercury's vertical motion carries it repeatedly across the dust-disk's midplane. Note also the strong Ca enhancement near ν~20° (Fig 1) which requires an additional source of localized dust. The location of that peak is close to (but not precisely coincident with) Mercury's orbital longitude as it crosses the orbital plane of comet 2P/Encke. Bida, T.A. et al., 2000. Nature 404, 154-161. Burger, M.H. et al., 2014, Icarus 238, 51-58. Figure 1. Vaporization rate of Ca at Mercury from interplanetary dust (green line) versus true anomaly angle, plus an assumed cometary source centered at 25° with a Gaussian half width of 15°. The modeled source rates from Burger et al. (2014) are plotted in black. The sum of the disk and cometary sources is plotted in red.

  9. The effect of polymer dots on bioactivity of mouse sperm in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Lin, Guimiao; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni

    2014-09-01

    Objective: In recent years, semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots)have caught considerable attention for their outstanding optical characteristics in biomedical imaging applications. Not as semiconductor quantum dots, Pdots are composed of nonmetallic material and their biological effects remain unclear. In this work, we investigated the effects of a band new polymer dots on bioactivity of mouse sperm using a computer-aided sperm analysis system(CASA) and an in vitro fertilization (IVF) model. Methods: The semiconducting polymer dots used in this study is CN-PPV Pdots, which emits in the orange wavelength range with high brightness. Epididymal mouse sperm were collected from 7-8weeks old Balb/c mouse. Firstly, CN-PPV Pdots was added into the Human Tubal Fluid (HTF) media at various concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmol/L respectively ), then sperm bioactivity and vitality were evaluated every 10 minutes. Secondly, the treated sperm were co-cultured with matured oocytes in HTF media, fertilization rate and oocytes development were recorded after 24 hours co-incubation. Results: Sperm viability in the control group (0 nmol/L) and experimental group (1, 10,100 nmol/L) were 57.20+/-4.51%, 58.17+/-4.81%, 55.50+/-4.52%, 46.26%+/-3.83%, respectively. Fertilization rate in different groups showed no obvious differences, control group (0 nmol/L) and experimental group (1, 10, 100 nmol/L) were 38.75+/-1.71%, 37.01+/-4.69%, 32.75+/-1.71%, 35.24+/-2.37%, respectively. Conclusion: Our data indicated that the CN-PPV Pdots had a very high biocompatibility on sperm in both the activation and the IVF process, even in extreme high Pdots concentration,the sperm bioactivity only got slight restrained. The effect of CN-PPV Pdots seems has no or little toxicity,and the long-term embryonic development has yet to be verified.

  10. Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Su, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort. This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, dialysis, recovery of renal function, and length of stay. Risks of developing AKI were determined using multivariate logistic regression based on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics and nephrotoxin use before admission. AKI occurred in 1.68% to 2% hospital discharges among adults without and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The incidence of CA-AKI was 17.25 and HA-AKI was 8.14 per 1000 admissions. The annual rate of CA-AKI increased from 12.43 to 19.96 per 1000 people, but the change in HA-AKI was insignificant. Comparing to CA-AKI, those with HA-AKI had higher levels of in-hospital mortality (26.07% vs 51.58%), mean length of stay (21.25 ± 22.35 vs 35.84 ± 34.62 days), and dialysis during hospitalization (1.45% vs 2.06%). Preexisting systemic diseases, including CKD were associated with increased risks of CA-AKI, and nephrotoxic polypharmacy increased risk of both CA- and HA-AKI. Patients with HA-AKI had more severe outcomes than patients with CA-AKI, and demonstrated different spectrum of risk factors. Although patients with CA-AKI with better outcomes, the incidence increased over time. It is also clear that optimal preventive and management strategies of HA- and CA-AKI are urgently needed to limit the risks in susceptible individuals. PMID:27175701

  11. Synthesis of Nine-atom Deltahedral Zintl Ions of Germanium and their Functionalization with Organic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M.; Sevov, Slavi C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later.1,2 Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9n- (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry.3-6 Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge94- clusters to oligomers and infinite chains,7-19 their metallation,14-16,20-25 capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments,26-34 insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization,35-47 addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents,48-50 and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes.51-58 This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge94- clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2]2-. For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left

  12. Dissociation of Ca-bearing Molecules as a Source of Mercury's Ca Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2015-11-01

    Observations of Mercury's calcium exosphere by MESSENGER have revealed three key features: (1) The Ca is extremely energetic, with a temperature ~70,000 K if the source is thermal, (2) the source region is located in the dawn hemisphere, and (3) there is a strong annual variation in the Ca source rate (Burger et al. 2014). Killen and Hahn (2015) have shown that the source rate is consistent with impact vaporization by interplanetary dust and the intersection of Mercury with a cometary dust stream (likely associated with Comet Encke, Christou et al., submitted).Killen et al. (2005) suggested that energetic calcium could be produced by the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules produced in impact vaporization plumes. We test this hypothesis with a Monte Carlo model that follows the evolution of atomic and molecular calcium produced in impact plumes. Ca-bearing molecules such as CaO, CaOH, and Ca(OH)2 are more likely to be are produced in vapor plumes than atomic Ca (Berezhnoy and Klumov 2008); these molecules quickly break apart either through vibrational dissociation or photodissociation. The excess energy associated with dissociation gives the atomic Ca an extra energy boost above the temperature of the impact plumes (~5000 K). We determine impact vaporization rates and excess energies required by the dissociation process to reproduce the scale height and spatial morphology of the Ca exosphere as observed by the MESSENGER Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS).ReferencesBerezhnoy, A.A. and Klumov, B.A., Impacts as sources of the exosphere on Mercury, Icarus, 195, 511-522, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.005.Burger, M.H., et al., Seasonal variations in Mercury's dayside calcium exosphere, Icarus, 238, 51-58, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.049.Killen, R.M., et al., The calcium exosphere of Mercury, Icarus, 173, 300-311, 2005, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.08.022.Killen, R.M. and Hahn, J.M., Impact vaporization as a possible source ofMercury's calcium exosphere

  13. Red-Supergiant and Supernova Rate Problems: Implication for the Relic Supernova Neutrino Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, J.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.

    2016-08-01

    Direct observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and their red supergiant (RSG) progenitors suggest that the upper mass limit of RSGs may be only about 16.5{--}18{M}ȯ , while the standard theoretical value is as much as 25{M}ȯ . We investigate the possibility that RSGs with m\\gt 16.5{--}18{M}ȯ end their lives as failed supernovae (fSNe) and analyze their contribution to the relic supernova neutrino spectrum. We show that adopting this mass limit simultaneously solves both the RSG problem and the supernova rate problem. In addition, energetic neutrinos that originated from fSNe are sensitive to the explosion mechanism, and in particular, to the nuclear equation of state (EOS). We show that this solution to the RSG problem might also be used to constrain the EOS for failed supernovae.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. GZT, a 2,4,6-Tribromophenol-Degrading Strain Isolated from the River Sludge of an Electronic Waste-Dismantling Region

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhishu; Li, Guiying; Das, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain GZT, a 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP)-degrading bacterium previously isolated from an electronic waste-dismantling region. The draft genome sequence is 5.18 Mb and has a G+C content of 35.1%. This is the first genome report of a brominated flame retardant-degrading strain. PMID:27257197

  15. Predicting Children's Media Use in the USA: Differences in Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sook-Jung; Bartolic, Silvia; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of children's media use in the USA, comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Data come from Waves 1 and 2 of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-I; CDS-II), a nationally representative sample of American children aged 0-12 in 1997 and 5-18 in 2002. Twenty-four hour time use…

  16. 75 FR 13778 - Renewal of Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Exploration Plan 1 1 1 43 CFR Part 3410--Collection and Submission of Data 5 18 90 43 CFR Part 3420, Subpart... 800 800 3400-12 and non-form data 43 CFR Part 3430, Subpart 3432--Lease Modifications 8 12 96 43 CFR...--Mining Operations Maps 311 20 6,220 43 CFR Part 3480, Subpart 3483--Lease Suspensions 6 21 126 43...

  17. Microbe associated molecular patterns from rhizosphere bacteria trigger germination and Papaver somniferum metabolism under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, A; Sarria, A L F; Algar, E; Muñoz Ledesma, F J; Ramos Solano, B; Fernandes, J B; Gutierrez Mañero, F J

    2014-01-01

    Ten PGPR from different backgrounds were assayed on Papaver somniferum var. Madrigal to evaluate their potential as biotic elicitors to increase alkaloid content under the rationale that some microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are able to trigger plant metabolism. First, the 10 strains and their culture media at two different concentrations were tested for their ability to trigger seed germination. Then, the best three strains were tested for their ability to increase seedling growth and alkaloid levels under greenhouse conditions. Only three strains and their culture media enhanced germination. Then, germination enhancing capacity of these best three strains, N5.18 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aur9 Chryseobacterium balustinum and N21.4 Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated in soil. Finally, the three strains were applied on seedlings at two time points, by soil drench or by foliar spray. Photosynthesis was measured, plant height was recorded, capsules were weighted and alkaloids analyzed by HPLC. Only N5.18 delivered by foliar spray significantly increased plant height coupled to an increase in total alkaloids and a significant increase in opium poppy straw dry weight; these increases were supported by a better photosynthetic efficiency. The relative contents of morphine, thebaine, codeine and oripavine were affected by this treatment causing a significant increase in morphine coupled to a decrease in thebaine, demonstrating the effectivity of MAMPs from N5.18 in this plant species. Considering the increase in capsule biomass and alkaloids together with the acceleration of germination, strain N5.18 appears as a good candidate to elicit plant metabolism and consequently, to increase productivity of Papaver somniferum.

  18. Early Identification of Asperger Syndrome in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; Konig, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9…

  19. Late Proterozoic rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration inferred from phylogenetic and sulphur-isotope studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; Teske, A.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria was contemporaneous with a large shift in the isotopic composition of biogenic sedimentary sulphides between 0.64 and 1.05 billion years ago. Both events were probably driven by a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations to greater than 5-18% of present levels--a change that may also have triggered the evolution of animals.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1031 - EPA-approved Maine regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compounds 4/26/017/2/01 5/20/02 67 FR 35441 (c)(51) VOC RACT determination for Pratt & Whitney. 134..., Lincoln, and Knox counties. 138 NOX RACT 5/18/95 &2/16/96 9/9/02 67 FR 57154 (c)(47) Case-specific NOX... Company. 138 NOX RACT 2/7/96 9/9/02 67 FR 57154 (c)(47) Case-specific NOX RACT for FMC...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1031 - EPA-approved Maine regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compounds 4/26/017/2/01 5/20/02 67 FR 35441 (c)(51) VOC RACT determination for Pratt & Whitney. 134..., Lincoln, and Knox counties. 138 NOX RACT 5/18/95 &2/16/96 9/9/02 67 FR 57154 (c)(47) Case-specific NOX... Company. 138 NOX RACT 2/7/96 9/9/02 67 FR 57154 (c)(47) Case-specific NOX RACT for FMC...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1031 - EPA-approved Maine regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compounds 4/26/017/2/01 5/20/02 67 FR 35441 (c)(51) VOC RACT determination for Pratt & Whitney. 134..., Lincoln, and Knox counties. 138 NOX RACT 5/18/95 &2/16/96 9/9/02 67 FR 57154 (c)(47) Case-specific NOX... Company. 138 NOX RACT 2/7/96 9/9/02 67 FR 57154 (c)(47) Case-specific NOX RACT for FMC...

  3. 77 FR 46409 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/27/2012 (77 FR 25146-25147); 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596); 6/1/2012 (77 FR 32591-32592); 6/8/2012 (77 FR 34026-34027; and 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944), the Committee for Purchase... added to the Procurement List: Products Combat Arms Ear Plug NSN: 6515-01-576-8796--Skull Screws...

  4. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    SciTech Connect

    Canyilmaz, Emine; Canyilmaz, Fatih; Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif; Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Aynaci, Osman; Yoney, Adnan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment.

  5. Comparative study of systemically and perineurally administered tramadol as an adjunct for supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Vishal; Rana, Shelly; Singh, Jai; Chaudhary, Sudarshan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The study was designed to compare the effects of tramadol administered as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular block to that of systemic administration, on postoperative analgesia and rescue analgesic requirement following upper limb surgeries. Material and Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study was undertaken in patients scheduled for upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular block. All the three group patients received either of the following drugs mixtures: Group A — bupivacaine 0.5%-18 ml + normal saline-7 ml for block and normal saline-10 ml intravenously. Group B — bupivacaine 0.5%-18 ml + normal saline-7 ml mixture for block and tramadol (100 mg) diluted to 10 ml — intravenously. Group C — bupivacaine 0.5%-18 ml + tramadol (100 mg) + normal saline-5 ml mixture and normal saline 10 ml intravenously. The patients were observed for sensory, motor onset along with the duration of sensory and motor block. Patients were monitored for sedation and hemodynamic parameters during intra-operative and postoperative period. Pain-free period and demand for rescue analgesia was noted in all the patients. Results: The study demonstrates that the mixture of tramadol and bupivacaine injected perineurally for supraclavicular brachial plexus block hastens the onset of sensory block, motor block and provides a longer duration of motor blockade and demand for rescue analgesia as compared to other two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the addition of tramadol to bupivacaine mixtures as an adjunct for supraclavicular brachial plexus block provide better postoperative analgesia for orthopedic upper extremity surgery in comparison to control or systemic tramadol group without any side effects. PMID:25948899

  6. The role of isoflavone metabolism in plant protection depends on the rhizobacterial MAMP that triggers systemic resistance against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Osumi.

    PubMed

    Algar, Elena; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Garcia-Villaraco, Ana; García-Seco, Daniel; Lucas, J Antonio; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2014-09-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merr. plays a crucial role in both the field of food and the pharmaceutical industry due to their input as plant protein and to the benefits of isoflavones (IF) for health. In addition, IF play a key role in nodulation and plant defense and therefore, an increase in IF would be desirable for better field performance. IF are secondary metabolites and therefore, inducible, so finding effective agents to increase IF contents is interesting. Among these agents, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been used to trigger systemic induction of plant's secondary metabolism through their microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that fit in the plant's receptors to start a systemic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 PGPR that had a contrasted effect on IF metabolism, to protect plants against biotic stress and to establish the relation between IF profile and the systemic response triggered by the bacteria. Apparently, the response involves a lower sensitivity to ethylene and despite the decrease in effective photosynthesis, growth is only compromised in the case of M84, the most effective in protection. All strains protected soybean against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (M84 > N5.18 > Aur9>N21.4) and only M84 and N5.18 involved IF. N5.18 stimulated accumulation of IF before pathogen challenge. M84 caused a significant increase on IF only after pathogen challenge and N21.4 caused a significant increase on IF content irrespective of pathogen challenge. Aur9 did not affect IF. These results point out that all 4 strains have MAMPs that trigger defensive metabolism in soybean. Protection induced by N21.4 and Aur9 involves other metabolites different to IF and the role of IF in defence depends on the previous metabolic status of the plant and on the bacterial MAMP. PMID:24869797

  7. Preparation of metal nanosuspensions by high-pressure DC-sputtering on running liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wagener, M.; Murty, B.S.; Guenther, B.

    1997-09-01

    A modified VERL-process (vacuum evaporation on running liquids) employing high pressure magnetron sputtering has been used for the preparation of suspensions with metal nanoparticles. The method has been tested for Ag- and Fe-suspensions by varying the pressure of the Argon sputtering atmosphere in the range of 1 to 30 Pa. A narrow particle size distribution with a mean particle size ranging from 5--18 nm has been found. The mean particle size increases with increasing Argon pressure in the pressure range under investigation. A descriptive model for the process of particle formation as a function of sputtering gas pressure is given.

  8. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  9. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Lin, S. H.; Xie, D. Z.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sha, S.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Guo, X. H.; Li, X. X.; Ma, H. Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Zhu, Y. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Li, J. Q.; and others

    2012-02-15

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  10. Flame Structure and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, D. A.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Recent results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop tower are reported. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in a microgravity laminar ethylene/air flame. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported experiments including the Flight Project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this paper.

  11. Prevalence of Haemophilus parasuis serovars isolated in Spain from 1993 to 1997.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, X; Kielstein, P; Costa, L; Riera, P; Artigas, C; Espuña, E

    1999-04-19

    From 1993 to 1997, 327 strains of Haemophilus parasuis were isolated from spanish swine in our Diagnostic Laboratory and 174 strains (53.2%) were serotyped. Four serotypes, sv. 5 (18.4%), sv 4 (16%), sv. 2 (9.2%) and sv. 13 (8%) were the most frequently isolated and 29.3% of the studied strains were classified as non typable. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of the serotypes in Spain is very similar to that found by other researchers in Germany, Australia, Canada and alike to that found in the United States.

  12. 40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... 0.92 0.41 Nickel 5.18 3.43 Zinc 3.94 1.65 Cobalt 0.57 0.24 Oil and grease 54.00 32.40 TSS 111.00 52... 104.6 Nickel 1,338.2 885.2 Zinc 1,017.6 425.2 Cobalt 146.4 62.7 Oil and grease 13,940.0 8,364.0 TSS...

  13. 40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... 0.92 0.41 Nickel 5.18 3.43 Zinc 3.94 1.65 Cobalt 0.57 0.24 Oil and grease 54.00 32.40 TSS 111.00 52... 104.6 Nickel 1,338.2 885.2 Zinc 1,017.6 425.2 Cobalt 146.4 62.7 Oil and grease 13,940.0 8,364.0 TSS...

  14. 40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... 0.92 0.41 Nickel 5.18 3.43 Zinc 3.94 1.65 Cobalt 0.57 0.24 Oil and grease 54.00 32.40 TSS 111.00 52... 104.6 Nickel 1,338.2 885.2 Zinc 1,017.6 425.2 Cobalt 146.4 62.7 Oil and grease 13,940.0 8,364.0 TSS...

  15. Normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) characteristics of Brazilian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro-Krook, M I; Castro, V C

    1994-07-01

    The present study was carried out in order to obtain normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) data for 150 Brazilian Portuguese-speaking male subjects (mean age, 19.4; range, 17-30) in two different vocal tasks, i.e., oral reading and counting. Mean (+/- SD) SFF was 134.9 +/- 17.9 Hz for oral reading and 130.5 +/- 18.5 Hz for counting. The mean SFF values obtained in this investigation were similar to data reported in previous studies.

  16. Associations of various family characteristics and time use with children's body mass index.

    PubMed

    Forshee, Richard A; Anderson, Patricia A; Storey, Maureen L

    2009-04-01

    This study used multiple regression models to estimate associations of various family characteristics and time use with the body mass index (BMI) z-scores of 734 boys and 725 girls aged 5-18y from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement 2003. The strongest relationship in the data was between the BMI of the head of household and a child's BMI z-score (p < 0.001). Time spent sleeping, performing sedentary behaviors, and participating in physical activities was not associated with a child's BMI z-score. This suggests that a family-oriented approach to prevent and treat childhood and adolescent overweight is required.

  17. 40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... 0.92 0.41 Nickel 5.18 3.43 Zinc 3.94 1.65 Cobalt 0.57 0.24 Oil and grease 54.00 32.40 TSS 111.00 52... 104.6 Nickel 1,338.2 885.2 Zinc 1,017.6 425.2 Cobalt 146.4 62.7 Oil and grease 13,940.0 8,364.0 TSS...

  18. 40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... 0.92 0.41 Nickel 5.18 3.43 Zinc 3.94 1.65 Cobalt 0.57 0.24 Oil and grease 54.00 32.40 TSS 111.00 52... 104.6 Nickel 1,338.2 885.2 Zinc 1,017.6 425.2 Cobalt 146.4 62.7 Oil and grease 13,940.0 8,364.0 TSS...

  19. Prevalence of Haemophilus parasuis serovars isolated in Spain from 1993 to 1997.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, X; Kielstein, P; Costa, L; Riera, P; Artigas, C; Espuña, E

    1999-04-19

    From 1993 to 1997, 327 strains of Haemophilus parasuis were isolated from spanish swine in our Diagnostic Laboratory and 174 strains (53.2%) were serotyped. Four serotypes, sv. 5 (18.4%), sv 4 (16%), sv. 2 (9.2%) and sv. 13 (8%) were the most frequently isolated and 29.3% of the studied strains were classified as non typable. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of the serotypes in Spain is very similar to that found by other researchers in Germany, Australia, Canada and alike to that found in the United States. PMID:10227126

  20. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  1. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, dated September 1973 (original in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, dated September 1973 (original in the possession of CSSD-HO, Huntsville AL). Photographer unknown. Aerial photograph (west to 0 east) of remote sprint launch site #1. In background are waste stabilization pounds. On next row are the sprint cells. In foreground are the remote launch operations building on left and the limited area sentry station on right. The view illustrates the relatively flat topography of the SRMSC area Benjamin Halpern, 5-18 October 1992 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Remote Sprint Launch Site No. 1, Just South of Ramsey-Cavalier County line & 3 miles West of Hampden, ND, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. Genetic influence on contrast sensitivity in middle-aged male twins.

    PubMed

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Panizzon, Matthew S; Lyons, Michael J; Franz, Carol E; Grant, Michael D; Jacobson, Kristen C; Eisen, Seth A; Laudate, Thomas M; Kremen, William S

    2007-07-01

    Contrast sensitivity is strongly associated with daily functioning among older adults, but the genetic and environmental contributions to this ability are unknown. Using the classical twin method, we addressed this issue by examining contrast sensitivity at five spatial frequencies (1.5-18 cycles per degree) in 718 middle-aged male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Heritability estimates were modest (14-38%), whereas individual-specific environmental influences accounted for 62-86% of the variance. Identifying the types of individual-specific events that impact contrast sensitivity may suggest interventions to modulate this ability and thereby improve overall quality of life as adults age.

  4. Unusually rigid macrocyclic tris(picolinolato)-4-tert-butylcalix[4]arene: Its intramolecular interaction effect on picolinoylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeri; Noh, Tae Hwan; Kim, Eun Ji; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2012-11-01

    The reaction of 4-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (calix[4]) with picolinoyl chloride affords only the unprecedented rigid tris(pico)-product calix[4]-(pico)3(OH) (pico = picolinoylato) with an upper-rim and two lower-rim pico groups, via a subtle combination of steric hindrance and intrinsically weak intramolecular interactions. The chemical shift of one of the upper-rim pico group's aromatic protons appears, unusually, 5.18 ppm in chloroform, which is the quite up-field chemical shift of the reported aromatic proton signals.

  5. Ertapenem-Containing Double-Carbapenem Therapy for Treatment of Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Cprek, Jessica B; Gallagher, Jason C

    2015-11-09

    We describe outcomes of patients with infections with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) who received ertapenem-containing double-carbapenem therapy (ECDCT). Clinical success was observed in 7/18 (39%) patients overall: bloodstream infections, 3/7 (43%); pneumonia, 1/5 (20%); intraabdominal infections, 0/2 (0%); urinary tract infections, 2/3 (67%); and a skin and skin structure infection, 1/1 (100%). Microbiologic success was observed in 11/14 (79%) evaluable patients; 5/18 (28%) patients died. ECDCT may be effective for CRKP infections with limited treatment options.

  6. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CA 6,000 or less Single 84 0 1 3 4 9 10 0 1 4 5 13 14 CB 6,001-12,000 Single 168 1 2 5 6 16 17 1 2 7 8 23 24 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 315 2 3 8 9 28 29 2 3 13 14 41 42 CD Over 36,000 Single 500 3 4 12 13 42 43 3 4 18 19 62 63 CE Single 800 4 5 18 19 64 65 4 5 27 28 95 96 Ac = Acceptance number....

  7. First measurements of gas output from bubbling pools in a mud volcano at the periphery of Mt Etna (Italy): methodologies and implications for monitoring purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Cinzia; Giudice, Gaetano; Liuzzo, Marco; Pedone, Maria; Cosenza, Paolo; Riccobono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    angles. The positions of both laser source and retro-reflectors were chosen so to have the target CO2 plume in between retro-reflectors and the GasFinder, and to realize the complete coverage of the degassing area. We therefore explored the possibility to combine the available path-integrated CO2 concentration data to derive a two-dimensional mapping of CO2 over the mud volcano. The periodic survey of total CO2 output in a subset of vigorously degassing pools, paralleled to the chemical and isotopic measurements routinely performed in selected pools, would offer a robust monitoring tool in a peripheral sector of the volcano. Chiodini G., D'Alessandro W. and Parello F. (1996) Geochemistry of gases and water discharged by the mud volcanoes at Paternò, Mt. Etna (Italy). Bull. Volcanol. 58, 51-58. Paonita A., Caracausi A., Iacono-Marziano G., Martelli M., Rizzo A. (2012) Geochemical evidence for mixing between fluids exsolved at different depths in the magmatic system of Mt Etna (Italy). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 84 (2012) 380-394.

  8. "Geometric" planetology and origin of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    traces of which one observes now in presence of satellites around all planets except Venus and Mercury (both have smallest wave induced granula sizes: R/6 and R/16, correspondingly). So, Venus during its formation was not able to throw away enough solids to form a satellite (but degassing was important, nearly complete and the huge atmosphere is there). Earth with the larger amplitude of its granula forming waves produced enough solids to make a satellite (during a pre-planet stage from accretion debris or during earlier stages of debris accretion into a body). Mars with still larger granula forming waves (granula size R/2) threw away a lot of material but its small gravity now keeps only two small satellites. The martian body itself warped by huge waves lost a lot of its mass and is semi-destructed. In the asteroid belt still larger wave (granula size R/1, and in the 1:1 resonance with the fundamental wave !) scattered away almost all primary mass of material and there was no chance to gather any decent planetary body. In the outer Solar system large planets with important gravities keep "exuberant" satellite systems and debris rings. The wave comparative planetology, thus, introducing the conception of warping structurizing waves, is not surprised by the Moon appearance. What is needed, just to recognize a special position of Earth in the planetary sequence determining its orbital frequency and thus a size of its tectonic granulation. References: [1] Kochemasov, G.G. (1992) Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), p. 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. (2009) New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, # 51, 58-61. [3] Kochemasov G. (1999) Geophys. Res. Abstr., V.1, #3, 700.

  9. Some inner satellites of giant planets are still outgassing: Triton, Enceladus, Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    plumes of sulfur and sulfur dioxide hundreds of kilometers high. It is admitted that Io's orbital eccentricity is a main reason for volcanism creating its patchy atmosphere and plasma tore ("detached atmosphere"). It is interesting that the latest MESSENGER data show that spacious volcanic effusions cover Mercury and one region appears to have experienced a high level of volcanic activity. Chains of small deep pits occur in the region along with the larger 30 km across crater. The innermost planet Mercury is deeply degassed and almost dry. Areal volcanic effusions, clear traces of contraction (escarps or lobate ledges), numerous chains of deep pits (craters) controlled by lineaments or weakness zones witness this. Not able to keep an atmosphere in the close vicinity to mighty Sun, Mercury still has traces of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and noble gases in its exosphere (but it seems that sputtering from the surface is a main reason for their appearance). References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (2006) Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan: intensity of wiping out volatiles from celestial bodies and building atmospheres //36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Beijing, China, 16-23 July 2006, Abstr. COSPAR2006-A-00789, CD-ROM; [2] Kochemasov G.G. (2009) A regular row of planetary relief ranges connected with tectonic granulations of celestial bodies // New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, # 51, 58-61. [3] Kochemasov, G.G. (2006). Outgassing of planets in relation to their orbital frequencies // EUROPLANET-2006 Sci. Conference, Sept.22-26, 2006, Berlin, EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 1, EPSC2006-A-00043, CD-ROM.

  10. Geochemistry of sedimentary-derived migmatite from NE Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Scodina, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    . Mesosomes show a lower content of silica and higher content of iron, magnesium and potash. Major elements ranges are: SiO2: 69.9-70.2; Al2O3: 12.8-13.3; Fe2O3tot: 5.4-5.6; MgO: 2.1-2.3; CaO: 2.0-2.1; Na2O: 2.4-2.5; K2O: 2.2-2.4 wt%. Chondrite-normalized REE pattern, shows that all leucosomes are characterized by a positive Eu anomaly and a significant enrichment in LREE. Mesosomes pattern shows a marked negative Eu anomaly, an enrichment in LREE and a depletion in HREE. Total REE content is higher in mesosomes (132-156 ppm) than in leucosomes (51-58 ppm). Trondjhemite/tonalite composition with high CaO, Na2O and low K2O of the leucosomes will be discussed in relation to their significance and origin. References: Barker, F., 1979, Trondhjemite: definition, environment and hypotheses of origin. In: Barker, F. (Ed.), Trondhjemites, dacites, and related rocks. Developments in petrology, vol. 6. Elsevier,Amsterdam, pp. 1-12. Cruciani, G., Franceschelli, M., Elter, F.M., Puxeddu, M., Utzeri, D., 2008, Petrogenesis of Al-silicate-bearing trondhjemitic migmatites from NE Sardinia, Italy. Lithos v. 102, p. 554-574.

  11. Novel methodology for the study of mercury methylation and reduction in sediments and water using 197Hg radiotracer.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Zizek, Suzana; Repinc, Urska; Pérez Catán, Soledad; Jaćimović, Radojko; Horvat, Milena

    2007-03-01

    Mercury tracers are powerful tools that can be used to study mercury transformations in environmental systems, particularly mercury methylation, demethylation and reduction in sediments and water. However, mercury transformation studies using tracers can be subject to error, especially when used to assess methylation potential. The organic mercury extracted can be as low as 0.01% of the endogenous labeled mercury, and artefacts and contamination present during methylmercury (MeHg) extraction processes can cause interference. Solvent extraction methods based on the use of either KBr/H2SO4 or HCl were evaluated in freshwater sediments using 197Hg radiotracer. Values obtained for the 197Hg tracer in the organic phase were up to 25-fold higher when HCl was used, which is due to the coextraction of 197Hg2+ into the organic phase during MeHg extraction. Evaluations of the production of MeHg gave similar results with both MeHg extraction procedures, but due to the higher Hg2+ contamination of the controls, the uncertainty in the determination was higher when HCl was used. The Hg2+ contamination of controls in the HCl extraction method showed a nonlinear correlation with the humic acid content of sediment pore water. Therefore, use of the KBr/H2SO4 method is recommended, since it is free from these interferences. 197Hg radiotracer (T1/2=2.673 d) has a production rate that is about 50 times higher than that of 203Hg (T1/2=46.595 d), the most frequently used mercury radiotracer. Hence it is possible to obtain a similar level of performance to 203Hg when it is used it in short-term experiments and produced by the irradiation of 196Hg with thermal neutrons, using mercury targets with the natural isotopic composition. However, if the 0.15% natural abundance of the 196Hg isotope is increased, the specific activity of the 197Hg tracer can be significantly improved. In the present work, 197Hg tracer was produced from mercury 51.58% enriched in the 196Hg isotope, and a 340-fold

  12. Do tidal or swing waves roughen planetary surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    heavenly bodies one might think of swing forces and swing waves (contrary to the tidal waves) producing the wave warping surfaces and the deeper planetary spheres [1]. Three observations in relation with this revelation might be mentioned. 1. An increasing surface roughness of the icy satellites of Saturn with increasing distances from the planet [5]. 2. Atmospheric masses of terrestrial planets increase with the diminishing solar distance as a sequence of more frequent wave oscillations - a sweeping out making atmospheres volatiles from planetary depths is facilitated by more frequent oscillations. 3. The inner rapidly orbiting satellites of Jupiter (Io), Saturn (Enceladus), and Neptun (Triton) are still emitting volatiles as a result of more thorough sweeping out their volatile stock. Mercury also has traces of some metals in its exosphere (MESSENGER data). References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (2009) A regular row of planetary relief ranges connected with tectonic granulations of celestial bodies // New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, # 51, 58-61. [2] Kochemasov G.G. (2009) A quantitative geometric model of relief-forming potential in terrestrial planets // EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 4, EPSC2009-16-1. [3] Kochemasov G.G. (1998) Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, 144-147. [4] Kochemasov G.G. (1993) Relief-forming potential of planets // 18th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Oct. 9-10, 1993, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 27-28. [5] Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Helfenstein, P., Porco, C. et al. (2006) Shapes of the saturnian icy satellites // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVII, Houston, USA, Abstract 1639 pdf. CD-ROM.

  13. TP and depth conditions of the basalt suites from the Crescent Formation on the Olympic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J.; Haileab, B.; Denny, A. C.; Harrison, B. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Crescent Formation on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, has two main volcanic members: the submarine Lower Crescent member (LCr) and the subaerial Upper Crescent member (UCr). Despite numerous studies linking these basalt suites to a slab-window, hotspot, or a rifted margin origin, no clear verdict has been reached in regarding to the petrogenesis of these basalts. Insights into plausible magmatic sources of the Crescent Formation and the differentiation of the LCr and UCr units can be gained by determining pressure and temperature conditions of the rising magma. To estimate T-P conditions within 1σ error, phenocrysts collected from flows were analyzed using clinopyroxene-melt and plagioclase-melt geothermobarometry, with whole-rock compositions representing the host melt. Tests were done on 19 LCr clinopyroxene phenocrysts, 11 UCr clinopyroxenes phenocrysts, 22 LCr plagioclase phenocrysts, and 26 UCr plagioclase phenocrysts. The analysis was based on pyroxene cores and rim given the absence of significant zonation differences in the petrographic or chemical analyses. Using a set of clinopyroxene-melt geothermobarometers summarized in Putirka (2008), the last equilibrium crystallization of the LCr clinopyroxenes occurred at temperature ranging from 1091.4 - 1187.9 ± 21.46 °C and pressure ranging from 1.98- 7.04 ± 1.39 kbar. However, when testing for plagioclase-melt equilibrium of the LCr basalts, the results indicated that the plagioclase had undergone fractional crystallization. For the UCr basalts, the temperature range using clinopyroxene-melt thermometry is 1025.9 - 1186.2 ± 51.58 °C and using plagioclase-melt thermometry is 1118.6 - 1251.3 ± 40.2 °C. The pressure range using clinopyroxene-melt barometry is 1.1 - 7.2 ± 2.12 kbar and using plagioclase-melt-thermometry is 0.1 - 6.4 ± 2.4 kbar. Both members show similar clinopyroxene crystallization depths between 6.15 - 21.76 km for the Lower Crescent basalts and 3.40 - 22.26 km for the Upper

  14. Barriers and Strategies for Early Mobilization of Patients in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Dubb, Rolf; Nydahl, Peter; Hermes, Carsten; Schwabbauer, Norbert; Toonstra, Amy; Parker, Ann M; Kaltwasser, Arnold; Needham, Dale M

    2016-05-01

    Early mobilization of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is safe, feasible, and beneficial. However, implementation of early mobility as part of routine clinical care can be challenging. The objective of this review is to identify barriers to early mobilization and discuss strategies to overcome such barriers. Based on a literature search, we synthesize data from 40 studies reporting 28 unique barriers to early mobility, of which 14 (50%) were patient-related, 5 (18%) structural, 5 (18%) ICU cultural, and 4 (14%) process-related barriers. These barriers varied across ICUs and within disciplines, depending on the ICU patient population, setting, attitude, and ICU culture. To overcome the identified barriers, over 70 strategies were reported and are synthesized in this review, including: implementation of safety guidelines; use of mobility protocols; interprofessional training, education, and rounds; and involvement of physician champions. Systematic efforts to change ICU culture to prioritize early mobilization using an interprofessional approach and multiple targeted strategies are important components of successfully implementing early mobility in clinical practice. PMID:27144796

  15. Immunohistochemical identification and quantitative analysis of cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in mouse organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide in cells. Its spatial distribution matches that of superoxide production, allowing it to protect cells from oxidative stress. SOD1 deficiencies result in embryonic lethality and a wide range of pathologies in mice, but little is known about normal SOD1 protein expression in developing embryos. In this study, the expression pattern of SOD1 was investigated in post-implantation mouse embryos and extraembryonic tissues, including placenta, using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. SOD1 was detected in embryos and extraembryonic tissues from embryonic day (ED) 8.5 to 18.5. The signal in embryos was observed at the lowest level on ED 9.5-11.5, and the highest level on ED 17.5-18.5, while levels remained constant in the surrounding extraembryonic tissues during all developmental stages examined. Immunohistochemical analysis of SOD1 expression on ED 13.5-18.5 revealed its ubiquitous distribution throughout developing organs. In particular, high levels of SOD1 expression were observed in the ependymal epithelium of the choroid plexus, ganglia, sensory cells of the olfactory and vestibulocochlear epithelia, blood cells and vessels, hepatocytes and hematopoietic cells of the liver, lymph nodes, osteogenic tissues, and skin. Thus, SOD1 is highly expressed at late stages of embryonic development in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, and can function as an important antioxidant enzyme during organogenesis in mouse embryos. PMID:18716442

  16. A novel fluorescence ratiometric method confirms the low solvent viscosity of the cytoplasm.

    PubMed Central

    Luby-Phelps, K; Mujumdar, S; Mujumdar, R B; Ernst, L A; Galbraith, W; Waggoner, A S

    1993-01-01

    Two homologous indocyanine dyes, Cy3.18 and Cy5.18, can be used as a ratio pair for fluorometric determination of solvent viscosity. Succinimidyl ester derivatives of these dyes can be attached to inert carrier macromolecules, such as Ficoll 70, for measurement of intracellular or intravesicular solvent viscosity. When the viscosity of the solvent was varied by various methods, the fluorescence intensity ratio (Cy3/Cy5) in a mixture of Cy3.18-Ficoll 70 (Cy3F70) and Cy5.18-Ficoll 70 (Cy5F70) in solution was found to be solely a function of solvent viscosity and was insensitive to other solvent parameters such as dielectric constant, temperature, and the ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds. Most important, it was insensitive to the presence of large macromolecules, such as proteins, which increase the shear viscosity but have little effect on solvent viscosity. Following microinjection into the cytoplasm of living tissue culture cells, no binding of Cy3F70 or Cy5F70 to intracellular components was detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Fluorescence intensity ratio imaging of Cy3F70 and Cy5F70 in non-motile interphase CV1 and PtK1 cells showed that the solvent viscosity of cytoplasm was not significantly different from water and showed no spatial variation. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:8369435

  17. Variation of Ginsenosides in Ginseng of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Luo, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Mu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Panax ginseng has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, the major chemical components of the roots, are considered to be responsible for the medicinal properties of ginseng. Ginsenosides increase with the age of ginseng root in general knowledge, and in this study the content of ginsenosides in ginseng of different ages was quantified. Separation and determination of eight main ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd, was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 203 nm. The content of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg2 and Rd increased from 5 to 16-year-old ginseng and then decreased, while Rb2 and Rb3 increased in the range of 5-12 years, but then slowly decreased. However, the total eight ginsenosides in 16 year old ginseng had a higher content than that in any other from 5-18 years old. As a result, the content of ginsenosides and total ginsenosides was not positively related to age from 5-18 years, which is not in full agreement with the general knowledge of ginseng. Thus, this study suggests that the older wild ginseng may not result in better medicinal ginseng for herbal medicines. PMID:27534105

  18. Health-related quality of life in Swedish pediatric burn patients and associations with burn and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sveen, J; Sjöberg, F; Öster, C

    2014-08-01

    Although many children with burns recover well and have a satisfying quality of life after the burn, some children do not adjust as well. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) focuses on the impact health status has on quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL with the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) in a nationwide Swedish sample of children with burns 0.3-9.0 years after injury. Participants were parents (n=109) of children aged up to 18 years at the time of investigation who were treated at the Linköping or Uppsala Burn Center between 2000 and 2008. The majority of children did not have limitations in physical function and they did not seem to experience much pain. However, there were indications of psychosocial problems. Parents of preschool children reported most problems with the children's behavior and family disruption, whereas parents of children aged 5-18 years reported most problems with appearance and emotional health. There were mainly burn-related variables associated with suboptimal HRQoL in children aged 5-18 years, while family-related variables did not contribute as much.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Highly Oxygenated Lanostane Derivatives from the Fungus Ganoderma lucidum on P-Glycoprotein and α-Glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Run; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Dong, Pei-Pei; Wang, Chao; Huang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Zhang, Hou-Li; Deng, Sa; Liu, Ke-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2015-08-28

    Twelve new highly oxygenated lanostane triterpenoids and nine known ganoderic acids were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. The new compounds were lanostane nortriterpenoids with 27 carbons (1-5 and 8), lanostane nor-triterpenoids with 25 carbons (6 and 7), and lanostane triterpenoids (9-12) based on multiple spectroscopic data analysis, including HRESIMS, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and CD. Compounds 1-5 were identified as rare nor-lanostanoids that contain a 17β-pentatomic lactone ring. Compound 13, possessing a lactone ring, had been isolated previously. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory effects of compounds 1-21 were evaluated at a concentration of 20 μM using an adriamycin (ADM)-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7/ADR). Compounds 1, 5, 18, and 20 and verapamil increased the accumulation of ADM in MCF-7/ADR cells approximately 3-fold when compared with the negative control. These data support the significant P-glycoprotein inhibitory activities of compounds 1, 5, 18, and 20. In silico docking analysis suggested these compounds had similar P-gp recognition mechanisms compared with those of verapamil (a classical inhibitor). Furthermore, in an in vitro bioassay, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, and 18 showed moderate inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase compared with those of the positive control acarbose.

  20. Structural modeling of contrast sensitivity in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scialfa, Charles T.; Kline, Donald W.; Wood, Philip K.

    2002-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the utility of the sensorineural model of contrast sensitivity proposed by Sekuler et al. [Vision Res. 24, 689 (1984)] to account for spatial vision in adulthood. In Study 1, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were measured in 84 people between the ages of 19 and 81 yr. No three-filter model fitted the data well. Although a two-filter model was associated with good fit indices, parameter estimates for both filters were inconsistent with physiological and behavioral data. In Study 2, acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were assessed in 95 observers between the ages of 23 and 73 yr. All measures were gathered once per month over a three-month period. The Sekuler et al. three-filter model did not fit the data from any time of measure, but a two-filter, bandpass model provided a consistent and excellent fit for all three waves. The model suggests that age-related change in the neural mechanisms underlying contrast sensitivity is minimal once acuity is controlled. Discrepancies between this conclusion and that reported by Sekuler et al. may be related to test type, psychophysical method, reliability, and sample selection.

  1. Prevalence of nodding syndrome--Uganda, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Preetha J; Wamala, Joseph; Ratto, Jeffrey; Blanton, Curtis; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa; Becknell, Steven; Downing, Robert; Bunga, Sudhir; Sejvar, James; Makumbi, Issa

    2014-07-18

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a seizure disorder of unknown etiology, predominately affecting children aged 3-18 years in three sub-Saharan countries (Uganda, South Sudan, and Tanzania), with the primary feature of episodic head nodding. These episodes are thought to be one manifestation of a syndrome that includes neurologic deterioration, cognitive impairment, and additional seizure types. NS investigations have focused on clinical features, progression, and etiology; however, none have provided a population-based prevalence assessment using a standardized case definition. In March 2013, CDC and the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH) conducted a single-stage cluster survey to perform the first systematic assessment of prevalence of NS in Uganda using a new consensus case definition, which was modified during the course of the investigation. Based on the modified definition, the estimated number of probable NS cases in children aged 5-18 years in three northern Uganda districts was 1,687 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1,463-1,912), for a prevalence of 6.8 (CI = 5.9-7.7) probable NS cases per 1,000 children aged 5-18 years in the three districts. These findings can guide the MOH to understand and provide the health-care resources necessary to address NS in northern Uganda, and provide a basis for future studies of NS in Uganda and in other areas affected by NS. PMID:25029112

  2. Barriers and Strategies for Early Mobilization of Patients in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Dubb, Rolf; Nydahl, Peter; Hermes, Carsten; Schwabbauer, Norbert; Toonstra, Amy; Parker, Ann M; Kaltwasser, Arnold; Needham, Dale M

    2016-05-01

    Early mobilization of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is safe, feasible, and beneficial. However, implementation of early mobility as part of routine clinical care can be challenging. The objective of this review is to identify barriers to early mobilization and discuss strategies to overcome such barriers. Based on a literature search, we synthesize data from 40 studies reporting 28 unique barriers to early mobility, of which 14 (50%) were patient-related, 5 (18%) structural, 5 (18%) ICU cultural, and 4 (14%) process-related barriers. These barriers varied across ICUs and within disciplines, depending on the ICU patient population, setting, attitude, and ICU culture. To overcome the identified barriers, over 70 strategies were reported and are synthesized in this review, including: implementation of safety guidelines; use of mobility protocols; interprofessional training, education, and rounds; and involvement of physician champions. Systematic efforts to change ICU culture to prioritize early mobilization using an interprofessional approach and multiple targeted strategies are important components of successfully implementing early mobility in clinical practice.

  3. The Environmental Performance at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) of High Efficiency Triple Junction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mueller, Robert; Davis, Gregory; Distefano, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    A number of JPL missions, either active or in the p l d g stages, require the accurate LILT flew intensity - low temperate) climate of triple-junction solar. Although triple ignition LILT performance was reported as recently as 2002, there has been an evolutionary advance in cell technology by both U.S. space cell manufacturers that, for mission design purposes, effectively obsoletes the earlier data. As a result, JPL initiated a program to develop a database for the LILT performance of the new high performance triple junction solar cells. JPL obtained Emcore Advanced triple Juntion CIC assemblies and Spectrolab Ultra Triple Junction CIC assemblies. These cells were tested at temperature-intensity ranges designed to cover applications between 1 and 5.18 AU solar distances. 1 MeV electron irradiation from 25 E14 to 1 El5 w were performed on the cells to evaluate the combined effect of particulate radiation and LILT conditions. The effect of LILT conditions was observed to incur an increase in the variation of cell performances such that at simulted 5.18 AU conditions the average performance was approximately 30% with the best cells measuring between 32 and 34% efficiency. The 30% average efficiency compares with approximately 25% average efficiency measured on earlier technology triple junction solar cells.

  4. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption properties of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jinwen; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Xianfu; Yao, Mingying

    2013-06-01

    Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites were prepared in situ by hydrogenation-disproportionation-oxygen-desorption-recombination and nitrogen process, and their electromagnetic wave absorption properties were measured in the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz. The result showed that saturation magnetization and coercivity of as-prepared powder with 25.3 wt% Sm2O3, 64.4 wt% α-Fe and 10.3 wt% Sm2Fe17N3 were 134.57 emu/g and 654.5 G, respectively. The dielectric constant of composites was low over the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz, and their resonance frequencies were at a high frequency range. The resin composite of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17N3 exhibited effective electromagnetic wave absorption (RL≤20 dB) in a frequency range 3-9 GHz, for absorber thickness ranging from 3 to 8 mm, respectively. A minimum reflection loss of -53 dB from the samples was observed at 7 GHz with an absorber thickness of 3.59 mm.

  5. Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov., Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov., isolated from faeces of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Oki, Kaihei; Yanokura, Emiko; Shimakawa, Yasuhisa; Modesto, Monica; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno; Watanabe, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study on bifidobacterial distribution in New World monkeys, six strains belonging to the Bifidobacteriaceae were isolated from faecal samples of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.). All the isolates were Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, asporogenous and fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed relatively low levels of similarity (maximum identity 96 %) to members of the genus Bifidobacterium, and placed the isolates in three independent clusters: strains of cluster I (MRM_5.9T and MRM_5.10) and cluster III (MRM_5.18T and MRM_9.02) respectively showed 96.4 and 96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bifidobacterium callitrichos DSM 23973T, while strains of cluster II (MRM_8.14T and MRM_9.14) showed 95.4 % similarity to Bifidobacterium stellenboschense DSM 23968T. Phylogenetic analysis of partial hsp60 and clpC gene sequences supported an independent phylogenetic position of each cluster from each other and from the related type strains B. callitrichos DSM 23973T and B. stellenboschense DSM 23968T. Clusters I, II and III respectively showed DNA G+C contents of 64.9-65.1, 56.4-56.7 and 63.1-63.7 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of MRM_5.9T were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c dimethylacetal, while C16 : 0 was prominent in strains MRM_5.18T and MRM_8.14T, followed by C18 : 1ω9c and C14 : 0. Biochemical profiles and growth parameters were recorded for all the isolates. Based on the data provided, the clusters represent three novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov. (type strain MRM_5.9T = DSM 100196T = JCM 30796T), Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov. (type strain MRM_8.14T = DSM 100202T = JCM 30799T) and Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. (type strain MRM_5.18T = DSM 100201T = JCM 30798T) are proposed. PMID:26515885

  6. Silicon isotopes indicate enhanced carbon export efficiency in the North Atlantic during deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Katharine R; Robinson, Laura F; McManus, Jerry F; Hays, James D

    2014-01-01

    Today's Sargasso Sea is nutrient starved, except for episodic upwelling events caused by wind-driven winter mixing and eddies. Enhanced diatom opal burial in Sargasso Sea sediments indicates that silicic acid, a limiting nutrient today, may have been more available in subsurface waters during Heinrich Stadials, millennial-scale climate perturbations of the last glacial and deglaciation. Here we use the geochemistry of opal-forming organisms from different water depths to demonstrate changes in silicic acid supply and utilization during the most recent Heinrich Stadial. We suggest that during the early phase (17.5-18 ka), wind-driven upwelling replenished silicic acid to the subsurface, resulting in low Si utilization. By 17 ka, stratification reduced the surface silicic acid supply leading to increased Si utilization efficiency. This abrupt shift in Si cycling would have contributed to high regional carbon export efficiency during the recent Heinrich Stadial, despite being a period of increasing atmospheric CO2.

  7. [Occupational deafness in workers of locomotive crew and its association with risk factors].

    PubMed

    Pfaf, V F; Gorokhova, S G; Luzina, K E; Yanushkina, E S; Prigorovskaya, T S; Muraseeva, E V; Dragan, S P; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied relationship between occupational neurosensory deafness and risk factors in locomotive crew workers. Examination covered 173 locomotive crew workers divided into 2 groups: group 1--with occupational neurosensory deafness (n = 85) and group 2--without occupational neurosensory deafness (n = 88). Study covered occupational factors and calculated effective dose connected to length of service for exposure assessment. Complex clinical and laboratory study was performed. For signs structure analysis, principal components method and chances ratio were used. Occupational neurosensory deafness appeared to be reliably connected with length of service, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia--with OR equals 5.7 (95% CI: 2.98-11.00), 1.88 (95% CI: 1.03-3.43) and 2.79 (95% CI: 1.5-5.18) respectively. That necessitates correction of hypertension and dyslipidemia. PMID:27164751

  8. A first principles investigation of ferromagnetic EuFe{sub 4}As{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, A. Sandeep,; Thapa, R. K.; Rai, D. P.; Maibam, J.

    2015-05-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations of electronic and magnetic properties of filled skutterudites EuFe{sub 4}As{sub 12} have been performed using FP-LAPW method within the framework of the LSDA approach. The rare-earth filled skutterudites have attracted much attention because of the presence of the highly localized f-electrons and d- electrons of rare-earth and transition metal respectively, with high density of states near Fermi level. The calculation performed near the Fermi level of density of states shows the compound to be suitable for thermoelectric application. The exchange-splitting of Eu-4f states were analysed to explain the ferromagnetic behaviour of EuFe{sub 4}As{sub 12} with magnetic moment value 5.18 μ{sub B}.

  9. 3D X-ray Strain Microscopy in Two-Phase Composites at Submicron Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Bei, Hongbin; Ice, Gene E; Gao, Yanfei; Barabash, Oleg M

    2011-01-01

    Author note: Part of this research summary is based on findings first reported in Refs. [3-5, 18]. Renewed interest in composite materials is driven by the fact that their mechanical properties can be superior to those of individual constituent phases. Interfaces between the phases are the key elements responsible for the unique micro-mechanisms of plastic deformation in composites. In this study the depth-dependent residual strain distributed in the two phases and partitioned across the composite interfaces is directly measured at submicron length-scale using X-ray microdiffraction and compared to a detailed simulation within the framework of micromechanical stress analysis. Interface strength is determined from the analysis of the so-called slip zone caused by the near-surface stress relaxation. Two examples are discussed including NiAl/Mo and Ni/Mo composites.

  10. Deficit of short-term memory in newly diagnosed untreated parkinsonian patients: reversal after L-dopa therapy.

    PubMed

    Marini, P; Ramat, S; Ginestroni, A; Paganini, M

    2003-10-01

    We assessed the effect of pathology and L-dopa therapy on attention, working memory, and executive functions, in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty-one consecutive outpatients who met the criteria for de novo Parkinson's disease, and were naive for L-dopa therapy, were observed for the first time. All patients underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations (cognitive decline, memory, executive control). Each patient was reevaluated on standard L-dopa therapy. Serial Position Curves showed an increased primacy effect (5.18+/-2.07) and a decreased recency effect (13.35+/-5.51). These findings normalized after L-dopa therapy (3.50+/-1.72 and 16.20+/-3.09 respectively). The effect of L-dopa on working memory is discussed.

  11. Impact of high external circulation ratio on the performance of anaerobic reactor treating coal gasification wastewater under thermophilic condition.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Li, Kun

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory-scale external circulation anaerobic reactor (ECAR) was developed to treat actual coal gasification wastewater. The external circulation ratio (R) was selected as the main operating variable for analysis. From the results, with the hydraulic retention time of 50h, pH > 8.0 and R of 3, the COD, total phenols, volatile phenol and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies were remarkably increased to 10 ± 2%, 22 ± 5%, 18 ± 1%, and -1 ± 2%, respectively. Besides, increasing R resulted in more transformation from bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to free EPS in the liquid and the particle size distribution of anaerobic granular sludge accumulated in the middle size range of 1.0-2.5mm. Results showed the genus Saccharofermentans dominanted in the ECAR and the bacterial community shift was observed at different external circulation ratio, influencing the pollutants removal profoundly.

  12. Levothyroxine treatment in pregnancy: indications, efficacy, and therapeutic regimen.

    PubMed

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Burman, Kenneth D; Van Nostrand, Douglas; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is estimated to be 0.3-0.5% and 2-3%, respectively. Thyroid autoantibodies are found in 5-18% of women in the childbearing age. The aim of this review is to underscore the clinical significance of these findings on the health of both the mother and her offspring. Methods of evaluation of thyroid function tests (TFTs) during pregnancy are described as are the threshold values for the diagnosis of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia. Anticipated differences in TFTs in iodine-sufficient and iodine-deficient areas are discussed and data are provided on potential complications of hypothyroidism/hypothyroxinemia and autoimmune thyroid disease during pregnancy and adverse effects for the offspring. The beneficial effects of levothyroxine therapy on pregnancy outcomes and offspring development are discussed with a proposed treatment regimen and follow up strategy.

  13. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shotaro; Tateno, Morihiro; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan.

  14. Serotype-Specific Pneumococcal Status prior to PCV 13 Administration in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Targońska, Brygida; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Karolewska-Bochenek, Katarzyna; Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Gawrońska, Agnieszka; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Kotowska, Maria; Sienkiewicz, Edyta; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Gregorek, Hanna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Albrecht, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype-specific pneumococcal status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination before administering the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13). This was an open, prospective study on children and adolescents aged 5-18 years who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. A single dose of PCV 13 was administered to each patient. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were measured for all 13 serotypes. A total of 122 subjects completed the study. Prevaccination GMCs ranged from 0.55 μg/ml (serotype 4) to 4.26 μg/mI (serotype 19A). Prior to the administration of PCV 13, high GMCs were detected in older children and adolescents who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:27281998

  15. Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, C. M.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Park, H.-S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Maddox, B. R.; Remington, B. A.; Kline, J.

    2010-10-15

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will require bright, short duration, near-monochromatic x-ray backlighters for radiographic diagnosis of many high-energy density systems. This paper details a vanadium pinhole backlighter producing (1.8{+-}0.5)x10{sup 15} x-ray photons into 4{pi} sr near the vanadium He-like characteristic x-ray energy of 5.18 keV. The x-ray yield was quantified from a set of Ross filters imaged to a calibrated image plate, with the Dante diagnostic used to confirm the quasimonochromatic nature of the spectrum produced. Additionally, an x-ray film image shows a source-limited image resolution of 26 {mu}m from a 20 {mu}m diameter pinhole.

  16. Deposition of biopolymer thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Mihaiescu, D.; Socol, G.; Stamatin, I.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Chrisey, D. B.

    We report on the successful deposition of high quality type I fibrilar collagen thin films by Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Thin films deposition was performed in a N2 ambient (20 Pa) using a KrF* laser source (λ=248 nm,τ>=20 ns) operated at a repetition rate of 3 Hz, the incident laser energy at a value within the range (20-35)mJ , and the laser spot area was (3.5-18.5)+/-0.1 mm2. The collagen films were deposited on double face polished <100> single crystalline Si wafers and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that our thin films are composed of collagen, with no impurities and the roughness can be controlled by the deposition conditions.

  17. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Reza; Azmi, B Z; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Zaidan, A W; Mahdi, M A

    2011-01-07

    Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10(-8), 1.6 × 10(-8), 2.4 × 10(-8), respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.

  18. Cadmium Accumulation in Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon System in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19–5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07–1.32 and 0.12–1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination. PMID:22690166

  19. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future.

  20. MONITORING THE EFFICACY OF MONTELUKAST USED IN CHILDREN WITH RISK OF ASTHMA.

    PubMed

    Pkhakadze, I; Alavidze, N; Gamkrelidze, S; Ekaladze, E

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of Montelukast - leukotriene inhibitor in children population with risk of bronchial asthma. The research was conducted at LTD. Kutaisi Children primary care unit #3. The data were collected from January 2013 till January 2016. 104 patients (5-18 year, 43 girl, 61 boy), with potential risk of bronchial asthma were involved into the research, 47 (45%) patients out of 104 were considered as a real risk for asthma, based on Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and spirometry results. Patients with risk of asthma were grouped according to the method of treatment (monotherapy with inhaled glycocorticoid and inhaled glycocorticoid combined with leukotriene inhibitor). Descriptive statistics methods were used to characterize each variable. Our results indicate on positive influence of montelukast - selective leukotrien inhibitor in treatment of children with various forms of asthma. PMID:27249433

  1. Chirped-Pulsed Ftmw Spectrum of 4-FLUOROBENZYL Alcohol. Structure and Torsional Motions in the Ground Electronic State Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Ryan G.; Pratt, David W.; Neill, Justin L.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies of 4-fluorobenzyl alcohol (4FBA) in the gas phase have revealed the existence of tunneling splittings in its high resolution electronic spectrum. These could be attributed either to the ground S0 state, or the excited S1 state, or both. Motivated by this finding, we report here a study of the CP-FTMW spectrum of 4FBA. Its pure rotational spectrum was collected using a series of 250 MHz chirped pulses, over the frequency range of 6.5-18 GHz. Analysis of this data shows that 4FBA has a gauche structure and yields the V2 barrier for CH2OH torsion, from which the predicted tunneling splittings in the ground state have been extracted.

  2. Chickenpox in a Swiss prison: susceptibility, post-exposure vaccination and control measures.

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Stoll, Béat; Humair, Jean-Paul; Scherrer, Yvan; Franziskakis, Constantin; Sudre, Philippe; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2010-12-01

    After the occurrence of a case of chickenpox in Switzerland's largest pre-trial prison, protective measures including post-exposure vaccination were implemented, as chickenpox can cause severe complications in adults. Serology for chickenpox was carried out for all contacts of the index case and rapid post-exposure vaccination proposed to all prisoners with a negative history for chickenpox. Susceptibility was found in 14 out of 110 prisoners (12.7%; 95% confidence interval 6.5-18.9). The positive predictive value of a history of chickenpox was 90%. In this predominantly migrant population, susceptibility to chickenpox was approximately 6 times higher than in the general Swiss adult population. Since the attack rate among susceptible household contacts is usually high, preventive measures such as vaccination and quarantine probably allowed containment of the spread of infection.

  3. Design of an ellipsoidal mirror for freewave characterization of materials at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, M.; Muñoz, J.; Molina-Cuberos, G. J.; García-Collado, Á. J.; Margineda, J.

    2016-03-01

    Free-wave characterization of the electromagnetic properties of materials at microwave frequencies requires that scattering at the edges of the samples and/or holder be minimized. Here, an ellipsoidal mirror is designed and characterized in order to decrease the size of the beam, thereby avoiding the scattering problems, even when relatively small samples are used. In the experimental configuration, both the emitting antenna and sample are located at the mirror focuses. Since both the emitted and reflected (focused) beams are Gaussian in nature, we make use of Gaussian beam theory to carry out the design. The mirror parameters are optimized by numerical simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics®) and then experimentally tested. An experimental setup is presented for dielectric, magnetic and chiral measurement in the 4.5-18 GHz band.

  4. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future. PMID:27179143

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    Zamiri, Reza; Azmi, B Z; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Zaidan, A W; Mahdi, M A

    2011-01-01

    Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10−8, 1.6 × 10−8, 2.4 × 10−8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method. PMID:21289983

  6. THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM OF THE UREA\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotISOCYANIC ACID COMPLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaney, John C.; Medcraft, Chris; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony; Lewis-Borrell, Luke; Golding, Bernard T.

    2016-06-01

    A dimer of urea and isocyanic acid has been generated and observed in the gas phase. The complex was generated by laser vaporisation of a rod target containing urea and copper in a 1:1 ratio, then cooled in a supersonic expansion. Six isotopologues of the complex have been characterised using a chirped pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the frequency range 6.5-18.5 GHz. The spectra have been fitted to the Hamiltonian for an asymmetric rotor using PGOPHER. Data obtained from the 13C and 15N isotopologues confirms that all nitrogen atoms are close to the a intertial axis while the carbon atoms are not. A tentative structure will be presented.

  7. Free Fall Plasma-Arc Reactor for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feinkema, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    High temperatures inside the plasma of a carbon arc generate strong buoyancy driven convection which has an effect on the growth and morphology of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). To study the effect of buoyancy on the arc process, a miniature carbon arc apparatus was designed and developed to synthesize SWNTs in a microgravity environment substantially free from buoyant convective flows. An arc reactor was operated in the 2.2- and 5.18-second drop towers at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The apparatus employed a 4 mm diameter anode and was powered by a portable battery pack capable of providing in excess of 300 amps at 30 volts to the arc for the duration of a 5-second drop. However, the principal result is that no dramatic difference in sample yield or composition was noted between normal gravity, 2.2-and 5-second long microgravity runs.

  8. Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Park, H.-S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Maddox, B. R.; Remington, B. A.; Kline, J.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will require bright, short duration, near-monochromatic x-ray backlighters for radiographic diagnosis of many high-energy density systems. This paper details a vanadium pinhole backlighter producing (1.8±0.5)×1015 x-ray photons into 4π sr near the vanadium He-like characteristic x-ray energy of 5.18 keV. The x-ray yield was quantified from a set of Ross filters imaged to a calibrated image plate, with the Dante diagnostic used to confirm the quasimonochromatic nature of the spectrum produced. Additionally, an x-ray film image shows a source-limited image resolution of 26 μm from a 20 μm diameter pinhole.

  9. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shotaro; Tateno, Morihiro; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan. PMID:25947226

  10. Natural polyphenols down-regulate universal stress protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An in-silico approach.

    PubMed

    Aanandhi, M Vijey; Bhattacherjee, Debojit; George, P Samuel Gideon; Ray, Anirban

    2014-10-01

    Universal stress protein (USP) is a novel target to overcome the tuberculosis resistance. Our present study enlightens the possibilities of some natural polyphenols as an antioxidant for USP. The study has shown some molecular simulations of some selected natural antioxidants with USP. We have considered USP (Rv1636) strain for homology modeling and the selected template was taken for the docking study. Curcumin, catechin, reservetrol has shown ARG 136 (1.8Å) hydrogen bonding and two ionic bonding with carboxyl group of curcumin with LEU 130 (3.3Å) and ASN 144 (3.4Å) respectively. INH was taken for the standard molecule to perform molecular simulation. It showed poor binding interaction with the target, that is, -5.18 kcal, and two hydrogen bonding with SER 140 (1.887Å), ARG 147 (2.064Å) respectively. The study indicates possible new generation curcumin analogue for future therapy to down-regulate USP. PMID:25364695

  11. 0714 - 2914 (M4-1) - Another Seyfert galaxy with aligned radio continuum and optical emission-line morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. S.; Baldwin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct imaging and long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the emission-line gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy 0714 - 2914 (M4-1, MCG - 5-18-2) are reported. The nuclear regions contain an extended (1 kpc size), high-excitation nebulosity that is well aligned with the jet-like nonthermal radio source. The profiles of Forbidden O III 5007A are asymmetric, with extended red wings to the north and west of the nucleus and extended blue wings to the south and east. This switch in the sense of asymmetry is accounted for in terms of a combination of normal rotational motions in the galaxy disk and high-velocity outflow or infall associated with the Seyfert activity.

  12. Analytic prediction for planar turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-11-01

    Analytic predictions of mean velocity profile (MVP) and streamwise ( x) development of related integral quantities are presented for flows in channel and turbulent boundary layer (TBL), based on a symmetry analysis of eddy length and total stress. Specific predictions include the relations for momentum Reynolds number ( Re θ) with friction Re τ and streamwise Re x : Re θ ≈ 3.27 Re τ, and Re x / Re θ = 4.94 [(ln Re θ + 1.88)2 + 1]; the streamwise development of the friction velocity u τ: U e / u τ ≈ 2.22ln Re x + 2.86 - 3.83ln(ln Re x ), and of the boundary layer thickness δ e : x/δ e ≈ 7.27ln Re x -5.18-12.52ln(ln Re x ), which are fully validated by recent reliable data.

  13. Microwave Spectroscopy and Structure Determination of H_2S-MI (M=Cu,Ag,Au)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medcraft, Chris; Legon, Anthony; Walker, Nick

    2016-06-01

    A series of hydrogen sulphide-metal iodide complexes (H_2S-MI, M=Cu, Ag and Au) have been measured via chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy between 7.5-18 GHz. The complexes were generated in a supersonic expansion via laser ablation of the metal and decomposition of CF_3I. Experimental structures were obtained by least squares fitting of structural parameters to the rotational constants of deuterium and metal (63Cu / 65Cu and 107Ag / 109Ag) isotopologues. Interestingly K-1=1 transitions were observed in the spectra containing D_2S, these were not observed in previous studies of similar molecules (H_2S-MCl). This allowed for the determination of an extra rotational constant and, consequently, extra structural information could be obtained. The structures are compared to high level coupled cluster theory calculations.

  14. Wideband Array for C, X, and Ku-Band Applications with 5.3:1 Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Planar arrays that exploit strong intentional coupling between elements have allowed for very wide bandwidths in low-profile configurations. However, such designs also require complex impedance matching networks that must also be very compact. For many space applications, typically occurring at C-, X-, Ku-, and most recently at Ka-band, such designs require specialized and expensive fabrication techniques. To address this issue, a novel ultra-wideband array is presented, using a simplified feed network to reduce fabrication cost. The array operates from 3.5-18.5 GHz with VSWR less than 2.4 at broadside, and is of very low profile, having a total height of lambda/10 at the lowest frequency of operation. Validation is provided using a 64-element prototype array, fabricated using common Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology. The low size, weight, and cost of this array make it attractive for space-borne applications.

  15. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of glutamic acid-based dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Dorta, Gastón; Martín, Víctor S; Padrón, José M

    2015-08-01

    A small and focused library of 22 dipeptides derived from N,N-dibenzylglutamic acid α- and γ-benzyl esters was prepared in a straightforward manner. The evaluation of the antiproliferative activity in the human solid tumor cell lines HBL-100 (breast), HeLa (cervix), SW1573 (non-small cell lung), T-47D (breast), and WiDr (colon) provided γ-glutamyl methionine (GI50 = 6.0-41 μM) and α-glutamyl proline (GI50 = 7.5-18 μM) as lead compounds. In particular, glutamyl serine and glutamyl proline dipeptides were more active in the resistant cancer cell line WiDr than the conventional anticancer drugs cisplatin and etoposide. Glutamyl tryptophan dipeptides did not affect cell growth of HBL-100, while in T-47D cells, proliferation was inhibited. This result might be attributed to the inhibition of the ATB(0,+) transporter.

  16. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KUBO, Shotaro; TATENO, Morihiro; ICHIKAWA, Yasuaki; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan. PMID:25947226

  17. Determination of strontium and simultaneous determination of strontium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide content of Portland cement by derivative ratio spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Idriss, K A; Sedaira, H; Ahmed, S S

    2009-04-15

    A derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of strontium in Portland cement. The method is applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of SrO, MgO and CaO. It is based on the use of Alizarin Complexone (AC) as a complexing agent and measurement of the derivative ratio spectra of the analytes. Interferences of manganese(II) and zinc(II) were eliminated by precipitation. The validity of the method was examined by analyzing several Standard Reference Material (SRM) Portland cement samples. The strontium complex formed at pH 9.5 allows precise and accurate determination of strontium over the concentration range of 1.5-18 mg L(-1) of strontium. The MDL (at 95% confidence level) was found to be 25 ng mL(-1) for strontium in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cement samples using the proposed method.

  18. Silicon isotopes indicate enhanced carbon export efficiency in the North Atlantic during deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Katharine R; Robinson, Laura F; McManus, Jerry F; Hays, James D

    2014-01-01

    Today's Sargasso Sea is nutrient starved, except for episodic upwelling events caused by wind-driven winter mixing and eddies. Enhanced diatom opal burial in Sargasso Sea sediments indicates that silicic acid, a limiting nutrient today, may have been more available in subsurface waters during Heinrich Stadials, millennial-scale climate perturbations of the last glacial and deglaciation. Here we use the geochemistry of opal-forming organisms from different water depths to demonstrate changes in silicic acid supply and utilization during the most recent Heinrich Stadial. We suggest that during the early phase (17.5-18 ka), wind-driven upwelling replenished silicic acid to the subsurface, resulting in low Si utilization. By 17 ka, stratification reduced the surface silicic acid supply leading to increased Si utilization efficiency. This abrupt shift in Si cycling would have contributed to high regional carbon export efficiency during the recent Heinrich Stadial, despite being a period of increasing atmospheric CO2. PMID:24452197

  19. [Distribution, abundance, density and morphometry of Strombus gigas (Mesogasteropoda: Strombidae) in Alacranes reef, Yucatán, México].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, M; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    A population of the conch Strombus gigas was sampled in 109 transects (100 x 10 m each) for an area of 109000 m2 (eight surveys in 1998 and six in 1999) in Yucatan, Mexico; S. gigas was the most abundant conch species (97% of individuals) and ocurred at depths of 0.5-18 m. Mean density was 0.0084 individuals/m2 (Standard deviation SD=0.0138, n=1910). Maximum density (0.015 individuals/m2) was at 0.5-2 m and minimal (0.001 individuals/m2) at 16-18 m. Shell length was 120-290 mm (mena=211.6, SD=26, n=1136). Shell lip thickness, measured only in adults, was 1-28 mm (mean=8.7, SD=7.5, n=1136).

  20. The Pure Rotational Spectra of FCPtF and FPtI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Dror M.; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Transitions measured by a chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the frequency range 6.5-18.5 GHz have been fitted and tentatively assigned to the linear molecules FCPtF and FPtI, each in a ^1Σ electronic state. Laser ablation was used to introduce Pt into the gas phase from a metal rod with natural isotopic abundance. CF_3I was used as a source of C, F and I atoms. The products of reactions between the chemical precursors were cooled to a rotational temperature approaching 2K through supersonic expansion of the gaseous sample. Different isotopologues of Pt were observed. The spectra of other palladium and platinum containing complexes obtained in a similar way will be presented.

  1. Measurement and Modeling of Inner-Shell Satellites of Na-like Fe XVI between 14.5 Å and 18 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, A; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Gu, M F

    2007-09-10

    We have used the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap to perform measurements of the wavelengths and relative intensities of the X-ray lines from inner-shell satellite transitions in sodium-like Fe XVI. The measurements were carried out with high-resolution crystal and grating spectrometers and covered the 14.5-18 {angstrom} wavelength band. Contrary to predicted line strengths and positions found in the literature, our results show that the strongest inner-shell satellites of Fe XVI are located near 15.2 {angstrom}. This is near the location of the 3d {yields} 2p intercombination line in Fe XVII. Calculations using the Flexible Atomic Code are presented, which agree well with the EBIT-I measurements.

  2. Collisional properties of cold spin-polarized metastable neon atoms.

    PubMed

    Spoden, P; Zinner, M; Herschbach, N; van Drunen, W J; Ertmer, W; Birkl, G

    2005-06-10

    We measure the rates of elastic and inelastic two-body collisions of cold spin-polarized neon atoms in the metastable 3P2 state for 20Ne and 22Ne in a magnetic trap. From particle loss, we determine the loss parameter of inelastic collisions beta=6.5(18) x 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) for 20Ne and beta=1.2(3) x 10(-11) cm(3) s(-1) for 22Ne. These losses are caused by ionizing (i.e., Penning) collisions and occur less frequently than for unpolarized atoms. This proves the suppression of Penning ionization due to spin polarization. From cross-dimensional relaxation measurements, we obtain elastic scattering lengths of a=-180(40)a(0) for 20Ne and a = +150(+80)(-50)a(0) for 22Ne, where a(0)=0.0529 nm.

  3. Observation of the Λb0 → Λϕ decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Λb0 → Λϕ decay is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 recorded by the LHCb experiment. The decay proceeds at leading order via a b → s s ‾ s loop transition and is therefore sensitive to the possible presence of particles beyond the Standard Model. A first observation is reported with a significance of 5.9 standard deviations. The value of the branching fraction is measured to be (5.18 ± 1.04 ± 0.35-0.62+0.67) ×10-6, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is related to external inputs. Triple-product asymmetries are measured to be consistent with zero.

  4. Survival and fates of staging juvenile, female mallards in the Vermont / Quebec border region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Bunck, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We alternately marked 80 juvenile, female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), half with transmitters and bands and half with only bands in 1990 and 1991. Survival of radio-marked ducks was monitored daily and then summarized weekly for the periods 31 August - 6 December, 1990 (weeks 5-18) and 11 September - 6 December, 1991) (weeks 6-18). The pattern of survival throughout the staging period did not differ (P = 0.785) between 1990 and 1991. Survival at the end of the staging period (week 18) was low in both years (0.379 in 1990; 0.282 in 1991; and 0.337 for a combined estimate). Only 2.5% (1990) and 7.5% (1991) of the bands of the banded-only sample were recovered. Fates of the ducks were associated with hunter opportunity and are evaluated as related to body mass, flock size and duck behavior as determined from hunter questionnaires.

  5. Ultrathick Photoresist Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarlo, D. R...; Ceglio, N. M.

    1980-09-01

    Diazo-type positive photoresists are commonly used for pattern replication by the integrated circuit industry in a thickness range ≍ O.3-3μm. We are using these same resists at thicknesses as great as 40 μm to form electroplating molds for the fabrication of micro-Fresnel zone plates. Difficulties are encountered when films thicker than l5-18μm are used for pattern replication. Most significant of these difficulties are: i) the occurance of bulk microfractures throughout the resist volume, ii) loss of UV sensitivity, and iii) sidewall taper in high aspect ratio structures. These difficulties, with the exception of the sidewall taper, can be overcome with appropriate resist processing schedules.

  6. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  7. Expression profiling of Aldh1l1-precursors in the developing spinal cord reveals glial lineage-specific genes and direct Sox9-Nfe2l1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Molofsky, Anna V; Glasgow, Stacey M; Chaboub, Lesley S; Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Murnen, Alice T; Kelley, Kevin W; Fancy, Stephen P J; Yuen, Tracy J; Madireddy, Lohith; Baranzini, Sergio; Deneen, Benjamin; Rowitch, David H; Oldham, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Developmental regulation of gliogenesis in the mammalian CNS is incompletely understood, in part due to a limited repertoire of lineage-specific genes. We used Aldh1l1-GFP as a marker for gliogenic radial glia and later-stage precursors of developing astrocytes and performed gene expression profiling of these cells. We then used this dataset to identify candidate transcription factors that may serve as glial markers or regulators of glial fate. Our analysis generated a database of developmental stage-related markers of Aldh1l1+ cells between murine embryonic day 13.5-18.5. Using these data we identify the bZIP transcription factor Nfe2l1 and demonstrate that it promotes glial fate under direct Sox9 regulatory control. Thus, this dataset represents a resource for identifying novel regulators of glial development.

  8. [Distribution, abundance, density and morphometry of Strombus gigas (Mesogasteropoda: Strombidae) in Alacranes reef, Yucatán, México].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, M; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    A population of the conch Strombus gigas was sampled in 109 transects (100 x 10 m each) for an area of 109000 m2 (eight surveys in 1998 and six in 1999) in Yucatan, Mexico; S. gigas was the most abundant conch species (97% of individuals) and ocurred at depths of 0.5-18 m. Mean density was 0.0084 individuals/m2 (Standard deviation SD=0.0138, n=1910). Maximum density (0.015 individuals/m2) was at 0.5-2 m and minimal (0.001 individuals/m2) at 16-18 m. Shell length was 120-290 mm (mena=211.6, SD=26, n=1136). Shell lip thickness, measured only in adults, was 1-28 mm (mean=8.7, SD=7.5, n=1136). PMID:15266792

  9. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of glutamic acid-based dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Dorta, Gastón; Martín, Víctor S; Padrón, José M

    2015-08-01

    A small and focused library of 22 dipeptides derived from N,N-dibenzylglutamic acid α- and γ-benzyl esters was prepared in a straightforward manner. The evaluation of the antiproliferative activity in the human solid tumor cell lines HBL-100 (breast), HeLa (cervix), SW1573 (non-small cell lung), T-47D (breast), and WiDr (colon) provided γ-glutamyl methionine (GI50 = 6.0-41 μM) and α-glutamyl proline (GI50 = 7.5-18 μM) as lead compounds. In particular, glutamyl serine and glutamyl proline dipeptides were more active in the resistant cancer cell line WiDr than the conventional anticancer drugs cisplatin and etoposide. Glutamyl tryptophan dipeptides did not affect cell growth of HBL-100, while in T-47D cells, proliferation was inhibited. This result might be attributed to the inhibition of the ATB(0,+) transporter. PMID:25900811

  10. Validation of lower body negative pressure as an experimental model of hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Robert E.; Muniz, Gary W.; Bauer, Cassondra; Goei, Kathleen A.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Chung, Kevin K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Convertino, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a model of hemorrhage (Hem), shifts blood to the legs and elicits central hypovolemia. This study compared responses to LBNP and actual Hem in sedated baboons. Arterial pressure, pulse pressure (PP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate, stroke volume (SV), and +dP/dt were measured. Hem steps were 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% of total estimated blood volume. Shed blood was returned, and 4 wk after Hem, the same animals were subjected to four LBNP levels which elicited equivalent changes in PP and CVP observed during Hem. Blood gases, hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), plasma renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured at baseline and maximum Hem or LBNP. LBNP levels matched with 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% hemorrhage were −22 ± 6, −41 ± 7, −54 ± 10, and −71 ± 7 mmHg, respectively (mean ± SD). Hemodynamic responses to Hem and LBNP were similar. SV decreased linearly such that 25% Hem and matching LBNP caused a 50% reduction in SV. Hem caused a decrease in Hct, Hb, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). In contrast, LBNP increased Hct and Hb, while ScvO2 remained unchanged. Hem caused greater elevations in AVP and NE than LBNP, while PRA, EPI, and other hematologic indexes did not differ between studies. These results indicate that while LBNP does not elicit the same effect on blood cell loss as Hem, LBNP mimics the integrative cardiovascular response to Hem, and validates the use of LBNP as an experimental model of central hypovolemia associated with Hem. PMID:24356525

  11. Histology atlas of the developing mouse heart with emphasis on E11.5 to E18.5.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Saija M; Foley, Julie F; Elmore, Susan A

    2009-06-01

    In humans, congenital heart diseases are common. Since the rapid progression of transgenic technologies, the mouse has become the major animal model of defective cardiovascular development. Moreover, genetically modified mice frequently die in utero, commonly due to abnormal cardiovascular development. A variety of publications address specific developmental stages or structures of the mouse heart, but a single reference reviewing and describing the anatomy and histology of cardiac developmental events, stage by stage, has not been available. The aim of this color atlas, which demonstrates embryonic/fetal heart development, is to provide a tool for pathologists and biomedical scientists to use for detailed histological evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections of the developing mouse heart with emphasis on embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5. The selected images illustrate the main structures and developmental events at each stage and serve as reference material for the confirmation of the chronological age of the embryo/early fetus and assist in the identification of any abnormalities. An extensive review of the literature covering cardiac development pre-E11.5 is summarized in the introduction. Although the focus of this atlas is on the descriptive anatomic and histological development of the normal mouse heart from E11.5 to E18.5, potential embryonic cardiac lesions are discussed with a list of the most common transgenic pre- and perinatal heart defects. Representative images of hearts at E11.5-15.5 and E18.5 are provided in Figures 2-4, 6, 8, and 9. A complete set of labeled images (Figures E11.5-18.5) is available on the CD enclosed in this issue of Toxicologic Pathology. All digital images can be viewed online at https://niehsimages.epl-inc.com with the username "ToxPath" and the password "embryohearts."

  12. Melatonin treatment mimics the antidepressant action in chronic corticosterone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Crupi, Rosalia; Mazzon, Emanuela; Marino, Angela; La Spada, Giuseppina; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo

    2010-09-01

    Melatonin, involved in circadian cycle, provides protective effects on neuronal cells and acts as antidepressant by restoration of corticosterone levels. A mouse model of anxiety/depressive-like behavior, induced by chronic corticosterone treatment, has been used to evaluate behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and their possible modulation under melatonin. With this aim, CD1 mice were subjected to 7 wk of corticosterone administration, and then behavioral tests as novelty-suppressed feeding, open field and a forced swim test were performed. Cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) was investigated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and doublecortin immunohistochemistry techniques, and stereological procedure was used to quantify labeled cells. Golgi-impregnated method was used to evaluate the changes of dendritic spines in DG neurons. A new therapeutic approach with antidepressant-like substances (3 wk) such as melatonin (8 mg/kg) was employed to possibly modulate neural development in the adult hippocampus and the behavioral changes. The depressive-like state caused by chronic corticosterone treatment was reversed by exogenous administration of melatonin; the proliferation of progenitor cells in mice hippocampus was significantly reduced under chronic corticosterone treatment (cort- 83.7 +/- 20.3 versus cort+ 60.5 +/- 18.2; P < 0.05), whereas long-term treatment with melatonin prevented the corticosterone-induced reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation (cort- 60.5 +/- 18.2 versus mel 133.4 +/- 26.9; P < 0.05). Corticosterone-treated mice exhibited a reduced spine density, which was ameliorated by melatonin administration. These findings suggest a strong correspondence between behavior and neurogenesis, strengthening the hypothesis that neurogenesis contributes to the effects of melatonin as an antidepressant. PMID:20536684

  13. Pacing-induced congenital heart defects assessed by OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Stephanie M.; McPheeters, Matt T.; Wang, Yves T.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Strainic, James P.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-03-01

    The role of hemodynamics in early heart development is poorly understood. In order to successfully assess the impact of hemodynamics on development, we need to monitor and perturb blood flow, and quantify the resultant effects on morphology. Here, we have utilized cardiac optical pacing to create regurgitant flow in embryonic hearts and OCT to quantify regurgitation percentage and resultant morphology. Embryonic quail in a shell-less culture were optically paced at 3 Hz (well above the intrinsic rate or 1.33-1.67 Hz) on day 2 of development (3-4 weeks human) for 5 minutes. The pacing fatigued the heart and led to a prolonged period (> 1 hour) of increased regurgitant flow. Embryos were kept alive until day 3 (cardiac looping - 4-5 weeks human) or day 8 (4 chambered heart - 8 weeks human) to quantify resultant morphologic changes with OCT. All paced embryos imaged at day 3 displayed cardiac defects. The extent of regurgitant flow immediately after pacing was correlated with cardiac cushion size 24-hours post pacing (p-value < 0.01) with higher regurgitation leading to smaller cushions. Almost all embryos (16/18) surviving to day 8 exhibited congenital heart defects (CHDs) including 11/18 with valve defects, 5/18 with ventricular septal defects and 5/18 with hypoplastic right ventricles. Our data suggests that regurgitant flow leads to smaller cushions, which develop into abnormal valves and septa. Our model produces similar phenotypes as found in our fetal alcohol syndrome and velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome models suggesting that hemodynamics plays a role in these syndromes as well. Utilizing OCT and optical pacing to understand hemodynamics in development is an important step towards determining CHD mechanisms and ultimately developing earlier treatments.

  14. Altering hemodynamics leads to congenital heart defects (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Stephanie M.; McPheeters, Matthew T.; Wang, Yves T.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Strainic, James P.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-03-01

    The role of hemodynamics in early heart development is poorly understood. In order to successfully assess the impact of hemodynamics on development, we need to monitor and perturb blood flow, and quantify the resultant effects on morphology. Here, we have utilized cardiac optical pacing to create regurgitant flow in embryonic hearts and OCT to quantify regurgitation percentage and resultant morphology. Embryonic quail in a shell-less culture were optically paced at 3 Hz (well above the intrinsic rate or 1.33-1.67 Hz) on day 2 of development (3-4 weeks human) for 5 minutes. The pacing fatigued the heart and led to a prolonged period (> 1 hour) of increased regurgitant flow. Embryos were kept alive until day 3 (cardiac looping - 4-5 weeks human) or day 8 (4 chambered heart - 8 weeks human) to quantify resultant morphologic changes with OCT. All paced embryos imaged at day 3 displayed cardiac defects. The extent of regurgitant flow immediately after pacing was correlated with cardiac cushion size 24-hours post pacing (p-value < 0.01) with higher regurgitation leading to smaller cushions. Almost all embryos (16/18) surviving to day 8 exhibited congenital heart defects (CHDs) including 11/18 with valve defects, 5/18 with ventricular septal defects and 5/18 with hypoplastic right ventricles. Our data suggests that regurgitant flow leads to smaller cushions, which develop into abnormal valves and septa. Our model produces similar phenotypes as found in our fetal alcohol syndrome and velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome models suggesting that hemodynamics plays a role in these syndromes as well. Utilizing OCT and optical pacing to understand hemodynamics in development is an important step towards determining CHD mechanisms and ultimately developing earlier treatments.

  15. Validation of lower body negative pressure as an experimental model of hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Shade, Robert E; Muniz, Gary W; Bauer, Cassondra; Goei, Kathleen A; Pidcoke, Heather F; Chung, Kevin K; Cap, Andrew P; Convertino, Victor A

    2014-02-15

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a model of hemorrhage (Hem), shifts blood to the legs and elicits central hypovolemia. This study compared responses to LBNP and actual Hem in sedated baboons. Arterial pressure, pulse pressure (PP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate, stroke volume (SV), and +dP/dt were measured. Hem steps were 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% of total estimated blood volume. Shed blood was returned, and 4 wk after Hem, the same animals were subjected to four LBNP levels which elicited equivalent changes in PP and CVP observed during Hem. Blood gases, hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), plasma renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured at baseline and maximum Hem or LBNP. LBNP levels matched with 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% hemorrhage were -22 ± 6, -41 ± 7, -54 ± 10, and -71 ± 7 mmHg, respectively (mean ± SD). Hemodynamic responses to Hem and LBNP were similar. SV decreased linearly such that 25% Hem and matching LBNP caused a 50% reduction in SV. Hem caused a decrease in Hct, Hb, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). In contrast, LBNP increased Hct and Hb, while ScvO2 remained unchanged. Hem caused greater elevations in AVP and NE than LBNP, while PRA, EPI, and other hematologic indexes did not differ between studies. These results indicate that while LBNP does not elicit the same effect on blood cell loss as Hem, LBNP mimics the integrative cardiovascular response to Hem, and validates the use of LBNP as an experimental model of central hypovolemia associated with Hem. PMID:24356525

  16. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  17. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  18. Preclinical Biosafety Evaluation of Genetically Modified Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Clinical Applications to Brainstem Glioma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ah; Yun, Jun-Won; Joo, Kyeung Min; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kwak, Pil Ae; Lee, Young Eun; You, Ji-Ran; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo Ho; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2016-06-15

    Stem-cell based gene therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach for inoperable invasive tumors, including brainstem glioma. Previously, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSC) genetically engineered to express a secreted form of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) against brainstem glioma. However, safety concerns should be comprehensively investigated before clinical applications of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL. At first, we injected stereotactically low (1.2 × 10(5) cells/18 μL), medium (2.4 × 10(5)/18 μL), or high dose (3.6 × 10(5)/18 μL) of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL into the brainstems of immunodeficient mice reflecting the plan of the future clinical trial. Local toxicity, systemic toxicity, secondary tumor formation, and biodistribution of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL were investigated. Next, presence of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL was confirmed in the brain and major organs at 4, 9, and 14 weeks in brainstem glioma-bearing mice. In the 15-week subchronic toxicity test, no serious adverse events in terms of body weight, food consumption, clinical symptom, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, and histopathology were observed. In the 26-week tumorigenicity test, hAT-MSC.sTRAIL made no detectable tumors, whereas positive control U-87 MG cells made huge tumors in the brainstem. No remaining hAT-MSC.sTRAIL was observed in any organs examined, including the brainstem at 15 or 26 weeks. In brainstem glioma-bearing mice, injected hAT-MSC.sTRAIL was observed, but gradually decreased over time in the brain. The mRNA of human specific GAPDH and TRAIL was not detected in all major organs. These results indicate that the hAT-MSC.sTRAIL could be applicable to the future clinical trials in terms of biosafety. PMID:27151205

  19. Ten Novel Mutations in Chinese Patients with Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts and a Long-Term Follow-Up Research

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Binbin; Yan, Huifang; Guo, Mangmang; Xie, Han; Wu, Ye; Gu, Qiang; Xiao, Jiangxi; Shang, Jing; Yang, Yanling; Xiong, Hui; Niu, Zhengping; Wu, Xiru; Jiang, Yuwu; Wang, Jingmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC, OMIM 604004) is a rare neurological deterioration disease. We aimed to clarify clinical and genetic features of Chinese MLC patients. Methods Clinical information and peripheral venous blood of 20 patients and their families were collected, Sanger-sequencing and Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification were performed to make genetic analysis. Splicing-site mutation was confirmed with RT-PCR. UPD was detected by haplotype analysis. Follow-up study was performed through telephone for 27 patients. Results Out of 20 patients, macrocephaly, classic MRI features, motor development delay and cognitive impairment were detected in 20(100%), 20(100%), 17(85%) and 4(20%) patients, respectively. 20(100%) were clinically diagnosed with MLC. 19(95%) were genetically diagnosed with 10 novel mutations in MLC1, MLC1 and GlialCAM mutations were identified in 15 and 4 patients, respectively. Deletion mutation from exon4 to exon9 and a homozygous point mutation due to maternal UPD of chromosome22 in MLC1 were found firstly. c.598-2A>C in MLC1 leads to the skip of exon8. c.772-1G>C in MLC1 accounting for 15.5%(9/58) alleles in Chinese patients might be a founder or a hot-spot mutation. Out of 27 patients in the follow-up study, head circumference was ranged from 56cm to 61cm in patients older than 5yeas old, with a median of 57cm. Motor development delay and cognitive impairment were detected in 22(81.5%) and 5(18.5%) patients, respectively. Motor and cognitive deterioration was found in 5 (18.5%) and 2 patients (7.4%), respectively. Improvements and MRI recovery were first found in Chinese patients. Rate of seizures (45.5%), transient motor retrogress (45.5%) and unconsciousness (13.6%) after head trauma was much higher than that after fever (18.2%, 9.1%, 0%, respectively). Significance It’s a clinical and genetic analysis and a follow-up study for largest sample of Chinese MLC patients, identifying 10

  20. Preclinical Biosafety Evaluation of Genetically Modified Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Clinical Applications to Brainstem Glioma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ah; Yun, Jun-Won; Joo, Kyeung Min; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kwak, Pil Ae; Lee, Young Eun; You, Ji-Ran; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo Ho; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2016-06-15

    Stem-cell based gene therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach for inoperable invasive tumors, including brainstem glioma. Previously, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSC) genetically engineered to express a secreted form of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) against brainstem glioma. However, safety concerns should be comprehensively investigated before clinical applications of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL. At first, we injected stereotactically low (1.2 × 10(5) cells/18 μL), medium (2.4 × 10(5)/18 μL), or high dose (3.6 × 10(5)/18 μL) of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL into the brainstems of immunodeficient mice reflecting the plan of the future clinical trial. Local toxicity, systemic toxicity, secondary tumor formation, and biodistribution of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL were investigated. Next, presence of hAT-MSC.sTRAIL was confirmed in the brain and major organs at 4, 9, and 14 weeks in brainstem glioma-bearing mice. In the 15-week subchronic toxicity test, no serious adverse events in terms of body weight, food consumption, clinical symptom, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, and histopathology were observed. In the 26-week tumorigenicity test, hAT-MSC.sTRAIL made no detectable tumors, whereas positive control U-87 MG cells made huge tumors in the brainstem. No remaining hAT-MSC.sTRAIL was observed in any organs examined, including the brainstem at 15 or 26 weeks. In brainstem glioma-bearing mice, injected hAT-MSC.sTRAIL was observed, but gradually decreased over time in the brain. The mRNA of human specific GAPDH and TRAIL was not detected in all major organs. These results indicate that the hAT-MSC.sTRAIL could be applicable to the future clinical trials in terms of biosafety.

  1. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    ., 2011; Dalton et al., 2014). Domestic tourism boomed after 1970, which led the Sea of Marmara, Aegean, and Mediterranean coasts to become secondary settlement areas for city-dwellers. This, in turn, sparked the construction of concrete buildings along the coastlines, making them less natural. The shift from the agricultural society to the industrial society made it possible for the service sector to grow and develop. Land transportation among large cities gained importance, and road construction gained pace. Development of industry, rapid rise in population, migration from rural areas to cities, unplanned settlement, and wrong agricultural practices are main factors for the environmental degradation in Turkey. Key Words: Human, habitat, anthropocene, industrialization, Turkey. References Andersson, A.J.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Lerman, A. (2006), Coastal ocean CO 2 carbonic acid carbonate sediment system of the Anthropocene, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20: 1-13 Braje, T.J.; Erlandson, J.M. (2014), Looking forward, looking back: Humans, anthropogenic change and the Anthropocene, Anthropocene, 4: 116-121 Crossland, C.J. ed (2005), Coastal fluxes in the Anthropocene. Berlin: Springer. 231-pp. Crutzen, P. J. and Stoermer, E.F. (2000), The Anthropocene. Global Change Newsletter (41): 17-18. Crutzen, P.J. (2002), Geology of Mankind: The Anthropocene. Nature, 415: 23 Crutzen P.J.; Steffen, W. (2003), How long have we been in the Anthropocene Era? Climatic Change, Vol. 61, No. 3. Cürebal, I.; Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sonmez, S. (2015), Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey, Journal of Environmental Biology, Volume 36, Special Issue, 51-58 Dalton, C.; ODwyer, B.; Taylor, D.; de Eyto, E.; Jennings, E.; Chen, G.; Poole, R.; Dillane, M.; McGinnity, P. (2014), Anthropocene environmental change in an internationally important oligotrophic catchment on the Atlantic seaboard of western Europe, Anthropocene, 5: 9-21 Foley, S.F.; Gronenborn, D

  2. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    SciTech Connect

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the V Chromium method (V Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the V Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while V Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the V Cr method. Although V Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival.

  3. [Effect of D-(-)-norgestrel on uterine contractility in the puerperium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Romero-Salinas, G; La Torre-Rasguido, F; Vera-Cáceres, R; Escalera-Villarreal, G; Bandera-Gonzalez, B

    1981-01-01

    It is usual for women to ask for temporary control of fertility during the puerperium. When hormonal therapy is administered, the selection of the adequate pill is very important. The effect of D-(-)-norgestrel 300mg was studied on uterine contractility values during puerperium is seven patients breast feeding and was compared with a control group of 26. The 33 patients had the following characteristics: multiparous during puerperium without recent episiotomy, with healthy cervix, absence of genital septic focus, uterine tumours or malformations; all of them breast feeding. In the hypothesis, it was considered that the endogenous oxytocin increases and stimulates the mammary mioepithelium and uterine contractilities. For recording uterine contractility, the technique of Jaumandreu and Hendricks was used. The recordings were made during 24 hours postpartum, and at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days with a duration 2 to 3 hours. All the studies were longitudinal. The changes of the human uterine contractility during normal puerperium were estimated. The range of the tonus was 22--41 mm Hg, the intensity 5--18 mm Hg, the frequency 17--23 contractions in 10 minutes, and the uterine activity 102--223 Montevideo Units. In the control group the following results were obtained: The range of the tonus was 24--34 mm Hg, the intensity 9--16 mm Hg, the frequency 17--37 contractions in 10 minutes, and the uterine contractility 137--524 Montevideo Units. In the comparative study Student's t test was used and p estimated.

  4. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics pre-college outreach program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E.; Bacon, L.; Copper, K.; Hansen, L. J.; Sanchez, M.; Aiaa Precollege Outreach Committee

    Throughout the United States school child perceive science technology engineering and mathematics STEM as difficult boring and often irrelevant subjects The possible reasons for this problem are endlessly debated however the economic social and overall national importance of producing graduates who are technically literate and enthusiastic in their support of a rational scientific world should motivate many scientific and engineering societies around the world to develop outreach programs aimed at children ages 5-18 and corresponding support programs aimed at schools and teachers covering kindergarten through 12 th grade The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA is among those organizations that have identified the need to educate students and teachers about STEM current events and their direct affects on the United States population a way that motivates both to get more involved The AIAA has established a pre-college outreach program that has several major elements that will be described in this paper These elements include a pre-college Educator Associate Membership program a program to award small development grants to class room teachers and Educator of the Year awards and recognition program mechanisms for sharing and encouraging innovative local support programs and two national workshop events The first workshop event Passport to the Future is held annually in conjunction with the Joint Propulsion Conference It is intended to provide summertime training in Aerospace science education to classroom

  5. Extraction-Free Ion-Pair Methods for the Assay of Trifluoperazine Dihydrochloride in Bulk Drug, Tablets, and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Sulfonphthalein Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, K. N.; Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFH). The methods are based on ion pair complex formation between the nitrogenous compound trifluoperazine (TFP) converted from trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and sulfonphthalein dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane medium in which all the above experimental variables were circumvented. The colored products are measured at 425 nm in the BCG method, 415 nm in the BTB method, and 420 nm in the BPB method. The stoichiometry of the ion-pair complexes formed between the drug and dye (1:1) was determined by Job's continuous variations method, and the stability constants of the complexes were also calculated. These methods quantify TFP over the concentration ranges of 1.25-20.0 μg/ml in the BCG method, 1.5-21.0 μg/ml in the BTB method, and 1.5-18.0 μg/ml in the BPB method. The molar absorptivity (l·mol-1·cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity (ng/cm2) were calculated to be 2.06·104 and 0.0197; 1.82·104 and 0.0224; and 2.22·104 and 0.0183 for the BCG, BTB, and BPB methods, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of TFP in pure drug, pharmaceuticals, and in spiked human urine with good accuracy and precision.

  6. Silicon isotopes indicate enhanced carbon export efficiency in the North Atlantic during deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Robinson, Laura F.; McManus, Jerry F.; Hays, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Today’s Sargasso Sea is nutrient starved, except for episodic upwelling events caused by wind-driven winter mixing and eddies. Enhanced diatom opal burial in Sargasso Sea sediments indicates that silicic acid, a limiting nutrient today, may have been more available in subsurface waters during Heinrich Stadials, millennial-scale climate perturbations of the last glacial and deglaciation. Here we use the geochemistry of opal-forming organisms from different water depths to demonstrate changes in silicic acid supply and utilization during the most recent Heinrich Stadial. We suggest that during the early phase (17.5-18 ka), wind-driven upwelling replenished silicic acid to the subsurface, resulting in low Si utilization. By 17 ka, stratification reduced the surface silicic acid supply leading to increased Si utilization efficiency. This abrupt shift in Si cycling would have contributed to high regional carbon export efficiency during the recent Heinrich Stadial, despite being a period of increasing atmospheric CO2.

  7. Clinical characteristics and response to therapy of autoimmune hepatitis in an urban Latino population

    PubMed Central

    Zahiruddin, Ayesha; Farahmand, Abtin; Gaglio, Paul; Massoumi, Hatef

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We hypothesized that AIH outcomes might be different in our patient population that consists of a large number of Latinos. Background: Literature has suggested that the presentation and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis can be different among different ethnicity and communities. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of Latino patients with AIH diagnosed between 2002-2012. Complete and partial remissions were defined as normalization of liver enzyme values, or achieving less than twice the upper limit normal (ULN), respectively. Results: A total of 28 patients were identified. 26 (93%) were female. 13 (46%) had an acute presentation, one with type 2 AIH and 3 with ANA seronegative disease. The average pathologic stage (Ishak score) was 3.44±1.67 (range: 0-6). Complete and partial remission was achieved in 20 (71%) and 5 (18%) patients respectively. Ten patients (38%) required maintenance prednisone either alone (2), or in combination with Azathioprine (6) or Mycophenolate Mofetil (2). Remission in the majority of patients, including 14 (50%) who were cirrhotic. Six of 14 (43%) cirrhotic patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: In an urban Latino population, cirrhosis was the initial presentation of AIH in a significant percentage of patients raising concerns regarding insufficient screening for AIH in this patient population. A large number of patients required continuous prednisone to avoid relapse. PMID:27458516

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Enteric Adenovirus Gastroenteritis in under-Five-Year-Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Ghahremani, Pedram; Hashempoor, Tayebeh; Karimi, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute gastroenteritis is one of the major sources of morbidity and mortality among young children in developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human adenovirus- (HAdV-) 40 and HAdV-41 in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in five different health centers of Iran. Methods. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, we studied 2682 fecal specimens that were collected from children under the age of 5 years in five educational and therapeutic pediatric centers in Iran from February 2012 to February 2013. Samples were tested for HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, using a specific pair of primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results. HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 were detected in 132 (5.18%) of the patients with diarrhea. A significantly higher prevalence of HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 (58.3%) was observed in children under 12 months of age, compared to other age groups. The male to female ratio was 1.7. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 could be considered etiological agents for acute gastroenteritis among children in Iran. The PCR as a rapid test may increase the chance for a relatively mild course of the disease followed by a complete recovery and avoiding administration of unnecessary antibiotics. PMID:26880883

  9. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in a community-based sample: Association with chronic illness and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Houtzager, Bregje A; Möller, Eline L; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of parental perceptions of a child's vulnerability (PPCV) in a Dutch community-based sample and its relationship with children's health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Parents completed the Child Vulnerability Scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was administered to measure HRQoL. The prevalence of PPCV was assessed in relation to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. In a three-step multiple hierarchical regression model, the mediational role of PPCV in the association between chronic illness and HRQoL was investigated. Participants were 520 Dutch children aged 5-18 years from nine Dutch schools. In all, 69 (13.3%) had a chronic illness; 1.9% was perceived vulnerable, 3.0% in groups 5-7 and 1.7% in groups 8-12 and 13-18. Younger age of the child, presence of a chronic illness and low HRQoL were associated with PPCV. PPCV partially mediated the negative association between chronic illness and HRQoL. In conclusion, PPCV is associated with adjustment to chronic illness. More research is needed regarding the mechanisms through which PPCV affects HRQoL and to examine whether PPCV can be targeted in parenting interventions.

  10. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium by medium-chain fatty acids in an in vitro simulation of the porcine cecum.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Goris, Johan; Dierick, Noël; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2010-02-24

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for more than half of the reported cases of human salmonellosis in Belgium in 2007 and was the predominant serovar isolated from slaughter pig carcasses. To lower the Salmonella contamination of pork meat, measures can be taken at the primary production level, e.g. by reducing the shedding of Salmonella through the use of feed additives such as medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). An in vitro continuous culture system, simulating the porcine cecum, was developed for investigating the effect of MCFAs (sodium caproate, sodium caprylate and sodium caprinate) on the pig intestinal microbial community. The system was monitored by plating on selective media, PCR-DGGE and HPLC analysis of fermentation products. An inoculated S. typhimurium strain could be maintained by the system at a population size of about 5 log(10)cfu/mL. By the addition of 15 mM caprylate, significant reductions of coliforms and Salmonella counts by 4.69 log(10) units (95% confidence interval: 4.19-5.18) could be achieved, while other bacterial populations were clearly less affected. This concentration seems economically feasible in pig feed, provided that the substance can reach the cecum without being absorbed. Thus, caprylate, for example in the form of encapsulated beads or as triacylglycerol oil, might have potential as a Salmonella-reducing additive in pig feed. PMID:19709819

  11. Smoking and red blood cell phospholipid membrane fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Murff, H J; Tindle, H A; Shrubsole, M J; Cai, Q; Smalley, W; Milne, G L; Swift, L L; Ness, R M; Zheng, W

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is associated with lower n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) concentrations; however, limited studies have accounted for dietary PUFA intake or whether tobacco dose or smoking duration influences this association. We measured red blood cell phospholipid (RBC) membrane concentrations of fatty acids in 126 current smokers, 311 former smokers, and 461 never smokers using gas liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Smokers had lower RBC membrane percentages of total n-3 LCPUFAs compared to former smokers or never smokers (median percent: 5.46, [interquartile range (IQR) 4.52, 6.28] versus 6.39; [IQR: 5.18, 7.85] versus 6.59; [IQR 5.34, 8.01]) (p<0.001) and this association remained after adjusting for dietary PUFA intake. Duration of smoking and cigarettes per day were not associated with RBC membrane n-3 LCPUFA differences. Smoking is associated with lower n-3 LCPUFA RBC membrane percentages and this association was not influenced by diet or smoking dose or duration. PMID:27637337

  12. Deposition and characterization of TiZrV-Pd thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yan-Hui; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiang-Tao; Hong, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    TiZrV film is mainly applied in the ultra-high vacuum pipes of storage rings. Thin film coatings of palladium, which are added onto the TiZrV film to increase the service life of nonevaporable getters and enhance H2 pumping speed, were deposited on the inner face of stainless steel pipes by dc magnetron sputtering using argon gas as the sputtering gas. The TiZrV-Pd film properties were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The grain size of TiZrV and Pd films were about 0.42-1.3 nm and 8.5-18.25 nm respectively. It was found that the roughness of TiZrV films is small, about 2-4 nm, but for Pd film it is large, about 17-19 nm. The PP At. % of Pd in TiZrV/Pd films varied from 86.84 to 87.56 according to the XPS test results. Supported by National Natural Science Funds of China (11205155) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2310000041)

  13. Antifouling gold surfaces grafted with aspartic acid and glutamic acid based zwitterionic polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Lingyun

    2014-10-28

    We report two new amino acid based antifouling zwitterionic polymers, poly(N(4)-(2-methacrylamidoethyl)asparagine) (pAspAA) and poly(N(5)-(2-methacrylamidoethyl)glutamine) (pGluAA). The vinyl monomers were developed from aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated polymerization was employed to graft polymer brushes from gold surfaces. Different thickness of polymer brushes was controlled by varying UV irradiation time. The nonspecific adsorption from undiluted human blood serum and plasma was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). With the polymer film as thin as 11-12 nm, the adsorption on pAspAA from serum and plasma was as low as 0.75 and 5.18 ng/cm(2), respectively, and 1.88 and 10.15 ng/cm(2), respectively, for pGluAA. The adsorption amount is comparable to or even better than other amino acid based zwitterionic polymers such as poly(serine methacrylate), poly(lysine methacrylamide), and poly(ornithine methacrylamide) and other widely used antifouling polymers such as poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate), even under thinner polymer film thickness. The pAspAA and pGluAA grafted surfaces also showed strong resistance to endothelial cell attachment. The possession of both zwitterionic structure and hydrophilic amide groups, biomimetic property, and multifunctionality make pAspAA and pGluAA promising candidates for biocompatible antifouling functionalizable materials. PMID:25262768

  14. Glycemic Response of a Carbohydrate-Protein Bar with Ewe-Goat Whey

    PubMed Central

    Manthou, Eirini; Kanaki, Maria; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Deli, Chariklia K.; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0) randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55) and low GL (<10) food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition. PMID:24926525

  15. HPLC determination of five polyphenols in rat plasma after intravenous administration of hawthorn leaves extract and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Yuan; Chai, Ji-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Liu, Xun; DU, Yang; Cheng, Zhong-Zhe; Ying, Xi-Xiang; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2010-11-01

    A simple and specific HPLC-UV method was developed to simultaneously determine five active compounds including vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VG), vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside (VR), vitexin (VIT), rutin (RUT) and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma after intravenous administrating the hawthorn leaves extract (HLE). With baicalin as internal standard (I.S.), sample pretreatment involved a one-step extraction with methanol of 0.2 ml plasma. The HPLC assay was carried out using a Phenomsil C18 analytical column with UV detection at 332 nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-1% glacial acetic acid (6:1.5:18.5:74, v/v/v/v). The calibration curves were liner over the range of 2.030-500.5, 0.1513-75.64, 0.2507-12.54, 0.5128-25.64 and 0.4032-20.16 µg/ml for VG, VR, VIT, RUT and HP, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the intra- and inter-day precisions for the analysis of the five analytes were between 1.0 and 8.9% with accuracies (relative error) below 8.2% for the analysis of the five analytes. The average extraction recoveries of five analytes were more than 82.67 ± 4.74%. The HPLC method herein described was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous administration of HLE solution to rats over three doses.

  16. Bio-inspired fabrication of hierarchical Ni-Fe-P coated skin collagen fibers for high-performance microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Liao, Xuepin; Zhang, Wenhua; Shi, Bi

    2015-01-21

    In the present investigation, skin collagen fiber (CF) with a well defined hierarchical 3D fibrous structure was employed for the bio-inspired fabrication of high-performance microwave absorption materials. The hierarchical 3D structure of the CF was retained in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites, and the formation of the Ni-Fe-P coating on the CF surface was identified by XRD and XPS analysis. Based on the electromagnetism parameter measurements, the maximum reflection loss (RL) of the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites reached -31.0 dB, and the width of the absorption band where reflection loss values exceeded -10.0 dB covered the whole Ku-band and some parts of the X-band (9.5-18.0 GHz). The complex permittivity and complex permeability measurements indicated that electronic loss and magnetic loss were involved in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites for microwave absorption. In addition, due to the magnetic properties of the Ni-Fe-P coating, these CF@Ni-Fe-P composites exhibited excellent magnetic characteristics with high saturation magnetization and low coercivity values. The present investigation indicates a new possibility for the bio-matrix-based fabrication of high-performance microwave absorbing materials with lightweight and efficient absorption properties. PMID:25484199

  17. Disposition of methyl ethyl ketoxime in the rat after oral, intravenous and dermal administration.

    PubMed

    Burka, L T; Black, S R; Mathews, J M

    1998-10-01

    1. The disposition of 14C-methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) was determined in the male F344 rat following oral, intravenous (i.v.) and dermal administration. 2. Oral doses of 2.7, 27 and 270 mg/kg were primarily excreted as CO2 (71-49%) in decreasing percentage as the dose increased. Excretion in urine (13-26%) and as volatiles (5-18%) increased as the dose increased. Five to 6% of the dose remained in the major tissues after 72 h. 3. An i.v. dose of 2.7 mg/kg was also principally excreted as CO2 (48.8%) with excretion in urine and as expired volatiles accounting for 21.4 and 11.4%, respectively. About 7% of the administered radioactivity remained in the tissues after 72 h. 4. Following dermal administration, 13 and 26% of a 2.7 and 270 mg/kg dose, respectively, were absorbed. Volatilization from the dose site prior to placement in the metabolism cage may account for the low absorption. 5. MEKO was biotransformed to at least five polar metabolites that could only be partially resolved by anion exchange chromatography. Incubation with glucuronidase, but not sulphatase, changed the urinary metabolic profile. Methyl ethyl ketone was a major component in the volatiles.

  18. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders. PMID:27015370

  19. Longitudinal effects of clinical therapy and the edentulous state on the transformation of lymphocytes from patients with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J J; Wright, W E; Chan, S P; Oppenheim, J J

    1978-01-01

    Twenty dentulous subjects undergoing clinical therapy for severe periodontitis were used to determine the longitudinal effects of bacterial plaque reduction in vitro lymphocyte transformation. The therapy consisted of either complete extractions or partial extractions and periodontal surgery combined with rigorous oral hygiene. Prior to therapy lymphocytes from these subjects responded significantly to Streptolysin O (SLO) but were not transformed significantly by solubilized dental plaque. However, after therapy lymphocytes from these same subjects responded significantly to both solubilized dental plaque and SLO. This indicates that the severe periodontitis patients were specifically unresponsive to solubilized dental plaque prior to therapy. The mechanism of the unresponsiveness is not clear, but probably does not involve serum factors because supplementation of the lymphocyte cultures with pooled homologous plasma from individuals with gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (instead of the patient's autologous plasma) did not significantly change the mean lymphocyte responses to solubilized dental plaque. In addition, lymphocytes from eleven long-term (5--18 yr) edentulous subjects, who were free of oral inflammation, were significantly transformed by solubilized dental plaque. The latter lymphocyte responses and those of the treated periodontitis patients could be due either to the presence of low levels of oral bacteria in the edentulous mouth or to the lymphocyte transformation assay being a measure of previous antigen sensitization rather than current disease status. In either case, lymphocyte transformation to solubilized dental plaque is not a useful diagnostic tool in periodontitis, but should continue to be a valuable research tool for investigating pathological mechanisms in periodontitis. PMID:737903

  20. Determination of gait events using an externally mounted shank accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Hobbs, Sarah J; Protheroe, Laurence; Edmundson, Christopher J; Greenhalgh, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Biomechanical analysis requires the determination of specific foot contact events. This is typically achieved using force platform information; however, when force platforms are unavailable, alternative methods are necessary. A method was developed for the determination of gait events using an accelerometer mounted to the distal tibia, measuring axial accelerations. The aim of the investigation was to determine the efficacy of this method. Sixteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s ± 5%. Synchronized tibial accelerations and vertical ground reaction forces were sampled at 1000 Hz as participants struck a force platform with their dominant foot. Events determined using the accelerometer, were compared with the corresponding events determined using the force platform. Mean errors of 1.68 and 5.46 ms for average and absolute errors were observed for heel strike and of -3.59 and 5.00 ms for toe-off. Mean and absolute errors of 5.18 and 11.47 ms were also found for the duration of the stance phase. Strong correlations (r = .96) were also observed between duration of stance obtained using the two different methods. The error values compare favorably to other alternative methods of predicting gait events. This suggests that shank-mounted accelerometers can be used to accurately and reliably detect gait events.

  1. Human Papilloma Virus Persistence after Cone Excision in Women with Cervical High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirtea, Laurențiu; Grigoraş, Dorin; Matusz, Petru; Pirtea, Marilena; Moleriu, Lavinia; Tudor, Anca; Ilina, Răzvan; Secoşan, Cristina; Mazilu, Octavian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary event in cervical cancer tumorigenesis. Our objectives were to estimate the rate of HPV infection persistence after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LEEP) in patients with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and to investigate if HPV persistence is type related. Methods. We conducted a prospective study on 89 patients with HSIL treated with LEEP. DNA HPV was performed before surgery and at 6, 12, and 18 months after LEEP. Results. Four patients were excluded from the study. The HPV persistence in the remaining 85 patients was 32.95% (6 months), 14.12% (12 months), and 10.59% (18 months). Type 16 had the highest persistence rate, 23.5% (6 months), 11.8% (12 months), and 8.2% (18 months). Coinfection was found to be 54.12% before LEEP and 18.8% (6 months), 4.7% (12 months), and 3.5% (18 months) after LEEP. The rate of coinfections including type 16 was 46.83% of all coinfections. Coinfection including type 16 was not correlated with higher persistence rate compared to infection with type 16 only. Conclusions. HPV infection is not completely eradicated by LEEP in patients with HSIL lesion on PAP smear. HPV persistence after LEEP is influenced by HPV type. HPV type 16 has the highest persistence rate. PMID:27366164

  2. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  3. Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Schutz, K.

    2005-12-01

    To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the Sahuaro Council's annual Science, Math, and Related Technologies (SMART) program, was very successful, reaching about 150-200 girls and their leaders. Individual troops rotated every half hour among our six activity booths: Earth-Moon, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Universe, and Ask an Astronomer, which were staffed by trained Girl Scout Leaders as well as faculty, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students from Steward Observatory. To earn a patch, younger girls (ages 5-12) had to complete activities at three booths and older girls had to complete all six activities. Positive feedback for this event was received from both the girls and leaders. We plan to hold Astronomy Patch Day annually, possibly with different and/or additional activities in future years. K. Knierman is supported by an Arizona/NASA Space Grant Fellowship. This outreach program is supported by NIRCam/JWST E/PO.

  4. Fast Arc Delivery for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Vertebral and Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Chin Loon; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.; Dahele, Max; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams with higher dose rates and faster delivery are now clinically available. The purpose of this planning study was to compare optimized non-FFF and FFF RapidArc plans for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and to validate the accuracy of fast arc delivery. Methods and Material: Ten patients with peripheral lung tumors and 10 with vertebral metastases were planned using RapidArc with a flattened 6-MV photon beam and a 10-MV FFF beam for fraction doses of 7.5-18 Gy. Dosimetry of the target and organs at risk (OAR), number of monitor units (MU), and beam delivery times were assessed. GafChromic EBT2 film measurements of FFF plans were performed to compare calculated and delivered dose distributions. Results: No major dosimetric differences were seen between the two delivery techniques. For lung SBRT plans, conformity indices and OAR doses were similar, although the average MU required were higher with FFF plans. For vertebral SBRT, FFF plans provided comparable PTV coverage, with no significant differences in OAR doses. Average beam delivery times were reduced by a factor of up to 2.5, with all FFF fractions deliverable within 4 min. Measured FFF plans showed high agreement with calculated plans, with more than 99% of the area within the region of interest fulfilling the acceptance criterion. Conclusion: The higher dose rate of FFF RapidArc reduces delivery times significantly, without compromising plan quality or accuracy of dose delivery.

  5. Outside-of-school time obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O

    2014-10-01

    Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. PMID:25196405

  6. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in breast cancer tissues from Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, S H M; Al-Alwan, N A S; Al-Alwany, S H M

    2014-06-18

    Studies have suggested a possible link between breast cancer pathogenesis and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This study in Iraq used in situ hybridization to detect the frequency and genotyping of HPV in tissue specimens from 129 patients diagnosed with malignant breast cancer, 24 with benign breast tumours and 20 healthy controls. In the breast cancer group, cocktail HPV genotypes were detected in 60 (46.5%) archived tissue blocks. Of these, genotypes 16 (55.5%), 18 (58.4%), 31 (65.0%) and 33 (26.6%) were detected. Mixed HPV genotypes 16 + 18, 16 + 18 + 31, 16 + 18 + 33, 18 + 33, 16 + 31 and 18 + 31 were found in 5.0%, 25.0%, 8.3%, 7.7%, 10.0% and 13.3% of cancer cases respectively. Only 3 benign breast tumour tissues (12.5%) and none of the healthy breast tissue specimens were HPV-DNA-positive. The detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

  7. Latex allergy and occupational asthma in health care workers: adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Amr, Sania; Suk, William A

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy has been estimated to be 5-18% in health care workers, and latex exposure has been one of the leading causes of occupational asthma in the last several years. We present the cases of two nurses who developed sensitivity to NRL, both with dermatologic symptoms and respiratory symptoms that included asthma. They were referred to the University of Maryland for evaluation of their allergies, then for occupational and environmental consults. The patients' allergy to NRL was confirmed on the basis of clinical history, a positive skin test to latex, and the presence of latex-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) serology by radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Both patients worked in the same community hospital for approximately 20 years; one was an endoscopy nurse and the other worked in the emergency department. Following the diagnosis of allergy to latex, both patients avoided direct skin contact with latex, but they continued to work in the same respective environments, where powdered latex gloves and other potentially sensitizing chemicals were used. Instead of improving, the clinical condition of the patients worsened and they remained symptomatic, even after they were removed from their workplace. Their airways reacted to low levels of a variety of sensitizers and irritants in the environment, and they became depressed. Both nurses were referred for vocational rehabilitation. PMID:14998756

  8. Comparative life cycle assessment of three biohydrogen pathways.

    PubMed

    Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify and compare the energetic and environmental performances of hydrogen from wheat straw (WS-H(2)), sweet sorghum stalk (SSS-H(2)), and steam potato peels (SPP-H(2)). Inventory data were derived from a pilot plant. Impacts were assessed using the impact 2002+ method. When co-product was not considered, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 5.60 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for WS-H(2), 5.32 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SSS-H(2), and 5.18 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SPP-H(2). BioH(2) pathways reduced GHG emissions by 52-56% compared to diesel and by 54-57% compared to steam methane reforming production of H(2). The energy ratios (ER) were also comparable: 1.08 for WS-H(2), 1.14 for SSS-H(2) and 1.17 for SPP-H(2). A shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) would therefore not affect the ER and GHG emissions of these BioH(2) pathways. When co-product was considered, a shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) or SSS-H(2) decreased the ER, while increasing the GHG emissions significantly. Co-product yield should be considered when selecting BioH(2) feedstocks.

  9. Effect of aromatic ring fluorination on CH···π interactions: rotational spectrum and structure of the fluorobenzene···acetylene weakly bound dimer.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nathan W; Songer, Tabitha S; Peebles, Rebecca A; Peebles, Sean A; Seifert, Nathan A; Pérez, Cristóbal; Pate, Brooks H

    2013-11-01

    The rotational spectra for the normal isotopic species and for six (13)C singly substituted isotopologues (in natural abundance) of the fluorobenzene···acetylene (C6H5F···HCCH) weakly bound dimer have been measured in the 6.5-18.5 GHz region using chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The HCCH molecule interacts with the fluorobenzene via a CH···π contact and is determined to lie almost over the center of, and approximately perpendicular to, the aromatic ring, with an H···π distance (perpendicular distance from the H atom to the ring plane) of around 2.492(47) Å; a slight tilt of HCCH towards the para carbon atom of the fluorobenzene is evident. Binding energies of this complex and related benzene and fluorobenzene dimers obtained from the pseudodiatomic approximation are compared and indicate that fluorobenzene···acetylene lies among the more weakly bound of the complexes exhibiting some type of CH···π interaction.

  10. Migrants and malaria risk factors: a study of the Thai-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Fungladda, Wijitr; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Tempongko, M A Sandra B; Schelp, Frank-Peter

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate factors influencing self-reported malaria among migrants living along the Thai-Myanmar border. Songkaria Village, with 1600 inhabitants and 290 households in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, was selected for the study due to its intense malaria transmission. One hundred twenty-five households were randomly selected. Household members were interviewed about the history of malaria, socioeconomic status and knowledge and practices in regard to malaria using a structured questionnaire. Of the respondents, 10%, 42%, and 48% belonged to the Thai, Mon, and Karen ethnic groups, respectively. About 40 % of Thai and Karen migrants and almost 30% of Mon migrants reported having suffered from malaria at least once. Multivariate analysis focused on migrants. The results identified three independent factors for previous malaria: a high risk occupation, ie working primarily in the forest [odds ratio (OR), 3.55; 95% confidence interval 1.3-10.0], ability to read Thai [OR, 4.13 (1.5-11.7)], and correct knowledge about malaria symptoms [OR, 5.18 (1.1-23.5)]. Working conditions among migrants played a major role in acquiring malaria. They could not afford to apply additional preventive measures, such as using a mosquito net or repellent to be used while working. The concept of enhancing the environment for migrants to enable them to protect themselves against malaria needs to be examined. Ways and means of improving the economic conditions of migrants should be considered to minimize exposure to the vector.

  11. Effect of ionophores on the rate of intramolecular cation exchange in durosemiquinone ion pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, M. P.; Bruno, G. V.; Mcguyer, C. A.; Gutierrez, A. R.; Shannon, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the ionophores 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) and cryptand 222 (C222) on intramolecular cation exchange in ion pairs of the sodium salt of the durosemiquinone anion in benzene solution are investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the 18C6 and 15C5 complexes with durosemiquinone reduced by contact with a sodium mirror show an alternating line width which indicates that the sodium ion is being exchanged between equivalent sites near the oxygens of the semiquinone with activation energies of 8.7 and 6.0 kcal/mole and Arrhenius preexponential factors of 9 x 10 to the 12th/sec and 10 to the 12th/sec, respectively. Spectra obtained for the DBC complexes show no evidence of exchange, while those of C222 indicate rapid exchange. It is also noted that the hyperfine splitting constants measured do not change over the 50-K temperature interval studied.

  12. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium.

  13. [Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985) in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1). Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal schooling, not living with the mother, history of smoking or drinking, less frequent toothbrushing, and heavy consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Dental pain was thus associated with socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors.

  14. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  15. Developmental expression of the glucose transporter in brain microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Hohimer, A.R.; Bissonnette, J.M.; Machida, C.M. )

    1990-02-26

    Brain microvessels were isolated from late gestation fetal (55-68 days), newborn (5-9 day old) and adult guinea pigs. Glucose transport was assessed by measuring the initial uptake of ({sup 3}H)-2-deoxy-D-glucose, a glucose analog that is transported and phosphorylated but not further metabolized. At 22C and substrate concentrations of 40 mM, uptakes were linear for 8 minutes. The data reported here were uptakes over the first 2 minutes. 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was 3.5 fold higher in newborn microvessels, 99.5{+-}18.4 (SEM) fmols/mg protein/2 minutes, compared to fetal, 27.8{+-}7.9. The number of glucose transporters was estimated using the ({sup 3}H) cytochalasin B which can be displaced by D-glucose (250 mM). Binding at 35 nM cytochalasin B was higher in newborn brain microvessels (8.2{+-}1.6 pmole/mg protein) than in fetal (3.4{+-}1.1) or adult (2.8{+-}0.6) brain microvessels. Initial RNA blot experiments using a cDNA for the brain/erythrocyte (HepG2) glucose transporter show increased expression in newborn microvessels compared to the fetus or the adult. The authors conclude that the brain microvessel glucose transporter is increased in the newborn period.

  16. Validation of the QIAsymphony RGQ system for DNA quantitation of different BK virus genotypes in whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Burrel, Sonia; Brunet, Christel; Hamm, Nathalie; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Hermet, Laurence; Aimé, Catherine; Agut, Henri; Boutolleau, David

    2014-02-01

    Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in transplant recipients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the artus(®) BK Virus QS-RGQ assay on the QIAsymphony RGQ system in whole blood (WB) samples (tests performed in an off-label capacity) according to different BKV genotypes by comparison with a laboratory-developed assay. BKV loads were measured in 111 WB samples and BKV genotype was determined by sequencing the full-length VP1 gene. The artus(®) assay exhibited a limit of detection of 77copies/mL, a linearity range from 3.0 to 6.0log10copies/mL, intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranging from 0.65% to 5.18%. Regarding BKV quantitation, artus(®) and laboratory-developed assays were highly correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient Rho=0.79; P<0.0001) with an excellent overall agreement (96.4%) and no significant quantitative difference according to Bland-Altman analysis (mean difference: -0.34log10copies/mL). The results did not show any influence of BKV genotype on BKV quantitation by the artus(®) assay, except a potential underquantitation of BKV subtype Ia which deserves further confirmation. In conclusion, the QIAsymphony RGQ system appears to be appropriate for the quantitation of BKV load in WB samples.

  17. SV40 expression in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues: perspectives on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of human malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Procopio, A; Marinacci, R; Marinetti, M R; Strizzi, L; Paludi, D; Iezzi, T; Tassi, G; Casalini, A; Modesti, A

    1998-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the association of SV40 and human pleural malignant mesothelioma. Here, we have investigated whether SV40 viral sequences may be associated with other human tumours or other non-neoplastic pathology and whether SV40 DNA or protein expression may be of diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic relevance. DNA was extracted from paraffin embedded tissues. SV40, JC and BK viral sequences were detected by the polymerase chain reaction and molecular hybridization with specific probes. The screening with three different sets of SV40-related primers demonstrated that 7/18 (38.8%) mesothelioma specimens were SV40 positive as well as 5/18 (27.7%) tubercular pleural lesions. None of the 18 lung cancers, nor the 20 pleural non-specific inflammatory specimens tested were positive. Twenty-five blood samples and 18 urinary sediments from MM patients were also negative. We have also found that SV40 Tag proteins are present in mesothelioma cells and tumours. Tag proteins may interfere with tumour suppressor gene products, such as p53. Preliminary results suggest that wild type p53 transgene expression, obtained after infection with recombinant adenovirus (AdCMV.p53), inhibited in vitro and in vivo proliferation, inducing apoptosis of mesothelioma cells. Infections with control viruses were ineffective. Thus, SV40 DNA and Tag expression in mesothelioma tumour cells, though probably not relevant for diagnostic or prognostic purposes, may be crucial for innovative gene therapy strategies.

  18. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27630851

  19. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders.

  20. Effect of light on fermentation and development of photosynthetic cells. Progress report, March 1, 1984-July 1, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, M.

    1985-07-01

    Intact Chlamydomonas cells ferment their starch in the dark to formate, acetate and ethanol in the ratios of 2:1:1 coupled to the evolution of H/sub 2/. Light causes an increase in H/sub 2/ but acetate and ethanol are minor products. On the addition of an uncoupler, acetate is produced while the presence of a plastoquinone antagonist restores ethanol formation. The latter is interpreted in terms of a chloroplastic respiratory pathway. Acetate is photoassimilated by Chlamydomonas cells under N/sub 2/ to CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ with a stoichiometry indicating a light-dependent anaerobic glyoxylate cycle as the primary assimilatory route prior to conversion to lipid and carbohydrate. Isolated Chlamydomonas chloroplasts can fix CO/sub 2/ at rated between 25 to 50 micromole/mg chlorophyll per hour. The aerobically isolated chloroplasts can be adapted to a hydrogen metabolism. They can evolve H/sub 2/ (as compared to the whole cell), photoreduce CO/sub 2/ with H/sub 2/ and reduce methyl viologen at rates between 5 to 6 (15 to 20), 1.5 (4.5), 18 to 50 (35 to 100) micromole/mg chlorophyll per hour. The chloroplasts cannot perform the oxyhydrogen reaction. A Pasteur effect was detected in all algae tested. (DT)

  1. Location of Vibrio anguillarum resistance-associated trait loci in half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis at its microsatellite linkage map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhihong; Guo, Li; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-11-01

    A cultured female half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) was crossed with a wild male, yielding the first filial generation of pseudo-testcrossing from which 200 fish were randomly selected to locate the Vibrio anguillarum resistance trait in half-smooth tongue sole at its microsatellite linkage map. In total, 129 microsatellites were arrayed into 18 linkage groups, ≥4 each. The map reconstructed was 852.85 cM in length with an average spacing of 7.68 cM, covering 72.07% of that expected (1 183.35 cM). The V. anguillarum resistance trait was a composite rather than a unit trait, which was tentatively partitioned into Survival time in Hours After V. anguillarum Infection (SHAVI) and Immunity of V. Anguillarum Infection (IVAI). Above a logarithm of the odds (LOD) threshold of 2.5, 18 loci relative to SHAVI and 3 relative to IVAI were identified. The 3 loci relative to IVAI explained 18.78%, 5.87% and 6.50% of the total phenotypic variation in immunity. The microsatellites bounding the 3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of IVAI may in future aid to the selection of V. anguillarum-immune half-smooth tongue sole varieties, and facilitate cloning the gene(s) controlling such immunity.

  2. Genetic and environmental stability of intelligence in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Franić, Sanja; Dolan, Conor V; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the genetic and environmental contributions to the temporal stability of verbal, non-verbal and general intelligence across a developmental period spanning childhood and adolescence (5-18 years). Longitudinal twin data collected in four different studies on a total of 1,748 twins, comprising 4,641 measurement points in total, were analyzed using genetic adaptations of the simplex model. The heterogeneity in the type of instrument used to assess psychometric intelligence across the different subsamples and ages allowed us to address the auxiliary question of how to optimally utilize the existing longitudinal data in the context of gene-finding studies. The results were consistent across domains (verbal, non-verbal and general intelligence), and indicated that phenotypic stability was driven primarily by the high stability of additive genetic factors, that the stability of common environment was moderate, and that the unique environment contributed primarily to change. The cross-subscale stability was consistently low, indicating a small overlap between different domains of intelligence over time. The high stability of additive genetic factors justifies the use of a linear combination of scores across the different ages in the context of gene-finding studies.

  3. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 is expressed in the interstitial matrix in adult mouse organs and during embryonic development.

    PubMed Central

    Blavier, L; DeClerck, Y A

    1997-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is a member of a family of inhibitors of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases. A better insight into the role of this inhibitor during development and in organ function was obtained by examining the temporospatial expression of TIMP-2 in mice. Northern blot analysis indicated high levels of TIMP-2 mRNA in the lung, skin, reproductive organs, and brain. Lower levels of expression were found in all other organs with the exception of the liver and gastrointestinal tissue, which were negative of these tissues with complete absence of TIMP-2 mRNA in the epithelium. In the testis, TIMP-2 was present in the Leydig cells, and in the brain, it was expressed in pia matter and in neuronal tissues. TIMP-2 expression in the placenta increased during late gestation and was particularly abundant in spongiotrophoblasts In mouse embryo (day 10.5-18.5), TIMP-2 mRNA was abundant in mesenchymal tissues that surrounded developing epithelia and maturing skeleton. The pattern of expression significantly differs from that observed with TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, therefore, suggesting specific roles for each inhibitor during tissue remodeling and development. Images PMID:9285822

  4. Application of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhao, San-Hu; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, a rapid ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method was successfully applied to simultaneous extraction of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. A series of 1-alkyl-3-methylirnidazolium ionic liquids with different anions and cations were assessed for extraction efficiency, and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the parameters of ILMAE procedure for the four flavonoids were optimized, and the optimal ILMAE method was validated in the linearity, stability, precision and recovery. Meanwhile, the microstructures of S. baicalensis powders were observed before and after extraction with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to explore the extraction mechanism, and the activity of the crude enzyme solution from S. baicalensis was determined through the hydrolysis of baicalin. Finally, the extraction yields and extraction time of WaterHRE, WaterMAE, ILHRE and Chp were 5.18% (30min), 8.77% (90s), 16.94% (30min) and 18.58% (3h), respectively. The results indicated that compared with the conventional extraction approaches, ILMAE possessed great advantages in extracting flavonoids, such as the highest extraction yield (22.28%), the shortest extraction time (90s), etc. PMID:26367465

  5. Microscale packed bed reactor for controlled hydrogen peroxide decomposition as a fuel cell oxidant aboard unmanned undersea vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, E.; Burke, A. A.; Ocampo, M.; Besser, R. S.

    The multiphase catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen is notoriously susceptible to thermal runaway (heat of reaction: -98 kJ mol -1). The high surface area to volume ratio (S/ V) in a microscale packed bed (MPB) reactor (radius 0.5 mm) was investigated for reducing the risk of thermal runaway during hydrogen peroxide decomposition to oxygen intended as a fuel cell oxidant aboard an unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV). A microscale reactor channel with a S/ V of ∼2 × 10 3 m 2 m -3 simulated under convective cooling generated a significant heat rise (T rise ∼ 100 K), whereas a microreactor with a higher S/ V (∼200 × 10 3 m 2 m -3) achieved thermal control (T rise < 10 K) over the simulated reaction zone. Although thermal management was successfully accomplished using the higher S/ V, experimental conversions of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen (5-18%) measured from the outlet were lower than simulated conversions (38-63%). Simulation assumptions, such as homogeneously dispersed flow and perfect catalyst interaction among other factors, contributed to the discrepancies between the simulated and experimental degrees of peroxide conversion to oxygen. Even though thermal control of the MPB was achieved, this work indicates that mass transfer limitations are a factor in the MPB reactor during a multiphase reaction, like decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water, and suggests means to overcome them even on the microscale level.

  6. Environmental, dietary and case-control study of Nodding Syndrome in Uganda: A post-measles brain disorder triggered by malnutrition?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter S; Mazumder, Rajarshi; Palmer, Valerie S; Lasarev, Michael R; Stadnik, Ryan C; King, Peter; Kabahenda, Margaret; Kitara, David L; Stadler, Diane; McArdle, Breanna; Tumwine, James K

    2016-10-15

    Nodding Syndrome (NS) is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by involuntary vertical head nodding, other types of seizures, and progressive neurological deficits. The etiology of the east African NS epidemic is unknown. In March 2014, we conducted a case-control study of medical, nutritional and other risk factors associated with NS among children (aged 5-18years) of Kitgum District, northern Uganda (Acholiland). Data on food availability, rainfall, and prevalent disease temporally related to the NS epidemic were also analyzed. In NS Cases, the mean age of reported head nodding onset was 7.6years (range 1-17years). The epidemiologic curve of NS incidence spanned 2000-2013, with peaks in 2003 and 2008. Month of onset of head nodding was non-uniform, with all-year-aggregated peaks in April and June when food availability was low. Families with one or more NS Cases had been significantly more dependent on emergency food and, immediately prior to head nodding onset in the child, subsistence on moldy plant materials, specifically moldy maize. Medical history revealed a single significant association with NS, namely prior measles infection. NS is compared with the post-measles disorder subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, with clinical expression triggered by factors associated with poor nutrition. PMID:27653888

  7. Surfactant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of pure nickel submicron spheres with microwave-absorbing properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Heng; Pu, Bingxue; Chen, Haiyuan; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yajun; Yang, Jian; Bismark, Boateng; Li, Handong; Niu, Xiaobin

    2016-12-01

    Pure metallic nickel submicron spheres (Ni-SSs), flower-like nickel nanoflakes, and hollow micrometer-sized nickel spheres/tubes were controllably synthesized by a facile and efficient one-step solvothermal method with no reducing agent. The characteristics of these nickel nanostructures include morphology, structure, and purification. Possible synthesis mechanisms were discussed in detail. The resultant Ni-SSs had a wide diameter distribution of 200~800 nm through the aggregation of small nickel nanocrystals. The ferromagnetic behaviors of Ni-SSs investigated at room temperature showed high coercivity values. Furthermore, the microwave absorption properties of magnetic Ni-SSs were studied in the frequency range of 0.5-18.0 GHz. The minimum reflection loss reached -17.9 dB at 17.8 GHz with a thin absorption thickness of 1.2 mm, suggesting that the submicron spherical structures could exhibit excellent microwave absorption properties. More importantly, this one-pot synthesize route provides a universal and convenient way for preparation of larger scale pure Ni-SSs, showing excellent microwave absorption properties.

  8. Bio-inspired fabrication of hierarchical Ni-Fe-P coated skin collagen fibers for high-performance microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Liao, Xuepin; Zhang, Wenhua; Shi, Bi

    2015-01-21

    In the present investigation, skin collagen fiber (CF) with a well defined hierarchical 3D fibrous structure was employed for the bio-inspired fabrication of high-performance microwave absorption materials. The hierarchical 3D structure of the CF was retained in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites, and the formation of the Ni-Fe-P coating on the CF surface was identified by XRD and XPS analysis. Based on the electromagnetism parameter measurements, the maximum reflection loss (RL) of the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites reached -31.0 dB, and the width of the absorption band where reflection loss values exceeded -10.0 dB covered the whole Ku-band and some parts of the X-band (9.5-18.0 GHz). The complex permittivity and complex permeability measurements indicated that electronic loss and magnetic loss were involved in the CF@Ni-Fe-P composites for microwave absorption. In addition, due to the magnetic properties of the Ni-Fe-P coating, these CF@Ni-Fe-P composites exhibited excellent magnetic characteristics with high saturation magnetization and low coercivity values. The present investigation indicates a new possibility for the bio-matrix-based fabrication of high-performance microwave absorbing materials with lightweight and efficient absorption properties.

  9. Synthesis and electromagnetic absorption properties of micro-nano nickel powders prepared with liquid phase reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ying; Ma, Hua; Tian, Xiao-Xia; Du, Hong-Liang; Xia, Song; Qu, Shao-Bo

    2016-09-01

    Monodisperse micro-nano nickel powders have been prepared by chemical reduction of aqueous solution NiSO4, NaOH and NaH2PO2, and the influence of pH value and initial concentration of NiSO4 on the size, structure, morphology and microwave absorption properties of nickel powders were investigated. The crystal structure of nickel powders was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). And the morphology of the as-synthesized products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microwave absorption properties of the composite materials were characterized by network analyzer. The result indicates that the growth of nickel powders produced by NiSO4 and NaH2PO2 at alkaline condition deeply relies on pH value and initial concentration of NiSO4 in reaction system. Different sizes of nickel powders with the diameter of 1.5μm and 180nm were produced at the pH value of 10 and initial concentration of NiSO4 at 0.5mol/L. The network analyzer showed definite microwave absorption properties of nickel powders with different sizes in the range of 0.5-18.0GHz.

  10. Microwave dielectric properties of dry rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, Myron C.; East, Jack R.; Bengal, Thomas H.; Garvin, James B.; Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    A combination of techniques was used to measure the dielectric properties of 80 rock samples in the microwave region. The real part (RP) of the relative dielectric constant was measured in 0.1-GHz steps from 0.5 to 18 GHz, and the imaginary part (IP) was measured at five frequencies between 1.6 and 16 GHz. The bulk density rho(b) was also measured for all the samples, and the bulk chemical composition (BCC) was determined for 56 of the samples. RP is found to be frequency-independent at 0.5-18 GHz for all samples, and rho(b) accounts for about 50 percent of the observed variance. For silicate rocks, as much as 78 percent of the variance is explained by the combination of rho(b) and the fractional contents of oxides when the silicates are subgrouped by genesis. In contrast, IP decreases with increasing frequency for most rock samples, and no statistically significant relationships are found between IP and rho(b). For subgrouped silicate rocks, 60 percent of the variance in IP can be explained by BCC.

  11. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  12. Comparison of the radiopacities of different root-end filling and repair materials.

    PubMed

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapınar-Kazandağ, Meriç; Dölekoğlu, Semanur; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of 3 repair materials, Biodentine, MM-MTA, and MTA Angelus. Standardized cylindrical rings were prepared. Samples of Biodentine MM-MTA and MTA Angelus were prepared (n = 10 in each group), filled into the rings, and preserved at 37°C until setting. A 1 mm thick dentin slice was used as control. All set specimens were removed and radiographed along with the dentine slice and a graduated aluminium step wedge. Digital images were transferred to the computer using a software. The radiographic densities of the specimens were determined, and the values were converted into millimetres of aluminium (mm Al). One-way ANOVA was used for intergroup comparison, whereas Tukey HSD test was used for detecting the group with the difference. The mean radiopacities of Biodentine, MTA Angelus, and MM-MTA were 2.8 ± 0.48, 4.72 ± 0.45, and 5.18 ± 0.51 mm Al, respectively. The radiopacity of Biodentine was significantly lower compared to other materials (P = 0.001), whereas no significant difference was noted between MTA Angelus and MM-MTA (P = 0.109). All materials had significantly higher radiopacities compared to dentine. The relatively lower radiopacity of Biodentine can be improved to achieve more reliable results in procedures such as retrograde fillings.

  13. Social relationships in a herd of Sorraia horses Part II. Factors affecting affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Heitor, Filipa; do Mar Oom, Maria; Vicente, Luís

    2006-11-01

    The influence of age, dominance rank, kinship and aggressiveness over affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours were analysed in a herd of Sorraia horses, Equus caballus, kept under extensive management. Subjects were 10 adult mares 5-18 years old that had known each other since birth, and a stallion introduced into the group for breeding for the first time. Kinship coefficient and dominance rank were the most important factors affecting affiliative relationships. Bonds were reciprocal and stronger among mares with higher kinship. Mares spent more time in proximity to close-ranking and lower-ranking females. Mares with stronger affiliative relationships or higher relatedness were not less aggressive towards each other. Affiliative relationships between the stallion and the mares were not reciprocal: lower-ranking mares formed stronger bonds with the stallion but he preferred the less genetically related mares for proximity. However, the stallion was involved in sexual behaviours more frequently with the mares that were more genetically related to him. These results suggest that kinship beyond close relatives may affect affiliative relationships both among familiar and among unfamiliar horses. However, the influence of kinship does not imply that horses possess a kin recognition system and alternative explanations are discussed. PMID:16828984

  14. Social relationships in a herd of Sorraia horses Part I. Correlates of social dominance and contexts of aggression.

    PubMed

    Heitor, Filipa; do Mar Oom, Maria; Vicente, Luís

    2006-09-01

    Factors related to dominance rank and the functions of aggression were studied in a herd of Sorraia horses, Equus caballus, under extensive management. Subjects were 10 adult mares 5-18 years old and a stallion introduced into the group for breeding. Dominance relationships among mares were clear, irrespective of rank difference, and remained stable after introduction of the stallion. The dominance hierarchy was significantly linear and rank was positively correlated with age and total aggressiveness. Higher-ranking mares received lower frequency and intensity of agonistic interactions. Nevertheless, higher-ranking dominants were not more likely to elicit submission from their subordinates than lower-ranking dominants. Neither close-ranking mares nor mares with less clear dominance relationships were more aggressive towards each other. Agonistic interactions seemed to be used more importantly in regulation of space than to obtain access to food or to reassert dominance relationships. Contexts of aggression were related to mare rank. The results suggest that dominance relationships based on age as a conventional criterion were established to reduce aggressiveness in a herd where the costs of aggression are likely to outweigh the benefits. PMID:16815645

  15. Science Support for Space-Based Droplet Combustion: Drop Tower Experiments and Detailed Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, Anthony J.; Dryer, Frederick L.

    1997-01-01

    This program supports the engineering design, data analysis, and data interpretation requirements for the study of initially single component, spherically symmetric, isolated droplet combustion studies. Experimental emphasis is on the study of simple alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and alkanes (n-heptane, n-decane) as fuels with time dependent measurements of drop size, flame-stand-off, liquid-phase composition, and finally, extinction. Experiments have included bench-scale studies at Princeton, studies in the 2.2 and 5.18 drop towers at NASA-LeRC, and both the Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC-1, FSDC-2) and the free Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) studies aboard the shuttle. Test matrix and data interpretation are performed through spherically-symmetric, time-dependent numerical computations which embody detailed sub-models for physical and chemical processes. The computed burning rate, flame stand-off, and extinction diameter are compared with the respective measurements for each individual experiment. In particular, the data from FSDC-1 and subsequent space-based experiments provide the opportunity to compare all three types of data simultaneously with the computed parameters. Recent numerical efforts are extending the computational tools to consider time dependent, axisymmetric 2-dimensional reactive flow situations.

  16. Bronchopulmonary nematode infection of Capra pyrenaica in the Sierra Nevada massif, Spain.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, S; Morrondo, P; Dacal-Rivas, V; Soriguer, R C; Granados, J E; Serrano, E; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L; Pérez, J M

    2009-10-14

    The present investigation examined the prevalence and abundance of bronchopulmonary nematodes in 213 randomly hunted Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) (87 females and 126 males) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Spain between 2003 and 2006. Post mortem examination revealed an overall prevalence of 72% for adult nematodes (Cystocaulus ocreatus 44%, Muellerius capillaris 44%, Protostrongylus sp. 40%, and Dictyocaulus filaria 4%). The abundances were 13.45+/-3.97, 5.18+/-2.49, 6.36+/-2.16, and 2.27+/-0.46, respectively. Protostrongylid adults showed similar infection rates, which were statistically different from that of D. filaria. 20% of the examined Iberian ibexes were infected by three protostrongylid nematodes species, 24% of C. pyrenaica were affected by two protostrongylid species, while infestations with only one protostrongylid species were detected in 20% of the examined animals. The overall prevalence of larvae nematodes in the examined animals was 100%, and the overall abundance (number of the first stage larvae per gram) was 86.45+/-20.63. There was a high correlation between the two sets of data (adults and larvae). Results of the present investigation provided foundation for the effective control of bronchopulmonary nematode infection in Iberian ibex. PMID:19596519

  17. Trophic structure and avian communities across a salinity gradient in evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Miles, A.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Athearn, N.D.; Saiki, M.K.; Duffy, W.D.; Kleinschmidt, S.; Shellenbarger, G.G.; Jannusch, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial salt evaporation ponds comprise a large proportion of baylands adjacent to the San Francisco Bay, a highly urbanized estuary. In the past two centuries, more than 79% of the historic tidal wetlands in this estuary have been lost. Resource management agencies have acquired more than 10 000 ha of commercial salt ponds with plans to undertake one of the largest wetland restoration projects in North America. However, these plans have created debate about the ecological importance of salt ponds for migratory bird communities in western North America. Salt ponds are unique mesohaline (5-18 g l-1) to hyperhaline (> 40 g l-1) wetlands, but little is known of their ecological structure or value. Thus, we studied decommissioned salt ponds in the North Bay of the San Francisco Bay estuary from January 1999 through November 2001. We measured water quality parameters (salinity, DO, pH, temperature), nutrient concentrations, primary productivity, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds across a range of salinities from 24 to 264 g l-1. Our studies documented how unique limnological characteristics of salt ponds were related to nutrient levels, primary productivity rates, invertebrate biomass and taxa richness, prey fish, and avian predator numbers. Salt ponds were shown to have unique trophic and physical attributes that supported large numbers of migratory birds. Therefore, managers should carefully weigh the benefits of increasing habitat for native tidal marsh species with the costs of losing these unique hypersaline systems. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. Prenatal exposure to low levels of androgen accelerates female puberty onset and reproductive senescence in mice.

    PubMed

    Witham, Emily A; Meadows, Jason D; Shojaei, Shadi; Kauffman, Alexander S; Mellon, Pamela L

    2012-09-01

    Sex steroid hormone production and feedback mechanisms are critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulate fetal development, puberty, fertility, and menopause. In female mammals, developmental exposure to excess androgens alters the development of the HPG axis and has pathophysiological effects on adult reproductive function. This study presents an in-depth reproductive analysis of a murine model of prenatal androgenization (PNA) in which females are exposed to a low dose of dihydrotestosterone during late prenatal development on embryonic d 16.5-18.5. We determined that PNA females had advanced pubertal onset and a delay in the time to first litter, compared with vehicle-treated controls. The PNA mice also had elevated testosterone, irregular estrous cyclicity, and advanced reproductive senescence. To assess the importance of the window of androgen exposure, dihydrotestosterone was administered to a separate cohort of female mice on postnatal d 21-23 [prepubertal androgenization (PPA)]. PPA significantly advanced the timing of pubertal onset, as observed by age of the vaginal opening, yet had no effects on testosterone or estrous cycling in adulthood. The absence of kisspeptin receptor in Kiss1r-null mice did not change the acceleration of puberty by the PNA and PPA paradigms, indicating that kisspeptin signaling is not required for androgens to advance puberty. Thus, prenatal, but not prepubertal, exposure to low levels of androgens disrupts normal reproductive function throughout life from puberty to reproductive senescence.

  19. Comparison of the Radiopacities of Different Root-End Filling and Repair Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapınar-Kazandağ, Meriç; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of 3 repair materials, Biodentine, MM-MTA, and MTA Angelus. Standardized cylindrical rings were prepared. Samples of Biodentine MM-MTA and MTA Angelus were prepared (n = 10 in each group), filled into the rings, and preserved at 37°C until setting. A 1 mm thick dentin slice was used as control. All set specimens were removed and radiographed along with the dentine slice and a graduated aluminium step wedge. Digital images were transferred to the computer using a software. The radiographic densities of the specimens were determined, and the values were converted into millimetres of aluminium (mm Al). One-way ANOVA was used for intergroup comparison, whereas Tukey HSD test was used for detecting the group with the difference. The mean radiopacities of Biodentine, MTA Angelus, and MM-MTA were 2.8 ± 0.48, 4.72 ± 0.45, and 5.18 ± 0.51 mm Al, respectively. The radiopacity of Biodentine was significantly lower compared to other materials (P = 0.001), whereas no significant difference was noted between MTA Angelus and MM-MTA (P = 0.109). All materials had significantly higher radiopacities compared to dentine. The relatively lower radiopacity of Biodentine can be improved to achieve more reliable results in procedures such as retrograde fillings. PMID:24260018

  20. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Frappart, Sören; Raijmakers, Maartje; Frède, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range (5-18 years, N=144). We analyzed children's predictions and justifications for the trajectory of a stone dropped on the earth, on the moon, in a spaceship orbiting the earth, on a planet with air, on a planet with no air, and in a lift (i.e., an elevator) in free fall. Results showed that performances were related to the context and to the children's age. U-shaped developmental curves were identified for predictions for three contexts. These curves could be explained by analyzing the structure of the children's knowledge using latent class analysis. We identified three coherent patterns of predictions that were related to specific justifications. With age, children produced more scientific predictions. Children's cognitive structures, as reflected in their predictions of dropped stone trajectories, seem to be coherently built given that there were only a limited number of prediction patterns. Even by Grade 12, students had not achieved a scientific understanding of universal gravitation.

  1. Disappearance of centroacinar cells in the Notch ligand-deficient pancreas.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yasuhiro; Negishi, Naoko; Gocho, Seiho; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Yuri; Yazawa, Masaki; Abe, Koichiro; Yagita, Hideo; Habu, Sonoko; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Hozumi, Katsuto

    2015-06-01

    Notch signaling has been shown to contribute to murine pancreatic development at various stages. Delta-like 1 (Dll1) or Jagged1 (Jag1) are the Notch ligands that solely function to trigger this signaling during the pancreatic bud stage (~e9.5) or after birth, respectively. However, it has not been elucidated whether these Notch ligands are required at the later stage (e10.5-18.5) when the particular pancreas structures form. Here, we detected the dual expression of Dll1 and Jag1 in the epithelium after e10.5, which was restricted to the ductal cell lineage, including centroacinar cells expressing Sox9, CD133 and Hes1 but not the ductal cell markers Hnf1β and DBA, at e18.5. To evaluate the significance of the Notch ligands during this period, we established double-floxed mice of Dll1 and Jag1 genes with Ptf1a-Cre knock-in allele and examined the effects on development. The abrogation of both ligands but not a single one led to the loss of centroacinar cells, which was due to the decrease in cell proliferation and the increase in cell death, as well as to the reduction of Sox9. These results suggested that Dll1 and Jag1 function redundantly and are necessary to maintain the centroacinar cells as an environmental niche in the developing pancreas. PMID:25919081

  2. Aromatic amine degradation in a UASB/CSTR sequential system treating Congo Red dye.

    PubMed

    Işik, Mustafa; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this study an anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor)/aerobic (completely stirred tank reactor) sequential system was used to treat a synthetic wastewater with minerals and co-substrate together with 100-4000 mg L(-1) of Congo Red dye (Direct red 28) (CR), which is a banned azo dye in Turkey. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the decolorization and the COD removal efficiency was investigated at constant 100 mg L(-1) Congo Red concentration. 77% of COD and 95% of color was removed at a HRT of 0.486 days and a maximum organic loading rate of 6.656 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) in the anaerobic/aerobic stage. In the continuous operations, 88% of COD, 99% of color and 91% of total aromatic amine (TAA) were removed at a HRT of 3.60 days and at a CR concentration of 4000 mg L(-1). This corresponds to an organic loading rate of 1.81 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and a CR dye loading rate of 46.37 g dye m(-3) h(-1), respectively, in the whole system. The TAA produced under anaerobic conditions was ultimately removed in the aerobic stage, resulting in very low aromatic amine recoveries (5-18%) in the last one. Therefore the aerobic effluents exhibited higher IC50 and specific methanogenic activities (SMA) compared to anaerobic and dye containing samples, indicating the reduced toxicity. PMID:14524683

  3. Aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol contents of dried figs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaca, H; Nas, S

    2006-05-01

    Dried figs of three different categories, palatable, fluorescent, and cull, were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2)), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from four fig processing plants located in a major fig producing area in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Affinity column clean-up methods were employed for aflatoxins. All aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Palatable figs contaminated with trace amounts of aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Fluorescent figs were contaminated with high (117.9-471.9 ppb) aflatoxin levels and cull figs with high patulin (39.3-151.6 ppb) and ergosterol (4.5-18 ppm) levels. The total aflatoxins content was significantly correlated with the patulin content (r(2) = 0.813, p < 0.002) and the ergosterol content (r(2) = 0.920, p < 0.002) only in fluorescent figs. However there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of fluorescent figs. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between the contents of any two of the three substances in cull figs. This is the first report on the presence of patulin and its co-occurrence with aflatoxin in dried figs.

  4. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Burnett, W.C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  5. Fragipan horizon fragmentation in slaking experiments with amendment materials and ryegrass root tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Karathanasis, A D; Murdock, L W; Matocha, C J; Grove, J; Thompson, Y L

    2014-01-01

    Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB), fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC), D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5-18.8 mm compared to the 44.2-47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in solution were ambiguous. The poor efficiency of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments was attributed to their high ionic strength, while the high efficiency of the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and rye grass root solutions to their high sodium soluble ratio (SSR). A slaking mechanism is proposed suggesting that aqueous solutions with high SSR penetrate faster into the fragipan capillaries and generate the critical swelling pressure and shearing stress required to rupture the fragipan into several fragments. Additional fragmentation occurs in a followup stage during which potential Si, Al, Fe, and Mn binding agents may be released into solution. Field experiments testing these findings are in progress. PMID:25254233

  6. [Effects of biochars produced from different sources on arsenic adsorption and desorption in soil].

    PubMed

    Guan, Lian-Zhu; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Zhang, Jin-Hai; Chan, Zhong-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    By using OECD Guideline 106 batch equilibrium method, this paper studied the characteristics of As (V) adsorption and desorption in brown soil as affected by the biochars produced from dairy manure, pine needle, and corn straw. When the addition amount of the biochars was 0.5%, the maximum adsorption amount of As (V) was decreased in the order of dairy manure biochar > pine needle biochar > corn straw biochar, which was related to the basic characteristics of the biochars. The adsorption isotherm of As (V) could be well fitted by Langmuir model (R2 = 0.997). In comparing with CK, both the adsorption capacity (lgKf = 1.99-2.10) and the adsorption intensity (1/N = 0.413-0.449) of As (V) were low, and the main adsorption mechanism was physical adsorption. The desorption rate of As (V) (14.5%-18.7%) was decreased in the order of dairy manure biochar > pine needle biochar > corn straw biochar. The addition of the biochars decreased the adsorption of As (V) by brown soil, which could induce the increase of the bioavailability of As, and strengthen the toxicity of As in soil. PMID:24483091

  7. Swallowing outcome after TORS for sleep apnea: short- and long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eesa, Mohamed; Montevecchi, Filippo; Hendawy, Ehsan; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Meccariello, Giuseppe; Vicini, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes related to swallowing function in patients who underwent transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for sleep apnea on both short- and long-term scales. 78 patients who underwent TORS for sleep apnea between 2011 and 2014 were followed up for an average period of 20 ± 7.12 months (range 7-32 months), then swallowing outcomes determined by MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) questionnaire, gastrografin fluoroscopy imaging results, nasogastric tube dependence and subjectively by recording the patients' complaints were analyzed and reported. Minimal insignificant short-term impact on swallowing function (4.58 ± 7.03 preoperative MDADI score versus 5.18 ± 8.32 post-operative) (p = 0.56) was registered. Mean time for start of oral feeding was 1.05 ± 0.25 days (average, 1-3). In no case nasogastric tube feeding was required. Only five patients (6 %) showed significant aspiration on gastrografin fluoroscopy examination after 1 week; there was no significant correlation between the volume of tissue removed from both tongue base and epiglottis to the incidence of aspiration as shown by gastrografin fluoroscopy examination (p = 0.72). No long-term swallowing complaint was registered. Patients who underwent TORS tongue base reduction and supraglottoplasty for sleep apnea proved to have a reasonable short-term swallowing outcomes with no long-term sequelae.

  8. Occurrence of two heterophyid metacercariae Haplorchis and Haplorchoides in cyprinoid fish of some districts in Chiang Mai and Lumphun Province.

    PubMed

    Namue, C; Rojanapaibul, A; Wongsawad, C

    1998-06-01

    According to currently available information, the metacercaria of one heterophyid trematode, Haplorchis, is commonly found in freshwater fishes, especially the cyprinoid group. Thus, in an investigation into the level of Haplorchis metacercaria infection in cyprinoid fishes, comprising ten species, 811 cyprinoid fishes were captured from canals, reservoirs and rivers in six districts of Chiang Mai Province and 4 districts of Lumphun Province, Thailand, 43.03% of the fishes comprising seven species viz Puntius leiacanthus, P. gonionotus, P. orphoides, P. stolickkae, Cirrhina spp, Rasbora spp and R. lateristriata, were found infected, with the prevalence of infection at 77.29, 70.31, 56.52, 47.14, 18.48, 7.94 and 5.18% respectively. Infected fishes were collected from Mae Rim and Sansai districts of Chiang Mai, and Pasang, Ban Hong and Li districts of Lumphun. It should be noted that the Haplorchis metacercariae are commonly found along with Haplorchoides metacercariae. Both minute heterophyids metacercariae were mainly localized in scales, a few were found in fins and gills of fishes.

  9. Nucleolar Organizer Regions of Oral Epithelial Cells in Crack Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho de M. Thiele, Magna; Carlos Bohn, Joslei; Lima Chaiben, Cassiano; Trindade Grégio, Ana Maria; Ângela Naval Machado, Maria; Adilson Soares de Lima, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background: The health risks of crack cocaine smoking on the oral mucosa has not been widely researched and documented. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the proliferative activity of oral epithelial cells exposed to crack cocaine smoke using silver nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) staining. Methods: Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing buccal mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 crack cocaine users and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analyzed for cytomorphologic and cytomorphometric techniques. Results: Crack cocaine users consumed about 13.3 heat-stable rocks per day and the time consumption of the drug was of 5.2 (± 3.3) years. Mean values of AgNOR counting for case and control groups were 5.18 ± 1.83 and 3.38 ± 1.02 (P<0.05), respectively. AgNOR area and percentage of AgNOR-occupied nuclear area were increased in comparison with the control (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values of the nuclear area between the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed that crack cocaine smoke increases the rate of cellular proliferation in cells of normal buccal mucosa. PMID:23567853

  10. Size of the Accretion Disk in the Graviationally Lensed Quasar SDSS J1004+4112 from the Statistics of Microlensing Magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fian, C.; Mediavilla, E.; Hanslmeier, A.; Oscoz, A.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Muñoz, J. A.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present eight monitoring seasons of the four brightest images of the gravitational lens SDSS J1004+4112 observed between 2003 December and 2010 October. Using measured time delays for the images A, B, and C and the model predicted time delay for image D we have removed the intrinsic quasar variability, finding microlensing events of about 0.5 and 0.7 mag of amplitude in the images C and D. From the statistics of microlensing amplitudes in images A, C, and D, we have inferred the half-light radius (at {λ }{rest}=2407 \\mathringA ) for the accretion disk using two different methods, {R}1/2={8.7}-5.5+18.5\\sqrt{M/0.3{M}ȯ } (histogram product) and {R}1/2={4.2}-2.2+3.2\\sqrt{M/0.3{M}ȯ } lt-days ({χ }2). The results are in agreement within uncertainties with the size predicted from the black hole mass in SDSS J1004+4112 using thin disk theory.

  11. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Olga M M; Martins, Ramiro J E; Delerue-Matos, Cristina M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L(-1). The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents. PMID:17935878

  12. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Antibiotic Treatment Failure for Tuboovarian Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Huma; Lau, Trevin C.; Karmon, Anatte E.; Styer, Aaron K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Although parenteral antibiotic treatment is a standard approach for tuboovarian abscesses, a significant proportion of patients fail therapy and require interventional radiology (IR) guided drainage. The objective of this study is to assess if specific clinical factors are associated with antibiotic treatment failure. Study Design. Retrospective medical record review of patients hospitalized for tuboovarian abscesses from 2001 through 2012 was performed. Clinical characteristics were compared for patients who underwent successful parenteral antibiotic treatment, failed antibiotic treatment necessitating subsequent IR drainage, initial drainage with concurrent antibiotics, and surgery. Results. One hundred thirteen patients admitted for inpatient treatment were identified. Sixty-one (54%) patients were treated with antibiotics alone. Within this group, 24.6% failed antibiotic treatment and required drainage. Mean white blood cell count (K/μL) (18.7 ± 5.94 versus 13.9 ± 5.12) (p = 0.003), mean maximum diameter of tuboovarian abscess (cm) (6.8 ± 2.9 versus 5.2 ± 2.0) (p = 0.03), and length of stay (days) (9.47 ± 7.43 versus 4.59 ± 2.4) (p = 0.002) were significantly greater for patients who failed antibiotic treatment. Conclusions. Admission white blood cell count greater than 16 K/μL and abscess size greater than 5.18 cm are associated with antibiotic treatment failure. These factors may provide guidance for initial selection of IR guided drainage. PMID:26989337

  13. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees.

    PubMed

    Farah, Adriana; de Paulis, Tomas; Moreira, Daniel P; Trugo, Luiz C; Martin, Peter R

    2006-01-25

    The market for decaffeinated coffees has been increasingly expanding over the years. Caffeine extraction may result in losses of other compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and, consequently, their 1,5-gamma-quinolactones (CGL) in roasted coffee. These phenolic compounds are important for flavor formation as well as the health effects of coffee; therefore, losses due to decaffeination need to be investigated. The present study evaluates the impact of decaffeination processing on CGA and CGL levels of green and roasted arabica coffees. Decaffeination produced a 16% average increase in the levels of total CGA in green coffee (dry matter), along with a 237% increase in CGL direct precursors. Different degrees of roasting showed average increments of 5.5-18% in CGL levels of decaffeinated coffee, compared to regular, a change more consistent with observed levels of total CGA than with those of CGL direct precursors in green samples. On the other hand, CGA levels in roasted coffee were 3-9% lower in decaffeinated coffee compared to regular coffee. Although differences in CGA and CGL contents of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffees appear to be relatively small, they may be enough to affect flavor characteristics as well as the biopharmacological properties of the final beverage, suggesting the need for further study.

  14. High Epstein-Barr virus serum load and elevated titers of anti-ZEBRA antibodies in patients with EBV-harboring tumor cells of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Drouet, E; Brousset, P; Fares, F; Icart, J; Verniol, C; Meggetto, F; Schlaifer, D; Desmorat-Coat, H; Rigal-Huguet, F; Niveleau, A; Delsol, G

    1999-04-01

    Hodgkin's disease is commonly associated with EBV latent infection. The incidence of EBV reactivation (active infection or EBV infection with replicative cycle) was evaluated in a series of 30 patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease (except for one case with chronic lymphocytic leukemia) by quantitation of EBV DNA and titration of anti-ZEBRA antibodies in serum samples. DNA was detected in serum (>2.5 x 10(2) genomes/ml) in 15 of 30 patients and was more frequent in Hodgkin's disease with EBV-positive Reed-Sternberg cells (10/12) than in EBV-negative cases (5/18), (P< 0.01). Of interest was the demonstration that viremia correlated well with increased titers of anti-ZEBRA IgG and/or standard serological profiles of EBV reactivation (12/15), (P < 0.05). However the lack of EBV replicative cycle in Reed-Sternberg cells (negative for ZEBRA antigen and early antigen BHLF1) suggests that the viral replication occurs in a nonneoplastic cell compartment rather than in tumor cells. The measurement of EBV DNA loads and the titration of anti-ZEBRA antibodies shed new lights on the link between activation of EBV replication and Hodgkin's disease: these serological markers together with the determination of the EBV status of the tumor suggest that replication of the viral genome occurs with a decreased efficiency of the immune system, thus allowing progression of the tumor.

  15. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  16. High incidence of persistence of sacral and coccygeal intervertebral discs in South Indians – a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Satheesha Nayak, B; Ashwini Aithal, P; Kumar, Naveen; George, Bincy M; Deepthinath, R; Shetty, Surekha D

    2016-01-01

    The sacrum, by virtue of its anatomic location plays a key role in providing stability and strength to the pelvis. Presence of intervertebral discs in sacrum and coccyx is rare. Knowledge of its variations is of utmost importance to surgeons and radiologists. The current study focused on the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae in south Indian cadaveric pelvises. We observed 56 adult pelvises of which, 34 (61%) pelvises showed the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral vertebrae and between the coccygeal vertebrae, while 22 (39%) pelvises did not have the intervertebral discs either in the sacrum or the coccyx. We also found that most of the specimens had discs between S1 and S2 vertebrae (39%), followed by, between S4 and S5 (18%), between S2–S3 (14%) and least being between S3–S4 (13%). In the coccyx it was found that 7% of pelvises had disc between Co1-Co2, 4% of them had between Co2-Co3 and 4% had between Co3-Co4. Knowledge regarding such anatomic variations in the sacro-coccygeal region is important to note because they require alterations in various instrumentation procedures involving the sacrum. PMID:27385838

  17. Afrotheria genome; overestimation of genome size and distinct chromosome GC content revealed by flow karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Fumio; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2013-01-01

    Afrotheria genome size is reported to be over 50% larger than that of human, but we show that this is a gross overestimate. Although genome sequencing in Afrotheria is not complete, extensive homology with human has been revealed by chromosome painting. We provide new data on chromosome size and GC content in four Afrotherian species using flow karyotyping. Genome sizes are 4.13 Gb in aardvark, 4.01 Gb in African elephant, 3.69 Gb in golden mole and 3.31 Gb in manatee, whereas published results show a mean of 5.18 Gb for Afrotheria. Genome GC content shows a negative correlation with size, indicating that this is due to differences in the amount of AT-rich sequences. Low genome GC content and small variance in chromosome GC content are characteristic of aardvark and elephant and may be associated with the high degree of conserved synteny, suggesting that these are features of the Afrotherian ancestral genome. PMID:24055950

  18. Fluoride content of clay minerals and argillaceous earth materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.; Glass, H.D.; White, W.A.; Trandel, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable method, utilizing a fluoride ion-selective electrode, is described for the determination of fluoride in clays and shales. Interference by aluminum and iron is minimal. The reproducibility of the method is about ??5% at different levels of fluoride concentration. Data are presented for various clay minerals and for the <2-??m fractions of marine and nonmarine clays and shales. Fluoride values range from 44 ppm (0.0044%) for nontronite from Colfax, WA, to 51,800 ppm (5.18%) for hectorite from Hector, CA. In general, clays formed under hydrothermal conditions are relatively high in fluoride content, provided the hydrothermal waters are high in fluoride content. Besides hectorite, dickite from Ouray, CO, was found to contain more than 50 times as much fluoride (6700 ppm) as highly crystalline geode kaolinite (125 ppm). The clay stratum immediately overlying a fluorite mineralized zone in southern Illinois was found to have a higher fluoride content than the same stratum in a nonmineralized zone approximately 1 mile away. Nonmarine shales in contact with Australian coals were found to be lower in fluoride content than were marine shales in contact with Illinois coals. It is believed that, in certain instances, peak shifts on DTA curves of similar clay minerals are the result of significant differences in their fluoride content. ?? 1977.

  19. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium by medium-chain fatty acids in an in vitro simulation of the porcine cecum.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Goris, Johan; Dierick, Noël; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2010-02-24

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for more than half of the reported cases of human salmonellosis in Belgium in 2007 and was the predominant serovar isolated from slaughter pig carcasses. To lower the Salmonella contamination of pork meat, measures can be taken at the primary production level, e.g. by reducing the shedding of Salmonella through the use of feed additives such as medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). An in vitro continuous culture system, simulating the porcine cecum, was developed for investigating the effect of MCFAs (sodium caproate, sodium caprylate and sodium caprinate) on the pig intestinal microbial community. The system was monitored by plating on selective media, PCR-DGGE and HPLC analysis of fermentation products. An inoculated S. typhimurium strain could be maintained by the system at a population size of about 5 log(10)cfu/mL. By the addition of 15 mM caprylate, significant reductions of coliforms and Salmonella counts by 4.69 log(10) units (95% confidence interval: 4.19-5.18) could be achieved, while other bacterial populations were clearly less affected. This concentration seems economically feasible in pig feed, provided that the substance can reach the cecum without being absorbed. Thus, caprylate, for example in the form of encapsulated beads or as triacylglycerol oil, might have potential as a Salmonella-reducing additive in pig feed.

  20. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population.

  1. Conformal and Spectrally Agile Ultra Wideband Phased Array Antenna for Communication and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, M.; Alwan, Elias; Miranda, Felix; Volakis, John

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuing need for reducing size and weight of satellite systems, and is also strong interest to increase the functional role of small- and nano-satellites (for instance SmallSats and CubeSats). To this end, a family of arrays is presented, demonstrating ultra-wideband operation across the numerous satellite communications and sensing frequencies up to the Ku-, Ka-, and Millimeter-Wave bands. An example design is demonstrated to operate from 3.5-18.5 GHz with VSWR2 at broadside, and validated through fabrication of an 8 x 8 prototype. This design is optimized for low cost, using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) fabrication. With the same fabrication technology, scaling is shown to be feasible up to a 9-49 GHz band. Further designs are discussed, which extend this wideband operation beyond the Ka-band, for instance from 20-80 GHz. Finally we will discuss recent efforts in the direct integration of such arrays with digital beamforming back-ends. It will be shown that using a novel on-site coding architecture, orders of magnitude reduction in hardware size, power, and cost is accomplished in this transceiver.

  2. Design of wide bandwidth pyramidal microwave absorbers using ferrite composites with broad magnetic loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myung-Jun; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Wide bandwidth microwave absorbers with a pyramidal shape and a significantly reduced thickness can be designed using high lossy ferrite materials with broad magnetic loss spectra. The microwave absorbing properties of pyramidal cone absorbers are analyzed using the transmission line approximation, which provides the reflection loss as a function of the material parameters and absorber geometry. Three types of ferrite materials (NiZn spinel ferrite, Co2Z hexaferrite, and RuCoM hexaferrite) are used as the absorbent fillers in a rubber matrix. Among these, Co2Z ferrite is the most suitable material for wide bandwidth pyramidal absorbers, due to its broad magnetic loss spectrum in the GHz frequency range. The optimal geometry of the pyramidal absorber is also determined using the transmission line theory. With the reduced total height of the pyramidal absorber (approximately 60 mm), a wide bandwidth (1.5-18 GHz with respect to the -20 dB reflection loss) can be realized. The proposed absorbers have a thickness advantage over the classical pyramidal ohmic absorbers; thus, they are suitable for small and semi-anechoic chambers.

  3. Quantitative multiresidue analysis of antibiotics in milk and milk powder by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Jiang, Jindou; Tao, Dali; Zheng, Nan

    2016-10-15

    A simple and fast multiresidue extraction and purification method was developed for the determination of 61 veterinary drugs, belonging to seven classes, in milk and milk powder. The extraction depends on the acetonitrile solvent, followed by a single step to remove lipids with fatty acid chains using a new reversed phase SPE without traditional pre-equilibration and washing steps before eluting SPE. The purifying lipid effect of the present preparation method was evaluated by comparing the response changes of ion peak areas of the milk endogenous metabolites before and after SPE treatment using ultra-fast LC coupled to tandem quadrupole and TOF MS. Subsequently, UPLC coupled to tandem quadrupole MS was performed for the quantitative analysis of milk and milk powder samples spiked with 61 veterinary drugs, including β-lactam, macrolide, amide alcohol, forest amine, sulfanilamide, tetracyclines, and quinolones antibiotics. This method is very simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and allows the good recoveries of all compounds, with a recovery range of 61.5-118.6%, and coefficients of variation of less than 11.6%. The 61 compounds behave in the dynamic range 0.01-200μgkg(-1), with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.18μgkg(-1). Finally, this method has been successfully applied to the screening of veterinary drugs in 50 commercial bovine milk and milk powder samples, and ceftiofur and ciprofloxacin were detected in some brand samples.

  4. Surfactant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of pure nickel submicron spheres with microwave-absorbing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Heng; Pu, Bingxue; Chen, Haiyuan; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yajun; Yang, Jian; Bismark, Boateng; Li, Handong; Niu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Pure metallic nickel submicron spheres (Ni-SSs), flower-like nickel nanoflakes, and hollow micrometer-sized nickel spheres/tubes were controllably synthesized by a facile and efficient one-step solvothermal method with no reducing agent. The characteristics of these nickel nanostructures include morphology, structure, and purification. Possible synthesis mechanisms were discussed in detail. The resultant Ni-SSs had a wide diameter distribution of 200~800 nm through the aggregation of small nickel nanocrystals. The ferromagnetic behaviors of Ni-SSs investigated at room temperature showed high coercivity values. Furthermore, the microwave absorption properties of magnetic Ni-SSs were studied in the frequency range of 0.5-18.0 GHz. The minimum reflection loss reached -17.9 dB at 17.8 GHz with a thin absorption thickness of 1.2 mm, suggesting that the submicron spherical structures could exhibit excellent microwave absorption properties. More importantly, this one-pot synthesize route provides a universal and convenient way for preparation of larger scale pure Ni-SSs, showing excellent microwave absorption properties.

  5. Free fall plasma-arc reactor for synthesis of carbon nanotubes in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feikema, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    High temperatures inside the plasma of a carbon arc generate strong buoyancy driven convection which has an effect on the growth and morphology of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). To study the effect of buoyancy on the arc process, a miniature carbon arc apparatus was designed and developed to synthesize SWNTs in a microgravity environment substantially free from buoyant convective flows. An arc reactor was operated in the 2.2 and 5.18s drop towers at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The apparatus employed a 4mm diameter anode and was powered by a portable battery pack capable of providing in excess of 300A at 30V to the arc for the duration of a 5s drop. However, the principal result is that no dramatic difference in sample yield or composition was noted between normal gravity and 2.2 and 5s long microgravity runs. Much longer duration microgravity time is required for SWNT's growth such as the zero-G aircraft, but more likely will need to be performed on the international space station or an orbiting spacecraft.

  6. A clinical study evaluating dendritic and cytokine-induced killer cells combined with concurrent radiochemotherapy for stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X P; Xu, Y H; Zhou, J; Pan, X F

    2015-08-28

    To compare the efficacy of dendritic and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) therapy combined with concurrent radiochemotherapy on stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Sixty-three patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer were randomly divided into the study and control groups. The study group, comprising 30 patients, was treated with DC-CIK combined with docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy and synchronization conformal radiotherapy. The control group including 33 patients was only treated with docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy and synchronization conformal radiotherapy. The efficacy, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor markers, 6-month and 12-month survival rate, T cell subsets, and adverse reactions of the two groups were compared. The response rate of the study group was 83.3% (25/30), and that of the control group was only 54.5% (18/33). Furthermore, the KPS, T cell subsets, and 12-month survival rate was significantly higher in the study group, and there were significant differences between the two groups. The two groups had no significant difference in adverse reactions. The combined DC-CIK therapy, with synchronous radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer was superior to single synchronous radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The combined therapy can improve the life quality and prolong the survival time of the patients.

  7. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  8. Co-generation of biohydrogen and biomethane through two-stage batch co-fermentation of macro- and micro-algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lingkan; Cheng, Jun; Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Voelklein, Markus; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-10-01

    Aquatic micro-algae can be used as feedstocks for gaseous biofuel production via biological fermentation. However, micro-algae usually have low C/N ratios, which are not advantageous for fermentation. In this study, carbon-rich macro-algae (Laminaria digitata) mixed with nitrogen-rich micro-algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Nannochloropsis oceanica) were used to maintain a suitable C/N ratio of 20 for a two-stage process combining hydrogen and methane fermentation. Co-fermentation of L. digitata and micro-algae facilitated hydrolysis and acidogenesis, resulting in hydrogen yields of 94.5-97.0mL/gVS; these values were 15.5-18.5% higher than mono-fermentation using L. digitata. Through the second stage of methane co-fermentation, a large portion of energy remaining in the hydrogenogenic effluents was recovered in the form of biomethane. The two-stage batch co-fermentation markedly increased the energy conversion efficiencies (ECEs) from 4.6-6.6% during the hydrogen fermentation to 57.0-70.9% in the combined hydrogen and methane production. PMID:27371795

  9. Age-related changes in executive function: A normative study with the Dutch version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).

    PubMed

    Huizinga, Mariëtte; Smidts, Diana P

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related change in executive function by using a Dutch translation of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia et al., 2000) that was applied to a normative sample (age range 5-18 years). In addition, we examined the reliability and factorial structures of the Dutch BRIEF. Results with respect to age revealed a decrease in reported executive function problems with increasing age. On the Behavior Regulation Index (BRI), 5- to 8-year-olds showed significantly more executive function problems than 9- to 11-year-olds, as did the 12- to 14-year-olds compared to 15- to 18-year-olds (except on the Shift subscale). On the Metacognition Index, we found that 9- to 11-year-olds differed significantly from 5- to 8-year-olds on the Working Memory subscale. In addition, the current study showed that the internal consistency of the Dutch BRIEF is very high, and that this version of the BRIEF has a high test-retest stability. Item factor analysis confirmed the expected eight common factor model, and factor analysis of the eight test scores confirmed the two-factor model, as proposed by Gioia et al., in the Dutch data.

  10. A Dissolved Oxygen Threshold for Shifts in Bacterial Community Structure in a Seasonally Hypoxic Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Spietz, Rachel L.; Williams, Cheryl M.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Horner-Devine, M. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems can become depleted of dissolved oxygen as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic effects. As dissolved oxygen concentration decreases, energy shifts from macrofauna to microorganisms, which persist in these hypoxic zones. Oxygen-limited regions are rapidly expanding globally; however, patterns of microbial communities associated with dissolved oxygen gradients are not yet well understood. To assess the effects of decreasing dissolved oxygen on bacteria, we examined shifts in bacterial community structure over space and time in Hood Canal, Washington, USA−a glacial fjord-like water body that experiences seasonal low dissolved oxygen levels known to be detrimental to fish and other marine organisms. We found a strong negative association between bacterial richness and dissolved oxygen. Bacterial community composition across all samples was also strongly associated with the dissolved oxygen gradient, and significant changes in bacterial community composition occurred at a dissolved oxygen concentration between 5.18 and 7.12 mg O2 L-1. This threshold value of dissolved oxygen is higher than classic definitions of hypoxia (<2.0 mg O2 L-1), suggesting that changes in bacterial communities may precede the detrimental effects on ecologically and economically important macrofauna. Furthermore, bacterial taxa responsible for driving whole community changes across the oxygen gradient are commonly detected in other oxygen-stressed ecosystems, suggesting that the patterns we uncovered in Hood Canal may be relevant in other low oxygen ecosystems. PMID:26270047

  11. Determination of gait events using an externally mounted shank accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Hobbs, Sarah J; Protheroe, Laurence; Edmundson, Christopher J; Greenhalgh, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Biomechanical analysis requires the determination of specific foot contact events. This is typically achieved using force platform information; however, when force platforms are unavailable, alternative methods are necessary. A method was developed for the determination of gait events using an accelerometer mounted to the distal tibia, measuring axial accelerations. The aim of the investigation was to determine the efficacy of this method. Sixteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s ± 5%. Synchronized tibial accelerations and vertical ground reaction forces were sampled at 1000 Hz as participants struck a force platform with their dominant foot. Events determined using the accelerometer, were compared with the corresponding events determined using the force platform. Mean errors of 1.68 and 5.46 ms for average and absolute errors were observed for heel strike and of -3.59 and 5.00 ms for toe-off. Mean and absolute errors of 5.18 and 11.47 ms were also found for the duration of the stance phase. Strong correlations (r = .96) were also observed between duration of stance obtained using the two different methods. The error values compare favorably to other alternative methods of predicting gait events. This suggests that shank-mounted accelerometers can be used to accurately and reliably detect gait events. PMID:23462448

  12. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among epileptic patients in León, Nicaragua, as evaluated by ELISA and western blotting.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, F; Meza-Lucas, A; Espinoza, F; García-Jerónimo, R C; García-Rodea, R; Correa, D

    2005-01-01

    The Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is an important public-health problem in several countries, where many epileptic seizures appear to be associated with neurocysticercosis. As few data on this problem in Nicaragua exist, the seroprevalence of antibodies reacting with antigens from T. solium cysticerci was investigated among 88 Nicaraguan epileptics (45 males and 43 females, aged 6-53 years). In questionnaire-based interviews, each adult subject and a caregiver of each child investigated were asked about potential risk factors for taeniasis/cysticercosis. When a serum sample from each subject was then checked for anti-cysticercus antibodies, 8.0% of the subjects were found seropositive by ELISA and 14.8% by western blotting. Five samples (all from individuals who had been epileptic for > 5 years) were positive in both tests. When the level of association between each potential risk factor and seropositivity (in ELISA or by blotting) was evaluated, the only statistically significant association detected was that between a positive ELISA and the subject living in a household where pigs were raised (odds ratio = 5.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.8-41.6; P = 0.05). The bands most frequently recognized in the western blots (of 50, 42-39, 24 and 14 kDa) were those previously reported. The results indicate that, in the city of Léon, cysticercosis may be endemic and the cause of a significant proportion of the epilepsy recorded.

  13. DNA barcoding in diverse educational settings: five case studies.

    PubMed

    Henter, Heather J; Imondi, Ralph; James, Karen; Spencer, Diana; Steinke, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Despite 250 years of modern taxonomy, there remains a large biodiversity knowledge gap. Most species remain unknown to science. DNA barcoding can help address this gap and has been used in a variety of educational contexts to incorporate original research into school curricula and informal education programmes. A growing body of evidence suggests that actively conducting research increases student engagement and retention in science. We describe case studies in five different educational settings in Canada and the USA: a programme for primary and secondary school students (ages 5-18), a year-long professional development programme for secondary school teachers, projects embedding this research into courses in a post-secondary 2-year institution and a degree-granting university, and a citizen science project. We argue that these projects are successful because the scientific content is authentic and compelling, DNA barcoding is conceptually and technically straightforward, the workflow is adaptable to a variety of situations, and online tools exist that allow participants to contribute high-quality data to the international research effort. Evidence of success includes the broad adoption of these programmes and assessment results demonstrating that participants are gaining both knowledge and confidence. There are exciting opportunities for coordination among educational projects in the future.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481792

  14. An Evaluation of Cerebral and Systemic Predictors of 18-Month Outcomes for Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Kushwaha, Juhi S; Plegue, Melissa A; Selewski, David T; Barks, John D E

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy and acute kidney injury might also have prognostic value. The authors monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an acute kidney injury stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (n = 13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; n = 5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48-72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (.02 < P < .03). Mean aEEG amplitude during hours 24 to 48 of cooling was higher among those with good outcomes (.027 < P < .032). The aEEG lower margin was also higher during hours 12 to 48 for those with good outcomes (.014 < P < .035). Acute kidney injury did not predict outcome (P > .05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the role of near-infrared spectroscopy in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain.

  15. An Evaluation of Cerebral and Systemic Predictors of 18-Month Outcomes for Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Kushwaha, Juhi S; Plegue, Melissa A; Selewski, David T; Barks, John D E

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy and acute kidney injury might also have prognostic value. The authors monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an acute kidney injury stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (n = 13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; n = 5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48-72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (.02 < P < .03). Mean aEEG amplitude during hours 24 to 48 of cooling was higher among those with good outcomes (.027 < P < .032). The aEEG lower margin was also higher during hours 12 to 48 for those with good outcomes (.014 < P < .035). Acute kidney injury did not predict outcome (P > .05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the role of near-infrared spectroscopy in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain. PMID:25724376

  16. Atmospheric composition of cold super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; Stracke, B.; Rauer, H.

    2008-09-01

    Planets of masses below 10 times that of Earth (so-called Super-Earths) orbiting far away from their central star have been discovered by Microlensing surveys. Super-Earth atmospheres cannot be characterized remotely yet. However, based on climate modelling and analogies with our solar system, we can put constraints on possible atmospheric compositions. Whenever the triple point of a gaseous constituent is reached on the surface, this constituent is likely to freeze out until equilibrium between ice and vapour/liquid is reached. Important greenhouse gases which are essential for habitability considerations are water (triple point 6.5 mb, 273 K) and carbon dioxide (triple point 5.18 bar, 216 K). In our work we apply a 1D radiative-convective model to Super-Earth atmospheres. We investigate the effect of varying orbital distance, stellar type and planetary mass upon the ability of water and carbon dioxide to remain in the atmosphere. Our results indicate a threshold regime where atmospheres switch from being CO2-rich to being N2-dominated. Implications for habitability and surface conditions are discussed.

  17. [Dynamics of structural change of ovarian tissue under ischemia].

    PubMed

    Bozhkova, Iu O; Kiroshka, V V; Havas, A A; Bondarenko, V A

    2014-01-01

    In this work it was investigated the dependence of the correlation of folliculogenesis and endocrine function of ovarian tissue on the degree of structural damage and oocyte volume changes during ischemia. It was shown that after 2 hours of ischemia at 37 °C the morphological transformation of the structural components of the ovarian tissue were reversible. In case of restoration of blood flow conditions by heterotopic transplantation estradiol level of animals was 25,9 ± 5,18 pg/ml, progesterone--18,48 ± 3,69 ng/ml, significantly higher than the castrated animals-recipients. Supplement of the incubation medium by the fetal bovine serum lead to decreasing by 5-7% in the volume of oocytes of growing follicles during in ischemia and reduced steroidogenic function of ovarian tissue after perfusion. Increased time of the ischemia up to 4 hours was founded in irreversible morphological transformation, reduce the volume of oocytes by 40% and the formation of sclerosed tissue after transplantation of the ischemic fragments of ovarian tissue.

  18. Drinking Water Quality, Feeding Practices, and Diarrhea among Children under 2 Years of HIV-Positive Mothers in Peri-Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Kelly, Paul; Filteau, Suzanne; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In low-income settings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers must choose between breastfeeding their infants and risking transmission of HIV or replacement feeding their infants and risking diarrheal disease from contaminated water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children < 2 years of age of 254 HIV-positive mothers in peri-urban Zambia to assess their exposure to waterborne fecal contamination. Fecal indicators were found in 70% of household drinking water samples. In a multivariable analysis, factors associated with diarrhea prevalence in children < 2 years were mother having diarrhea (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65–16.28), child given water in the past 2 days (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.07–15.52), child never being breastfed (aOR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.06–6.72), and rainy (versus dry) season (aOR = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.29–16.42). Children born to HIV-positive mothers were exposed to contaminated water through direct intake of drinking water, indicating the need for interventions to ensure microbiological water quality. PMID:21813854

  19. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  20. The Novel Relationship between Urban Air Pollution and Epilepsy: A Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Fan, Yan-Ni; Kan, Hai-Dong; Chen, Ren-Jie; Liu, Jiang-Hong; Li, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Yao; Ji, Ai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose The data concerning the association between environmental pollution and epilepsy attacks are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the association between acute air pollution exposure and epilepsy attack. Methods A hospital record-based study was carried out in Xi’an, a heavily-polluted metropolis in China. Daily baseline data were obtained. Time-series Poisson regression models were applied to analyze the association between air pollution and epilepsy. Results A 10 μg/m3 increase of NO2, SO2, and O3 concentrations corresponded to 3.17% (95%Cl: 1.41%, 4.93%), 3.55% (95%Cl: 1.93%, 5.18%), and -0.84% (95%Cl: -1.58%, 0.09%) increase in outpatient-visits for epilepsy on the concurrent days, which were significantly influenced by sex and age. The effects of NO2 and SO2 would be stronger when adjusted for PM2.5. As for O3, a -1.14% (95%Cl: -1.90%, -0.39%) decrease was evidenced when adjusted for NO2. The lag models showed that the most significant effects were evidenced on concurrent days. Conclusions We discovered previously undocumented relationships between short-term air pollution exposure and epilepsy: while NO2 and SO2 were positively associated with outpatient-visits of epilepsy, O3 might be associated with reduced risk. PMID:27571507

  1. Attentional bias to betel quid cues: An eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Chiu, Meng-Chun; Li, Shuo-Heng; Huang, Guo-Joe; Liu, Ling-Jun; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with heavy use. This study, conducted in central Taiwan, investigated whether betel quid chewers can exhibit overt orienting to selectively respond to the betel quid cues. Twenty-four male chewers' and 23 male nonchewers' eye movements to betel-quid-related pictures and matched pictures were assessed during a visual probe task. The eye movement index showed that betel quid chewers were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, t(23) = 3.70, p < .01, d = .75, and spent more time, F(1, 23) = 4.58, p < .05, η₂ = .17, and were more fixated, F(1, 23) = 5.18, p < .05, η₂ = .18, on them. The visual probe index (response time) failed to detect the chewers' attentional bias. The current study provided the first eye movement evidence of betel quid chewers' attentional bias. The results demonstrated that the betel quid chewers (but not the nonchewers) were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, and spent more time and were more fixated on them. These findings suggested that when attention is directly measured through the eye tracking technique, this methodology may be more sensitive to detecting attentional biases in betel quid chewers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631615

  2. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5-18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  3. Reproducibility of Tear Meniscus Measurement by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Li, Yan; Lu, Ake Tzu-Hui; Liu, Pengfei; Tang, Maolong; Yiu, Samuel C.; Huang, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To study the reproducibility of tear meniscus measurement with high-speed high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty normal participants were enrolled in this prospective study. The lower tear meniscus in the right eye of each subject was imaged by vertical scans centered on the inferior cornea and the lower eyelid using an FD-OCT system (RTVue; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA) with a corneal adaptor. The system performs 26,000 axial scans per second and has a 5-micron axial resolution. Each subject was examined at two visits 30 to 60 days apart. Each eye was scanned twice on each visit. The scans were taken 2 seconds after a blink. The lower meniscus height, depth, and cornea-meniscus angle were measured with a computer caliper. The cross-sectional area was calculated using a two-triangle approximation. RESULTS The between-visits coefficient of variation was 17.5%, 18.0%, 35.5%, and 12.2% for meniscus height, depth, area, and angle, respectively. The intraclass correlations for these parameters were 0.605, 0.558, 0.567, and 0.367, respectively. CONCLUSION FD-OCT measures lower tear meniscus dimensions and area with higher between-visits reproducibility than previous OCT instruments. FD-OCT may be a useful way to measure dry eye severity and treatment effectiveness. PMID:19772266

  4. Frisco City sandstone: Upper Jurassic play in southern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.; Baria, L.R.; Handford, C.R.

    1997-10-01

    The Frisco City sandstone play in southern Alabama is an example of hydrocarbon entrapment on the flanks of basement erosional features, with principal reservoirs occurring in proximal alluvial-fan to marine shoreface facies. Productive fields are developed on four-way closures of complex geometry, with reservoir sandstones showing maximum thickness along the margins of basement highs that are roughly 1.3-5.18 km{sup 2} in size and have 136-151 m of relief. Detailed analysis of sandstone facies indicates a downdip progression from alluvial-fan through wadi, eolian, beach, tidal-flat, and shoreface deposits. A sequence stratigraphic model based on identification of backstepping strata representing successive transgressive events is useful in predicting maximum reservoir occurrence in the vicinity of inselbergs. Reservoir quality in productive sandstones is high, with porosities ranging from 13 to 27% and permeabilities of 50 md to 5 d. Hydrocarbon occurrence is related to the distribution of high-quality source rock in the Smackover Formation and to maturation history.

  5. Phytoplankton assemblage of Yangtze River Estuary and the adjacent east China sea in summer, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Qingshan; Sun, Jun; Shen, Zhiliang; Song, Shuqun; Wang, Min

    2006-04-01

    A cruise was conducted from late August to early September 2004 with the intention of obtaining an interdisciplinary understanding of the Yangtze River Estuary including the biological, chemical and physical subjects. Water sample analysis indicated that total phytoplankton species richness was 137. Of them 81 were found in Bacillariophyta and 48 in Pyrrophyta, accounting for 59.1% and 35.0% respectively. The average cell abundance of surface water samples was 8.8×104 cells L-1, with the maximum, 102.9×104 cells L-1, encountered in the area (31.75°N, 122.33°E) and the minimum, 0.2×104 cells L-1, in (30.75°N, 122.17°E). The dominant species at most stations were Skeletonema costatum and Proboscia alata f. gracillima with the dominance of 0.35 and 0.27. Vertical distribution analysis indicated that obvious stratification of cell abundance and dominant species was found in the representative stations of 5, 18 and 33. Shannon-Wiener index and evenness of phytoplankton assemblage presented negative correlation with the cell abundance, with the optimum appearing in (30.75°N, 122.67°E). According to the PCA analysis of the environmental variables, elevated nutrients of nitrate, silicate and phosphate through river discharge were mainly responsible for the phytoplankton bloom in this area.

  6. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  7. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Frappart, Sören; Raijmakers, Maartje; Frède, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range (5-18 years, N=144). We analyzed children's predictions and justifications for the trajectory of a stone dropped on the earth, on the moon, in a spaceship orbiting the earth, on a planet with air, on a planet with no air, and in a lift (i.e., an elevator) in free fall. Results showed that performances were related to the context and to the children's age. U-shaped developmental curves were identified for predictions for three contexts. These curves could be explained by analyzing the structure of the children's knowledge using latent class analysis. We identified three coherent patterns of predictions that were related to specific justifications. With age, children produced more scientific predictions. Children's cognitive structures, as reflected in their predictions of dropped stone trajectories, seem to be coherently built given that there were only a limited number of prediction patterns. Even by Grade 12, students had not achieved a scientific understanding of universal gravitation. PMID:24361806

  8. Effect of cow age on the in vitro developmental competence of oocytes obtained after FSH stimulation and coasting treatments.

    PubMed

    Landry, David A; Bellefleur, Anne-Marie; Labrecque, Rémi; Grand, François-Xavier; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

    2016-09-15

    The use of oocytes obtained from younger donors for IVF followed by embryo transfer represents an opportunity to accelerate genetic gain by reducing generation time. In this study, we investigated the relationship between donor age and the in vitro developmental competence of oocytes obtained from Holstein females (aged 5-18 months) after FSH stimulation and coasting. The follicle size patterns showed a significantly higher total number of small follicles (5-6 mm) from donors aged 5 to 10 months and a higher total number of medium-sized follicles (7-10 mm) in donors aged 6 to 7 months. Our analysis also revealed that the total number of follicles was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in donors aged 5 to 8 months and tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in nine-month-old donors. However, oocytes obtained from donors aged 5 to 10 months yielded fewer embryos reaching the morula and blastocyst stages. In summary, our results demonstrate that a higher number of oocytes can be obtained from younger animals but lower developmental competence negates this gain. PMID:27215669

  9. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Guo; Luo, Sheng-Jun; Dubey, Jitender P; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Yan-Ping; He, Yong; He, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, little is known of T. gondii infection in bats. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in bats in China. A total of 217 serum samples from 5 species of bats were collected between April, 2010, and August, 2011, from 4 provinces in China. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25 or higher). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26.5% (18/68) Megaderma lyra, 13.6% (12/88) Rousettus leschenaulti, 13.6% (3/22) Cynopterus sphinx, 20% (4/20) Vespertilio superaus, and 15.8% (3/19) Pipistrellus javanicus. Antibody titers ranged from 1:25 to 1:400, with titers of 1:200 detected in 4 of the 5 bat species. The present study suggests the likely occurrence of T. gondii infection in bats in China, and these bats are new putative hosts for T. gondii, which may pose a threat to human health. PMID:23473226

  10. Sport commitment among competitive female gymnasts: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and social constraints from parents and best friends were the strongest predictors of commitment for the youngest gymnasts, (b) perceived costs, personal investments, and parent social constraints predicted commitment for 11-14.5-year-old gymnasts, and (c) perceived competence and costs predicted commitment for the oldest gymnasts. Competitive level differences also emerged; for Level 5-6 gymnasts, personal investments, perceived costs, coach social support, and social constraints by coach, best friend, and teammates were predictors of commitment. Personal investments and teammate social constraints were significant predictors for Level 8-10 gymnasts. Developmental factors and additional determinants are important to consider in further studies of the sport commitment model.

  11. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of space vehicle loads and trajectories during design requires a large sample of wind profiles at the altitudes where winds affect the vehicle. Traditionally, this altitude region extends from near 8-14 km to address maximum dynamic pressure upon ascent into space, but some applications require knowledge of measured wind profiles at lower altitudes. Such applications include crew capsule pad abort and plume damage analyses. Two Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at the United States Air Force (USAF) Eastern Range and at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center. The 50-MHz DRWP provides wind profiles every 3-5 minutes from roughly 2.5-18.5 km, and five 915-MHz DRWPs provide wind profiles every 15 minutes from approximately 0.2-3.0 km. Archived wind profiles from all systems underwent rigorous quality control (QC) processes, and concurrent measurements from the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives were spliced into individual profiles that extend from about 0.2-18.5 km. The archive contains combined profiles from April 2000 to December 2009, and thousands of profiles during each month are available for use by the launch vehicle community. This paper presents the details of the QC and splice methodology, as well as some attributes of the archive.

  12. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium. PMID:26874749

  13. Graphene-NiO nanohybrid prepared by dry plasma reduction as a low-cost counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dao, Van-Duong; Larina, Liudmila L; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Lee, Joong-Kee; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2014-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles (NPs) were hybridized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by dry plasma reduction (DPR) at atmospheric pressure without any toxic chemicals and at a low temperature. NiO-NPs of 0.5-3 nm size, with a typical size of 1.5 nm, were uniformly hybridized on the surface of RGO. An XPS analysis and the Raman spectra also revealed the repair of some structural damage on the basal plane of the graphene. The material when applied to the counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 7.42% (± 0.10%), which is comparable to a conventional Pt-sputtered CE (8.18% (± 0.08%)). This material outperformed CEs produced using NiO-NPs (1.53% (± 0.15%)), GO (4.48% (± 0.12%)) and RGO (5.18% (± 0.11)) due to its high electrochemical catalytic activity and high conductivity. The charge transfer resistance for NiO-NP-RGO was as low as 1.93 Ω cm(2), while those of a NiO-NP-immobilized electrode and a GO-coated electrode were 44.39 Ω cm(2) and 12.19 Ω cm(2), respectively, due to a synergistic effect. PMID:24217311

  14. Calculation of Reactive-evaporation Rates of Chromia

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-04-01

    A methodology is developed to calculate Cr-evaporation rates from Cr2O3 with a flat planar geometry. Variables include temperature, total pressure, gas velocity, and gas composition. The methodology was applied to solid-oxide, fuel cell conditions for metallic interconnects and to advanced-steam turbines conditions. The high velocities and pressures of the advanced steam turbine led to evaporation predictions as high as 5.18 9 10-8 kg/m2/s of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760 °C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.080 mm per year of solid Cr loss. Chromium evaporation is expected to be an important oxidation mechanism with the types of nickel-base alloys proposed for use above 650 °C in advanced-steam boilers and turbines. It is shown that laboratory experiments, with much lower steam velocities and usually much lower total pressure than found in advanced steam turbines, would best reproduce chromium-evaporation behavior with atmospheres that approach either O2 + H2O or air + H2O with 57% H2O.

  15. Rotational Spectra of Hydrogen Bonded Networks of Amino Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectra of several different amino alcohols including D/L-allo-threoninol, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol and 1,3-diamino-2-propanol over the 6.5-18.5 GHz range have been investigated under jet-cooled conditions using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Despite the small size of these molecules, a great variety of conformations have been observed in the molecular expansion. While the NH2 group is typically thought of as a H-bond acceptor, it often acts both as acceptor and donor in forming H-bonded networks. With three adjacent H-bonding substituents (a combination of OH and NH2 groups), many different hydrogen bonding patterns are possible, including H-bonded chains and H-bonded cycles. Since many of these structures differ primarily by the relative orientation of the H-atoms, the analysis of these rotational spectra are challenging. Only through an exhaustive conformational search and the comparison with the experimental rotational constants, nuclear quadrupolar splittings, and line strengths are we able to understand the complex nature of these interactions. The ways in which the presence and number of NH2 groups affects the relative energies, and distorts the structures will be explored.

  16. Aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol contents of dried figs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaca, H; Nas, S

    2006-05-01

    Dried figs of three different categories, palatable, fluorescent, and cull, were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2)), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from four fig processing plants located in a major fig producing area in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Affinity column clean-up methods were employed for aflatoxins. All aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Palatable figs contaminated with trace amounts of aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Fluorescent figs were contaminated with high (117.9-471.9 ppb) aflatoxin levels and cull figs with high patulin (39.3-151.6 ppb) and ergosterol (4.5-18 ppm) levels. The total aflatoxins content was significantly correlated with the patulin content (r(2) = 0.813, p < 0.002) and the ergosterol content (r(2) = 0.920, p < 0.002) only in fluorescent figs. However there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of fluorescent figs. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between the contents of any two of the three substances in cull figs. This is the first report on the presence of patulin and its co-occurrence with aflatoxin in dried figs. PMID:16644598

  17. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1 s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (∼10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800 °C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  18. Flame Radiation, Structure, and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas; Lim, Jongmook; Sivathanu, Yudaya

    2007-01-01

    Results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop facility are reported. The results quantify flame radiation, structure, and scalar properties during the early phase of a microgravity fire. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in microgravity laminar methane/air, ethylene/nitrogen/air and ethylene/air jet flames. The measured peak mole fractions for water vapor and carbon dioxide are found to be in agreement with state relationship predictions for hydrocarbon/air combustion. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported results including those from the flight project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long-duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this report.

  19. Alteration of adults' subjective feeling of familiarity toward infants' sounds.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Y; Itakura, S

    2008-08-01

    Many adults may have lower subjective feelings of familiarity toward infants' vocalizations since infants' sounds are different from those of adults. However, mothers frequently exposed to infants' vocalizations may be more familiar and less averse. To test this hypothesis, 21 mothers (M age = 31.1 yr., SD = 4.3) of infants (M age = 8.2 mo., SD = 3.5), 18 mothers (M age = 34.4 yr., SD = 4.8) of children between two and five years of age (M age = 2.8 yr., SD = 1.0), and 17 women (M age = 29.2 yr., SD = ll.1) with no children were exposed to 20 types of sounds. Of these sounds, 14 were produced by infants. Although the mothers of infants did not recognize sounds as those of an infant's vocalization, they showed higher subjective feelings of familiarity toward the timbres of the vowel-like stimuli than did the other groups. By contrast, the subjective feelings of familiarity for nonspeech sounds did not differ among groups. Maternal experiences may change women's recognition of perceived sounds.

  20. Radiation from Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Edelman, Raymond B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first demonstration of quantitative flame-radiation measurement in microgravity environments, with the objective of studying the influences and characteristics of radiative transfer on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames with possible application to spacecraft fire detection. Laminar diffusion flames of propane, burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure, are studied in the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of NASA Lewis Research Center. Radiation from these flames is measured using a wide-view angle, thermopile-detector radiometer, and comparisons are made with normal-gravity flames. The results show that the radiation level is significantly higher in microgravity compared to normal-gravity environments due to larger flame size, enhanced soot formation, and entrapment of combustion products in the vicinity of the flame. These effects are the consequences of the removal of buoyancy which makes diffusion the dominant mechanism of transport. The results show that longer test times may be needed to reach steady state in microgravity environments.

  1. Skin disorders in the neonatal intensive care unit of a central hospital.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Lígia; Rocha, Gustavo; Morais, Paulo; Mota, Alberto; Magina, Sofia; Lisboa, Carmen; Guimarães, Hercília

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous abnormalities in the newborn are usually benign and transitory. However, they may sometimes be extremely distressing both for parents and the medical staff, presenting with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to access the clinical features of different skin disorders in a series of newborns, at a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the Northern Region of Portugal, and review some of the most impressive cases. Between January 1997 and December 2010, 27 patients were found to have an important cutaneous condition that required admission to the NICU. The most frequent presentations were vesicles and pustules (n=8; 29.6%), followed by erythroderma (n=7; 25.9%), atrophic (n=5; 18.5%) and vascular lesions (n=4; 14.8%). Four (14.8%) patients died in the neonatal period, and further 4 afterwards. Genetic studies, when available, revealed three chromosomal disorders and 6 gene mutations. Overall, skin disorders were not a leading cause of NICU admission (0.43%), but were associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

  2. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India.

  3. Influenza vaccination on renal transplant patients is safe and serologically effective.

    PubMed

    Grekas, D; Alivanis, P; Kiriazopoulou, V; Dioudis, C; Sioulis, A; Derveniotis, V; Tourkantonis, A

    1993-11-01

    Since immunosuppressed patients are at higher risk of serious influenza virus infection than healthy subjects, we decided to study the serological effectiveness of influenza vaccination on renal transplant patients, despite the theoretical aspect that such treatment could induce glomerular lesions through an immunological process. Forty transplant patients aged from 20 to 50 years with well functioning renal graft and no febrile episode were studied. Blood samples were collected before the intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml of multivalent influenza vaccine (PASTEUR MERIEUX SERUM VACCINS), at one and at two months after the vaccination. Before vaccination, the antibody titers to influenza virus ranged from 0 to 1/20 and after vaccination from 1/20 to 1/320. One month after vaccination 17/40 (42.5%), 18/31 (58%) and 16/33 (48%) patients showed a four-fold or greater increase of serum influenza antibody titers to antigens A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B, respectively. A similar response at two months in relation to the first month response rate after vaccination was found in 15/17 (88%), 18/18 (100%), and 15/16 (93%) of transplant patients for the above mentioned three antigens. Side-effects were observed in two of the studied patients. Serum creatinine and urine protein were not changed. Also acute graft rejection episodes were not observed. It is suggested that influenza vaccination is safe and serologically effective on renal transplant patients.

  4. Using Pop-II models to predict effects of wolf predation and hunter harvests on elk, mule deer, and moose on the northern range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, John A.; Singer, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of establishing a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in Yellowstone National Park were predicted for three ungulate species—elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and moose (Alces alces)—using previously developed POP-II population models. We developed models for 78 and 100 wolves. For each wolf population, we ran scenarios using wolf predation rates of 9, 12, and 15 ungulates/wolf/year. With 78 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our modeled elk population estimated were 5-18% smaller than the model estimate without wolves. With 100 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our elk population estimated were 11-30% smaller than the population estimates without wolves. Wolf predation effects were greater on the modeled mule deer population than on elk. With 78 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, we predicted the mule deer population could be 13-44% larger than without wolves. With 100 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, the mule deer population was 0-36% larger than without wolves. After wolf recovery, our POP-II models suggested moose harvests would have to be reduced at least 50% to maintain moose numbers at the levels predicted when wolves were not present. Mule deer and moose population data are limited, and these wolf predation effects may be overestimated if population sizes or male-female ratios were underestimated in our population models. We recommend additional mule deer and moose population data be obtained.

  5. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals by coincident observations using CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer in Tsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Zaizen, Y.; Kagamitani, S.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coincident aerosol observations of Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted in Tsukuba, Japan on 5-18 October 2010. MAX-DOAS aerosol retrieval (for aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth at 476 nm) was evaluated from the viewpoint of the need for a correction factor for oxygen collision complexes (O4 or O2-O2) absorption. The present study strongly supports this need, as systematic residuals at relatively high elevation angles (20 and 30°) were evident in MAX-DOAS profile retrievals conducted without the correction. However, adopting a single number for the correction factor (fO4 = 1.25) for all of the elevation angles led to systematic overestimation of near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, as reported in the literature. To achieve agreement with all three observations, we limited the set of elevation angles to ≤ 10° and adopted an elevation-angle-dependent correction factor for practical profile retrievals with scattered light observations by a ground-based MAX-DOAS. With these modifications, we expect to minimize the possible effects of temperature-dependent O4 absorption cross section and uncertainty in DOAS fit on an aerosol profile retrieval, although more efforts are encouraged to quantitatively identify a physical explanation for the need of a correction factor.

  7. Evaluation of MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals by coincident observations using CRDS, lidar, and sky radiometer inTsukuba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Nakayama, T.; Shimizu, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Nagai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Zaizen, Y.; Kagamitani, S.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Coincident aerosol observations of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), lidar, and sky radiometer were conducted in Tsukuba, Japan, on 5-18 October 2010. MAX-DOAS aerosol retrieval (for aerosol extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth at 476 nm) was evaluated from the viewpoint of the need for a correction factor for oxygen collision complexes (O4 or O2-O2) absorption. The present study strongly supports this need, as systematic residuals at relatively high elevation angles (20 and 30°) were evident in MAX-DOAS profile retrievals conducted without the correction. However, adopting a single number for the correction factor (fO4 = 1.25) for all of the elevation angles led to systematic overestimation of near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, as reported in the literature. To achieve agreement with all three observations, we limited the set of elevation angles to ≤10° and adopted an elevation-angle-dependent correction factor for practical profile retrievals with scattered light observations by a ground-based MAX-DOAS. With these modifications, we expect to minimize the possible effects of temperature-dependent O4 absorption cross section and uncertainty in DOAS fit on an aerosol profile retrieval, although more efforts are encouraged to quantitatively identify a physical explanation for the need of a correction factor.

  8. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism.We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star...

  9. Deformation of the Stokes B2 rotary tablet press: quantitation and influence on tablet compaction.

    PubMed

    Altaf, S A; Hoag, S W

    1995-03-01

    Deformations that affect the vertical punch displacement of a Stokes B2 rotary tablet press were characterized with a cathetometer. The press deformation was found to be elastic for both the upper and lower compression roller assemblies. However, the upper and lower compression roller assemblies have different Hookian spring constants: 8.58 x 10(4) and 5.18 x 10(4) kN/m for the upper and lower assemblies, respectively. Using two-way analysis of variance, the Hookian spring constants were shown to be independent of compaction phases and lower punch penetration setting. To study the influence of press deformation on tablet compaction, the Hookian spring constants were factored into the caculation of the incremental work of compaction for dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate and microcrystalline cellulose. As the peak compression pressure increases, the force-displacement work done on the tablet during the loading phase decreases relative to calculations that neglect press deformation. This decrease in force-displacement work was attributed to elastic press deformation, which absorbs energy during the loading phase and then releases this energy later in the compaction cycle, altering the punch-displacement profile. The rate at which the press stores and releases elastic energy depends in part upon the viscoelastic properties of the tablet. Based upon these results, the coupling between press elasticity and a tablet's viscoelastic properties should be accounted for when analyzing tablet compaction or trying to simulate the punch-displacement profile of a tablet press that deforms during compaction.

  10. A developmental acoustic characterization of English diphthongs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Byrd, Dani

    2001-05-01

    Acoustic properties of diphthongs in American English in a /bV/ context were investigated as a function of the age of child speakers (5-18 years, 450 subjects). Duration and the average amount of spectral change per frame were computed as a measure of the contrast between initial and final steady states, and the center position of the spectral transition (normalized for vowel length) was estimated as a measure of timing between the two steady-state portions. Results indicate that duration and temporal variability are significantly larger for children below age 10. The spectral change per frame was larger for younger children, suggesting more spectral contrast between diphthong steady states. Interestingly, the normalized center position of the glide occurs at a position relatively closer to the final portion of diphthongs for /ay/ for younger children; an opposite tendency was observed in the case of /ow/, implying that younger children exhibit delayed or premature spectral transitions. Together these observations suggest the possibility that 5-8-year olds may not produce diphthongs as a unit but, rather, as a concatenation of two vowel targets in which one component is more prolonged than the other and abrupt transitions occur. [Work supported by SBC/TRI, NSF, and NIH.

  11. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  12. T-box factors determine cardiac design.

    PubMed

    Hoogaars, W M H; Barnett, P; Moorman, A F M; Christoffels, V M

    2007-03-01

    The heart of higher vertebrates is a structurally complicated multi-chambered pump that contracts synchronously. For its proper function a number of distinct integrated components have to be generated, including force-generating compartments, unidirectional valves, septa and a system in charge of the initiation and coordinated propagation of the depolarizing impulse over the heart. Not surprisingly, a large number of regulating factors are involved in these processes that act in complex and intertwined pathways to regulate the activity of target genes responsible for morphogenesis and function. The finding that mutations in T-box transcription factor-encoding genes in humans lead to congenital heart defects has focused attention on the importance of this family of regulators in heart development. Functional and genetic analyses in a variety of divergent species has demonstrated the critical roles of multiple T-box factor gene family members, including Tbx11, -2, -3, -5, -18 and -20, in the patterning, recruitment, specification, differentiation and growth processes underlying formation and integration of the heart components. Insight into the roles of T-box factors in these processes will enhance our understanding of heart formation and the underlying molecular regulatory pathways. PMID:17380306

  13. Effects of a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist on the development of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, V. S.; von Ruhland, C. J.; Griffiths, D. F.; Coles, G. A.; Williams, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. The clinical application of cyclosporin as an immunosuppressive agent is limited by its nephrotoxicity. 2. The effect of FK453, a selective A1-receptor antagonist, administered twice daily to rats at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 was assessed on the development of nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporin (10 mg kg-1 i.p. daily) administered for 14 days. The effects of nifedipine administered twice daily (0.3 mg kg-1 s.c.) for 14 days, on cyclosporin nephrotoxicity were also studied. 3. Cyclosporin induced a 46.58% and 35.78% decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) respectively and a reduction of 16.69% in filtration fraction (FF). Co-administration of FK453 resulted in falls of 30.5%, 18.59% and 14.7% in GFR, ERPF and FF respectively, the former two significantly less than the falls seen with cyclosporin (CyA) alone (P < 0.05 vs CyA, ANOVA). 4. Nifedipine appeared to have a more pronounced protective effect resulting in a decline of only 20.91% in GFR, with no significant change in ERPF (increase of 0.93%) when co-administered with CyA. 5. These observations indicate adenosine plays a minor role in the pathophysiology of CyA nephrotoxicity. PMID:8851505

  14. Design of wide bandwidth pyramidal microwave absorbers using ferrite composites with broad magnetic loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myung-Jun; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Wide bandwidth microwave absorbers with a pyramidal shape and a significantly reduced thickness can be designed using high lossy ferrite materials with broad magnetic loss spectra. The microwave absorbing properties of pyramidal cone absorbers are analyzed using the transmission line approximation, which provides the reflection loss as a function of the material parameters and absorber geometry. Three types of ferrite materials (NiZn spinel ferrite, Co2Z hexaferrite, and RuCoM hexaferrite) are used as the absorbent fillers in a rubber matrix. Among these, Co2Z ferrite is the most suitable material for wide bandwidth pyramidal absorbers, due to its broad magnetic loss spectrum in the GHz frequency range. The optimal geometry of the pyramidal absorber is also determined using the transmission line theory. With the reduced total height of the pyramidal absorber (approximately 60 mm), a wide bandwidth (1.5-18 GHz with respect to the -20 dB reflection loss) can be realized. The proposed absorbers have a thickness advantage over the classical pyramidal ohmic absorbers; thus, they are suitable for small and semi-anechoic chambers.

  15. Determination of ultra trace amounts of protein by 4-chlorosulfo-(2'-hyaroxylphenylazo)-rhodanine-Ti(IV) complex [ClSARP-Ti(IV)] as the fluorescence spectral probe in AOT microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Wei, Qin; Cai, Yanyan; Han, Yanyan; Zhao, Yanfang; Du, Bin

    2009-06-01

    Experiments indicated that protein can enhance the fluorescence of the 4-chlorosulfo-(2'-hydroxylophenylazo)-rhodanine-Ti(IV) complex [ClSARP-Ti(IV)] in the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) microemulsion. Based on this, a sensitive and reproducible fluorometric method for the determination of micro amount protein was developed. The calibration curves of four proteins were given. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity of the system was in proportional to the concentration of protein in the range of 0.1-11 μg mL -1 for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 1.0-10 μg mL -1 for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0-50 μg mL -1 for ovalbumin (Ova) and 2.5-18 μg mL -1 for γ-globulins (γ-G). Their detection limits were 0.070, 0.071, 0.33 and 0.22 μg mL -1, respectively. The ClSARP-Ti(IV) complex as a spectral probe can be used to the determination of protein in milk powder and oatmeal yielding with satisfactory results. Therefore, the proposed method is one of the most sensitive methods available. In addition, the interaction mechanism of this system is studied by multi-techniques.

  16. SV40 expression in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues: perspectives on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of human malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Procopio, A; Marinacci, R; Marinetti, M R; Strizzi, L; Paludi, D; Iezzi, T; Tassi, G; Casalini, A; Modesti, A

    1998-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the association of SV40 and human pleural malignant mesothelioma. Here, we have investigated whether SV40 viral sequences may be associated with other human tumours or other non-neoplastic pathology and whether SV40 DNA or protein expression may be of diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic relevance. DNA was extracted from paraffin embedded tissues. SV40, JC and BK viral sequences were detected by the polymerase chain reaction and molecular hybridization with specific probes. The screening with three different sets of SV40-related primers demonstrated that 7/18 (38.8%) mesothelioma specimens were SV40 positive as well as 5/18 (27.7%) tubercular pleural lesions. None of the 18 lung cancers, nor the 20 pleural non-specific inflammatory specimens tested were positive. Twenty-five blood samples and 18 urinary sediments from MM patients were also negative. We have also found that SV40 Tag proteins are present in mesothelioma cells and tumours. Tag proteins may interfere with tumour suppressor gene products, such as p53. Preliminary results suggest that wild type p53 transgene expression, obtained after infection with recombinant adenovirus (AdCMV.p53), inhibited in vitro and in vivo proliferation, inducing apoptosis of mesothelioma cells. Infections with control viruses were ineffective. Thus, SV40 DNA and Tag expression in mesothelioma tumour cells, though probably not relevant for diagnostic or prognostic purposes, may be crucial for innovative gene therapy strategies. PMID:9776257

  17. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel.

  18. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  19. Quantifying insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress: a cross-cultural study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Juan P; Barragán, Elena; Botella, Cristina; Braun, Silke; Bridler, René; Camussi, Elisabetta; Chafrat, Verónica; Lott, Petra; Mohr, Christine; Moragrega, Inés; Papagno, Costanza; Sanchez, Susana; Seifritz, Erich; Soler, Carla; Stassen, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to quantify insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress is of major clinical relevance. In fact, chronic stress increasingly dominates modern work conditions and can affect nearly every system of the human body, as suggested by physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms. Since freshmen students experience constantly high levels of stress due to tight schedules and frequent examinations, we carried out a 3-center study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina in order to develop socioculturally independent means for quantifying coping behavior. The data analysis relied on 2 self-report questionnaires: the Coping Strategies Inventory (COPE) for the assessment of coping behavior and the Zurich Health Questionnaire which assesses consumption behavior and general health dimensions. A neural network approach was used to determine the structural properties inherent in the COPE instrument. Our analyses revealed 2 highly stable, socioculturally independent scales that reflected basic coping behavior in terms of the personality traits activity-passivity and defeatism-resilience. This replicated previous results based on Swiss and US-American data. The percentage of students exhibiting insufficient coping behavior was very similar across the study sites (11.5-18.0%). Given their stability and validity, the newly developed scales enable the quantification of basic coping behavior in a cost-efficient and reliable way, thus clearing the way for the early detection of subjects with insufficient coping skills under chronic stress who may be at risk of physical or mental health problems. PMID:25967599

  20. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  1. The Distant X-ray Universe as seen by the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, G.; ACIS CDF-N Team

    2001-12-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory has completed two 1 Ms exposures to the X-ray sky. These very deep exposures have detected over 700 X-ray sources, most of which appear to be AGN and QSOs. The mean X-ray luminosity of the sources rises rapidly from the local value to a maximum at a redshift of 3 and then appears to fall off. The average volume emissivity of sources also rises rapidly to a redshift of 1 and then drops more rapidly up to the highest redshift detected of 5.18. A comparison of the density of X-ray sources on the sky shows a variation of the order of 40 fields that have been examined, indicating considerable cosmic variance on scales of 100 sq. arc minutes. Power law fits to the spectra of the brighter sources reveals a photon index that decreases with decreasing source intensity. The summed intensity of the observed sources in the 1.0 - 8.0 keV band is greater than 80 "diffuse" X-ray background, with a photon index that agrees with the "diffuse" measurements. This work was suported by NASA grant NAS 8-38252.

  2. Outside-of-school time obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O

    2014-10-01

    Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour.

  3. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-05-15

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer ({approx}5-18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si(111) and Si(311) - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88 Degree-Sign -74 Degree-Sign ) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4{pi} sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of (E/{Delta}E){approx}10 000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.

  4. Direct electron transfer and electrochemical study of hemoglobin immobilized in ZnO hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhua; Xu, Jing; Wu, Zongfang

    2011-10-01

    ZnO hollow spheres were firstly prepared. A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping Hemoglobin (Hb) through the ZnO hollow spheres (ZHS) nanoparticles. The composition morphology and size were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The surface topography of the prepared films was imaged by atomic force microscope (AFM). Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry were employed to characterize the performance of the biosensor. The results indicated that the ZHS nanoparticles had enhanced the performance of the hydrogen peroxide sensors. The electrochemical parameters of Hb in the ZHS were calculated by the results of the electron-transfer coefficient (α) and the apparent heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant K (s) as 0.5 and 3.1 s(-1), respectively. The resulting biosensors showed a wide linear range from 2.1 × 10(-6) to 5.18 × 10(-3) M, with a low detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-7) M (S/N = 3) under optimized experimental conditions. The results demonstrated that the ZHS matrix may improve the protein loading with the retention of bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its unique morphology, high specific surface area, and biocompatibility. The biosensor obtained from this study possesses high sensitivity, good reproducibility, and long-term stability. PMID:21505813

  5. Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, G.P.; Davis, J.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    The reactive transport of U(VI) in a shallow alluvial aquifer beneath a former U(VI) mill located near Naturita, CO, was simulated using a surface complexation model (SCM) to describe U(VI) adsorption. The groundwater had variable U(VI) concentrations (0.01-20 ??M), variable alkalinity (2.5-18 meq/L), and a nearly constant pH equal to 7.1. U(VI) KD values decreased with increasing U(VI) and alkalinity, and these parameters were more important than sediment variability in controlling KD values. Reactive transport simulations were fit to the observed U(VI) and alkalinity by varying the concentration of U(VI) and alkalinity in recharge at the source area. Simulated KD values varied temporally and spatially because of the differential transport of U(VI) and alkalinity and the nonlinearity of U(VI) adsorption. The model also simulated the observed U(VI) tailing, which would not be expected from a constant KD model. The simulated U(VI) concentrations were sensitive to the recharge flux because of the increased flux of U(VI) to the aquifer. The geochemical behavior of U(VI) was most sensitive to the alkalinity and was relatively insensitive to pH.

  6. Acid-rain monitoring in east Asia with a portable-type ion-exclusion-cation-exchange chromatographic analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Ohta, K; Haddad, P R; Fritz, J S; Lee, K P; Hasebe, K; Ieuji, A; Miyanaga, A

    1999-07-30

    A monitoring system consisting of a portable-type conductimetric ion-exclusion-cation-exchange chromatographic (CEC) analyzer and a meteorological satellite data analyzer has been investigated for the evaluation of the effects of acid precipitation on natural and urban environments in East Asia. The portable ion-exclusion-CEC analyzer uses a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H(+)-form and a weak-acid eluent (tartaric acid-methanol-water) and is applied for the simultaneous determination of anions (SO4(2)-, NO3-, and Cl-) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) in precipitation transported from mainland China to central Japan, as mapped by the meteorological satellite data analyzer. Linear calibration graphs of peak area versus concentration for anions and cations were observed in the concentration range 0-1.0 mM for the anions and 0-0.5 mM for the cations. Detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were in the range 5.18-12.1 ppb for the anions and 6.58-16.5 ppb for the cations. The practical utility of this monitoring system is presented.

  7. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world.

  8. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Zhihui; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2015-03-01

    The recent rapid development of electronic communication techniques is resulting in a marked increase in exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This has raised public concerns about the health hazards of long-term environmental EMF exposure for fetuses and children. Some studies have suggested EMF exposure in children could induce nervous system disorders. However, gender-dependent effects of microwave radiation exposure on cognitive dysfunction have not previously been reported. Here we investigated whether in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz microwave throughout gestation (Days 3.5-18) affected behavior, using the open field test (OFT), elevated-plus maze (EPM), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and Morris water maze (MWM). We found that mice showed less movement in the center of an open field (using the OFT) and in an open arm (using the EPM) after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had increased anxiety-related behavior. Mice demonstrated reduced immobility in TST and FST after in utero exposure to 9.417-GHz radiation, which suggested that the mice had decreased depression-related behavior. From the MWM test, we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects. In summary, we have provided the first experimental evidence of microwaves inducing gender-dependent effects.

  9. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  10. First-principles modeling of 3d-transition-metal-atom adsorption on silicene: a linear-response DFT + U approach.

    PubMed

    Le, Hung M; Pham, Tan-Tien; Dinh, Thach S; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nguyen-Manh, Duc

    2016-04-01

    By employing DFT  +  U calculations with the linear response method, we investigate the interactions between various 3d transition-metal atoms (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) and silicene. In the cases of two-dimensional (2D) FeSi2 and CoSi2, the metal atoms tend to penetrate into the silicene layer. While CoSi2 is non-magnetic, FeSi2 exhibits a total magnetic moment of 2.21 μ(B)/cell. Upon the examination of 2D MSi6, a trend in anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) favorability in the z-direction is observed according to our DFT  +  U calculations. In the ferromagnetic (FM) states (less stable), each primary unit cell of CrSi6, MnSi6, and FeSi6 possesses different levels of total magnetization (4.01, 5.18, and 2.00 μ B/cell, respectively). The absolute magnetization given by AFM MSi6 structures varies in the range of 5.33-5.84 μ(B)/cell. A direct band gap in AFM MnSi6 (0.2 eV) is predicted, while the metastable FM FeSi6 structure has a wider band gap (0.85 eV). Interestingly, there are superexchange interactions between metal atoms in the MSi6 systems, which result in the AFM alignments. PMID:26940978

  11. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages. PMID:24158764

  12. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees.

    PubMed

    Farah, Adriana; de Paulis, Tomas; Moreira, Daniel P; Trugo, Luiz C; Martin, Peter R

    2006-01-25

    The market for decaffeinated coffees has been increasingly expanding over the years. Caffeine extraction may result in losses of other compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and, consequently, their 1,5-gamma-quinolactones (CGL) in roasted coffee. These phenolic compounds are important for flavor formation as well as the health effects of coffee; therefore, losses due to decaffeination need to be investigated. The present study evaluates the impact of decaffeination processing on CGA and CGL levels of green and roasted arabica coffees. Decaffeination produced a 16% average increase in the levels of total CGA in green coffee (dry matter), along with a 237% increase in CGL direct precursors. Different degrees of roasting showed average increments of 5.5-18% in CGL levels of decaffeinated coffee, compared to regular, a change more consistent with observed levels of total CGA than with those of CGL direct precursors in green samples. On the other hand, CGA levels in roasted coffee were 3-9% lower in decaffeinated coffee compared to regular coffee. Although differences in CGA and CGL contents of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffees appear to be relatively small, they may be enough to affect flavor characteristics as well as the biopharmacological properties of the final beverage, suggesting the need for further study. PMID:16417293

  13. The population prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

    2013-09-01

    There is uncertainty over the population prevalence of people with Down's syndrome in England and Wales. This study aimed to estimate the population prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011. A meta-analysis of published survival rates of people with Down's syndrome from 1938 to 2010 was conducted and the results were applied to the estimated numbers of babies born with Down's syndrome since 1938 in England and Wales. An estimated 37 090 people had Down's syndrome in England and Wales in 2011, a population prevalence of 0.66 per 1000 people; 650 under 1, 2673 aged 1-5, 7115 aged 5-18, 12819 aged 19-40, 10 626 aged 41-55 and 3207 aged 56 and older. The average life expectancy for babies with Down's syndrome born in 2011 was 51 years and the median life expectancy was 58 years. This study provides clarity on the number of people with Down's syndrome in England and Wales. Owing to sudden increases in the survival of babies with Down's syndrome in the 1950s there are a large proportion of people with Down's syndrome who are in their 40s. These people have an increased risk of developing dementia in the future and services should be aware of their potential needs.

  14. [Distribution and air-sea fluxes of methane in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xing-Peng; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from March 17 to April 06 of 2011. Dissolved CH4 in various depths were measured and sea-to-air fluxes were estimated. Methane concentrations in surface and bottom waters ranged between 2.39-29.67 nmol x L(-1) and 2.63-30.63 nmol x L(-1), respectively. Methane concentrations in bottom waters were slightly higher than those in surface waters, suggesting the existence of methane source in bottom waters or sediments. The horizontal distribution of dissolved CH4 showed a decrease from the river mouth to the open sea, and was influenced by the freshwater discharge and the Kuroshio intrusion. Surface methane saturations ranged from 93%-1 038%. Sea to air CH4 fluxes were (2.85 +/- 5.11) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) (5.18 +/- 9.99) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively, calculated using the Liss and Merlivat (LM86), the Wanninkhof (W92) relationships and in situ wind speeds, and estimated emission rates of methane from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea range from 7.05 x 10(-2) - 12.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-2) - 2.20 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1), respectively. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea are the net sources of atmospheric methane in the spring.

  15. Morphine in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema--Why?

    PubMed

    Ellingsrud, C; Agewall, S

    2016-01-01

    Morphine has for a long time, been used in patients with acute pulmonary oedema due to its anticipated anxiolytic and vasodilatory properties, however a discussion about the benefits and risks has been raised recently. A literature search in Medline and Embase using the keywords "pulmonary oedema" OR "lung oedema" OR "acute heart failure" AND "morphine" was performed. A certain vasodilation has been described after morphine administration, but the evidence for this mechanism is relatively poor and morphine-induced anxiolysis may possibly be the most important factor of morphine in pulmonary oedema and therefore some authors have suggested benzodiazepines as an alternative treatment. Respiratory depression seems to be a less relevant clinical problem according to the literature, whereas vomiting is common, which may cause aspiration. In the largest outcome study, based on the ADHERE registry, morphine given in acute decompensated heart failure was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality, with an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% CI: 4.52-5.18, p<0.001). Other, smaller studies have shown a significant association between morphine administration and mortality, which was lost after adjusting for confounding factors. Morphine is still used for pulmonary oedema in spite of poor scientific background data. A randomised, controlled study is necessary in order to determine the effect--and especially the risk--when using morphine for pulmonary oedema. Since the positive effects are not sufficiently documented, and since the risk for increased mortality cannot be ruled out, one can advocate that the use should be avoided.

  16. Effects of buoyancy on gas jet diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Edelman, Raymond B.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental phenomena involved in laminar gas jet diffusion flames in the absence of buoyancy by studying the transient phenomena of ignition and flame development, (quasi-) steady-state flame characteristics, soot effects, radiation, and, if any, extinction phenomena. This involved measurements of flame size and development, as well as temperature and radiation. Additionally, flame behavior, color, and luminosity were observed and recorded. The tests quantified the effects of Reynolds number, nozzle size, fuel reactivity and type, oxygen concentration, and pressure on flame characteristics. Analytical and numerical modeling efforts were also performed. Methane and propane flames were studied in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower and the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of NASA LeRC. In addition, a preliminary series of tests were conducted in the KC-135 research aircraft. Both micro-gravity and normal-gravity flames were studied in this program. The results have provided unique and new information on the behavior and characteristics of gas jet diffusion flames in micro-gravity environments.

  17. Measurement of Primary Ejecta From Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact on Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Moser, Danielle; Swift, Wesley

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to make progress toward long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment. A subject for further definition is the lunar primary ejecta environment. The document NASA SP-8013 was developed for the Apollo program and is the latest definition of the primary ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar primary ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface primary ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into pumice targets, simulating lunar regolith. The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) was used to accelerate spherical Pyrex projectiles of 0.29g to velocities ranging between 2.5 km/s and 5.18 km/s. Impact on the pumice target occurred at normal incidence. The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets placed around the pumice target in a 0.5 Torr vacuum. A simplistic technique to characterize the ejected particles was formulated. Improvements to this technique will be discussed for implementation in future tests.

  18. Analysis of Regolith Simulant Ejecta Distributions from Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Suggs, Rob; Moser, Danielle E.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Constellation Program. The Constellation Program has defined one of its many goals as long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment; of specific importance is the primary meteoroid and subsequent ejecta environment. The document, NASA SP-8013 'Meteoroid Environment Model Near Earth to Lunar Surface', was developed for the Apollo program in 1969 and contains the latest definition of the lunar ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into powdered pumice and unconsolidated JSC-1A Lunar Mare Regolith simulant targets. Projectiles were accelerated to velocities between 2.45 and 5.18 km/s at normal incidence using the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets strategically placed around the impact site and angular ejecta distributions were determined. Assumptions were made to support the analysis which include; assuming ejecta spherical symmetry resulting from normal impact and all ejecta particles were of mean target particle size. This analysis produces a hemispherical flux density distribution of ejecta with sufficient velocity to penetrate the aluminum foil detectors.

  19. An Overview of Products and Bias in Research.

    PubMed

    Gloss, David

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis is a genus of annual flowering plant. Cannabis is often divided into 3 species-Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis-but there is significant disagreement about this, and some consider them subspecies of the same parent species. Cannabis sativa can grow to 5-18 feet or more, and often has a few branches. Cannabis indica typically grows 2-4 feet tall and is compactly branched. Cannabis ruderalis contains very low levels of Δ-9-tetrahyocannabinol so is rarely grown by itself. Cannabis ruderalis flowers as a result of age, not light conditions, which is called autoflowering. It is principally used in hybrids, to enable the hybrid to have the autoflowering property. There are > 700 strains of cannabis, often with colorful names. Some are strains of 1 of the 3 subspecies. Many are crossbred hybrids. The strains can be named in a variety of ways: smell or lineage are common ways of naming. There are only a few rules about how the strains are named, and most strains' names do not follow the rules. There are 4 basic preparations of marijuana: bhang, hasish, oil (or hash oil), and leaves and/or buds. In medical marijuana trials, subjective outcomes are frequently used but blind breaking can introduce significant bias. Blind breaking occurs when patients figure out if they are in the control or the treatment group. When this occurs, there is significant overestimation of treatment effect. PMID:26202343

  20. Lidar observations of wind over Xin Jiang, China: general characteristics and variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Sun, Dong-song; Weng, Ning-quan; Wang, Jian-guo; Dou, Xian-kang; Zhang, Yan-hong; Guan, Jun; Miao, Qingjian; Chen, Xin

    2016-08-01

    The mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar based on a Fabry-Perot etalon is developed for wind measurement. The structure and technical parameters of this lidar system are described in brief. The 1740 wind profiles from 8 to 40 km altitudes by the lidar in Xinjiang, China, were obtained in 2010 and 2011, and were used to analyze the characteristics and variations of wind. The results shown that the wind velocity is within a three-layer structure: westerly jet layer (9-14 km), quasi-zero velocity layer (18-22 km) and gale layer (22-40 km). In August and September, the wind direction is within a three-layer structure: zonal westerly wind layer (5-18 km) where wind direction is west, zonal wind reverse layer (18-22 km) where wind direction is unstable and easterly wind layer (22-40 km) where wind direction is east. In October, wind direction is west (8-40 km). Wind observations by lidar are a realistic offset to the rawins.

  1. [Well water pollution in the Khombole district: research on the contamination by organochlorine pesticide residues and organic substances (feces)].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Ciss, M; Diop, Y; Boye, C S; Diouf, S; Fall, M; Diop, A; Ba, D

    1998-01-01

    The study realized in the district of Khombole (SENEGAL) has permit to estimate the contamination levels of wells waters used by the populations. The research and the dosage of the organichlorine pesticide residues, nitrites and nitrates and microbiologic analysis have been done on 19 wells chosen after a drawning of lots. The organochlorine pesticide residues which have been found prove that the wells are permanently exposed to these chemical substances which don't constitute nevertheless a major risk for the populations health. The results of our research proved also that there is a real risk of intoxication with the nitrogen oxides. In effects more than 50% of the wells have revealed nitrates contents up to the indicative value (25 mg/l). As for the nitrates, with a few exceptions (5/18), the contents are superior to the authorized norm (0.1 mg/l). By another way the bacteriologic analysis has revealed in the one hand a DBT (Total Bacterian Count) up to 10,000 germs/l for all the wells, and in the other hand the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis that confirm a faecal contamination. PMID:10797952

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  3. Winter diet and weights of Barrow`s and common goldeneye in southcentral Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    Little data are available relative to diets and body weight dynamics of wintering Barrow`s and common goldeneyes in freshwater habitats, and no data exist for subadults. Diets of these birds were studied on the Columbia and Yakima Rivers in southcentral Washington from October through May 1955--1956 and 1956--1957. Trichopteran larvae accounted for more than 67% of common goldeneye and 81% of Barrow`s goldeneye food biomass. Mollusc and aquatic plant achenes were other important food items. Average weights of common goldeneye ranged from 599.3{+-}39.86 g for subadult females to 1,060.2{+-}33.36 g for adult males. Average weights of Barrow`s goldeneye ranged from 736.0{+-}44.73 g for subadult females to 1,330.5{+-}18.69 g for adult males. Body-weight dynamics of birds may reflect resource availability, competition, and bioenergetics, all of which may influence winter distribution, differential migration and habitat use by sexes.

  4. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  5. Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Imaging of Macs Galaxy Clusters at =>0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaRoque, Samuel; Joy, Marshall; Carlstrom, John E.; Ebeling, Harald; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Dawson, Kyle S.; Edge, Alastair; Holzapfel, William L.; Miller, Amber D.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    We present 30 GHz interferometric Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) measurements of a redshift-limited, X-ray-selected cluster sample from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS). All eight of the high-redshift (z > 0.5, delta > -15 deg) galaxy clusters were detected. Additional observations were made at 4.8 GHz with the Very Large Array to help constrain the amount of point source contamination to the SZE decrements. From SZE data alone, we derive electron temperatures in the range 5.5-18.5 keV and total masses between 1.5 and 2.6 x 10(exp 14)/h solar masses within a 65 minute radius (0.28/h Mpc at z = 0.5) for the eight clusters. Six of the clusters are MACS discoveries, while two (C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305) were detected by previous X-ray observations and have been recently observed with the Chandra observatory. The X-ray-derived temperatures and masses for C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305 are in good agreement with the SZE derived values. Strong detections of the SZE signal in this sample of MACS objects confirm that they are hot, massive clusters.

  6. Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Imaging of MACS Galaxy Clusters at z greater than 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laroque, S. J.; Joy, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Ebeling, H.; Bonamente, M.; Dawson, K. S.; Edge, A.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Miller, A. D.; Nagai, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present 30 GHz interferometric SZE measurements of a redshift limited, X-ray selected cluster sample from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS). All eight of the high redshift (z.0.5, dec greater than -15) galaxy clusters were detected. Additional observations were made at 4.8 GHz with the Very Large Array to help constrain the amount of point source contamination to the SZE decrements. From SZE data alone, we derive electron temperatures in the range 5.5-18.5 keV and total masses between 1.5 and 2.6 x 10 circumflex 14 M_sun within a 65 arcsecond radius for the eight clusters. Six of the clusters are MACS discoveries, while two (C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305) were detected by previous X-ray observations and have been recently observed with the Chandra observatory. The X-ray derived temperatures and masses for Cl0016+ 1609 and MS 0451.6-0305 are in good agreement with the SZE-derived values. Strong detections of the SZE signal in this sample of MACS objects confirms that they are hot, massive clusters.

  7. Mirabolides A and B; New Cytotoxic Glycerides from the Red Sea Sponge Theonella mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hussein, Dina R.; Youssef, Diaa T. A.

    2016-01-01

    As a part of our continuing work to find out bioactive lead molecules from marine invertebrates, the CHCl3 fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Theonella mirabilis showed cytotoxic activity in our primary screen. Bioassay-guided purification of the active fractions of the sponge’s extract resulted in the isolation of two new glycerides, mirabolides A and B (1 and 2), together with the reported 4-methylene sterols, conicasterol (3) and swinhosterol B (4). The structures of the compounds were assigned by interpretation of their 1D (1H, 13C), 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ROESY) NMR spectral data and high-resolution mass determinations. Compounds 1–4 displayed marked cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) with IC50 values of 16.4, 5.18, 6.23 and 3.0 μg/mL, respectively, compared to 5.4 μg/mL observed by doxorubicin as reference drug. PMID:27548191

  8. Charmed and light pseudoscalar meson decay constants from HISQ simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bazavov, Alexei; et al.

    2014-11-16

    We compute the leptonic decay constants $f_{D^+}$, $f_{D_s}$, and $f_{K^+}$, and the quark-mass ratios $m_c/m_s$ and $m_s/m_l$ in unquenched lattice QCD. We use the MILC highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) ensembles with four dynamical quark flavors. Our primary results are $f_{D^+} = 212.6(0.4)({}^{+1.0}_{-1.2})\\ \\mathrm{MeV}$, $f_{D_s} = 249.0(0.3)({}^{+1.1}_{-1.5})\\ \\mathrm{MeV}$, and $f_{D_s}/f_{D^+} = 1.1712(10)({}^{+29}_{-32})$, where the errors are statistical and total systematic, respectively. We also obtain $f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} = 1.1956(10)({}^{+26}_{-18})$, updating our previous result, and determine the quark-mass ratios $m_s/m_l = 27.35(5)({}^{+10}_{-7})$ and $m_c/m_s = 11.747(19)({}^{+59}_{-43})$. When combined with experimental measurements of the decay rates, our results lead to precise determinations of the CKM matrix elements $|V_{us}| = 0.22487(51) (29)(20)(5)$, $|V_{cd}|=0.217(1) (5)(1)$ and $|V_{cs}|= 1.010(5)(18)(6)$, where the errors are from this calculation of the decay constants, the uncertainty in the experimental decay rates, structure-dependent electromagnetic corrections, and, in the case of $|V_{us}|$, the uncertainty in $|V_{ud}|$, respectively.

  9. Location of Vibrio anguillarum resistance-associated trait loci in half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis at its microsatellite linkage map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhihong; Guo, Li; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-03-01

    A cultured female half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) was crossed with a wild male, yielding the first filial generation of pseudo-testcrossing from which 200 fish were randomly selected to locate the Vibrio anguillarum resistance trait in half-smooth tongue sole at its microsatellite linkage map. In total, 129 microsatellites were arrayed into 18 linkage groups, ≥4 each. The map reconstructed was 852.85 cM in length with an average spacing of 7.68 cM, covering 72.07% of that expected (1 183.35 cM). The V. anguillarum resistance trait was a composite rather than a unit trait, which was tentatively partitioned into Survival time in Hours After V. anguillarum Infection (SHAVI) and Immunity of V. Anguillarum Infection (IVAI). Above a logarithm of the odds (LOD) threshold of 2.5, 18 loci relative to SHAVI and 3 relative to IVAI were identified. The 3 loci relative to IVAI explained 18.78%, 5.87% and 6.50% of the total phenotypic variation in immunity. The microsatellites bounding the 3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of IVAI may in future aid to the selection of V. anguillarum-immune half-smooth tongue sole varieties, and facilitate cloning the gene(s) controlling such immunity.

  10. Co-generation of biohydrogen and biomethane through two-stage batch co-fermentation of macro- and micro-algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lingkan; Cheng, Jun; Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Voelklein, Markus; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-10-01

    Aquatic micro-algae can be used as feedstocks for gaseous biofuel production via biological fermentation. However, micro-algae usually have low C/N ratios, which are not advantageous for fermentation. In this study, carbon-rich macro-algae (Laminaria digitata) mixed with nitrogen-rich micro-algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Nannochloropsis oceanica) were used to maintain a suitable C/N ratio of 20 for a two-stage process combining hydrogen and methane fermentation. Co-fermentation of L. digitata and micro-algae facilitated hydrolysis and acidogenesis, resulting in hydrogen yields of 94.5-97.0mL/gVS; these values were 15.5-18.5% higher than mono-fermentation using L. digitata. Through the second stage of methane co-fermentation, a large portion of energy remaining in the hydrogenogenic effluents was recovered in the form of biomethane. The two-stage batch co-fermentation markedly increased the energy conversion efficiencies (ECEs) from 4.6-6.6% during the hydrogen fermentation to 57.0-70.9% in the combined hydrogen and methane production.

  11. Management of hypertension in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Anna; Iii, Thomas J Fahey; Zarnegar, Rasa

    2014-05-26

    Hypertension causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, owing to its deleterious effects on the cardiovascular and renal systems. Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of reversible hypertension, affecting 5%-18% of adults with hypertension. PA is estimated to result from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in two-thirds of patients, and from unilateral aldosterone-secreting adenoma in approximately one-third. Suspected cases are initially screened by measurement of the plasma aldosterone-renin-ratio, and may be confirmed by additional noninvasive tests. Localization of aldostosterone hypersecretion is then determined by computed tomography imaging, and in selective cases with adrenal vein sampling. Solitary adenomas are managed by laparoscopic or robotic resection, while bilateral hyperplasia is treated with mineralocorticoid antagonists. Biochemical cure following adrenalectomy occurs in 99% of patients, and hemodynamic improvement is seen in over 90%, prompting a reduction in quantity of anti-hypertensive medications in most patients. End-organ damage secondary to hypertension and excess aldosterone is significantly improved by both surgical and medical treatment, as manifested by decreased left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, and proteinuria, highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism. Although numerous independent predictors of resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for unilateral adenomas have been described, the Aldosteronoma Resolution Score is a validated multifactorial model convenient for use in daily clinical practice. PMID:24944753

  12. Management of hypertension in primary aldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Aronova, Anna; III, Thomas J Fahey; Zarnegar, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, owing to its deleterious effects on the cardiovascular and renal systems. Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of reversible hypertension, affecting 5%-18% of adults with hypertension. PA is estimated to result from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in two-thirds of patients, and from unilateral aldosterone-secreting adenoma in approximately one-third. Suspected cases are initially screened by measurement of the plasma aldosterone-renin-ratio, and may be confirmed by additional noninvasive tests. Localization of aldostosterone hypersecretion is then determined by computed tomography imaging, and in selective cases with adrenal vein sampling. Solitary adenomas are managed by laparoscopic or robotic resection, while bilateral hyperplasia is treated with mineralocorticoid antagonists. Biochemical cure following adrenalectomy occurs in 99% of patients, and hemodynamic improvement is seen in over 90%, prompting a reduction in quantity of anti-hypertensive medications in most patients. End-organ damage secondary to hypertension and excess aldosterone is significantly improved by both surgical and medical treatment, as manifested by decreased left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, and proteinuria, highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism. Although numerous independent predictors of resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for unilateral adenomas have been described, the Aldosteronoma Resolution Score is a validated multifactorial model convenient for use in daily clinical practice. PMID:24944753

  13. Comparison of genetic diversity structure analyses of SSR molecular marker data within apple (Malus×domestica) genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Patzak, Josef; Paprštein, František; Henychová, Alena; Sedlák, Jiří

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional hierarchical clustering techniques and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with the model-based Bayesian cluster analyses in relation to subpopulation differentiation based on breeding history and geographical origin of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces. We presented the use of a set of 10 microsatellite (SSR) loci for genetic diversity structure analyses of 273 apple accessions from national genetic resources. These SSR loci yielded a total of 113 polymorphic SSR alleles, with 5-18 alleles per locus. SSR molecular data were successfully used in binary and allelic input format for all genetic diversity analyses, but allelic molecular data did not reveal reliable results with the NTSYS-pc and BAPS softwares. A traditional cluster analysis still provided an easy and effective way for determining genetic diversity structure in the apple germplasm collection. A model-based Bayesian analysis also provided the clustering results in accordance to traditional cluster analysis, but the analyses were distorted by the presence of a dominant group of apple genetic resources owing to the narrow origin of the apple genome. PCoA confirmed that there were no noticeable differences in genetic diversity structure of apple genetic resources during the breeding history. The results of our analyses are useful in the context of enhancing apple collection management, sampling of core collections, and improving breeding processes. PMID:22954156

  14. Investigation of synthetic Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin as an immunogen for swine and cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, J C; Bhatnagar, P K; Brown, A L; Garrett, L K; Hughes, J L

    1987-01-01

    In its native form Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) is nonantigenic; however, neutralizing antibodies are elicited in animals vaccinated with toxin-carrier conjugates. To study the immunogenicity of STa, peptides STa1-18 and STa5-18 were synthesized, characterized, and conjugated to carrier proteins. Pregnant gilts and heifers were hyperimmunized with the respective conjugates. Following parturition neonates were challenged with virulent E. coli (K99+ STa+). Peptides coupled to ovalbumin and emulsified with Freund adjuvant elicited antibodies that neutralized toxin-induced fluid accumulation in suckling mice. Peptides coupled to particulate carriers, with or without muramyl dipeptide adjuvant, failed to induce a measurable response. Peak antibody levels in sera were observed following three doses of conjugate and persisted for several weeks. The serological response in cattle was superior to that observed in swine; however, antibody levels in porcine colostrum were higher than those observed in cattle. Clinical observations of neonates from vaccinated dams indicated that passively obtained antibody provided partial protection from disease, but not as complete as that demonstrable with whole cell bacterins that induce antibody to pili. However, the data suggest the potential for utility of synthetically prepared antigens. PMID:3552985

  15. A modified UCT method for biological nutrient removal: configuration and performance.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulou, E; Aivasidis, A

    2008-07-01

    A pilot-scale prototype activated sludge system is presented, which combines both, the idea of University of Cape Town (UCT) concept and the step denitrification cascade for removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. The experimental set-up consists of an anaerobic selector and stepwise feeding in subsequent three identical pairs of anoxic and oxic tanks. Raw wastewater with influent flow rates ranging between 48 and 168 l d(-1) was fed to the unit at hydraulic residence times (HRTs) of 5-18 h and was distributed at percentages of 60/25/15%, 40/30/30% and 25/40/35% to the anaerobic selector, 2nd and 3rd anoxic tanks, respectively (influent flow distribution before the anaerobic selector). The results for the entire experimental period showed high removal efficiencies of organic matter of 89% as total chemical oxygen demand removal and 95% removal for biochemical oxygen demand, 90% removal of total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total nitrogen removal through denitrification of 73%, mean phosphorus removal of 67%, as well as excellent settleability. The highest removal efficiency and the optimum performance were recorded at an HRT of about 9h and influent flow rate of 96 l d(-1), in which 60% is distributed to the anaerobic selector, 25% to the second anoxic tank and 15% to the last anoxic tank. Consequently, the plant configuration enhanced removal efficiency, optimized performance, saved energy, formed good settling sludge and provided operational assurance.

  16. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiei Ravandi, Masoud; Barmby, Pauline; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T. J.; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 h of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 µm. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4.4° and 6.6° along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues, we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426 529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6] = 19.0 ± 0.2, [4.5] = 18.7 ± 0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterizing point sources in the outer radii.

  17. Mirabolides A and B; New Cytotoxic Glycerides from the Red Sea Sponge Theonella mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hussein, Dina R; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2016-01-01

    As a part of our continuing work to find out bioactive lead molecules from marine invertebrates, the CHCl₃ fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Theonella mirabilis showed cytotoxic activity in our primary screen. Bioassay-guided purification of the active fractions of the sponge's extract resulted in the isolation of two new glycerides, mirabolides A and B (1 and 2), together with the reported 4-methylene sterols, conicasterol (3) and swinhosterol B (4). The structures of the compounds were assigned by interpretation of their 1D (¹H, (13)C), 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ROESY) NMR spectral data and high-resolution mass determinations. Compounds 1-4 displayed marked cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) with IC50 values of 16.4, 5.18, 6.23 and 3.0 μg/mL, respectively, compared to 5.4 μg/mL observed by doxorubicin as reference drug. PMID:27548191

  18. Active zone density is conserved during synaptic growth but impaired in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mizushige, Takafumi; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    Presynaptic active zones are essential structures for synaptic vesicle release, but the developmental regulation of their number and maintenance during aging at mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the distribution of active zones in developing, mature, and aged mouse NMJs by immunohistochemical detection of the active zone-specific protein Bassoon. Bassoon is a cytosolic scaffolding protein essential for the active zone assembly in ribbon synapses and some brain synapses. Bassoon staining showed a punctate pattern in nerve terminals and axons at the nascent NMJ on embryonic days 16.5-18.5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of NMJs revealed that the majority of Bassoon puncta within an NMJ were attached to the presynaptic membrane from postnatal day 0 to adulthood, and colocalized with another active zone protein, Piccolo. During postnatal development, the number of Bassoon puncta increased as the size of the synapses increased. Importantly, the density of Bassoon puncta remained relatively constant from postnatal day 0 to 54 at 2.3 puncta/μm(2) , while the synapse size increased 3.3-fold. However, Bassoon puncta density and signal intensity were significantly attenuated at the NMJs of 27-month-old aged mice. These results suggest that synapses maintain the density of synaptic vesicle release sites while the synapse size changes, but this density becomes impaired during aging.

  19. Antifouling gold surfaces grafted with aspartic acid and glutamic acid based zwitterionic polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Lingyun

    2014-10-28

    We report two new amino acid based antifouling zwitterionic polymers, poly(N(4)-(2-methacrylamidoethyl)asparagine) (pAspAA) and poly(N(5)-(2-methacrylamidoethyl)glutamine) (pGluAA). The vinyl monomers were developed from aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated polymerization was employed to graft polymer brushes from gold surfaces. Different thickness of polymer brushes was controlled by varying UV irradiation time. The nonspecific adsorption from undiluted human blood serum and plasma was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). With the polymer film as thin as 11-12 nm, the adsorption on pAspAA from serum and plasma was as low as 0.75 and 5.18 ng/cm(2), respectively, and 1.88 and 10.15 ng/cm(2), respectively, for pGluAA. The adsorption amount is comparable to or even better than other amino acid based zwitterionic polymers such as poly(serine methacrylate), poly(lysine methacrylamide), and poly(ornithine methacrylamide) and other widely used antifouling polymers such as poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate), even under thinner polymer film thickness. The pAspAA and pGluAA grafted surfaces also showed strong resistance to endothelial cell attachment. The possession of both zwitterionic structure and hydrophilic amide groups, biomimetic property, and multifunctionality make pAspAA and pGluAA promising candidates for biocompatible antifouling functionalizable materials.

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of perampanel in ten patients with Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Danielle; Minassian, Berge A

    2016-09-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal intractable adolescence-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Recently, two single-case studies reported drastic reductions in seizures and myoclonus with the AMPA antagonist perampanel and improved activities of daily living. We proceeded to study the effect of perampanel on 10 patients with genetically confirmed LD with disease duration ranging from 2 to 27years. Open-label perampanel was added to ongoing medications to a mean dose of 6.7mg/day. Seizures, myoclonus, functional disability, and cognition scores were measured for the third and ninth months following initiation and compared with those of the month prior to the start of therapy. Three patients withdrew because of inefficacy or side effects. Four had significant reduction in seizures of greater than 74% from baseline. Seven had major improvement in myoclonus with group-adjusted sum score of myoclonus intensity reduced from 7.01 at baseline to 5.67 and 5.18 at 3 and 9months, respectively. There was no significant improvement in disability and cognition. While not universal, perampanel adjunctive therapy appears to confer particular benefit not commonly seen with other antiepileptic drugs on seizures and myoclonus in LD. Improvement in the extremely disabling myoclonus of LD is a major benefit in this devastating disease. PMID:27459034

  1. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007-2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was further confirmed and typed by hemagglutination assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay. Out of 193 samples 24 (12.4 3%) samples tested positive for influenza virus, of which 13 (6.73 %) were influenza type A virus and 10 (5.18 %) were influenza type B virus, while 1 sample (0.51 %) was positive for both. By culture methods, 3 (1.55 %) viral isolates were obtained. All the three isolates were found to be Influenza type B/Malaysia (Victoria lineage) by Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data generated from the present study reveals that both Influenza type A and B are prevalent in Mumbai with considerable activity. The peak activity was observed during monsoon season. PMID:25674606

  2. Effects of temperature and light intensity on growth and physiology in purple root water hyacinth and common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiao; Zhang, QuanFa; Wang, WeiBo

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the interaction between temperature and light intensity was investigated in common water hyacinth (CWH) and purple root water hyacinth (PRWH). Effects of different temperatures (11/5, 18/11, 25/18, and 32/25 °C day/night) simultaneously applied at various light intensities (100, 300, and 600 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) to the plants were detected by measuring changes in the root lengths, protein content, sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthesis, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Temperature and light intensity significantly influence the growth of water hyacinths, and there was significant interaction among these environmental factors. The results suggest that several environmental factors act synergistically on the growth and physiology of water hyacinths. The higher new root length (NRL) in PRWH indicated that its root growth capacity is higher than in CWH. The soluble sugar content in leaves of CWH was higher than PRWH, indicating that relatively higher sugar content in CWH to low-temperature stress may support its tolerant nature. Lower temperature and light intensity can stimulate the accumulation of MDA content. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves of CWH was higher than PRWH. In low temperature, increase light intensity can stimulate the Pn of PRWH and CWH. In CWH and PRWH, Pn showed a similar trend as noted for stomatal conductance (Cond) and transpiration rate (Tr). The capacity of PRWH in adding oxygen to the water column is better than those of CWH.

  3. Double-label immunofluorescence with the laser scanning confocal microscope using cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Sargent, P B

    1994-11-01

    The laser scanning confocal microscope, when used with the krypton-argon ion laser, is well suited for the simultaneous detection of pairs of antigens by immunofluorescence. Traditionally, double-label studies have utilized secondary antibodies conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), excited by the 488-nm line (blue), and to tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate or Texas Red, excited by the 568-nm line (yellow). However, the use of fluorophores excited by the 488 nm line produces unsatisfactory results when tissue contains low wavelength-excitable autofluorescence. In the amphibian cardiac ganglion, for example, autofluorescent granules within parasympathetic neurons obscure cell surface-derived signals and prevent one from analyzing the relative position of acetylcholine receptor clusters and synaptic boutons by double-label immunofluorescence. This problem has been solved by using cyanine 3.18 (Cy3)- and cyanine 5.18 (Cy5)-conjugated secondary antibodies, which are excited efficiently by the 568-nm (yellow) and the 647-nm (red) lines and which emit in the orange/red and in the far-red, respectively, and thus by avoiding the 488-nm line altogether. The resulting images are as good or better than those obtained with FITC and Texas Red, even without consideration of autofluorescence.

  4. Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Conrado; Millán, Rafael; Saavedra, Pedro; Jaber, José Raduán; Raposo, António; Sanjuán, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate, by statistical analyses, risk factors on cheese farms that can influence the microbial contamination of their products. Various assessment tools, such as cheese production questionnaires, food handlers' knowledge testing, and hygiene assessment system surveys, were used on 39 cheese farms on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. The microbiological status of 773 raw milk and cheese samples from the cheese farms was assessed by enumerating total viable counts and 4 pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. The results revealed that the highest contamination by Staph. aureus (4.39%, >10(5)cfu/mL) was found in milk, and the highest contamination by E. coli (5.18%, >10(3) cfu/mL) was found in cheese. Very few samples (0.52%) were contaminated by L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. The factors associated with any tested microorganism were "handling," "knowledge," and "type of milk." Subsequently, multidimensional logistic analysis for contamination by E. coli showed an independent association for factors "cleaning and disinfection test" and "type of milk." The probability of total aerobic contamination of milk increased with lower hygiene assessment system survey scores. These results emphasize the need to apply and maintain good hygiene practices, and to study risk factors to prevent contamination and bacterial growth. Further research is required in other areas with different cheese farm types to reinforce the validity of these results.

  5. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-11-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range). 

  6. Enterogastric reflux and gastric clearance of refluxate in normal subjects and in patients with and without bile vomiting following peptic ulcer surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, C.; Hulks, G.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-11-01

    A noninvasive scintigraphic technique was used to estimate enterogastric reflux and subsequent gastric evacuation of refluxate in 35 normal, healthy subjects and 55 patients previously treated by vagotomy or partial gastrectomy. Reflux was provoked by a milk drink and quantitated by counting 99Tcm-EHIDA activity within the gastric area during gamma camera imaging. Seven normal subjects (20%) showed reflux of 5-18% of initial activity (mean: 10%), with peak values occurring at 5-30 minutes (mean: 14 minutes) following the milk. Gastric evacuation of activity in these subjects was monoexponential (r = 0.993, T1/2 = 24.1 minutes). Reflux occurred more frequently than normal in patients with truncal vagotomy and drainage (22/28 patients) and partial gastrectomy (20/21 patients). All of 16 patients with Billroth II anastomoses exhibited reflux, which was excessive compared with refluxing normal subjects (mean: 25%; p less than 0.01) and occurred later into the study (mean: 34 minutes; p less than 0.01). Ten of 11 asymptomatic patients showed reflux of similar amounts of activity (mean: 21%) compared with 16 patients who complained of bile vomiting (mean: 22%). However, asymptomatic patients exhibited gastric evacuation of refluxate at a rate similar to that of refluxing normal subjects, while bile vomiters showed significant gastric retention of refluxate at 25-30 minutes following peak gastric activity (p less than 0.05). This result confirms that post-operative bile vomiting is essentially a problem of gastric emptying.

  7. Identifying Gene Disruptions in Novel Balanced de novo Constitutional Translocations in Childhood Cancer Patients by Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Deborah I.; Haines, Katherine; Cheung, Hannah; Davis, Caleb F.; Lau, Ching C.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Brown, Chester W.; Thompson, Patrick A.; Gibbs, Richard; Wheeler, David A.; Plon, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We applied whole genome sequencing to children diagnosed with neoplasms and found to carry apparently balanced constitutional translocations, to discover novel genic disruptions. Methods We applied SV calling programs CREST, Break Dancer, SV-STAT and CGAP-CNV, and developed an annotative filtering strategy to achieve nucleotide resolution at the translocations. Results We identified the breakpoints for t(6;12) (p21.1;q24.31) disrupting HNF1A in a patient diagnosed with hepatic adenomas and Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Translocation as the disruptive event of HNF1A, a gene known to be involved in MODY3, has not been previously reported. In a subject with Hodgkin’s lymphoma and subsequent low-grade glioma, we identified t(5;18) (q35.1;q21.2), disrupting both SLIT3 and DCC, genes previously implicated in both glioma and lymphoma. Conclusions These examples suggest that implementing clinical whole genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up of patients with novel but apparently balanced translocations may reveal unanticipated disruption of disease-associated genes and aid in prediction of the clinical phenotype. PMID:25569436

  8. Single-crystal growth and optical conductivity of SrPt2As2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, A. F.; Dong, T.; Wang, H. P.; Chen, Z. G.; Cheng, B.; Shi, Y. G.; Zheng, P.; Xu, G.; Wang, L.; Li, J. Q.; Wang, N. L.

    2012-05-01

    SrPt2As2 single crystals with CaBe2Ge2-type structure were synthesized by self-melting technique. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and optical spectroscopy measurements were conducted to elucidate the properties of SrPt2As2. SrPt2As2 single crystals undergo a structural phase transition well above room temperature (about 450 K) and become superconducting at 5.18 K. The superconducting and structural phase transition temperatures are reduced by 6% iridium doping. Both the pure SrPt2As2 and the Ir-doped single crystals are demonstrated to be highly metallic with rather high plasma frequencies. In particular, the optical spectroscopy measurement revealed two gaplike suppression structures: a stronger one at high energy near 12 000 cm-1 (˜1.5 eV), and a less prominent one at lower energy near 3200 cm-1 (˜0.4 eV) for the pure compound. We elaborate that the former is related to the correlation effect, while the latter could be attributed to the partial energy gap formation associated with structural phase transition.

  9. Evidence of Nitrogen Loss from Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Coupled with Ferric Iron Reduction in an Intertidal Wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv; Li, Ye; Hu, Xiaoting

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with nitrite reduction is an important microbial pathway of nitrogen removal in intertidal wetlands. However, little is known about the role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction (termed Feammox) in intertidal nitrogen cycling. In this study, sediment slurry incubation experiments were combined with an isotope-tracing technique to examine the dynamics of Feammox and its association with tidal fluctuations in the intertidal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary. Feammox was detected in the intertidal wetland sediments, with potential rates of 0.24-0.36 mg N kg(-1) d(-1). The Feammox rates in the sediments were generally higher during spring tides than during neap tides. The tidal fluctuations affected the growth of iron-reducing bacteria and reduction of ferric iron, which mediated Feammox activity and the associated nitrogen loss from intertidal wetlands to the atmosphere. An estimated loss of 11.5-18 t N km(-2) year(-1) was linked to Feammox, accounting for approximately 3.1-4.9% of the total external inorganic nitrogen transported into the Yangtze Estuary wetland each year. Overall, the co-occurrence of ferric iron reduction and ammonium oxidation suggests that Feammox can act as an ammonium removal mechanism in intertidal wetlands.

  10. Soil response to biodynamic farming practices in estevia -Stevia Rebaudiana- (Extremadura, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, Juana; Colmenares, Ricardo; Sánchez, Eduardo; Creus, Juan; García, Nieves; Blázquez, Jaime; Moreno, Marta M.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of the evolution of an organic-biodynamic cultivation of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) in Extremadura (Spain) are shown here. The organic-biodynamic approach permits experimentally for a more holistic view of the crop development process what means the understanding and quantification of its evolution at different scales. The research methodology applied includes not only quantitative individual parameters of the crop development but also global parameters which make a contribution of very relevant information concerning unbalances between growth and differentiation processes, as well as other aspects linked to the product intrinsic quality. The crop cultivation has been done over a plot of 2.5 has, on acid soils (pH 5.18) and very poor organic matter content (0.5 %). On this first year of cultivation two cuts were given to the plant with an average total yield of 4,500 kg/ha without any supply of solid organic matter, only with the application of the biodynamic preparations. So far results regarding soil improvement and crop productivity, taking into consideration the practices used, let us introduce this pioneer crop in Extremadura, not only as an alternative crop to the current tobacco crop in this area, but also as a development resource for the rural environment of this region. Key words: Agroecology, Organic Biodynamic Agriculture, Stevia Rebaudiana

  11. WARM-UP PROTOCOLS FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulos, Dimitris Eleytherios; Yiannakos, Athanasios; Kotzamanidou, Mariana; Bassa, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    The study compared the acute effects of three warm-up protocols on change-of-direction speed, reaction time, and movement time of upper extremities. Participants were 27 Greek high school students from an urban area (M age=17.2 yr., SD=0.2, range=16.5-18.0). All participants performed the following warm-up protocols on three different days: (a) 3 min. jogging followed by 5 min. static stretching, (b) 3 min. jogging followed by 5 min. dynamic stretching, and (c) 3 min. jogging followed by 5 min. of rest without stretching. At the end of each protocol, participants performed sprints of moderate to submaximal intensity. After the warm-up protocols, participants performed the following tests: "505-change-of-direction-speed," reaction time, and movement time (arm movements). There was no significant effect of protocols on the performance tests. Pre-exercise stretching may not be required for performance improvement in activities involving change-of-direction speed, reaction, and movement time if the final part of the warm-up involves sprinting. The advantage of a short duration warm-up is that it offers students more time to play in physical education lessons. However, it is generally important for students to learn the benefits of stretching and how to stretch for lifelong fitness.

  12. Blood lead levels in children aged 5-9 years living in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Duarte, Diana; Echenique, Marlin; Guette, Jorge; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Parsons, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    During June-August 2004, blood lead (BPb) levels and various hematological parameters were evaluated in children aged 5-9 years old at ten primary schools located in eight neighborhoods in Cartagena, Colombia. The schools selected for this study are attended mainly by children from families of low income. A total of 189 subjects participated in the survey. The arithmetic mean+/-standard error BPb level was 5.49+/-0.23 microg/dL (range<1.0-21.0 microg/dL). The geometric mean was 4.74 microg/dL (95% CI: 4.29-5.18). A proportion of the children (7.4%) had BPb levels above the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's threshold of concern (10 microg Pb/dL). BPb levels were correlated weakly, but significantly and positively, with red blood cell count (RBC), and negatively with child body size, age, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). BPb levels did not differ significantly between boys and girls but significant differences were observed between neighborhoods (P<0.001). Activities such as metal melting-related processes and fishing net sinker production are the main sources of Pb exposure in Cartagena.

  13. An Overview of Products and Bias in Research.

    PubMed

    Gloss, David

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis is a genus of annual flowering plant. Cannabis is often divided into 3 species-Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis-but there is significant disagreement about this, and some consider them subspecies of the same parent species. Cannabis sativa can grow to 5-18 feet or more, and often has a few branches. Cannabis indica typically grows 2-4 feet tall and is compactly branched. Cannabis ruderalis contains very low levels of Δ-9-tetrahyocannabinol so is rarely grown by itself. Cannabis ruderalis flowers as a result of age, not light conditions, which is called autoflowering. It is principally used in hybrids, to enable the hybrid to have the autoflowering property. There are > 700 strains of cannabis, often with colorful names. Some are strains of 1 of the 3 subspecies. Many are crossbred hybrids. The strains can be named in a variety of ways: smell or lineage are common ways of naming. There are only a few rules about how the strains are named, and most strains' names do not follow the rules. There are 4 basic preparations of marijuana: bhang, hasish, oil (or hash oil), and leaves and/or buds. In medical marijuana trials, subjective outcomes are frequently used but blind breaking can introduce significant bias. Blind breaking occurs when patients figure out if they are in the control or the treatment group. When this occurs, there is significant overestimation of treatment effect.

  14. Bronchopulmonary nematode infection of Capra pyrenaica in the Sierra Nevada massif, Spain.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, S; Morrondo, P; Dacal-Rivas, V; Soriguer, R C; Granados, J E; Serrano, E; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L; Pérez, J M

    2009-10-14

    The present investigation examined the prevalence and abundance of bronchopulmonary nematodes in 213 randomly hunted Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) (87 females and 126 males) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Spain between 2003 and 2006. Post mortem examination revealed an overall prevalence of 72% for adult nematodes (Cystocaulus ocreatus 44%, Muellerius capillaris 44%, Protostrongylus sp. 40%, and Dictyocaulus filaria 4%). The abundances were 13.45+/-3.97, 5.18+/-2.49, 6.36+/-2.16, and 2.27+/-0.46, respectively. Protostrongylid adults showed similar infection rates, which were statistically different from that of D. filaria. 20% of the examined Iberian ibexes were infected by three protostrongylid nematodes species, 24% of C. pyrenaica were affected by two protostrongylid species, while infestations with only one protostrongylid species were detected in 20% of the examined animals. The overall prevalence of larvae nematodes in the examined animals was 100%, and the overall abundance (number of the first stage larvae per gram) was 86.45+/-20.63. There was a high correlation between the two sets of data (adults and larvae). Results of the present investigation provided foundation for the effective control of bronchopulmonary nematode infection in Iberian ibex.

  15. Distal Radius Radiographic Indices and Perilunate Fracture Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jafari, Davod; Keihan Shokouh, Hassan; Motavallian, Ebrahim; Najd Mazhar, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background Distal radius radiographic indices may play a role as risk factors in pathogenesis of Kienbock’s disease, scaphoid fracture and nonunion. Perilunate fracture dislocations are devastating wrist injuries, and their relationship and distal radius indices have not been addressed in the literature. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of distal radius radiographic indices including radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt as risk factors in the perilunate fracture dislocation injury of the wrist. Patients and Methods We studied distal radius radiographic indices including radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt in 43 patients with perilunate fracture dislocations and compared them with 44 wrists in the control group. Results The mean values of the radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt were 12.74 (5 - 18), 24.20 (7 - 35), -0.73 (-5 - 4) and 12.28 (2 - 20) in the patient group. These values were 12.68 (9 - 22), 23.22 (17 - 30), -0.11 (-4 - 3) and 11.05 (-3 - 20), respectively in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions This study did not show that distal radius anatomical indices including the radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt influence perilunate fracture dislocation as risk factors.

  16. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Hong, Tao; Cyterski, Mike; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active ingredients through contact with contaminated soil: imidacloprid (logKow = 0.57), atrazine (logKow = 2.5), triadimefon (logKow = 3.0), fipronil (logKow = 4.11) or pendimethalin (logKow = 5.18). All amphibians had measurable body burdens at the end of the exposure in concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 14.562 μg/g across the pesticides tested. Atrazine produced the greatest body burdens and bioconcentration factors, but fipronil was more permeable to amphibian skin when application rate was considered. Soil partition coefficient and water solubility were much better predictors of pesticide body burden, bioconcentration factor, and skin permeability than logKow. Dermal uptake data can be used to improve risk estimates of pesticide exposure among amphibians as non-target organisms.

  17. Structural Studies of CH_3SiF_2-X (x = Nco, Cl) by Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirgis, Gamil A.; Gause, Korreda K.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Pate, Brooks H.; Palmer, Michael H.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Elmuti, Lena F.; Obenchain, Daniel A.

    2012-06-01

    The structures of CH_3SiF_2-NCO and CH_3SiF_2-Cl have been studied by molecular rotational spectroscopy in the 6.5-18 GHz band. The rotational spectrum was measured by cavity Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) and chirped-pulse FTMW spectroscopy. The experiment targeted the study of CH_3SiF_2-NCO, but CH_3SiF_2-Cl was also observed as an impurity. Due to the dynamic range achieved on these spectra, all isotopologs with natural abundance ≥0.2% were assigned, which includes two doubly-substituted isotopologs for the chloride (29Si/37Cl and 30Si/37Cl). Strategies for obtaining the molecular structure for these two molecules using either a Kraitchman analysis (to obtain a partial substitution structure) or r_0 analysis (with additional constraints on the structure supplied by the theoretical structure) will be discussed. Derived structural parameters for the CH_3-SiF_2-X base structure are the same for the two compounds. The hyperfine and internal rotation effects in the spectra have been analyzed for all isotopologs and the Hamiltonian parameters are in very good agreement with ab initio results. The barriers to methyl group internal rotation for the two compounds 446(50) cm-1 and 463(3) cm-1 and are independent of the isotopic structure of the heavy atom frame.

  18. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Isolation and characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing Thraustochytrium species: screening of strains and optimization of omega-3 production.

    PubMed

    Burja, Adam M; Radianingtyas, Helia; Windust, Anthony; Barrow, Colin J

    2006-10-01

    An isolation program targeting Thraustochytrids (marine fungoid protists) from 19 different Atlantic Canadian locations was performed. Sixty-eight isolates were screened for biomass, total fatty acid (TFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content. Analysis of fatty acid methyl ester results discerned four distinctive clusters based on fatty acid profiles, with biomass ranging from 0.1 to 2.3 g L(-1), and lipid, EPA, and DHA contents ranging from 27.1 to 321.14, 2.97 to 21.25, and 5.18 to 83.63 mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. ONC-T18, was subsequently chosen for further manipulations. Identified using 18S rRNA gene sequencing techniques as a Thraustochytrium sp., most closely related to Thraustochytrium striatum T91-6, ONC-T18 produced up to 28.0 g L(-1) biomass, 81.7% TFA, 31.4% (w/w biomass) DHA, and 4.6 g L(-1) DHA under optimal fermentation conditions. Furthermore, this strain was found to produce the carotenoids and xanthophylls astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone, and beta-carotene. Given this strain's impressive productivity when compared to commercial strains, such as Schizochytrium sp. SR21 (which has only 50% TFA), coupled with its ability to grow at economical nitrogen and very low salt concentrations (2 g L(-1)), ONC-T18 is seen as an ideal candidate for both scale-up and commercialization.

  20. A Comparative Study of Shock Structures for the Halloween 2003 and the 23 July 2012 CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. C.; Liou, K.

    2015-12-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play an important role in space weather. For example, solar energetic particles are accelerated at the shock and storm sudden commencements are produced by the impingement of the Earth by the shocks. Here, we study shocks associated with two major CME events - the Halloween 2003 and the 23 July 2012 CME events, using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics model (H3DMHD). The H3DMHD (Wu et al. 2007, JGR) combines the kinematic solar wind model (HAF) for regions near the solar surface (2.5-18 Rs) and a 3D magnetohydrodynamics model (Han et al. 1988), which takes output from HAF at 18 Rs and propagates outward up to 1.7 AU. The H3DMHD code has been fully tested and is capable of simulating disturbances propagating in the solar wind. We will focus on the temporal and spatial structure of the CME-driven shocks, including the shock type and strength.

  1. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. PMID:25954044

  2. [A survey of the social and psychological effects of psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohkawara, A

    1990-10-01

    338 patients with psoriasis (male: 213, female: 125) who have been treated in our department from 1979 to 1988 answered a questionnaire concerning social and psychological effects of the disease. The mean age of onset was 33 years; 35 years for the male and 29 years for the female. Social and emotional morbidity was present for many patients despite the access to modern treatments. The worst feeling about having psoriasis was general appearance of the skin (41.7%), itching (19.5%), flaking of the skin (16.9%) and time-consuming or messy treatment programs (13.3%). A large percentage of patients avoided common social activities, for example, communal baths, swimming, and sports. Triggering factors of psoriasis were climate (60.3%), stress (46.9%), sleeping disturbance (34.6%), irregular life (32.2%), and low humidity (22.5%). 18.6% of patients were affected in choosing the occupation by having psoriasis. Many patients felt stigmatized as the disease is contagious or genetic. Most of the patients learned psoriasis through doctors, however, 75.7% of them wanted to get more informations. Finally, since only 26.3% of patients were satisfied with current therapeutics, dermatologists seem to be too self satisfied with present managements. It is important for us to understand what the patients are really suffering from and what the patients really want. And, it also is important to make efforts for a better understanding of psoriasis in society.

  3. Dying to go to school.

    PubMed

    Shearar, A

    1997-01-01

    In southern Sudan, the recent war sparked a mass migration of boys aged 5-18 who traveled through perilous terrain to the borders of Ethiopia in search of promised security and schooling. Thousands of these children died from hardships suffered in the wild, from the inadvertent or deliberate attacks of warriors, from hunger, from thirst, or from disease. Those who endured the hardships and arrived at their destination were shocked to find only military training centers or rudimentary schooling for those who were too weak or too young to be trained for battle. Eventually, the refugees were forced back into Sudan, and today about 20,000 of these unaccompanied children are displaced. Several nongovernmental organizations are running family reunification projects, and follow-up activities carried out among the reunified children reveal that they carry the scars of their trauma. The drawings the children produce as art therapy usually include the image of a young child holding a school book. While these children have a constant struggle with their memories, those who have not returned home or who have lost their families to war or disease are even more forlorn. As food rations have been halved in the refugee camps, many children are pursuing any possible alternative living arrangement. Some attempt to travel to South Africa or Egypt and some join an army in an effort to overcome the desperation of their present situation. PMID:12294200

  4. Characteristics and Outcomes of Second Malignant Neoplasms after Childhood Cancer Treatment: Multi-Center Retrospective Survey.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Yoo, Keon Hee; Im, Ho Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Hyo Sun; Han, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu; Baek, Hee Jo; Kook, Hoon; Lee, Jun Ah; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Kwang Chul; Kim, Soon Ki; Park, Meerim; Lee, Young-Ho; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Seo, Jong Jin

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12). The most common SMNs were therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs; acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 29 cases; myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], 12 cases), followed by thyroid carcinomas (n = 15) and CNS tumors (n = 10). The median latency period was 4.9 years (range, 0.5-18.5 years). Among 45 patients with solid tumors defined as an SMN, 15 (33%) developed the lesion in a field previously subjected to radiation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an SMN was 45% with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Patients with AML, MDS, and CNS tumors exhibited the poorest outcomes with 5-year OS rates of 18%, 33%, and 32%, respectively, whereas those with second osteosarcoma showed comparable outcomes (64%) to patients with primary counterpart and those with second thyroid carcinoma had a 100% OS rate. Further therapeutic efforts are recommended to improve the survival outcomes in patients with SMNs, especially in cases with t-MNs and CNS tumors. PMID:27478336

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Enteric Adenovirus Gastroenteritis in under-Five-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Ghahremani, Pedram; Hashempoor, Tayebeh; Karimi, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute gastroenteritis is one of the major sources of morbidity and mortality among young children in developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human adenovirus- (HAdV-) 40 and HAdV-41 in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in five different health centers of Iran. Methods. In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, we studied 2682 fecal specimens that were collected from children under the age of 5 years in five educational and therapeutic pediatric centers in Iran from February 2012 to February 2013. Samples were tested for HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, using a specific pair of primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results. HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 were detected in 132 (5.18%) of the patients with diarrhea. A significantly higher prevalence of HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 (58.3%) was observed in children under 12 months of age, compared to other age groups. The male to female ratio was 1.7. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated that HAdV-40 and HAdV-41 could be considered etiological agents for acute gastroenteritis among children in Iran. The PCR as a rapid test may increase the chance for a relatively mild course of the disease followed by a complete recovery and avoiding administration of unnecessary antibiotics. PMID:26880883

  6. Biochemical and genotoxic response of naphthalene to fingerlings of milkfish Chanos chanos.

    PubMed

    Palanikumar, L; Kumaraguru, A K; Ramakritinan, C M

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the acute toxicity, sub-lethal toxicity and biochemical response of naphthalene in fingerlings of milkfish Chanos chanos. The 96 h acute toxicity LC50 values for C. chanos exposed to naphthalene was 5.18 μg l(-1). The estimated no observed effect concentration and lowest observed effect concentration values for naphthalene in C. chanos were 0.42 and 0.69 μg l(-1) respectively for 30 days. The estimated maximum allowable toxicant concentration for naphthalene was 0.53 μg l(-1). Biochemical enzyme markers such as lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione S transferase and reduced glutathione were measured in gills and liver tissues of C. chanos exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of naphthalene. Fluctuation in lipid peroxidation and catalase level suggests that naphthalene concentrations play a vital role in induction of oxidative stress in fish. Induction of reduced glutathione level and inhibition of glutathione S-transferase level was observed in naphthalene exposed C. chanos suggesting that there may be enhanced oxidative damage due to free radicals. Increasing concentration increases in number of nuclear abnormalities. The formation of micronuclei and binucleated micronuclei induction by naphthalene confirm its genotoxic potential. The highest levels of DNA damage (% tail length) were observed at 1.24 μg l(-1) of naphthalene. The study suggests that biochemical enzymes, nuclear abnormalities and DNA damage index can serve as a biological marker for naphthalene contamination.

  7. Insights into the effects of 2:1 "sandwich-type" crown-ether/metal-ion complexes in responsive host-guest systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Rong; Hu, Jia-Qi; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Xie, Rui; Wang, Wei; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-01-29

    In-depth investigations of the specific ion-responsive characteristics based on 2:1 "sandwich" structures and effects of crown ether cavity sizes on the metal-ion/crown-ether complexation are systematically performed with a series of PNIPAM-based responsive copolymers containing similar contents of crown ether units with different cavity dimensions (12-crown-4 (12C4), 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6)). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values of copolymers in deionized water shift to lower temperatures gradually when the crown ether contents increase or the ring sizes decrease from 18C6 to 12C4. With increasing the concentrations of alkali metal ions (Na(+), K(+), Cs(+)) or the contents of pendent crown ether groups, the copolymers with different crown ether cavity sizes exhibit higher selectivity and sensitivity to corresponding cations. Importantly, the ion sensitivities of the copolymers in response to corresponding alkali metal ions increase dramatically with an increase in the crown ether cavity size. Interestingly, a linear relationship between the crown ether cavity size and the diameter of corresponding cation for the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich" complexes is found for the first time, from which the size of metal ions or other guests that able to form 2:1 "sandwich" complexes with crown ethers can be deduced. The results in this work are valuable and useful for further developments and practical applications of various crown-ether-based smart materials. PMID:25562507

  8. Effects of extracellular polymeric substances on granulation of anoxic sludge in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binbin; Liu, Shunlian; Zhao, Hongmei; Zhang, Xinyan; Peng, Dangcong

    2012-01-01

    Variations of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and its components with sludge granulation were examined in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) which was fed with sodium nitrate and sodium acetate. Ultrasonication plus cation exchange resin (CER) were used as the EPS extraction method. Results showed that after approximately 90 d cultivation, the sludge in the reactor was almost granulated. The content of extracellular polysaccharides increased from 10.36 mg/g-VSS (volatile suspended solids) at start-up with flocculent sludge to 23.18 mg/g-VSS at 91 d with matured granular sludge, while the content of extracellular proteins were almost unchanged. Polysaccharides were the major components of EPS in anoxic granular sludge, accounting for about 70.6-79.0%, while proteins and DNA accounted for about 16.5-18.9% and 4.6-9.9%, respectively. It is proposed that EPS play a positive role in anoxic sludge granulation and polysaccharides might be strongly involved in aggregation of flocs into granules.

  9. Shock response of iron between 143 and 1275 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretsky, E. B.

    2009-07-01

    The shock response of polycrystalline iron of 99.995% purity was studied in a series of planar impact experiments using laser interferometer monitoring of the free surface of preheated/precooled samples. On the basis of the recorded waveforms, the dynamic yield and tensile (spall) strengths of iron were determined over the 143-1275 K temperature range. Part of the recorded waveforms had a three-wave (PEL, P1, and P2 waves) structure reflecting a stress-induced phase transformation in the impacted samples. By estimating the stress σtr and the temperature Ttr on the top of the P1 wave, it became possible to determine the upper borders of stability with respect to the shock loading for both the α- and the γ-iron phases. The analysis of the P2 waves of the recorded waveforms showed that irrespective of its initial, α or γ, state the high-pressure phase of iron is the ɛ-phase. The same analysis yields the width, 5.18 GPa, of the mixed phase region, above which the three-wave structures are substituted by two-wave ones (PEL and P2) with solely the ɛ-phase behind the front of the overdriven P2 wave.

  10. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  11. SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN NAG HAMMADY CITY, RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFECTION AND ANEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUTH, QENA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Osama H; Zaytoun, Sameh Sh; Ahmed, Ahmed E; Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A; Ahmed, Amal M

    2015-08-01

    The highest prevalence of schistosomiasis is usually found in school-age children and youth, where it represents the main cause of iron deficiency anemia. Study was done on 859 patients; their age from 5-18 years old at Nag Hammady at the period from July 2013 to July 2014 all of them had subjective history of contact or swimming in water canals. Urine was examined for urinary schistosomiasis by concentration and positive cases were subjected to urine analysis by Nucleopore filtration technique, S. haematobium was 30.96%, while stool samples were macroscopically examined mainly for enterobiasis and gravid segments and then were microscopically examined as stained direct smear and by sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques. The intestinal parasites other than intestinal schistosomiasis were not encountered and the pure S. mansoni was 0.69% of examined patients. The overall pure schistosomiasis was 31.66%. Iron deficiency anemia was 27.7% in non-infected cases and in schistosomiasis patients iron deficiency anemia were found in 43.38% with statistically significant (P value=0.001).

  12. Plasma levels of the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease in physiological and pathological conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Kavakli, Kaan; Canciani, Maria Teresa; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2002-01-01

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are rare disorders characterized by thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and ischemic organ failure due to thrombotic occlusions in arterioles. The recent observation that a von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (VWF-CP) is low in the plasma of patients with TTP but normal in those with HUS has potentially offered a new specific tool for differential diagnosis. In this study, the authors evaluated the plasma levels of the VWF-CP during the neonatal state and healthy childhood and in some pathological pediatric conditions. The protease was measured in 16 healthy newborns, 20 healthy children aged 5-18 years, patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (n = 7), acute viral hepatitis (n = 10), chronic viral hepatitis (n = 10), transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major (n = 10), acute varicella infection (n = 11), the nephrotic syndrome (n = 11), and familial Mediterranean fever (n = 10). Mean protease levels were significantly lower in newborns than in healthy children (50.5 +/- 16.1% vs. 83.3 +/- 16.3%)(p = .0001). In patients with acute viral hepatitis, protease levels were also significantly reduced (40.2 +/- 27% v s. 83.3 +/- 16.3% in healthy children)(p = .0001). Other patient groups had normal protease levels. In conclusion, low protease levels are far from being a specific beacon for TTP. The current paradigm that a single laboratory test may enable physicians to distinguish TTP from HUS seems to be challenged by these and other findings.

  13. Postnatal dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline: effects on spatial short-term memory in artificially-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Patricia E; Lomanowska, Anna M; McCutcheon, Dawn; Park, Eek J; Clandinin, M Thomas; Ramanujam, Kalathur S

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with either gangliosides or choline during the brain growth spurt would enhance short-term spatial memory. Male Long-Evans rats were reared artificially from postnatal days (PD) 5-18 and were fed diets containing either (i) choline chloride 1250 mg/l (CHL), (ii) choline chloride 250 mg/l and GD3 24 mg/l (GNG) or (iii) choline chloride 250 mg/l (STD). A fourth group (SCK) was reared normally. Rats were weaned onto AIN 93G diet and on PD 35 were trained on a cued delayed- matching-to-place version of the Morris water maze. All groups learned to swim to the beacon that indicated the platform position on the first trial; similarly, on the second un-cued trial, the distance swam to reach the platform decreased to the same extent in all groups over the five days of training. The groups also responded in the same way to an increase in delay between the first and second trial from 1 min to 1 h, showing an increase in the distance swam, accompanied by a decrease in the number of direct swims to the platform. Thus, all rats were equally proficient at using spatial short-term memory, regardless of the choline or ganglioside content of the preweaning diet.

  14. Lifestyle factors and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels among elderly men.

    PubMed

    Signorello, L B; Kuper, H; Lagiou, P; Wuu, J; Mucci, L A; Trichopoulos, D; Adami, H O

    2000-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potentially important determinant of disease; hence epidemiological identification of factors that influence circulating IGF-1 is merited. We therefore analysed data collected in Greece to determine the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary variables and serum levels of IGF-1 among elderly men. We identified 51 men with prostate cancer, 50 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 52 apparently healthy elderly men (controls), all matched for age (+/- 1 year). These 153 men provided blood specimens and were interviewed using a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. We performed multivariate linear regression to identify potential predictors of circulating IGF-1. After controlling for age, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol drinking and coffee consumption, each 5 cm increase in height predicted a 13.0% increase in IGF-1 (95% CI 0.4-27.2%) among the controls and a 11.3% increase in IGF-1 (95% CI 4.5-18.6%) among the entire study group. None of the investigated dietary factors (total fat, carbohydrate, protein, dairy products, tomatoes, calcium) were strongly related to IGF-1 levels. The positive association between IGF-1 and height integrates the empirical evidence linking IGF-1 and height with prostate cancer risk.

  15. DNA barcoding in diverse educational settings: five case studies.

    PubMed

    Henter, Heather J; Imondi, Ralph; James, Karen; Spencer, Diana; Steinke, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Despite 250 years of modern taxonomy, there remains a large biodiversity knowledge gap. Most species remain unknown to science. DNA barcoding can help address this gap and has been used in a variety of educational contexts to incorporate original research into school curricula and informal education programmes. A growing body of evidence suggests that actively conducting research increases student engagement and retention in science. We describe case studies in five different educational settings in Canada and the USA: a programme for primary and secondary school students (ages 5-18), a year-long professional development programme for secondary school teachers, projects embedding this research into courses in a post-secondary 2-year institution and a degree-granting university, and a citizen science project. We argue that these projects are successful because the scientific content is authentic and compelling, DNA barcoding is conceptually and technically straightforward, the workflow is adaptable to a variety of situations, and online tools exist that allow participants to contribute high-quality data to the international research effort. Evidence of success includes the broad adoption of these programmes and assessment results demonstrating that participants are gaining both knowledge and confidence. There are exciting opportunities for coordination among educational projects in the future.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'.

  16. Developmental Stage-dependent Regulation of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylation in Tendon Type I Collagen.

    PubMed

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxyproline (3-Hyp), which is unique to collagen, is a fairly rare post-translational modification. Recent studies have suggested a function of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in fibril assembly and its relationships with certain disorders, including recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and high myopia. However, no direct evidence for the physiological and pathological roles of 3-Hyp has been presented. In this study, we first estimated the overall alterations in prolyl hydroxylation in collagens purified from skin, bone, and tail tendon of 0.5-18-month-old rats by LC-MS analysis with stable isotope-labeled collagen, which was recently developed as an internal standard for highly accurate collagen analyses. 3-Hyp was found to significantly increase in tendon collagen until 3 months after birth and then remain constant, whereas increased prolyl 3-hydroxylation was not observed in skin and bone collagen. Site-specific analysis further revealed that 3-Hyp was increased in tendon type I collagen in a specific sequence region, including a previously known modification site at Pro(707) and newly identified sites at Pro(716) and Pro(719), at the early ages. The site-specific alterations in prolyl 3-hydroxylation with aging were also observed in bovine Achilles tendon. We postulate that significant increases in 3-Hyp at the consecutive modification sites are correlated with tissue development in tendon. The present findings suggest that prolyl 3-hydroxylation incrementally regulates collagen fibril diameter in tendon.

  17. A tooth preparation technique in fixed prosthodontics for students and neophyte dentists

    PubMed Central

    Rosella, Daniele; Rosella, Giancarlo; Brauner, Edoardo; Papi, Piero; Piccoli, Luca; Pompa, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel technique of tooth preparation in fixed prosthodontics suitable for dental students and neophyte dentists. Materials and methods Twenty-four dental students of the sixth-year class were recruited to verify the predicibility of this technique. Each student prepared two mandibular second premolars on a typodont for a dental crown with a 90° shoulder finishing line. One tooth was prepared using standard procedures taught in the prosthodontic dental course; the other tooth was prepared with the new technique. Three Professors of Prosthodontics of the same University evaluated the result on the basis of 10 criteria. Results A statistically significant difference between the two techniques was found in 8 out of 10 criteria. The new technique showed higher values (p<0.05) in 7 criteria, while the conventional technique had better results in just 1 criterion. Moreover, the total sum of values was higher for the new technique (total 41.2±3.98, p<0.05) compared to the conventional technique (total 38.12±5.18, p<0.05). Conclusions This study showed that the results were less dependent on manual abilities and personal experience with the novel technique. It could helps dental students and neophyte dentists in their learning curve. PMID:26941898

  18. Contribution of Anthropogenic Warming to California Drought During 2012-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. Park; Seager, Richard; Abatzoglou, John T.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Cook, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of climate data sets and multiple representations of atmospheric moisture demand are used to calculate many estimates of the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index, a proxy for near-surface soil moisture, across California from 1901 to 2014 at high spatial resolution. Based on the ensemble of calculations, California drought conditions were record breaking in 2014, but probably not record breaking in 2012-2014, contrary to prior findings. Regionally, the 2012-2014 drought was record breaking in the agriculturally important southern Central Valley and highly populated coastal areas. Contributions of individual climate variables to recent drought are also examined, including the temperature component associated with anthropogenic warming. Precipitation is the primary driver of drought variability but anthropogenic warming is estimated to have accounted for 8-27 percent of the observed drought anomaly in 2012-2014 and 5-18 percent in 2014. Although natural variability dominates, anthropogenic warming has substantially increased the overall likelihood of extreme California droughts.

  19. Behavioral Symptoms in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Relation to Fatigue and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Leigh; Cersosimo, Bianca; Schwarz, Colleen; Belman, Anita; Krupp, Lauren B

    2016-07-01

    The emotional and behavioral problems associated with pediatric multiple sclerosis remain unclear. Participants with pediatric multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome (n = 140; ages 5-18 years) completed self- and parent ratings using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, neurologic exam, the Fatigue Severity Scale, and neuropsychological assessment. Mean self- and parent-ratings on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, were in the typical range across all scales. However, 33.1% indicated a clinically significant problem on a least 1 scale. Although the type of clinical problems varied across participants, attention problems, somatization, and anxiety were found to be most common. Disease features including duration, age of onset, neurologic disability, and fatigue did not distinguish those with and without clinical problems. However, cognitive functioning significantly predicted the presence of a clinical problem (P =02). Pediatric multiple sclerosis is associated with a range of nonspecific emotional and behavioral clinical problems, occurring more frequently in those patients with cognitive involvement.

  20. Injury patterns in peacekeeping missions: the Kosovo experience.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, George N

    2004-03-01

    Proper medical deployment planning requires projecting injuries. For this reason, the injury patterns and mechanism of injury were reviewed for an 18-month period in Kosovo, and injury rates and mechanisms were extracted for review. Overall, there were 404 trauma patients treated during the study period. Isolated head and neck injuries accounted for 29.5% (119) of injuries, chest wounds 5.7% (23), abdominal wounds 4.5% (18), and extremities 33.4% (135). Multiply injured patients accounted for the remaining 27.0% (109). When subdivided by mechanism, penetrating injury made up 36.9% (149), whereas blunt trauma accounted for 63.1% (255). Motor vehicle accidents made up the majority of blunt trauma (72.2%). Of penetrating injuries, gunshot wounds accounted for 55%, blast wounds 38%, and stabbings 6.7%. The data clearly demonstrate that humanitarian and peacekeeping missions require preparation for a wide variety of mechanisms of injury beyond the typical penetrating trauma of combat situations. PMID:15080236

  1. Morphological and toxigenic variability in the Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production system in Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, Naimoddin B; Basu, Mukti S; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, Sumitra

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and toxigenic variability in 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, collected from a major Indian peanut production system, from 10 districts of Gujarat was studied. On the basis of colony characteristics, the isolates were grouped as group A (83%), B (11%) and G (6%). Of all the isolates, 21%, 47% and 32% were found to be fast-growing, moderately-fast and slow-growing respectively, and nosclerotia and sclerotia production was recorded in 32.1% and 67% isolates respectively. Large, medium and small number of sclerotia production was observed in 55, 38 and 34 isolates respectively. Toxigenic potential based on ammonia vapour test was not found reliable, while ELISA test identified 68.5%, 18.7% and 12.8% isolates as atoxigenic, moderately-toxigenic and highly-toxigenic, respectively. On clustering, the isolates were grouped into 15 distinct clusters, 'A' group of isolates was grouped distinctly in different clusters, while 'B' and 'G' groups of isolates were clustered together. No association was observed between morphological-diversity and toxigenic potential of the isolates. From the present investigation, most virulent isolates were pooled to form a consortium for sick-plot screening of germplasm, against Aspergillus flavus. In future, atoxigenic isolates may be evaluated for their potential to be used as bio-control agent against toxigenicisolates.

  2. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of dichlorvos on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Hua-Dong; Jia, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Fa; Wang, Jun-Song

    2015-11-01

    Dichlorvos (DDVP), one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), has caused serious pollution in environment. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, and biochemical assays were used to investigate toxicities of DDVP on goldfish (Carassius auratus). After 10 days' exposure of DDVP at three dosages of 5.18, 2.59 and 1.73 mg/L, goldfish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathology revealed severe impairment of gills, livers and kidneys, and immunohistochemistry disclosed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes in brains. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed that DDVP influenced many metabolites (glutamate, aspartate, acetylcholine, 4-aminobutyrate, glutathione, AMP and lactate in brain; glutathione, glucose, histamine in liver; BCAAs, AMP, aspartate, glutamate, riboflavin in kidney) dose-dependently, involved with imbalance of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and disorders of energy and amino acid metabolism. Several self-protection mechanisms concerning glutamate degradation and glutathione (GSH) redox system were found in DDVP intoxicated goldfish.

  3. Comparative Assessment of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fungicides on Soil Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Angelo; Felício, Joanna D’Arc; de Andréa, Mara M.

    2012-01-01

    As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley—GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol—AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g−1), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g−1), and 14C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of 14C-glucose g−1). The 14C-CO2 produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects. PMID:22737005

  4. Rifabutin encapsulated in liposomes exhibits increased therapeutic activity in a model of disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, M M; Cruz, A; Penha, A F; Reymão, J; Sousa, A C; Eleutério, C V; Domingues, S A; Fraga, A G; Filho, A Longatto; Cruz, M E M; Pedrosa, J

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death amongst infectious diseases. The low permeation of antimycobacterial agents and their difficult access to infected macrophages necessitate long-term use of high drug doses. Liposomes preferentially accumulate in macrophages, increasing the efficacy of antibiotics against intracellular parasites. In the present work, several rifabutin (RFB) liposomal formulations were developed and characterised and their in vivo profile was compared with free RFB following intravenous administration. With the RFB liposomal formulations tested, higher concentrations of the antibiotic were achieved in liver, spleen and lungs 24h post administration compared with free RFB. The concentration of RFB in these organs was dependent on the rigidity of liposomal lipids. The liposomal RFB formulation prepared with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine:dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DPPC:DPPG) was the most effective and was selected for biological evaluation in a mouse model of disseminated TB. Compared with mice treated with free RFB, mice treated with the DPPC:DPPG RFB formulation exhibited lower bacterial loads in the spleen (5.53 log(10) vs. 5.18 log(10)) and liver (5.79 log(10) vs. 5.41 log(10)). In the lung, the level of pathology was lower in mice treated with encapsulated RFB. These results suggest that liposomal RFB is a promising approach for the treatment of extrapulmonary TB in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. PMID:18006283

  5. Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of SS Cygni in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    We have fitted the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) spectrum of SS Cygni in outburst with a single-temperature blackbody suffering the photoelectric opacity of a neutral column density and the scattering opacity of an outflowing wind. We find that this simple model is capable of reproducing the essential features of the observed spectrum with the blackbody temperature Tbl~250+/-50 kK, hydrogen column density NH~5.0+2.9-1.5×1019cm-2, fractional emitting area f~5.6+60-4.5×10-3, boundary layer luminosity Lbl~5+18-3×1033ergss-1, wind velocity v~2500kms-1, wind mass-loss rate Mw~1.1×1016gs-1, and arbitrary values of the wind ionization fractions of 20 ions of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. Given that in outburst the accretion disk luminosity Ldisk~1×1035ergss-1, Lbl/Ldisk~0.05+0.18-0.03, which can be explained if the white dwarf (or an equatorial belt thereon) is rotating with an angular velocity Ωwd~0.7+0.1-0.2 Hz, hence Vrotsini~2300kms-1. This paper is dedicated to the memory and accomplishments of my colleague and friend Janet Akyüz Mattei, who died on 2004 March 22 after a long battle with acute myelogenous leukemia. Her passing is a great loss to the astronomical community, both amateur and professional.

  6. DEPRESSION AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Abdul Latiff, Latiffah; Tajik, Esra; Ibrahim, Normala; Abubakar, Azrin Shah; Ali, Shirin Shameema Binti

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of factors associated with depression among adolescents is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of the present study were to assess the current prevalence of depression and its related factors among secondary school students in Pasir Gudang, South Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, 2,927 secondary school students (13-17 years old) from urban areas were screened for symptoms of mental disorder as well as demographic and risk behaviors using a validated Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 12 questionnaire. The majority of the respondents (53.8%) were Malay, of which 53.1% were female. Symptoms of mild depression were found in 33.2% of the respondents, while the prevalence of the symptoms of moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression was 21.5%, 18.1%, and 3.0%, respectively. Logistic regression suggested that participants who were Chinese or had a lower average grade were three times more likely to have depression, while those who came from a single-parent family were twice as likely to have this condition. This study indicated that academic performance and risk behaviors along with the demographic characteristics are important contributors to adolescent depression. PMID:27086434

  7. Oxygen Atom Adsorption on and Diffusion into Nb(110) and Nb(100) from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Tafen, De Nyago; Gao, Michael C

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the dynamics of oxidation of Nb, we examine the adsorption, absorption, and diffusion of an oxygen atom on, in, and into Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces, respectively, using density functional theory. Our calculations predict that the oxygen atom adsorbs on the threefold site on Nb(110) and the fourfold hollow site on Nb(100), and the adsorption energy is -5.08 and -5.18 eV respectively. We find the long and short bridge sites to be transition states for O diffusion on Nb(110), while the on top site is a rank-2 saddle point. In the subsurface region, the oxygen atom prefers the octahedral site, as in bulk niobium. Our results also show that the O atom is more stable on Nb(110) subsurface than on Nb(100) subsurface. The diffusion of oxygen atoms into niobium surfaces passes through transition states where the oxygen atom is coordinated to four niobium atoms. The diffusion barriers of the oxygen atom into Nb(110) and Nb(100) are 1.81 and 2.05 eV, respectively. Analysis of the electronic density of states reveals the emergence of well localized electronic states below the lowest states of clean Nb surfaces due to d-p orbital hybridization.

  8. Long-term quadriceps femoris functional deficits following intramedullary nailing of isolated tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J; Bealle, D P; Kaufer, H; Johnson, D L

    2001-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed 5 male and 5 female patients, age 35.1+/-16 years, height 171.8+/-12 cm, and weight 75.5+/-18 kg (mean+/-SD) who were more than 1 year post isolated tibial fracture (18+/-6 months) and had been treated with an intramedullary tibial nail. Subjects completed a 12-question visual analog scale, a physical symptom and activity of daily living survey, and were also tested for bilateral isokinetic (60 degrees/s) quadriceps femoris and hamstring strength. Knee pain during activity, stiffness, swelling, and buckling were the primary symptomatic complaints. Perceived functional task deficits were greatest for climbing or descending stairs, pivoting, squatting, and walking on uneven surfaces. Involved lower extremity knee extensor and flexor torque production deficits were 25% and 17%, respectively. Early rehabilitation focuses on maintaining adequate operative site bony fixation while providing controlled, progressive, and regular biomechanical loading to restore functionally competent tissue. Following adequate fracture healing, greater emphasis should be placed on lower extremity functional recovery including commonly performed activities of daily living and other functional tasks that are relevant to the patient's disability level. A cyclic rehabilitation program that progresses the weight-bearing environment to facilitate bone and soft tissue healing and neuromuscular re-education is proposed.

  9. Residues in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti) exposed to bromadiolone-impregnated baits in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Winters, Ann M; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Winterstein, Scott R; Fine, Amanda E; Munkhtsog, B; Hickling, Graham J

    2010-07-01

    In 2002, hundreds of non-target wildlife deaths occurred in Mongolia following aerial applications of bromadiolone, an anticoagulant rodenticide, to control eruptive Brandt's vole (Microtus brandti) populations. To clarify whether secondary poisoning could have contributed to these deaths, a field study was undertaken in Mongolia to measure bromadiolone residues in voles following exposure to two concentrations (50 and 500 mg/kg) of bromadiolone-treated wheat. The two treatments produced different total burdens (2.65 microg+/-0.53SE and 13.70 microg+/-3.82SE, respectively) and liver burdens (1.74 microg+/-0.33SE and 8.81 microg+/-2.33SE, respectively) of bromadiolone in voles (both p<0.05). Total burdens of bromadiolone in voles found dead above ground were higher than those of live-trapped voles (32.35 microg+/-17.98SE versus 5.18 microg+/-1.40SE, respectively; p<0.05). These results are valuable for future assessments of secondary poisoning risk to scavengers and predators from large-scale bromadiolone poisoning operations of the type undertaken in Mongolia. PMID:20227761

  10. [Soil dryness characteristics of alfalfa cropland and optimal growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-zhu; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Yi-ning; Cai, Li-qun; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Xie, Jun-hong

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated soil moisture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropland with different growth years (1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years) and discussed the optimum growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu. The results showed that the soil moisture along 0-300 cm soil profile of alfalfa croplands with different growth years was obviously lower than that of the local soil stable moisture. The soil water contents in croplands with alfalfa that had grown for 12 and 14 years were only 9.2% and 7.1% of local soil stable moisture, respectively, which were even lower than the lower limit of alfalfa growth. The average soil dryness indexes along 0-300 cm soil profile in 1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years alfalfa croplands were 125.4%, 30.5%, 18.4%, -34.2% and -83.3% respectively. The results indicated that soil dryness occurred to varying degrees with different growth years except croplands with alfalfa grown for 1 year. With the increase of growth years of alfalfa, the soil dryness intensity increased and the soil dryness rate decreased. According to the soil moisture and alfalfa productivity results in this study, it could be concluded that the optimum growth years of alfalfa are 8-10 years in semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau.

  11. Somatic PTPN11 mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Marco; Martinelli, Simone; Iavarone, Ivano; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Spinelli, Monica; Giarin, Emanuela; Petrangeli, Valentina; Carta, Claudio; Masetti, Riccardo; Aricò, Maurizio; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe; Sorcini, Mariella; Pession, Andrea; Biondi, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    Somatic mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the transducer SHP-2, have emerged as a novel class of lesions that upregulate RAS signalling and contribute to leukaemogenesis. In a recent study of 69 children and adolescents with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), we documented a non-random distribution of PTPN11 mutations among French-American-British (FAB) subtypes. Lesions were restricted to FAB-M5 cases, where they were relatively common (four of 12 cases). Here, we report on the results of a molecular screening performed on 181 additional unselected patients, enrolled in participating institutions of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica-AML Study Group, to provide a more accurate picture of the prevalence, spectrum and distribution of PTPN11 mutations in childhood AML and to investigate their clinical relevance. We concluded that PTPN11 defects do not represent a frequent event in this heterogeneous group of malignancies (4.4%), although they recur in a considerable percentage of patients with FAB-M5 (18%). PTPN11 lesions rarely occur in other subtypes. Within the FAB-M5 group no clear association of PTPN11 mutations with any clinical variable was evident. Nearly two third of the patients with this subtype were found to harbour an activating mutation in PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS2 or FLT3.

  12. Written Materials for the IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta

    2008-05-01

    In the poster presentation I shall describe the written materials we have edited for the IYA. The first is a book written for general public about Galileo's life and research. The rest are a series of articles for teachers so that they include hands-on astronomy activities in their classroom including a star party. All these materials are written in Spanish, that is a language spoken is large areas of the world. I believe science is better understood in the mother tong so that many of these materials will be also useful for countries where Spanish is a second language. References Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Newton, la luz y el movimiento de los cuerpos Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238 2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anio 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Num. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008.

  13. Influence of Fe3O4/Fe-phthalocyanine decorated graphene oxide on the microwave absorbing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwei; Wei, Junji; Pu, Zejun; Xu, Mingzhen; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    Novel graphene oxide@Fe3O4/iron phthalocyanine (GO@Fe3O4/FePc) hybrid materials were prepared through a facile one-step solvothermal method with graphene oxide (GO) sheets as template in ethylene glycol. The morphology and structure of the hybrid materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicated that the monodispersed Fe3O4/FePc hybrid microspheres were uniformly self-assembled along the surface of GO sheets through electrostatic attraction and the morphology can be tuned by controlling the amount of 4,4‧-bis(3,4-dicyanophenoxy)biphenyl (BPH). As the BPH content increases, magnetization measurement of the GO@Fe3O4/FePc hybrid materials showed that the coercivity increased, while saturation magnetizations decreased. Electromagnetic properties of the hybrid materials were measured in the range of 0.5-18.0 GHz. The microwave absorbing performance enhanced with the increase of BPH content and a maximum reflection loss of -27.92 dB was obtained at 10.8 GHz when the matching thickness was 2.5 mm. Therefore, the novel electromagnetic hybrid materials can be considered as potential materials in the microwave absorbing field.

  14. Age-related decline of myelin proteins is highly correlated with activation of astrocytes and microglia in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Fu, Han; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-01

    It has been shown that aging can greatly influence the integrity and ultrastructure of white matter and the myelin sheath; however, studies regarding the effects of aging on the expression of myelin proteins are still limited. In the present study, immunohistochemical mapping was used to investigate the overall expression of myelin basic protein (Mbp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats in postnatal months 2, 5, 18 and 26. Astrocyte and microglia activation was also detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) staining and western blotting. A significant decline of Mbp and Mog was identified as a universal alteration in the CNS of aged rats. Aging also induced significant astrocyte and microglial activation. Correlation analysis indicated a negative correlation between the reduction of age‑related myelin proteins and glial activation in aging. This correlation of myelin breakdown and glial activation in aging may reveal new evidence in connecting the inflammation and myelin breakdown mechanism of age‑related neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Persistence and renaturation efficiency of thermally treated waste recombinant DNA in defined aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao H; Wang, Lei; Le, Yi Q; Hu, Jia J

    2012-01-01

    To validate the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from thermally denatured recombinant DNA discharged into the eco-system, a constructed plasmid was used to investigate the persistence and renaturation efficiency of thermally denatured recombinant DNA in defined aquatic microcosms. The results revealed that there was undecayed recombinant plasmid pMDLKJ material being discharged into the aquatic microcosms even after thermal treatment at either 100°C (using boiling water) or at 120°C (using an autoclave). The plasmid had a relatively long persistence time. At least 10(2) copies μL(-1) of a specific 245 bp fragment of the plasmid could be detected after 12 h and a specific 628 bp fragment could be detected up to 2 h. The thermally denatured recombinant DNA could efficiently renature and recover its functional double stranded structure in aquatic microcosms and the highest concentration of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) occurred around 1 h after the thermally denatured DNA was added to the system. These results imply that when thermally treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into aquatic environments, they have enough time to renature and possibly transfer to other organisms. In addition, the recombinant DNA added to aquatic microcosms could be absorbed by the seston particles in water, such as mineral, organic and colloids particles with a maximum absorption value of about 5.18 ng L(-1). This absorbed DNA could persist longer in aquatic environments than free recombinant DNA, thus further favoring HGT.

  16. Color flow mapping: a non-invasive tool for characterizing and differentiating between uveal melanomas and choroidal metastases.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, Meira; Waisbourd, Michael; Anteby, Irene; Liran, Alon; Goldenberg, Dafna; Barak, Adiel; Kessler, Ada

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and differentiate vascular patterns of choroidal melanomas and choroidal metastases by color flow mapping (CFM). We conducted a retrospective chart study on CFM findings in 18 patients with choroidal melanomas and 10 patients with choroidal metastases. We evaluated the possibilities of applying CFM to identify hypo- versus hyper-vascularity within the tumor, a central 'dominant vessel', and Doppler signals in the tumor's center and/or periphery. CFM demonstrated hypervascular patterns in 33% melanomas and 100% metastases (p<0.0001). CFM identified a central dominant vessel in 94% melanomas and 0/10 metastases (p<0.0001). Vascularity occupied the center of 11/18 melanomas and 0/10 metastases (p<0.0001), the periphery of 2/18 melanomas and 9/10 metastases (p<0.0001), and equally occupied the tumor's center and periphery of 5/18 melanomas and 1/10 metastases (p<0.0001). Based on our findings, we conclude that CFM was capable of non-invasively demonstrating different and distinct vascular patterns in malignant choroidal melanomas and choroidal metastases. PMID:21109962

  17. Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Ainegren, Mats; Carlsson, Peter; Tinnsten, Mats; Laaksonen, Marko S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite cross-country skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p < 0.05) and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5%) than their junior counterparts (p < 0.05), whereas no differences could be found between the genders. Also, large ranges in economy and gross efficiency were found in all groups. It was concluded that, in addition to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend cross-country skiers at all performance levels to test not only V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  18. Photostabilizing Efficiency of Poly(vinyl chloride) in the Presence of Organotin(IV) Complexes as Photostabilizers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa M; El-Hiti, Gamal A; Yousif, Emad

    2016-01-01

    Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L), Ph₃SnL, Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂, while the Ph₃SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight) were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, (40 μm thickness) upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10(-7)) when Ph₃SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10(-6)). In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph₃SnL₂ after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph₃SnL followed by Bu₂SnL₂ and Me₂SnL₂. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers. PMID:27589707

  19. Dental fear and sense of coherence among 18-yr-old adolescents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Sirkka; Rautava, Päivi; Saarinen, Maiju; Lahti, Satu; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Suominen, Sakari; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna; Honkinen, Päivi-Leena; Sillanpää, Matti

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether dental fear was associated with the sense of coherence (SOC) among 18-yr-old adolescents (n = 777). Cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort of a random sample of families from Finland and their first-born children were used. Dental fear was measured using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and categorized as high dental fear for scores of 19-25 and as no to moderate dental fear for scores of 5-18. Sense of coherence was measured using a 13-item version of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, dichotomized as scores 13-63 for weak SOC and as scores of 64-91 for strong SOC. Gender and education were included as background factors in the logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of high dental fear was 8%. Those reporting high dental fear reported more often a weaker SOC than did those with no to moderate dental fear (69% vs. 31%, OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.4), also when adjusted for gender and education (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-3.9). According to the theory of salutogenesis, as proposed by Antonovsky, SOC is a resource instrument especially in situations of tension or strain and hence a strong SOC might protect against high dental fear. PMID:23659257

  20. Genotype distribution characteristics of high-risk human papillomaviruses in women from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Yi, M; Xu, Y; Zhao, H; Fu, F; Zhang, Y

    2016-05-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are highly prevalent worldwide, and HPV genotype distribution varies regionally. Molecular surveys of HPVs are important for effective HPV control and prevention. Fifteen high-risk HPV strains (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68) and six low-risk HPV strains (HPV6, 11, 42, 43, 44, CP8304) were detected by cervical cytology from 10 501 subjects. High-risk HPVs, low-risk HPVs, and both high- and low-risk HPVs were detected in 14·5%, 2·8%, and 2·4% of cases, respectively. Of 1782 subjects with high-risk HPV infection, 75·5%, 18·1%, and 6·4% were infected with one, two, and ⩾3 strains of high-risk HPVs, respectively. HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58 were the top three most dominant high-risk HPV genotypes in our population with positivity rates of 23·0%, 17·7% and 16·9%, respectively. Multiple infection was common, with significantly higher co-infection rates of HPV58/HPV33 (12·9%) and HPV58/HPV52 (11·3%). Further data comparisons showed that HPV genotype distribution varied markedly between domestic and international regions. In conclusion, a monolithic vaccination strategy is obviously impractical, and regional HPV surveillance is essential to optimize current HPV control and prevention.