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Sample records for 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside aicar

  1. Identification of yeast and human 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAr) transporters.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Johanna; Saint-Marc, Christelle; Laporte, Jean; Labriet, Adrien; Philippe, Chloé; Moenner, Michel; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Pinson, Benoît

    2014-06-13

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAr) is the precursor of the active monophosphate form (AICAR), a small molecule with potent anti-proliferative and low energy mimetic properties. The molecular bases for AICAR toxicity at the cellular level are poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of several yeast AICAr-hypersensitive mutants. Identification of the cognate genes allowed us to establish that thiamine transporters Thi7 and Thi72 can efficiently take up AICAr under conditions where they are overexpressed. We establish that, under standard growth conditions, Nrt1, the nicotinamide riboside carrier, is the major AICAr transporter in yeast. A study of AICAR accumulation in human cells revealed substantial disparities among cell lines and confirmed that AICAr enters cells via purine nucleoside transporters. Together, our results point to significant differences between yeast and human cells for both AICAr uptake and AICAR accumulation. PMID:24778186

  2. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside and AMP-activated protein kinase inhibit signalling through NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Katerelos, Marina; Mudge, Stuart J; Stapleton, David; Auwardt, Russell B; Fraser, Scott A; Chen, C-G; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2010-10-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is one of the most important pro-inflammatory mechanisms in disease. In this study, we show that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), an intermediate in nucleoside metabolism, inhibits signalling by NF-κB in three cell types, including bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). The block in the NF-κB signalling pathway occurred beyond degradation of IκB-α and movement of p65 into the nucleus of BAEC. There was, however, reduced binding of NF-κB from AICAR-treated cells to a κB-consensus oligonucleotide, suggesting that part of the mechanism was a reduction in NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Although AICAR is metabolized to ZMP and then adenosine, adenosine had no effect on activation of an NF-κB reporter. ZMP, however, activates the metabolic stress-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transfection of active AMPK into BAEC reduced NF-κB reporter activity compared with a kinase-dead mutant, suggesting that part of the ability of AICAR to inhibit NF-κB signalling is due to activation of AMPK. Inhibition of NF-κB signalling may be important in the anti-inflammatory action of drugs such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate, which led to the accumulation of AICAR within target cells. PMID:20404837

  3. Effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside on the mitochondrial function and developmental ability of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Shun; Abe, Takahito; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2015-09-01

    Oocyte nuclear maturation depends on sufficient energy supply through oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor controlling the oocyte energy metabolism. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), a potent activator of AMPK, on the ATP content and mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt-number) of bovine oocytes and on their developmental ability. Oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse-derived bovine ovaries. When these oocytes were cultured in a maturation medium containing 0-, 50-, 250-, and 500-μM AICAR, higher AICAR concentrations reduced the rate of meiotic maturation and the ATP content in oocytes, whereas lower AICAR increased the ATP content in oocytes without affecting the maturation rate. Supplementation of the maturation medium with a low concentration of AICAR (50 and 250 μM) increased phospho-AMPK expression level, as determined by immunostaining. In addition, AICAR treatment increased the ATP content in oocytes, which remained elevated for as long as 2 days after fertilization. On culturing the oocytes with AICAR (250 μM), the fertilization outcome, rate of blastulation, and total cell number of the blastocysts significantly improved. When the proteosomal mitochondrial degradation was inhibited by supplementing the maturation medium with MG132, the Mt-number, as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, significantly increased. However, the treatment of oocytes with AICAR did not affect the Mt-number in the presence or absence of MG132. From these data, we conclude that low concentrations of AICAR improved the embryonic developmental ability, presumably via the upregulation of the ATP content in oocytes, but the increase in the ATP content was not due to the upregulation of mitochondrial biogeneration. PMID:26001600

  4. Disruption of Nucleotide Homeostasis by the Antiproliferative Drug 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside Monophosphate (AICAR).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Johanna; Hürlimann, Hans Caspar; Saint-Marc, Christelle; Albrecht, Delphine; Violo, Typhaine; Moenner, Michel; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Pinson, Benoît

    2015-09-25

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside monophosphate (AICAR) is a natural metabolite with potent anti-proliferative and low energy mimetic properties. At high concentration, AICAR is toxic for yeast and mammalian cells, but the molecular basis of this toxicity is poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of yeast purine salvage pathway mutants that are synthetically lethal with AICAR accumulation. Genetic suppression revealed that this synthetic lethality is in part due to low expression of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase under high AICAR conditions. In addition, metabolite profiling points to the AICAR/NTP balance as crucial for optimal utilization of glucose as a carbon source. Indeed, we found that AICAR toxicity in yeast and human cells is alleviated when glucose is replaced by an alternative carbon source. Together, our metabolic analyses unveil the AICAR/NTP balance as a major factor of AICAR antiproliferative effects. PMID:26283791

  5. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside) increases the production of toxic molecules and affects the profile of cytokines release in LPS-stimulated rat primary microglial cultures.

    PubMed

    Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Liber, Sebastian; Gabryel, Bozena; Okopień, Bogusław

    2010-01-01

    AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside, Acadesine, AICA riboside) is an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The results of recent studies suggest that AICAR, in addition to its application for treating metabolic disorders, may also have therapeutic potential for treating neuroinflammatory diseases where reactive microglia play an etiological role. However, the molecular mechanisms of action by which AICAR exerts its anti-inflammatory effects still remain unclear or controversial. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the effects of AICAR on non-stimulated and LPS-activated rat primary microglial cell cultures. The presented evidence supports the conclusion that AMPK activated by AICAR is involved in regulation of ROS and cytokine production (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha (6h), IL-10 and TGF-beta) as well as arginase I and PGC-1alpha expression. Furthermore, we found that the effects of AICAR on IL-6 and TNF-alpha (12, 24h) release and on the expression of iNOS and NF-kappaB p65 are not AMPK-dependent because the pre-treatment of LPS-activated microglia with compound C (a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK) did not reverse the effect of AICAR. The results of the presented study provide additional data about AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms whereby AICAR may modulate inflammatory response of microglia. PMID:19853624

  6. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-Carboxamide Riboside Enhances Effect of Ionizing Radiation in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Isebaert, Sofie F.; Swinnen, Johannes V.; McBride, William H.; Begg, Adrian C.; Haustermans, Karin M.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The nucleoside 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is a low-energy mimetic and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist that can affect the phenotype of malignant cells by diminishing their anabolism. It does this by being converted to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (ZMP), an AMP analog. We combined this promising antineoplastic agent with ionizing radiation in an attempt to increase its efficacy. Methods and Materials: The effect of AICAR on cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, radiosensitivity, and AMPK activation was determined in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. To elucidate the radiosensitizing mechanism, clonogenic survival assays in the presence of a drug agonist or antagonist or with small interfering RNA targeting AMPK were done, as well as measurements of ZMP production and double strand break repair. Moreover, immunoblot analysis of the radiation response signaling pathways after AICAR treatment was performed. Results: The incubation of human PC3 prostate cancer cells with AICAR-activated AMPK inhibited cell proliferation, decreased viability, increased apoptosis, and generated reactive oxygen species in a dose- and time-dependent manner. None of these endpoints gave more than additive effects when radiation was added. Radiosensitization was observed but only after 72 hours of treatment with 250 {mu}M AICAR, suggesting that it was independent of AMPK activation. This finding was confirmed by small interfering RNA knockdown of AMPK. The mechanism of radiosensitization was associated with imbalanced deoxynucleotide pools owing to ZMP accumulation after AICAR administration that interfered with DNA repair. Conclusions: Our findings on the favorable interaction between low doses of AICAR and ionizing radiation in PC3 cells could open new perspectives for the clinical use of this or similar compounds. However, additional research is still required

  7. Metabolic modulators of the exercise response: doping control analysis of an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (GW501516) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR).

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, A; Cholbinski, P; Kaliszewski, P; Kowalczyk, K; Konczak, D; Zembron-Lacny, A

    2014-08-01

    In 2008, the team of Ronald Evans, a professor at the Salk Institute Gene Expression Laboratory, published an article about the effects of two metabolic modulators branded as GW501516 and AICAR on physical endurance of laboratory animals. Both substances, also called 'exercise pills' or 'exercise mimetics', showed the ability to cause multidirectional changes in muscle metabolism. In particular, they stimulated fatty acid oxidation and promoted muscle remodelling. These compounds were regarded as very promising drug candidates for the treatment of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. GW501516 and AICAR have received considerable attention in doping control due to assumed performance-enhancing properties and recent confiscations of illicitly distributed drugs containing AICAR. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency added GW501516 and AICAR to the Prohibited List in 2009. This review covers the cellular and systemic effects of the metabolic modulators' administration with special emphasis on their role in exercise metabolism. It also presents the advancements in development of methodologies for the detection of their abuse by athletes. PMID:25179079

  8. Detection of inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide transformylase by thioinosinic acid and azathioprine by a new colorimetric assay.

    PubMed Central

    Ha, T; Morgan, S L; Vaughn, W H; Eto, I; Baggott, J E

    1990-01-01

    The colorimetric assay for 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) transformylase (phosphoribosylamino-imidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase; EC 2.1.2.3) has been extensively modified. The modified assay is based upon the short-term permanganate oxidation of the folate product, tetrahydrofolate (H4folate) to p-aminobenzoyl glutamate (pABG). The modified assay was used to detect the transformylase activity in crude extracts of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Azathioprine and its metabolite, thioinosinic acid (tIMP), are competitive inhibitors (with respect to AICAR) of the chicken liver transformylase and the transformylase from PBMCs of the MRL/lpr mouse, an animal model of systemic autoimmune disease. The Ki values of tIMP and azathioprine for the chicken liver enzyme are 39 +/- 4 microM and 120 +/- 10 microM, whereas the Ki values for the enzyme from PBMCs of the MRL/lpr mouse are 110 +/- 20 microM and 90 +/- 14 microM respectively. The anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and naproxen are also inhibitors of the transformylase. PMID:2268263

  9. Inhibition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine synthesis by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside is independent of AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, René L; Lingrell, Susanne; Dyck, Jason R B; Vance, Dennis E

    2007-02-16

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAr), a commonly used indirect activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibits phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in freshly isolated hepatocytes. In all nucleated mammalian cells, PC is synthesized from choline via the Kennedy (CDP-choline) pathway. The purpose of our study was to provide direct evidence that AMPK regulates phospholipid biosynthesis and to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which AMPK inhibits hepatic PC synthesis. Incubations of hepatocytes with AICAr resulted in a dose-dependent activation of AMPK and inhibition of PC biosynthesis. Surprisingly, adenoviral delivery of constitutively active AMPK did not alter PC biosynthesis. In addition, expression of dominant negative mutants of AMPK was unable to block the AICAr-dependent inhibition of PC biosynthesis, indicating that AICAr was acting independently of AMPK activation. Determination of aqueous intermediates of the CDP-choline pathway indicated that choline kinase, the first enzyme in the pathway, was inhibited by AICAr administration. Flux through the CDP-choline pathway was directly correlated to the level of intracellular ATP concentrations. Therefore, it is possible that inhibition of PC biosynthesis is another process by which the cell can reduce ATP consumption in times of energetic stress. However, unlike cholesterol and triacylglycerol biosynthesis, PC production is not regulated by AMPK. PMID:17179149

  10. Immunomodulatory Effect of Combination Therapy with Lovastatin and 5-Aminoimidazole-4-Carboxamide-1-β-d-Ribofuranoside Alleviates Neurodegeneration in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Paintlia, Ajaib S.; Paintlia, Manjeet K.; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K.

    2006-01-01

    Combination therapy with multiple sclerosis (MS) therapeutics is gaining momentum over monotherapy for improving MS. Lovastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), was immunomodulatory in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS. Lovastatin biases the immune response from Th1 to a protective Th2 response in EAE by a different mechanism than 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside, an immunomodulating agent that activates AMP-activated protein kinase. Here we tested these agents in combination in an EAE model of MS. Suboptimal doses of these drugs in combination were additive in efficacy against the induction of EAE; clinical symptoms were delayed and severity and duration of disease was reduced. In the central nervous system, the cellular infiltration and proinflammatory immune response was decreased while the anti-inflammatory immune response was increased. Combination treatment biased the class of elicited myelin basic protein antibodies from IgG2a to IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a shift from Th1 to Th2 response. In addition, combination therapy lessened inflammation-associated neurodegeneration in the central nervous system of EAE animals. These effects were absent in EAE animals treated with either drug alone at the same dose. Thus, our data suggest that agents with different mechanisms of action such as lovastatin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside, when used in combination, could improve therapy for central nervous system demyelinating diseases and provide a rationale for testing them in MS patients. PMID:16936274

  11. Succinyl-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-ribose 5'-Phosphate (SAICAR) Activates Pyruvate Kinase Isoform M2 (PKM2) in Its Dimeric Form.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Tokuda, Joshua M; Pollack, Lois; Bowman, Gregory D; Lee, Young-Sam

    2016-08-23

    Human pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolytic enzyme isoform implicated in cancer. Malignant cancer cells have higher levels of dimeric PKM2, which is regarded as an inactive form of tetrameric pyruvate kinase. This perceived inactivity has fueled controversy about how the dimeric form of pyruvate kinase might contribute to cancer. Here we investigate enzymatic properties of PKM2(G415R), a variant derived from a cancer patient, which we show by size-exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering to be a dimer that cannot form a tetramer in solution. Although PKM2(G415R) binds to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), unlike the wild type this PKM2 variant shows no activation by FBP. In contrast, PKM2(G415R) is activated by succinyl-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-ribose 5'-phosphate (SAICAR), an endogenous metabolite that we previously showed correlates with an increased level of cell proliferation and promotes protein kinase activity of PKM2. Our results demonstrate an important and unexpected enzymatic activity of the PKM2 dimer that likely has a key role in cancer progression. PMID:27481063

  12. Discovery of 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates as dual acting inhibitors of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase in de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis: implications of inhibiting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase to AMPK activation and anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Sudhir; Ravindra, Manasa Punaha; Hales, Eric; Orr, Steven; Cherian, Christina; Hou, Zhanjun

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates (compounds 5–10) with 1 to 6 bridge carbons and a benozyl ring in the side chain as antitumor agents. Compound 8 with a 4-carbon bridge was the most active analog and potently inhibited proliferation of folate receptor (FR) α-expressing Chinese hamster ovary and KB human tumor cells. Growth inhibition was reversed completely or in part by excess folic acid, indicating that FRα is involved in cellular uptake, and resulted in S-phase accumulation and apoptosis. Anti-proliferative effects of compound 8 toward KB cells were protected by excess adenosine but not thymidine, establishing de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis as the targeted pathway. However, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) protection was incomplete, suggesting inhibition of both AICA ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFTase) and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Inhibition of GARFTase and AICARFTase by compound 8 was confirmed by cellular metabolic assays and resulted in ATP pool depletion. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an antifolate that acts as a dual inhibitor of GARFTase and AICARFTase as its principal mechanism of action. PMID:24256410

  13. AICAR and Metformin Exert AMPK-dependent Effects on INS-1E Pancreatic β-cell Apoptosis via Differential Downstream Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yu-Lu; Huang, Su-Ling; Leng, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is still controversial, and the reasons for the discrepancies have not been clarified. In the current study, we observed the effects of two well-known AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) and metformin, on apoptosis in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells, and further explored their possible mechanisms. Both AICAR and metformin protected INS-1E cells from palmitate-induced apoptosis, as reflected by decreases in both cleaved caspase 3 protein expression and caspase 3/7 activity, and these protective effects were abrogated by AMPK inhibitor compound C. The protective action of AICAR was probably mediated by the suppression of triacylglycerol accumulation, increase in Akt phosphorylation and decrease in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, while metformin might exert its protective effect on INS-1E cells by decreases in both JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. All these regulations were dependent on AMPK activation. However, under standard culture condition, AICAR increased JNK phosphorylation and promoted INS-1E cell apoptosis in an AMPK-dependent manner, whereas metformin showed no effect on apoptosis. Our study revealed that AMPK activators AICAR and metformin exhibited different effects on INS-1E cell apoptosis under different culture conditions, which might be largely attributed to different downstream mediators. Our results provided new and informative clues for better understanding of the role of AMPK in β-cell apoptosis. PMID:26435693

  14. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Sae Mi

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-α1 phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-α1-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation. PMID:25360075

  15. Novel 5-Substituted Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Dual Inhibitors of Glycinamide Ribonucleotide Formyltransferase and 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Formyltransferase and as Potential Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiqiang; Mitchell-Ryan, Shermaine; Raghavan, Sudhir; George, Christina; Orr, Steven; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2016-01-01

    A new series of 5-substituted thiopheneyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 6–11 with varying chain lengths (n = 1–6) were designed and synthesized as hybrids of the clinically used anticancer drug pemetrexed (PMX) and our 6-substituted thiopheneyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 2c and 2d with folate receptor (FR) α and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) uptake specificity over the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and inhibition of de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis at glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Compounds 6–11 inhibited KB human tumor cells in the order 9 = 10 > 8 > 7 > 6 = 11. Compounds 8–10 were variously transported by FRα, PCFT, and RFC and, unlike PMX, inhibited de novo purine nucleotide rather than thymidylate biosynthesis. The antiproliferative effects of 8 and 9 appeared to be due to their dual inhibitions of both GARFTase and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase. Our studies identify a unique structure–activity relationship for transport and dual target inhibition. PMID:25602637

  16. Novel 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual inhibitors of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Mitchell-Ryan, Shermaine; Raghavan, Sudhir; George, Christina; Orr, Steven; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-02-12

    A new series of 5-substituted thiopheneyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 6-11 with varying chain lengths (n = 1-6) were designed and synthesized as hybrids of the clinically used anticancer drug pemetrexed (PMX) and our 6-substituted thiopheneyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 2c and 2d with folate receptor (FR) α and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) uptake specificity over the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and inhibition of de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis at glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Compounds 6-11 inhibited KB human tumor cells in the order 9 = 10 > 8 > 7 > 6 = 11. Compounds 8-10 were variously transported by FRα, PCFT, and RFC and, unlike PMX, inhibited de novo purine nucleotide rather than thymidylate biosynthesis. The antiproliferative effects of 8 and 9 appeared to be due to their dual inhibitions of both GARFTase and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase. Our studies identify a unique structure-activity relationship for transport and dual target inhibition. PMID:25602637

  17. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR.

    PubMed

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  18. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR

    PubMed Central

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  19. Methotrexate increases skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression and improves metabolic control in experimental diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) mimics the effects of endurance exercise by activating AMP kinase and by increasing skeletal muscle expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter. AICAR is an intermediate in the purine de novo synthesis, and its tissue conc...

  20. New synthetic AICAR derivatives with enhanced AMPK and ACC activation.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Olga; Nigro, Ersilia; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Oliviero, Giorgia; Polito, Rita; Borbone, Nicola; D'Errico, Stefano; Mayol, Luciano; Daniele, Aurora; Piccialli, Gennaro

    2016-10-01

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) has an important role in the regulation of the cellular metabolism showing a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities against different metabolic processes. Due to these proven AICAR properties, we have designed, synthesized and tested the biological activity of two ribose-modified AICAR derivatives, named A3 and A4, in comparison to native AICAR and its 5'-phosphorylated counterpart ZMP. Our findings have shown that A3 and A4 derivatives induce the phosphorylation of 5'-AMP activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), which leads to the inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and down-regulate the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that A3 and A4 do not significantly reduce cell viability up to 24 h. Taken together our results indicate that A3 and A4 have a comparable activity to AICAR and ZMP at 0.5 and 1 mM suggesting their potential use in future pharmacological strategies relating to metabolic diseases. PMID:26446934

  1. AICAR induces AMPK-independent programmed necrosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Liu, Shuang-Qing; Gao, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Long-Yang

    2016-05-27

    AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine) is an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist, which induces cytotoxic effect to several cancer cells. Its potential activity in prostate cancer cells and the underlying signaling mechanisms have not been extensively studied. Here, we showed that AICAR primarily induced programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC-3 and PC-82 lines). AICAR's cytotoxicity to prostate cancer cells was largely attenuated by the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1. Mitochondrial protein cyclophilin-D (CYPD) is required for AICAR-induced programmed necrosis. CYPD inhibitors (cyclosporin A and sanglifehrin A) as well as CYPD shRNAs dramatically attenuated AICAR-induced prostate cancer cell necrosis and cytotoxicity. Notably, AICAR-induced cell necrosis appeared independent of AMPK, yet requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS scavengers (N-acetylcysteine and MnTBAP), but not AMPKα shRNAs, largely inhibited prostate cancer cell necrosis and cytotoxicity by AICAR. In summary, the results of the present study demonstrate mechanistic evidences that AMPK-independent programmed necrosis contributes to AICAR's cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells. PMID:27103440

  2. Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) inhibits the growth of retinoblastoma in vivo by decreasing angiogenesis and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulou, Sofia; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kayama, Maki; Morizane, Yuki; Miller, Joan W; Gragoudas, Evangelos S; Vavvas, Demetrios G

    2013-01-01

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an analog of AMP is widely used as an activator of AMP-kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates the responses of the cell to energy change. Recently, we showed that AICAR-induced AMPK activation inhibits the growth of retinoblastoma cells in vitro by decreasing cyclins and by inducing apoptosis and S-phase arrest. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activator AICAR on the growth of retinoblastoma in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of AICAR resulted in 48% growth inhibition of Y79 retinoblastoma cell tumors in mice. Tumors isolated from mice treated with AICAR had decreased expression of Ki67 and increased apoptotic cells (TUNEL positive) compared with the control. In addition, AICAR treatment suppressed significantly tumor vessel density and macrophage infiltration. We also showed that AICAR administration resulted in AMPK activation and mTOR pathway inhibition. Paradoxically observed down-regulation of p21, which indicates that p21 may have a novel function of an oncogene in retinoblastoma tumor. Our results indicate that AICAR treatment inhibited the growth of retinoblastoma tumor in vivo via AMPK/mTORC1 pathway and by apoptogenic, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenesis mechanism. AICAR is a promising novel non-chemotherapeutic drug that may be effective as an adjuvant in treating Retinoblastoma. PMID:23300996

  3. Retinoblastoma cells are inhibited by aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) partially through activation of AMP-dependent kinase.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulou, Sofia; Kolovou, Paraskevi E; Morizane, Yuki; Kayama, Maki; Nicolaou, Fotini; Miller, Joan W; Gragoudas, Evangelos; Ksander, Bruce R; Vavvas, Demetrios G

    2010-08-01

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an analog of AMP, is widely used as an activator of AMP-kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates the responses of the cell to energy change. We studied the effects of AICAR on the growth of retinoblastoma cell lines (Y79, WERI, and RB143). AICAR inhibited Rb cell growth, induced apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle arrest, and led to activation of AMPK. These effects were abolished by treatment with dypiridamole, an inhibitor that blocks entrance of AICAR into cells. Treatment with the adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubericidin to inhibit the conversion of AICAR to ZMP (the direct activator of AMPK) reversed most of the growth-inhibiting effects of AICAR, indicating that some of the antiproliferative effects of AICAR are mediated through AMPK activation. In addition, AICAR treatment was associated with inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein-S6 and 4E-BP1, down-regulation of cyclins A and E, and decreased expression of p21. Our results indicate that AICAR-induced activation of AMPK inhibits retinoblastoma cell growth. This is one of the first descriptions of a nonchemotherapeutic drug with low toxicity that may be effective in treating Rb patients. PMID:20371623

  4. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  5. Uveal Melanoma Cell Growth Is Inhibited by Aminoimidazole Carboxamide Ribonucleotide (AICAR) Partially Through Activation of AMP-Dependent Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moujahed, Ahmad; Nicolaou, Fotini; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Papakostas, Thanos D.; Marmalidou, Anna; Ksander, Bruce R.; Miller, Joan W.; Gragoudas, Evangelos; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects and mechanism of aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), an AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) activator, on the growth of uveal melanoma cell lines. Methods. Four different cell lines were treated with AICAR (1–4 mM). Cell growth was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry; additionally, expression of cell-cycle control proteins, cell growth transcription factors, and downstream effectors of AMPK were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Results. Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide inhibited cell growth, induced S-phase arrest, and led to AMPK activation. Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide treatment was associated with inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, a marker of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activity. Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide treatment was also associated with downregulation of cyclins A and D, but had minimal effects on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 or levels of the macroautophagy marker LC3B. The effects of AICAR were abolished by treatment with dipyridamole, an adenosine transporter inhibitor that blocks the entry of AICAR into cells. Treatment with adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubericidin, which inhibits the conversion of AICAR to its 5′-phosphorylated ribotide 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-D-ribofuranosyl-5′-monophosphate (ZMP; the direct activator of AMPK), reversed most of the growth-inhibitory effects, indicating that some of AICAR's antiproliferative effects are mediated at least partially through AMPK activation. Conclusions. Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide inhibited uveal melanoma cell proliferation partially through activation of the AMPK pathway and downregulation of cyclins A1 and D1. PMID:24781943

  6. AMP kinase activation with AICAR further increases fatty acid oxidation and blunts triacylglycerol hydrolysis in contracting rat soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Angela C; Bruce, Clinton R; Dyck, David J

    2005-01-01

    Muscle contraction increases glucose uptake and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in isolated rat skeletal muscle, due at least in part to an increase in AMP-activated kinase activity (AMPK). However, the extent to which AMPK plays a role in the regulation of substrate utilization during contraction is not fully understood. We examined the acute effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR; 2 mm), a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on FA metabolism and glucose oxidation during high intensity tetanic contraction in isolated rat soleus muscle strips. Muscle strips were exposed to two different FA concentrations (low fatty acid, LFA, 0.2 mm; high fatty acid, HFA, 1 mm) to examine the role that FA availability may play in both exogenous and endogenous FA metabolism with contraction and AICAR. Synergistic increases in AMPK α2 activity (+45%; P < 0.05) were observed after 30 min of contraction with AICAR, which further increased exogenous FA oxidation (LFA: +71%, P < 0.05; HFA: +46%, P < 0.05) regardless of FA availability. While there were no changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) esterification, AICAR did increase the ratio of FA partitioned to oxidation relative to TAG esterification (LFA: +65%, P < 0.05). AICAR significantly blunted endogenous TAG hydrolysis (LFA: −294%, P < 0.001; HFA: −117%, P < 0.05), but had no effect on endogenous oxidation rates, suggesting a better matching between TAG hydrolysis and subsequent oxidative needs of the muscle. There was no effect of AICAR on the already elevated rates of glucose oxidation during contraction. These results suggest that FA metabolism is very sensitive to AMPK α2 stimulation during contraction. PMID:15774529

  7. AICAR reduces the collagen-stimulated secretion of PDGF-AB and release of soluble CD40 ligand from human platelets: Suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Kainuma, Shingo; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Onuma, Takashi; Iida, Yuko; Kojima, Akiko; Sawada, Shigenobu; Doi, Tomoaki; Enomoto, Yukiko; Tanabe, Kumiko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kozawa, Osamu; Iwama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that collagen-induced phosphorylation of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 via p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human platelets is sufficient to induce the secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and the release of soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (sCD40L). Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known to regulate energy homeostasis, has a crucial role as an energy sensor in various eukaryotic cells. The present study investigated the effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl 5′-monophosphate (AICAR), which is an activator of AMPK, on the collagen-induced activation of human platelets. It was demonstrated that AICAR dose-dependently reduced collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation up to 1.0 µM. Analysis of the size of platelet aggregates demonstrated that AICAR decreased the ratio of large aggregates (50–70 µm), whereas the ratio of small aggregates (9–25 µm) was increased by AICAR administration. AICAR markedly attenuated the phosphorylation levels of p44/p42 MAP kinase and HSP27, which are induced by collagen. Furthermore, AICAR significantly decreased the secretion of PDGF-AB and the collagen-induced release of sCD40L. These results indicated that AICAR-activated AMPK may reduce the secretion of PDGF-AB and the collagen-induced release of sCD40L by inhibiting HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase in human platelets.

  8. Enhanced activation of cellular AMPK by dual-small molecule treatment: AICAR and A769662

    PubMed Central

    Ducommun, Serge; Ford, Rebecca J.; Bultot, Laurent; Deak, Maria; Bertrand, Luc; Kemp, Bruce E.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key cellular energy sensor and regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Activation of AMPK provides beneficial outcomes in fighting against metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is no allosteric AMPK activator available for the treatment of metabolic diseases, and limited compounds are available to robustly stimulate cellular/tissue AMPK in a specific manner. Here we investigated whether simultaneous administration of two different pharmacological AMPK activators, which bind and act on different sites, would result in an additive or synergistic effect on AMPK and its downstream signaling and physiological events in intact cells. We observed that cotreating primary hepatocytes with the AMP mimetic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and a low dose (1 μM) of the allosteric activator A769662 produced a synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and catalytic activity, which was associated with a more profound increase/decrease in phosphorylation of downstream AMPK targets and inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis compared with single-compound treatment. Mechanistically, we found that cotreatment does not stimulate LKB1, upstream kinase for AMPK, but it protects against dephosphorylation of Thr172 phosphorylation by protein phosphatase PP2Cα in an additive manner in a cell-free assay. Collectively, we demonstrate that AICAR sensitizes the effect of A769662 and promotes AMPK activity and its downstream events. The study demonstrates the feasibility of promoting AMPK activity by using two activators with distinct modes of action in order to achieve a greater activation of AMPK and downstream signaling. PMID:24425763

  9. AICAR treatment for 14 days normalizes obesity-induced dysregulation of TORC1 signaling and translational capacity in fasted skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Drake, Joshua C; Alway, Stephen E; Hollander, John M; Williamson, David L

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and mTOR-regulated processes (i.e., translation initiation) in obese mouse skeletal muscle. Our hypothesis was that daily treatment (14 days) with AICAR would normalize obesity-induced alterations in skeletal muscle mTOR signaling and mTOR-regulated processes to lean levels and positively affect muscle mass. Fourteen-week-old male, lean (L; 31.3 g body wt) wild-type and ob/ob (O; 59.6 g body wt) mice were injected with the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR (A) at 0.5 mg·g body wt(-1)·day(-1) or saline control (C) for 14 days. At 24 h after the last injection (including a 12-h fast), all mice were killed, and the plantar flexor complex muscle (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) was excised for analysis. Muscle mass was lower in OC (159 ± 12 mg) than LC, LA, and OA (176 ± 10, 178 ± 9, and 166 ± 16 mg, respectively) mice, independent of a body weight change. A decrease in obese muscle mass corresponded with higher muscle cross section staining intensity for lipid and glycogen, higher blood glucose and insulin levels, and lower nuclear-enriched fractions for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α protein expression in OC skeletal muscle, which was normalized with AICAR treatment. AMPK and acetyl-cocarboxylase phosphorylation was reduced in OC mice and augmented by AICAR treatment in OA mice. Conversely, OC mice displayed higher activation of downstream targets (S6 kinase-1 and ribosomal protein S6) of mTOR and lower raptor-associated mTOR than LC mice, which were reciprocally altered after 14 days of AICAR treatment. Dysregulation of translational capacity was improved in OA mice, as assessed by sucrose density gradient fractionation of ribosomes, total and ribosome-associated RNA content, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F complex formation, and

  10. Blunted response of hippocampal AMPK associated with reduced neurogenesis in older versus younger mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sooah; Kim, Hyunjeong; Jeong, Jihyeon; Lee, Su Kyoung; Kim, Eun Woo; Park, Minsun; Kim, Chul Hoon; Lee, Jong Eun; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Eosu

    2016-11-01

    The rate of hippocampal neurogenesis declines with aging. This is partly explained by decreased neural responsiveness to various cues stimulating metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a pivotal enzyme regulating energy homeostasis in response to metabolic demands, showed the diminished sensitivity in peripheral tissues during aging. AMPK is also known to be involved in neurogenesis. We aimed to see whether AMPK reactivity is also blunted in the aged hippocampus, and thus is associated with aging-related change in neurogenesis. Following subchronic (7days) intraperitoneal and acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of either 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR; AMPK activator) or saline (sham) to young (16-week-old) and old (72-week-old) mice, we measured changes in AMPK activity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression or neurogenesis in the hippocampus. AICAR-induced changes in AMPK activity were observed in the hippocampus of young mice after acute i.c.v. injection. However, neither subchronic nor acute treatment induced significant changes in AMPK activity in old mice. Intriguingly, directions of AICAR-induced changes in AMPK activity were opposite between the hippocampus (decrease) and skeletal muscle (increase). ATP levels were inversely correlated with hippocampal AMPK activity, suggesting that the higher energy levels achieved by AICAR treatment might deactivate neuronal AMPK in young mice. The blunted response of AMPK to AICAR in old age was also indicated by the observations that the levels of neurogenesis and BDNF expression were significantly changed only in young mice upon AICAR treatment. Our findings suggest that the blunted response of neuronal AMPK in old age might be responsible for aging-associated decline in neurogenesis. Therefore, in addition to activation of AMPK, recovering its sensitivity may be necessary to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis in old age. PMID:27343360

  11. Mice with RyR1 mutation (Y524S) undergo hypermetabolic response to simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Statins are widely used drugs for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Though relatively safe, some individuals taking statins experience rhabdymyolysis, muscle pain, and cramping, a condition termed statin-induced myopathy (SIM). To determine if mutations in the skeletal muscle calcium (Ca2+) release channel, ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1), enhance the sensitivity to SIM we tested the effects of simvastatin, the statin that produces the highest incidence of SIM in humans, in mice with a mutation (Y524S, ‘YS’) in RyR1. This mutation is associated with malignant hyperthermia in humans. Exposure of mice with the YS mutation to mild elevations in environmental temperature produces a life-threatening hypermetabolic response (HMR) that is characterized by increased oxygen consumption (VO2), sustained muscle contractures, rhabdymyolysis, and elevated core body temperature. Methods We assessed the ability of simvastatin to induce a hypermetabolic response in the YS mice using indirect calorimetry and to alter Ca2+ release via RyR1 in isolated flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers from WT and YS mice using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators. We also tested the ability of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) to protect against the simvastatin effects. Results An acute dose of simvastatin triggers a hypermetabolic response in YS mice. In isolated YS muscle fibers, simvastatin triggers an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels by increasing Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). With higher simvastatin doses, a similar cytosolic Ca2+ increase occurs in wild type (WT) muscle fibers. Pre-treatment of YS and WT mice with AICAR prevents the response to simvastatin. Conclusions A mutation in RyR1 associated with malignant hyperthermia increases susceptibility to an adverse response to simvastatin due to enhanced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that RyR1 mutations may underlie enhanced susceptibility to statin-induced myopathies

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase kinase: detection with recombinant AMPK alpha1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stephen R; O'Donnell, John B; Hammet, Andrew; Stapleton, David; Habinowski, Susan A; Means, Anthony R; Kemp, Bruce E; Witters, Lee A

    2002-05-10

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase important for the responses to metabolic stress. It consists of a catalytic alpha subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma, and is regulated both by the allosteric action of AMP and by phosphorylation of the alpha and beta subunits catalyzed by AMPKK(s) and autophosphorylation. The Thr172 site on the alpha subunit has been previously characterized as an activating phosphorylation site. Using bacterially expressed AMPK alpha1 subunit proteins, we have explored the role of Thr172-directed AMPKKs in alpha subunit regulation. Recombinant alpha1 subunit proteins, representing the N-terminus, have been expressed as maltose binding protein (MBP) 6x His fusion proteins and purified to homogeneity by Ni(2+) chromatography. Both wild-type alpha1(1-312) and alpha1(1-312)T172D are inactive when expressed in bacteria, but the former can be fully phosphorylated (1 mol/mol) on Thr172 and activated by a surrogate AMPKK, CaMKKbeta. The corresponding AMPKalpha1(1-392), an alpha construct containing its autoinhibitory sequence, can be similarly phosphorylated, but it remains inactive. In an insulinoma cell line, either low glucose or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) treatment leads to activation and T172 phosphorylation of endogenous AMPK. Under the same conditions of cell incubation, we have identified an AMPKK activity that both phosphorylates and activates the recombinant alpha1(1-312), but this Thr172-directed AMPKK activity is unaltered by low glucose or AICAR, indicating that it is constitutively active. PMID:12051742

  13. Antiaging Gene Klotho Deficiency Promoted High-Fat Diet-Induced Arterial Stiffening via Inactivation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Chen, Jianglei; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-03-01

    Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The objective of this study is to investigate whether klotho gene deficiency affects high-fat diet (HFD)-induced arterial stiffening. Heterozygous Klotho-deficient (KL(+/-)) mice and WT littermates were fed on HFD or normal diet. HFD increased pulse wave velocity within 5 weeks in KL(+/-) mice but not in wild-type mice, indicating that klotho deficiency accelerates and exacerbates HFD-induced arterial stiffening. A greater increase in blood pressure was found in KL(+/-) mice fed on HFD. Protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) were decreased, whereas protein expressions of collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1, and Runx2 were increased in aortas of KL(+/-) mice fed on HFD. Interestingly, daily injections of an AMPKα activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-3-ribonucleoside, abolished the increases in pulse wave velocity, blood pressure, and blood glucose in KL(+/-) mice fed on HFD. Treatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-3-ribonucleoside for 2 weeks not only abolished the downregulation of phosphorylated AMPKα, phosphorylated eNOS, and Mn-SOD levels but also attenuated the increased levels of collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1, Runx2, superoxide, elastic lamellae breaks, and calcification in aortas of KL(+/-) mice fed on HFD. In cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells, cholesterol plus KL-deficient serum decreased phosphorylation levels of AMPKα and LKB1 (an important upstream regulator of AMPKα activity) but increased collagen I synthesis, which can be eliminated by activation of AMPKα by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-3-ribonucleoside. In conclusions, Klotho deficiency promoted HFD-induced arterial stiffening and hypertension via downregulation of AMPKα activity. PMID:26781278

  14. Post-treatment with the Combination of AICAR and Carnitine Improves Renal Function after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Idrovo, Juan-Pablo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Matsuda, Akihisa; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major clinical problem where main metabolic pathways are compromised and cellular homeostasis crashes after ATP depletion. Fatty acids are major energy source in the kidneys. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1), a mitochondrial membrane enzyme, utilizes carnitine to transport fatty acids to mitochondria for the process of β-oxidation and ATP generation. In addition, CPT1 activity is indirectly regulated by adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase, which can be activated by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR). We hypothesized that administration of carnitine and AICAR could reestablish the energetic balance after reperfusion and ameliorate renal I/R injury. Male adult rats were subjected to renal I/R by bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 60 min, followed by administration of saline (vehicle), carnitine (250 mg/kg BW), AICAR (30 mg/kg BW), or combination of both drugs. Blood and renal tissues were collected 24 h after reperfusion for various measurements. Renal carnitine levels decreased 53% after I/R. The combined treatment significantly increased CPT1 activity and ATP levels, and lowered renal malondialdehyde and serum TNF-α levels against the vehicle group. It led to improvement in renal morphology and histological damage score associated with diminution in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Moreover, the combined treatment significantly improved the survival rate in comparison to the vehicle group. In contrast, administration of either drug alone did not show a significant improvement in most of the measurements. In conclusion, enhancing energy metabolism by combination of carnitine and AICAR provides a novel modality to treat renal I/R injury. PMID:21841537

  15. AICAR-Induced Activation of AMPK Inhibits TSH/SREBP-2/HMGCR Pathway in Liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shudong; Jing, Fei; Yu, Chunxiao; Gao, Ling; Qin, Yejun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study found that thyroid-stimulating hormone promoted sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) expression and suppressed AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in the liver, but it was unclear whether there was a direct link between TSH, AMPK and SREBP-2. Here, we demonstrate that the 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced activation of AMPK directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-2 and its target genes HMGCR and HMGCS, which are key enzymes in cholesterol biosynthesis, and suppressed the TSH-stimulated up-regulation of SREBP-2 in HepG2 cells; similar results were obtained in TSH receptor knockout mice. Furthermore, AMPK, an evolutionally conserved serine/threonine kinase, phosphorylated threonine residues in the precursor and nuclear forms of SREBP-2, and TSH interacted with AMPK to influence SREBP-2 phosphorylation. These findings may represent a molecular mechanism by which AMPK ameliorates the hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia associated with high TSH levels in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). PMID:25933205

  16. Allosteric Inhibitors at the Heterodimer Interface of Imidazole Glycerol Phosphate Synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeberger, Ning-Shiuan Nicole

    Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of the HisH and HisF proteins. It is attractive as a pathological target since it is absent in mammals but found in plant and opportunistic human pathogens. IGPS was experimentally determined to be a V-type allosteric enzyme that is involved in an essential biosynthetic pathway of microorganisms. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to form NH3 in the HisH protein, followed by cyclization of NH3 with N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)imino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in the HisF subunit, forming imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) that enter the histidine and purine biosynthetic pathways. Allosteric motions induced upon the binding of the effector PRFAR to HisF propagate through the non-covalent HisH/HisF interface and synchronize catalytic activity at the two distant active sites. However, the nature of the allosteric pathway and the feasibility of manipulating signal transduction by using allosteric drug-like molecules remain to be established. Molecular docking studies of commercial drugs at the HisH/HisF interface were used to identify stable candidates with a potential allosteric effect on the reaction mechanism. Molecular dynamic simulations and calculations of NMR chemical shifts were combined to elucidate the allosteric pathway of IGPS.

  17. Fipronil promotes adipogenesis via AMPKα-mediated pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quancai; Qi, Weipeng; Yang, Jeremy J; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that organochlorine, organophosphorus and neonicotinoid insecticide exposure may be linked to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, there is no knowledge of the potential influence of fipronil, which belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family, on obesity. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the role of fipronil in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fipronil treatment, at 10 μM, increased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as promoted key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-γ), and key regulators of lipogenesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase). The activation of AMPKα with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) abolished effects of fipronil on increased adipogenesis. These results suggest that fipronil alters adipogenesis and results in increased lipid accumulation through a AMPKα-mediated pathway. PMID:27103584

  18. AMPK Activation via Modulation of De Novo Purine Biosynthesis with an Inhibitor of ATIC Homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Asby, Daniel J; Cuda, Francesco; Beyaert, Maxime; Houghton, Franchesca D; Cagampang, Felino R; Tavassoli, Ali

    2015-07-23

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (known as ZMP) is a metabolite produced in de novo purine biosynthesis and histidine biosynthesis, but only utilized in the cell by a homodimeric bifunctional enzyme (called ATIC) that catalyzes the last two steps of de novo purine biosynthesis. ZMP is known to act as an allosteric activator of the cellular energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), when exogenously administered as the corresponding cell-permeable ribonucleoside. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous ZMP, produced by the aforementioned metabolic pathways, is also capable of activating AMPK. Using an inhibitor of ATIC homodimerization to block the ninth step of de novo purine biosynthesis, we demonstrate that the subsequent increase in endogenous ZMP activates AMPK and its downstream signaling pathways. We go on to illustrate the viability of using this approach to AMPK activation as a therapeutic strategy with an in vivo mouse model for metabolic disorders. PMID:26144885

  19. Stimulation of IGF-binding protein-1 secretion by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Lewitt, M S

    2001-04-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is stimulated during intensive exercise and in catabolic conditions to very high concentrations, which are not completely explained by known regulators such as insulin and glucocorticoids. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important signaling system in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, in regulating IGFBP-1 was studied in H4-II-E rat hepatoma cells. Arsenic(III) oxide and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR) were used as activators. AICAR (150 microM) stimulated IGFBP-1 secretion twofold during a 5-h incubation (P = 0.002). Insulin (100 ng/ml) inhibited IGFBP-1 by 80% (P < 0.001), but this was completely abolished in the presence of 150 microM AICAR. The effect of dexamethasone in stimulating IGFBP-1 threefold was additive to the effect of AICAR (P < 0.001) and, in the presence of AICAR, was incompletely inhibited by insulin. In conclusion AMPK is identified as a novel regulatory pathway for IGFBP-1, stimulating secretion and blocking the inhibitory effect of insulin. PMID:11302732

  20. AMPK activator AICAR ameliorates ischaemia reperfusion injury in the rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Lempiäinen, J; Finckenberg, P; Levijoki, J; Mervaala, E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Renal ischaemia/reperfusion (RI/R) injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and an important determinant of long-term kidney dysfunction. AMP-kinase and histone deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulate cellular metabolism and are activated during hypoxia. We investigated whether AMP-kinase activator AICAR (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) ameliorates RI/R injury and whether SIRT1 is involved in the pathogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Eight-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: (i) sham-operated group; (ii) I/R group (40 min bilateral ischaemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion; (iii) I/R group + AICAR 50 mg·kg−1 i.v. given 60 min before operation; (iv). I/R group + AICAR 160 mg·kg−1 i.v; (v) I/R group + AICAR 500 mg·kg−1 i.v. Serum creatinine and urea levels were measured. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), monocyte/macrophage infiltration and nitrotyrosine expression were scored. Kidney AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 expressions were measured. KEY RESULTS Highest dose of AICAR decreased serum creatinine and urea levels, attenuated I/R injury-induced nitrosative stress and monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and ameliorated the development of ATN. Kidney I/R injury was associated with decreased AMPK phosphorylation and a fivefold increase in kidney SIRT1 expression. AICAR increased pAMPK/AMPK ratio and prevented the I/R-induced increase in renal SIRT1 expression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AICAR protects against the development of ATN after kidney I/R injury. Activators of kidney AMP kinase may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach to patients susceptible to AKI and to those undergoing kidney transplantation. The present study also suggests a role for SIRT1 in the pathogenesis of RI/R injury. PMID:22324445

  1. Endothelial AMPK activation induces mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation via eNOS-dependent mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunying; Reif, Michaella M; Craige, Siobhan M; Kant, Shashi; Keaney, John F

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic stress sensors like AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are known to confer stress adaptation and promote longevity in lower organisms. This study demonstrates that activating the metabolic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells helps maintain normal cellular function by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation. To better define the mechanisms whereby AMPK promotes endothelial stress resistance, we used 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) to chronically activate AMPK and observed stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in wild type mouse endothelium, but not in endothelium from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-null) mice. Interestingly, AICAR-enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis was blocked by pretreatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin. Further, AICAR stimulated mTORC1 as determined by phosphorylation of its known downstream effectors in wild type, but not eNOS-null, endothelial cells. Together these data indicate that eNOS is needed to couple AMPK activation to mTORC1 and thus promote mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation in the endothelium. These data suggest a novel mechanism for mTORC1 activation that is significant for investigations in vascular dysfunction. PMID:26989010

  2. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  3. Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cronstein, B.N.; Eberle, M.A.; Levin, R.I. ); Gruber, H.E. )

    1991-03-15

    Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, the authors determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from ({sup 14}C)adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up ({sup 14}C)adenine and released {sup 14}C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils and stimulated neutrophils. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs.

  4. A platform for discovery and quantification of modified ribonucleosides in RNA: Application to stress-induced reprogramming of tRNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weiling Maggie; Chionh, Yok Hian; Hia, Fabian; Gu, Chen; Kellner, Stefanie; McBee, Megan E.; Ng, Chee Sheng; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; Prestwich, Erin G.; Lim, Kok Seong; Babu, I. Ramesh; Begley, Thomas J.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an analytical platform for systems-level quantitative analysis of modified ribonucleosides in any RNA species, with a focus on stress-induced reprogramming of tRNA as part of a system of translational control of cell stress response. The chapter emphasizes strategies and caveats for each of the seven steps of the platform workflow: 1) RNA isolation, 2) RNA purification, 3) RNA hydrolysis to individual ribonucleosides, 4) chromatographic resolution of ribonucleosides, 5) identification of the full set of modified ribonucleosides, 6) mass spectrometric quantification of ribonucleosides, 6) interrogation of ribonucleoside datasets, and 7) mapping the location of stress-sensitive modifications in individual tRNA molecules. We have focused on the critical determinants of analytical sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy in an effort to ensure the most biologically meaningful data on mechanisms of translational control of cell stress response. The methods described here should find wide use in virtually any analysis involving RNA modifications. PMID:26253965

  5. Discovery of novel ribonucleoside analogs with activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Dapp, Michael J; Bonnac, Laurent; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription is an important early step in retrovirus replication and is a key point targeted by evolutionarily conserved host restriction factors (e.g., APOBEC3G, SamHD1). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a major target of antiretroviral drugs, and concerns regarding drug resistance and off-target effects have led to continued efforts for identifying novel approaches to targeting HIV-1 RT. Several observations, including those obtained from monocyte-derived macrophages, have argued that ribonucleotides and their analogs can, intriguingly, impact reverse transcription. For example, we have previously demonstrated that 5-azacytidine has its greatest antiviral potency during reverse transcription by enhancement of G-to-C transversion mutations. In the study described here, we investigated a panel of ribonucleoside analogs for their ability to affect HIV-1 replication during the reverse transcription process. We discovered five ribonucleosides-8-azaadenosine, formycin A, 3-deazauridine, 5-fluorocytidine, and 2'-C-methylcytidine-that possess anti-HIV-1 activity, and one of these (i.e., 3-deazauridine) has a primary antiviral mechanism that involves increased HIV-1 mutational loads, while quantitative PCR analysis determined that the others resulted in premature chain termination. Taken together, our findings provide the first demonstration of a series of ribonucleoside analogs that can target HIV-1 reverse transcription with primary antiretroviral mechanisms that include premature termination of viral DNA synthesis or enhanced viral mutagenesis. PMID:24155391

  6. AMPK agonists ameliorate sodium and fluid transport and inflammation in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Myerburg, Michael M; King, J Darwin; Oyster, Nicholas M; Fitch, Adam C; Magill, Amy; Baty, Catherine J; Watkins, Simon C; Kolls, Jay K; Pilewski, Joseph M; Hallows, Kenneth R

    2010-06-01

    The metabolic sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits both the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel and epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), and may inhibit secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in epithelia. Here we have tested in primary polarized CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells the effects of AMPK activators, metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-riboside (AICAR), on various parameters that contribute to CF lung disease: ENaC-dependent short-circuit currents (I(sc)), airway surface liquid (ASL) height, and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. AMPK activation after overnight treatment with either metformin (2-5 mM) or AICAR (1 mM) substantially inhibited ENaC-dependent I(sc) in both CF and non-CF airway cultures. Live-cell confocal images acquired 60 minutes after apical addition of Texas Red-dextran-containing fluid revealed significantly greater ASL heights after AICAR and metformin treatment relative to controls, suggesting that AMPK-dependent ENaC inhibition slows apical fluid reabsorption. Both metformin and AICAR decreased secretion of various proinflammatory cytokines, both with and without prior LPS stimulation. Finally, prolonged exposure to more physiologically relevant concentrations of metformin (0.03-1 mM) inhibited ENaC currents and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in CF HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that novel therapies to activate AMPK in the CF airway may be beneficial by blunting excessive sodium and ASL absorption and by reducing excessive airway inflammation, which are major contributors to CF lung disease. PMID:19617399

  7. AMPK inhibits MTDH expression via GSK3β and SIRT1 activation: potential role in triple negative breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gollavilli, Paradesi Naidu; Kanugula, Anantha Koteswararao; Koyyada, Rajeswari; Karnewar, Santosh; Neeli, Praveen Kumar; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of metadherin (MTDH), an oncogenic protein, in promoting cancer progression, metastasis and chemoresistance in many cancers including mammary carcinomas. However, the molecular regulation of MTDH is still not completely understood. In this study we document that AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation-induced anti-proliferative effects are, in part, mediated by inhibiting MTDH expression in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), an AMPK activator, caused growth arrest, inhibition of migration and invasion of TNBC cells. Intriguingly, AICAR or metformin treatment resulted in significant downregulation of MTDH expression via inhibiting c-Myc expression. In contrast, treatment of cells with compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, increased both c-Myc and MTDH expressions in TNBC cells. Also, AMPK activation caused increased glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity by inhibiting the inactive phosphorylation at Ser9, on the one hand, and activation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) by inhibiting Ser47 phosphorylation, as evidenced by deacetylation of p53, on the other hand. Moreover, AMPK-induced GSK3β and SIRT1 activities were found to be responsible for inhibiting c-Myc-mediated upregulation of MTDH, as LiCl (an inhibitor of GSK3β) and EX-527 (an inhibitor of SIRT1) reversed AICAR-mediated downregulation of c-Myc and MTDH expressions. Similar results were observed with siSIRT1 treatment. Furthermore, AICAR and EX-527 treatments caused increased cell death under MTDH-depleted conditions. Finally, we uncovered a novel regulation of MTDH expression and showed that AMPK activation by inducing GSK3β and SIRT1 downregulates MTDH expression via inhibiting c-Myc in TNBC cells. PMID:26236947

  8. Insulin Resistance Prevents AMPK-induced Tau Dephosphorylation through Akt-mediated Increase in AMPKSer-485 Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bhumsoo; Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Pacut, Crystal; Backus, Carey; Feldman, Eva L.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance (IR) is the central feature of MetS. Recent studies suggest that MetS is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved fuel-sensing enzyme and a key player in regulating energy metabolism. In this report, we examined the role of IR on the regulation of AMPK phosphorylation and AMPK-mediated Tau phosphorylation. We found that AMPKSer-485, but not AMPKThr-172, phosphorylation is increased in the cortex of db/db and high fat diet-fed obese mice, two mouse models of IR. In vitro, treatment of human cortical stem cell line (HK-5320) and primary mouse embryonic cortical neurons with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), induced AMPK phosphorylation at both Thr-172 and Ser-485. AMPK activation also triggered Tau dephosphorylation. When IR was mimicked in vitro by chronically treating the cells with insulin, AICAR specifically induced AMPKSer-485, but not AMPKThr-172, hyperphosphorylation whereas AICAR-induced Tau dephosphorylation was inhibited. IR also resulted in the overactivation of Akt by AICAR treatment; however, preventing Akt overactivation during IR prevented AMPKSer-485 hyperphosphorylation and restored AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Transfection of AMPKS485A mutant caused similar results. Therefore, our results suggest the following mechanism for the adverse effect of IR on AD pathology: IR → chronic overactivation of Akt → AMPKSer-485 hyperphosphorylation → inhibition of AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Together, our results show for the first time a possible contribution of IR-induced AMPKSer-485 phosphorylation to the increased risk of AD in obesity and diabetes. PMID:26100639

  9. Insulin Resistance Prevents AMPK-induced Tau Dephosphorylation through Akt-mediated Increase in AMPKSer-485 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bhumsoo; Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Pacut, Crystal; Backus, Carey; Feldman, Eva L

    2015-07-31

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance (IR) is the central feature of MetS. Recent studies suggest that MetS is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved fuel-sensing enzyme and a key player in regulating energy metabolism. In this report, we examined the role of IR on the regulation of AMPK phosphorylation and AMPK-mediated Tau phosphorylation. We found that AMPK(Ser-485), but not AMPK(Thr-172), phosphorylation is increased in the cortex of db/db and high fat diet-fed obese mice, two mouse models of IR. In vitro, treatment of human cortical stem cell line (HK-5320) and primary mouse embryonic cortical neurons with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), induced AMPK phosphorylation at both Thr-172 and Ser-485. AMPK activation also triggered Tau dephosphorylation. When IR was mimicked in vitro by chronically treating the cells with insulin, AICAR specifically induced AMPK(Ser-485), but not AMPK(Thr-172), hyperphosphorylation whereas AICAR-induced Tau dephosphorylation was inhibited. IR also resulted in the overactivation of Akt by AICAR treatment; however, preventing Akt overactivation during IR prevented AMPK(Ser-485) hyperphosphorylation and restored AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Transfection of AMPK(S485A) mutant caused similar results. Therefore, our results suggest the following mechanism for the adverse effect of IR on AD pathology: IR → chronic overactivation of Akt → AMPK(Ser-485) hyperphosphorylation → inhibition of AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Together, our results show for the first time a possible contribution of IR-induced AMPK(Ser-485) phosphorylation to the increased risk of AD in obesity and diabetes. PMID:26100639

  10. LD-Aminopterin in the Canine Homologue of Human Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Reveals Dosing Factors Affecting Optimal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zebala, John A.; Mundell, Alan; Messinger, Linda; Griffin, Craig E.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Kahn, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Options are limited for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) who do not respond to topical treatments. Antifolate therapy with systemic methotrexate improves the disease, but is associated with adverse effects. The investigational antifolate LD-aminopterin may offer improved safety. It is not known how antifolate dose and dosing frequency affect efficacy in AD, but a primary mechanism is thought to involve the antifolate-mediated accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). However, recent in vitro studies indicate that AICAR increases then decreases as a function of antifolate concentration. To address this issue and understand how dosing affects antifolate efficacy in AD, we examined the efficacy and safety of different oral doses and schedules of LD-aminopterin in the canine model of AD. Methods and Findings This was a multi-center, double-blind trial involving 75 subjects with canine AD randomized to receive up to 12 weeks of placebo, once-weekly (0.007, 0.014, 0.021 mg/kg) or twice-weekly (0.007 mg/kg) LD-aminopterin. The primary efficacy outcome was the Global Score (GS), a composite of validated measures of disease severity and itch. GS improved in all once-weekly cohorts, with 0.014 mg/kg being optimal and significant (43%, P<0.01). The majority of improvement was seen by 8 weeks. In contrast, GS in the twice-weekly cohort was similar to placebo and worse than all once-weekly cohorts. Adverse events were similar across all treated cohorts and placebo. Conclusions Once-weekly LD-aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and weekly dose as effective once-weekly regimens. Optimal dosing in this homologue of human AD correlated with the concentration-selective accumulation of AICAR in vitro, consistent with AICAR mediating LD-aminopterin efficacy in AD. PMID:25255447

  11. Acute Exercise Improves Insulin Clearance and Increases the Expression of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sandra M.; Vettorazzi, Jean F.; Nardelli, Tarlliza R.; Araujo, Hygor N.; Santos, Gustavo J.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Boschero, Antonio C.; Rezende, Luiz F.; Costa-Júnior, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we have explored the effect of acute exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression in lean mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a single bout of exercise on a speed/angle controlled treadmill for 3-h at approximately 60–70% of maximum oxygen consumption. As expected, acute exercise reduced glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin tolerance. The activity of AMPK-ACC, but not of IR-Akt, pathway was increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of trained mice. In an apparent contrast to the reduced insulinemia, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets of these mice. However, insulin clearance was increased after acute exercise and was accompanied by increased expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), in the liver and skeletal muscle. Finally, C2C12, but not HEPG2 cells, incubated at different concentrations of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 3-h, showed increased expression of IDE. In conclusion, acute exercise increases insulin clearance, probably due to an augmentation of IDE expression in the liver and skeletal muscle. The elevated IDE expression, in the skeletal muscle, seems to be mediated by activation of AMPK-ACC pathway, in response to exercise. We believe that the increase in the IDE expression, comprise a safety measure to maintain glycemia at or close to physiological levels, turning physical exercise more effective and safe. PMID:27467214

  12. An Ancient Riboswitch Class in Bacteria Regulates Purine Biosynthesis and One-carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter B.; Nelson, James W.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Over thirty years ago, ZTP (5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside 5'-triphosphate), a modified purine biosynthetic intermediate, was proposed to signal 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (10f-THF) deficiency in bacteria. However, the mechanisms by which this putative alarmone or its precursor ZMP (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, also known as AICAR) brings about any metabolic changes remain unexplained. Herein we report the existence of a widespread riboswitch class that is most commonly associated with genes related to de novo purine biosynthesis and one carbon metabolism. Biochemical data confirms that members of this riboswitch class selectively bind ZMP and ZTP with nanomolar affinity, while strongly rejecting numerous natural analogs. Indeed, increases in the ZMP/ZTP pool, caused by folate stress in bacterial cells, trigger changes in the expression of a reporter gene fused to representative ZTP riboswitches in vivo. The wide distribution of this riboswitch class suggests that ZMP/ZTP signaling is important for species in numerous bacterial lineages. PMID:25616067

  13. Acute Exercise Improves Insulin Clearance and Increases the Expression of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Swiss Mice.

    PubMed

    Kurauti, Mirian A; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Sandra M; Vettorazzi, Jean F; Nardelli, Tarlliza R; Araujo, Hygor N; Santos, Gustavo J; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Rezende, Luiz F; Costa-Júnior, José M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we have explored the effect of acute exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression in lean mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a single bout of exercise on a speed/angle controlled treadmill for 3-h at approximately 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption. As expected, acute exercise reduced glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin tolerance. The activity of AMPK-ACC, but not of IR-Akt, pathway was increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of trained mice. In an apparent contrast to the reduced insulinemia, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets of these mice. However, insulin clearance was increased after acute exercise and was accompanied by increased expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), in the liver and skeletal muscle. Finally, C2C12, but not HEPG2 cells, incubated at different concentrations of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 3-h, showed increased expression of IDE. In conclusion, acute exercise increases insulin clearance, probably due to an augmentation of IDE expression in the liver and skeletal muscle. The elevated IDE expression, in the skeletal muscle, seems to be mediated by activation of AMPK-ACC pathway, in response to exercise. We believe that the increase in the IDE expression, comprise a safety measure to maintain glycemia at or close to physiological levels, turning physical exercise more effective and safe. PMID:27467214

  14. Identification of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of RAD52 by Structure-Based Selection

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Daniel L.; Ostrov, David A.; Haas, Kimberly; Childers, Wayne; Hromas, Robert; Skorski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that inhibition of RAD52 either by specific shRNA or a small peptide aptamer induced synthetic lethality in tumor cell lines carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 inactivating mutations. Molecular docking was used to screen two chemical libraries: 1) 1,217 FDA approved drugs, and 2) 139,735 drug-like compounds to identify candidates for interacting with DNA binding domain of human RAD52. Thirty six lead candidate compounds were identified that were predicted to interfere with RAD52 –DNA binding. Further biological testing confirmed that 9 of 36 candidate compounds were able to inhibit the binding of RAD52 to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Based on molecular binding combined with functional assays, we propose a model in which the active compounds bind to a critical “hotspot” in RAD52 DNA binding domain 1. In addition, one of the 9 active compounds, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (A5MP), and also its mimic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) 5’ phosphate (ZMP) inhibited RAD52 activity in vivo and exerted synthetic lethality against BRCA1 and BRCA2–mutated carcinomas. These data suggest that active, inhibitory RAD52 binding compounds could be further refined for efficacy and safety to develop drugs inducing synthetic lethality in tumors displaying deficiencies in BRCA1/2-mediated homologous recombination. PMID:26784987

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates the assembly of epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ji; Young, Lawrence H; Caplan, Michael J

    2006-11-14

    AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy status in all eukaryotic cells, is activated by LKB1-dependent phosphorylation. Recent studies indicate that activated LKB1 induces polarity in epithelial cells and that this polarization is accompanied by the formation of tight junction structures. We wished to determine whether AMPK also contributes to the assembly of tight junctions in the epithelial cell polarization process. We found that AMPK is activated during calcium-induced tight junction assembly. Activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside facilitates tight junction assembly under conditions of normal extracellular Ca2+ concentrations and initiates tight junction assembly in the absence of Ca2+ as revealed by the relocation of zonula occludens 1, the establishment of transepithelial electrical resistance, and the paracellular flux assay. Expression of a dominant negative AMPK construct inhibits tight junction assembly in MDCK cells, and this defect in tight junction assembly can be partially ameliorated by rapamycin. These results suggest that AMPK plays a role in the regulation of tight junction assembly. PMID:17088526

  16. Nonenzymatic synthesis of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleoside and recognition of its facile rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Groziak, M P; Bhat, B; Leonard, N J

    1988-10-01

    5-Amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole 5'-monophosphate (AIR, 1) is the ubiquitous precursor to the purine ribonucleotides in vivo, and it serves as the biochemical precursor to the pyrimidine portion of thiamin (vitamin B1) in certain prokaryotic organisms. The corresponding ribonucleoside (AIRs, 5b) was prepared via chemical (nonenzymatic) synthesis from 5-amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide. The tri-O-acetylated derivative of AIRs (5a) was also prepared, and it was shown to undergo a facile ring transformation in aqueous pH 7 buffer to afford N-(imidazol-4-yl)-2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-D-ribofuranosylamine as a 1:2 mixture of alpha and beta anomers (6a). Under similar conditions, compound 5b affords the corresponding unprotected beta-ribonucleosides 6b. This Dimroth-type ring transformation reaction of 5 to 6, which occurs primarily in neutral aqueous solution, may be responsible for the previously reported lability of AIRs and its derivatives. It may also have relevance to the postulated early biotic pathway to the 9- and 3-substituted purine nucleotide components of an all-purine biopolymer. PMID:3174626

  17. Ribonucleoside Triphosphates as Substrate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase in Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Gavegnano, Christina; Nguyen, Laura; Slater, Rebecca; Lucas, Amanda; Fromentin, Emilie; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Kim, Baek

    2010-01-01

    We biochemically simulated HIV-1 DNA polymerization in physiological nucleotide pools found in two HIV-1 target cell types: terminally differentiated/non-dividing macrophages and activated/dividing CD4+ T cells. Quantitative tandem mass spectrometry shows that macrophages harbor 22–320-fold lower dNTP concentrations and a greater disparity between ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) and dNTP concentrations than dividing target cells. A biochemical simulation of HIV-1 reverse transcription revealed that rNTPs are efficiently incorporated into DNA in the macrophage but not in the T cell environment. This implies that HIV-1 incorporates rNTPs during viral replication in macrophages and also predicts that rNTP chain terminators lacking a 3′-OH should inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcription in macrophages. Indeed, 3′-deoxyadenosine inhibits HIV-1 proviral DNA synthesis in human macrophages more efficiently than in CD4+ T cells. This study reveals that the biochemical landscape of HIV-1 replication in macrophages is unique and that ribonucleoside chain terminators may be a new class of anti-HIV-1 agents specifically targeting viral macrophage infection. PMID:20924117

  18. Conformational analysis of a quinolonic ribonucleoside with anti-HSV-1 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Julliane D.; Velloso, Marcia Helena R.; Leal, Kátia Z.; Azeredo, Rodrigo B. de V.; Sugiura, Makiko; Albuquerque, Magaly G.; Santos, Fernanda da C.; Souza, Maria Cecília B. V. de; Cunha, Anna Claudia; Seidl, Peter R.; Alencastro, Ricardo B. de; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    2011-01-01

    The infections caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus are one of the most common sources of diseases in adults and several natural nucleoside analogues are currently used in the treatment of these infections. In vitro tests of a series of quinolonic ribonucleosides derivatives synthesized by part of our group indicated that some of them have antiviral activity against HSV-1. The conformational analysis of bioactive compounds is extremely important in order to better understand their chemical structures and biological activity. In this work, we have carried out a nuclear relaxation NMR study of 6-Me ribonucleoside derivative in order to determine if the syn or anti conformation is preferential. The NMR analysis permits the determination of inter-atomic distances by using techniques which are based on nuclear relaxation and related phenomena. Those techniques are non-selective longitudinal or spin-lattice relaxation rates and NULL pulse sequence, which allow the determination of distances between pairs of hydrogen atoms. The results of NMR studies were compared with those obtained by molecular modeling.

  19. The anaerobic ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Escherichia coli requires S-adenosylmethionine as a cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, R; Fontecave, M; Jörnvall, H; Krook, M; Pontis, E; Reichard, P

    1990-01-01

    Extracts from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli contain an oxygen-sensitive activity that reduces CTP to dCTP in the presence of NADPH, dithiothreitol, Mg2+ ions, and ATP, different from the aerobic ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (2'-deoxyribonucleoside-diphosphate: oxidized-thioredoxin 2'-oxidoreductase, EC 1.17.4.1) present in aerobically grown E. coli. After fractionation, the activity required at least five components, two heat-labile protein fractions and several low molecular weight fractions. One protein fraction, suggested to represent the actual ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase was purified extensively and on denaturing gel electrophoresis gave rise to several defined protein bands, all of which were stained by a polyclonal antibody against one of the two subunits (protein B1) of the aerobic reductase but not by monoclonal anti-B1 antibodies. Peptide mapping and sequence analyses revealed partly common structures between two types of protein bands but also suggested the presence of an additional component. Obviously, the preparations are heterogeneous and the structure of the reductase is not yet established. The second, crude protein fraction is believed to contain several ancillary enzymes required for the reaction. One of the low molecular weight components is S-adenosylmethionine; a second component is a loosely bound metal. We propose that S-adenosylmethionine together with a metal participates in the generation of the radical required for the reduction of carbon 2' of the ribosyl moiety of CTP. Images PMID:2185465

  20. Zirconium-doped magnetic microspheres for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing ribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Chen, Peihong; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-05-27

    Zirconium-doped magnetic microspheres (Zr-Fe3O4) for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules were easily synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Characterization of the microspheres revealed that zirconium was successfully doped into the lattice of Fe3O4 at a doping level of 4.0 at%. Zr-Fe3O4 possessed good magnetic properties and high specificity towards cis-diol molecules, as shown using 28 compounds. For ribonucleosides, the adsorbent not only has favorable anti-interferential abilities but also has a high adsorption capacity up to 159.4μmol/g. As an example of a real application, four ribonucleosides in urine were efficiently enriched and detected via magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were determined to be between 0.005 and 0.017μg/mL, and the linearities ranged from 0.02 to 5.00μg/mL (R≥0.996) for these analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recoveries of the analytes in real urine samples, with recoveries varying from 77.8% to 119.6% (RSDs<10.6%, n=6). The results indicate that Zr-Fe3O4 is a suitable adsorbent for the analysis of cis-diol-containing biomolecules in practical applications. PMID:27130580

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates the vacuolar H+-ATPase via direct phosphorylation of the A subunit (ATP6V1A) in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, Rodrigo; Al-Bataineh, Mohammad M.; Liu, Wen; Gong, Fan; Li, Hui; Thali, Ramon F.; Joho-Auchli, Yolanda; Brunisholz, René A.; Satlin, Lisa M.; Neumann, Dietbert; Pastor-Soler, Núria M.

    2013-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in intercalated cells contributes to luminal acidification in the kidney collecting duct and nonvolatile acid excretion. We previously showed that the A subunit in the cytoplasmic V1 sector of the V-ATPase (ATP6V1A) is phosphorylated by the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in kidney cells. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of rabbit isolated, perfused collecting ducts with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) inhibited V-ATPase-dependent H+ secretion from intercalated cells after an acid load. We have identified by mass spectrometry that Ser-384 is a major AMPK phosphorylation site in the V-ATPase A subunit, a result confirmed by comparing AMPK-dependent phosphate labeling of wild-type A-subunit (WT-A) with that of a Ser-384-to-Ala A subunit mutant (S384A-A) in vitro and in intact HEK-293 cells. Compared with WT-A-expressing HEK-293 cells, S384A-A-expressing cells exhibited greater steady-state acidification of HCO3−-containing media. Moreover, AICAR treatment of clone C rabbit intercalated cells expressing the WT-A subunit reduced V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification, an effect that was blocked in cells expressing the phosphorylation-deficient S384A-A mutant. Finally, expression of the S384A-A mutant prevented cytoplasmic redistribution of the V-ATPase by AICAR in clone C cells. In summary, direct phosphorylation of the A subunit at Ser-384 by AMPK represents a novel regulatory mechanism of the V-ATPase in kidney intercalated cells. Regulation of the V-ATPase by AMPK may couple V-ATPase activity to cellular metabolic status with potential relevance to ischemic injury in the kidney and other tissues. PMID:23863464

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Antiviral Activity of Novel Ribonucleosides of 1,2,3-Triazolylbenzyl-aminophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Ouahrouch, Abdelaaziz; Taourirte, Moha; Schols, Dominique; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Engels, Joachim W; Lazrek, Hassan B

    2016-01-01

    A novel series of ribonucleosides of 1,2,3-triazolylbenzyl-aminophosphonates was synthesized through the Kabachnik-Fields reaction using I2 as catalyst followed by copper-catalyzed cycloaddition of the azide-alkyne reaction (CuAAC). All structures of the newly prepared compounds were characterized by (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and HRMS spectra. The structures of 2e, 2f, 3d, and 3g were further confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. These compounds were tested against various strains of DNA and RNA viruses; compounds 4b and 4c showed a modest inhibitory activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compound 4h displayed modest inhibitory activity against Coxsackie virus B4. PMID:26575425

  3. Combined Treatment of MCF-7 Cells with AICAR and Methotrexate, Arrests Cell Cycle and Reverses Warburg Metabolism through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and FOXO1

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Nagy, Lilla; Dér, Ádám; Kiss, Borbála; Bai, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by metabolic alterations, namely, depressed mitochondrial oxidation, enhanced glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt flux to support rapid cell growth, which is called the Warburg effect. In our study we assessed the metabolic consequences of a joint treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with AICAR, an inducer of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) jointly with methotrexate (MTX), a folate-analog antimetabolite that blunts de novo nucleotide synthesis. MCF7 cells, a model of breast cancer cells, were resistant to the individual application of AICAR or MTX, however combined treatment of AICAR and MTX reduced cell proliferation. Prolonged joint application of AICAR and MTX induced AMPK and consequently enhanced mitochondrial oxidation and reduced the rate of glycolysis. These metabolic changes suggest an anti-Warburg rearrangement of metabolism that led to the block of the G1/S and the G2/M transition slowing down cell cycle. The slowdown of cell proliferation was abolished when mitotropic transcription factors, PGC-1α, PGC-1β or FOXO1 were silenced. In human breast cancers higher expression of AMPKα and FOXO1 extended survival. AICAR and MTX exerts similar additive antiproliferative effect on other breast cancer cell lines, such as SKBR and 4T1 cells, too. Our data not only underline the importance of Warburg metabolism in breast cancer cells but nominate the AICAR+MTX combination as a potential cytostatic regime blunting Warburg metabolism. Furthermore, we suggest the targeting of AMPK and FOXO1 to combat breast cancer. PMID:26919657

  4. Combined Treatment of MCF-7 Cells with AICAR and Methotrexate, Arrests Cell Cycle and Reverses Warburg Metabolism through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and FOXO1.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Nagy, Lilla; Dér, Ádám; Kiss, Borbála; Bai, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by metabolic alterations, namely, depressed mitochondrial oxidation, enhanced glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt flux to support rapid cell growth, which is called the Warburg effect. In our study we assessed the metabolic consequences of a joint treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with AICAR, an inducer of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) jointly with methotrexate (MTX), a folate-analog antimetabolite that blunts de novo nucleotide synthesis. MCF7 cells, a model of breast cancer cells, were resistant to the individual application of AICAR or MTX, however combined treatment of AICAR and MTX reduced cell proliferation. Prolonged joint application of AICAR and MTX induced AMPK and consequently enhanced mitochondrial oxidation and reduced the rate of glycolysis. These metabolic changes suggest an anti-Warburg rearrangement of metabolism that led to the block of the G1/S and the G2/M transition slowing down cell cycle. The slowdown of cell proliferation was abolished when mitotropic transcription factors, PGC-1α, PGC-1β or FOXO1 were silenced. In human breast cancers higher expression of AMPKα and FOXO1 extended survival. AICAR and MTX exerts similar additive antiproliferative effect on other breast cancer cell lines, such as SKBR and 4T1 cells, too. Our data not only underline the importance of Warburg metabolism in breast cancer cells but nominate the AICAR+MTX combination as a potential cytostatic regime blunting Warburg metabolism. Furthermore, we suggest the targeting of AMPK and FOXO1 to combat breast cancer. PMID:26919657

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of AICAR and DOX Conjugated Multifunctional Nanoparticles as a Platform for Synergistic Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Daglioglu, Cenk; Okutucu, Burcu

    2016-04-20

    The success of cancer treatment depends on the response to chemotherapeutic agents. However, malignancies often acquire resistance to drugs if they are used frequently. Combination therapy involving both a chemotherapeutic agent and molecularly targeted therapy may have the ability to retain and enhance therapeutic efficacy. Here, we addressed this issue by examining the efficacy of a novel therapeutic strategy that combines AICAR and DOX within a multifunctional platform. In this context, we reported the bottom-up synthesis of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)-FA/AICAR/DOX multifunctional nanoparticles aiming to neutralize survivin (BIRC5) to potentiate the efficacy of DOX against chemoresistance. The structure of nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electron microscopy (SEM and STEM with EDX) techniques. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated preferentially targeted delivery of nanoparticles and an efficient reduction of cancer cell viability in five different tumor-derived cell lines (A549, HCT-116, HeLa, Jurkat, and MIA PaCa-2). These results indicate that the multifunctional nanoparticle system possesses high inhibitory drug association and sustained cytotoxic effect with good biocompatibility. This novel approach which combines AICAR and DOX within a single platform might be promising as an antitumor treatment for cancer. PMID:26996194

  6. Glucose and palmitate uncouple AMPK from autophagy in human aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cacicedo, José M.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Ido, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated autophagy and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity are each associated with atherogenesis. Atherogenesis is preceded by high circulating concentrations of glucose and fatty acids, yet the mechanism by which these nutrients regulate autophagy in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) is not known. Furthermore, whereas AMPK is recognized as an activator of autophagy in cells with few nutrients, its effects on autophagy in nutrient-rich HAECs has not been investigated. We maintained and passaged primary HAECs in media containing 25 mM glucose and incubated them subsequently with 0.4 mM palmitate. These conditions impaired basal autophagy and rendered HAECs more susceptible to apoptosis and adhesion of monocytes, outcomes attenuated by the autophagy activator rapamycin. Glucose and palmitate diminished AMPK activity and phosphorylation of the uncoordinated-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) at Ser555, an autophagy-activating site targeted by AMPK. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-mediated activation of AMPK phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but treatment with AICAR or other AMPK activators (A769662, phenformin) did not restore ULK1 phosphorylation or autophagosome formation. To determine whether palmitate-induced ceramide accumulation contributed to this finding, we overexpressed a ceramide-metabolizing enzyme, acid ceramidase. The increase in acid ceramidase expression ameliorated the effects of excess nutrients on ULK1 phosphorylation, without altering the effects of the AMPK activators. Thus, unlike low nutrient conditions, AMPK becomes uncoupled from autophagy in HAECs in a nutrient-rich environment, such as that found in patients with increased cardiovascular risk. These findings suggest that combinations of AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent therapies may be more effective alternatives than either therapy alone for treating nutrient-induced cellular dysfunction. PMID:25354528

  7. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  8. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs

    PubMed Central

    El Hadri, Khadija; Denoyelle, Chantal; Ravaux, Lucas; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Friguet, Bertrand; Rouis, Mustapha; Raymondjean, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA) plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6) was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs. PMID:26162096

  9. Insulin down-regulates the expression of ubiquitin E3 ligases partially by inhibiting the activity and expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Hu-Ping; Chai, Jia-Ke; Shen, Chuan-An; Zhang, Xi-Bo; Ma, Li; Sun, Tian-Jun; Hu, Qing-Gang; Chi, Yun-Fei; Dong, Ning

    2015-01-01

    While insulin is an anabolic hormone, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is not only a key energy regulator, but it can also control substrate metabolism directly by inducing skeletal muscle protein degradation. The hypothesis of the present study was that insulin inhibits AMPK and thus down-regulates the expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligases, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) in skeletal muscle cells. Differentiated L6 myotubes were treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and/or compound C to stimulate and/or block AMPK respectively. These treatments were also conducted in the presence or absence of insulin and the cells were analysed by western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, nuleotide levels were determined using HPLC. The activation of AMPK with AICAR enhanced the mRNA levels of MAFbx and MuRF1. Insulin reduced the phosphorylation and activity AMPK, which was accompanied by reduced MAFbx and MuRF1 mRNA levels. Using a protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) inhibitor, we found that insulin regulates AMPK through the activation of Akt. Furthermore, insulin down-regulated AMPK α2 mRNA. We conclude that insulin inhibits AMPK through Akt phosphorylation in L6 myotubes, which may serve as a possible signalling pathway for the down-regulation of protein degradation. In addition, decreased expression of AMPK α2 may partially participate in inhibiting the activity of AMPK. PMID:26193886

  10. A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO. PMID:23863407

  11. Metformin Promotes Apoptosis but Suppresses Autophagy in Glucose-Deprived H4IIE Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Metformin, a well-known anti-diabetic drug, has gained interest due to its association with the reduction of the prevalence of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes and the anti-proliferative effect of metformin in several cancer cells. Here, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of metformin with respect to apoptosis and autophagy in H4IIE hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods H4IIE rat cells were treated with metformin in glucose-free medium for 24 hours and were then subjected to experiments examining the onset of apoptosis and/or autophagy as well as the related signaling pathways. Results When H4IIE cells were incubated in glucose-free media for 24 hours, metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) reduced the viability of cells. Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by compound C significantly blocked cell death induced by metformin or AICAR. Pro-apoptotic events (nuclear condensation, hydrolysis of intact poly ADP ribose polymerase and caspase-3) were stimulated by metformin and then suppressed by compound C. Interestingly, the formation of acidic intracellular vesicles, a marker of autophagy, was stimulated by compound C. Although the deprivation of amino acids in culture media also induced apoptosis, neither metformin nor compound C affected cell viability. The expression levels of all of the autophagy-related proteins examined decreased with metformin, and two proteins (light chain 3 and beclin-1) were sensitive to compound C. Among the tested inhibitors against MAP kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin, SB202190 (against p38MAP kinase) significantly interrupted the effects of metformin. Conclusion Our data suggest that metformin induces apoptosis, but suppresses autophagy, in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via signaling pathways, including AMPK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. PMID:26706918

  12. Contraction and AICAR Stimulate IL-6 Vesicle Depletion From Skeletal Muscle Fibers In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hans P.M.M.; Brandauer, Josef; Schjerling, Peter; Koh, Ho-Jin; Treebak, Jonas T.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Galbo, Henrik; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin 6 (IL-6) is released from contracting skeletal muscles; however, the cellular origin, secretion kinetics, and signaling mechanisms regulating IL-6 secretion are unknown. To address these questions, we developed imaging methodology to study IL-6 in fixed mouse muscle fibers and in live animals in vivo. Using confocal imaging to visualize endogenous IL-6 protein in fixed muscle fibers, we found IL-6 in small vesicle structures distributed throughout the fibers under basal (resting) conditions. To determine the kinetics of IL-6 secretion, intact quadriceps muscles were transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged IL-6 (IL-6-EGFP), and 5 days later anesthetized mice were imaged before and after muscle contractions in situ. Contractions decreased IL-6-EGFP–containing vesicles and protein by 62% (P < 0.05), occurring rapidly and progressively over 25 min of contraction. However, contraction-mediated IL-6-EGFP reduction was normal in muscle-specific AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α2-inactive transgenic mice. In contrast, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased IL-6-EGFP vesicles, an effect that was inhibited in the transgenic mice. In conclusion, resting skeletal muscles contain IL-6–positive vesicles that are expressed throughout myofibers. Contractions stimulate the rapid reduction of IL-6 in myofibers, occurring through an AMPKα2-independent mechanism. This novel imaging methodology clearly establishes IL-6 as a contraction-stimulated myokine and can be used to characterize the secretion kinetics of other putative myokines. PMID:23761105

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD.

    PubMed

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A; Kellezi, Holti; Risis, Steve; Frøsig, Christian; Vienberg, Sara G; Treebak, Jonas T

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13-15), but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12-13) mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p = 0.051; n = 6). To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n = 7-8) and AMPK α2 KD (n = 7-9) mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n = 9-10). Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p < 0.01) and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p < 0.05). Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training. PMID:25852572

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A.; Kellezi, Holti; Risis, Steve; Frøsig, Christian; Vienberg, Sara G.; Treebak, Jonas T.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13–15), but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12–13) mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p = 0.051; n = 6). To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n = 7–8) and AMPK α2 KD (n = 7–9) mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n = 9–10). Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p < 0.01) and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p < 0.05). Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training. PMID:25852572

  15. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK) Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Kristóf, Endre; Doan-Xuan, Quang-Minh; Vida, András; Nagy, Lilla; Horváth, Ambrus; Simon, József; Maros, Tamás; Szentkirályi, István; Palotás, Lehel; Debreceni, Tamás; Csizmadia, Péter; Szerafin, Tamás; Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Tóth, Attila; Kiss, Borbála; Bacsó, Zsolt; Bai, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR), a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis) when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained the same when

  16. Regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis by guanosine tetraphosphate and pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Turnbough, C L

    1983-02-01

    The effects of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) and pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphates on Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) synthesis were examined. To determine the effect of ppGpp, a stringent (relA+) and relaxed (relA) isogenic pair of E. coli K-12 strains was starved for isoleucine, and the residual rate of synthesis of this enzyme was measured. It was necessary to starve the strains for uracil before the isoleucine limitation to maintain similar, low levels of UTP, the putative pyrimidine effector of ATCase synthesis. The isoleucine starvation of the stringent strain caused an immediate 10-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of ppGpp, which was coincident with the cessation of the synthesis of the enzyme. The elevated level of ppGpp then decayed until it reached an intracellular concentration similar to that found in unstarved cells. Enzyme synthesis resumed at this time. In the relaxed strain, the intracellular concentration of ppGpp did not increase upon isoleucine starvation and synthesis of the enzyme was not repressed. These experiments strongly indicated that ppGpp acts as a negative effector of ATCase synthesis. The repression of ATCase synthesis by ppGpp was demonstrated directly by using a Salmonella typhimurium (relA) in vitro coupled transcription-translation system with a lambda specialized transducing phage carrying the E. coli K-12 operon encoding the subunits of this enzyme (pyrBI) as a source of DNA. This in vitro system was also used to measure the effects of UTP and CTP on ATCase synthesis. Increasing the concentration of UTP in the in vitro reaction mixture resulted in strong repression of this synthesis, whereas increasing the CTP concentration did not affect synthesis significantly. Possible mechanisms for the regulation of pyr gene expression, including attenuation control, are discussed. PMID:6337130

  17. Novel method of synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyl-ribonucleosides and their 3'-phosphoramidites.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Marcin K; Markiewicz, Wojciech T

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides [Nr(p)] of four common ribonucleosides, and 3'-phosphoramidites of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyladenosine and 2'-O-ribosylguanosine using the H-phosphonate chemistry is described. An additional ring protected by benzoyl groups was incorporated into the main ribosyl ring in the reaction with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose in the presence of SnCl4. The obtained 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides (Nr) were applied in the subsequent transformations with selective deprotection. Ethanolamine was applied as a very convenient reagent for selective removal of benzoyl groups. Additionally, the tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl (TIPDSi) group was found to be stable under these deprotection conditions. Thus, the selectively deprotected 5''-hydroxyl group of Nr was transformed into an H-phosphonate monoester which was found to be stable under the following conditions: the removal of the TIPDSi group with triethylammonium fluoride and the dimethoxytritylation of the 5''-hydroxyl function. The 5''-H-phosphonate of Nr precursors was easily transformed to the corresponding dicyanoethyl 5''-O-phosphotriesters before phosphitylation, which gave 3'-phosphoramidite units of Nr(p) in high yield. The derived phosphoramidite units were used in an automated oligonucleotide synthesizer to produce dimer Ar(p)T via the phosphoramidite approach. The obtained products were fully deprotected under standard deprotection conditions giving dimers with a 5''-phosphate monoester function. Application of an alkaline phosphatase to prove the presence of an additional phosphate group was described. PMID:24352053

  18. Characterization of the three-dimensional free energy manifold for the uracil ribonucleoside from asynchronous replica exchange simulations.

    PubMed

    Radak, Brian K; Romanus, Melissa; Lee, Tai-Sung; Chen, Haoyuan; Huang, Ming; Treikalis, Antons; Balasubramanian, Vivekanandan; Jha, Shantenu; York, Darrin M

    2015-02-10

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics has emerged as a powerful tool for efficiently sampling free energy landscapes for conformational and chemical transitions. However, daunting challenges remain in efficiently getting such simulations to scale to the very large number of replicas required to address problems in state spaces beyond two dimensions. The development of enabling technology to carry out such simulations is in its infancy, and thus it remains an open question as to which applications demand extension into higher dimensions. In the present work, we explore this problem space by applying asynchronous Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics with a combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical potential to explore the conformational space for a simple ribonucleoside. This is done using a newly developed software framework capable of executing >3,000 replicas with only enough resources to run 2,000 simultaneously. This may not be possible with traditional synchronous replica exchange approaches. Our results demonstrate 1.) the necessity of high dimensional sampling simulations for biological systems, even as simple as a single ribonucleoside, and 2.) the utility of asynchronous exchange protocols in managing simultaneous resource requirements expected in high dimensional sampling simulations. It is expected that more complicated systems will only increase in computational demand and complexity, and thus the reported asynchronous approach may be increasingly beneficial in order to make such applications available to a broad range of computational scientists. PMID:26580900

  19. Doping control analysis of 46 polar drugs in horse plasma and urine using a 'dilute-and-shoot' ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Wai Him; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Karen Y; Chan, George H M; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2016-06-17

    The high sensitivity of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) allows the identification of many prohibited substances without pre-concentration, leading to the development of simple and fast 'dilute-and-shoot' methods for doping control for human and equine sports. While the detection of polar drugs in plasma and urine is difficult using liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction as these substances are poorly extracted, the 'dilute-and-shoot' approach is plausible. This paper describes a 'dilute-and-shoot' UHPLC-HRMS screening method to detect 46 polar drugs in equine urine and plasma, including some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, sympathomimetics, anti-epileptics, hemostatics, the new doping agent 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), as well as two threshold substances, namely dimethyl sulfoxide and theobromine. For plasma, the sample (200μL) was protein precipitated using trichloroacetic acid, and the resulting supernatant was diluted using Buffer A with an overall dilution factor of 3. For urine, the sample (20μL) was simply diluted 50-fold with Buffer A. The diluted plasma or urine sample was then analysed using a UHPLC-HRMS system in full-scan ESI mode. The assay was validated for qualitative identification purpose. This straightforward and reliable approach carried out in combination with other screening procedures has increased the efficiency of doping control analysis in the laboratory. Moreover, since the UHPLC-HRMS data were acquired in full-scan mode, the method could theoretically accommodate an unlimited number of existing and new doping agents, and would allow a retrospectively search for drugs that have not been targeted at the time of analysis. PMID:27180888

  20. Acadesine Kills Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Cells through PKC-Dependent Induction of Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Guillaume; Ben Sahra, Issam; Puissant, Alexandre; Colosetti, Pascal; Belhacene, Nathalie; Gounon, Pierre; Hofman, Paul; Bost, Fréderic; Cassuto, Jill-Patrice; Auberger, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CML is an hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11) translocation encoding the oncoprotein p210BCR-ABL. The effect of acadesine (AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) a compound with known antileukemic effect on B cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (B-CLL) was investigated in different CML cell lines. Acadesine triggered loss of cell metabolism in K562, LAMA-84 and JURL-MK1 and was also effective in killing imatinib-resistant K562 cells and Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I-BCR-ABL mutation. The anti-leukemic effect of acadesine did not involve apoptosis but required rather induction of autophagic cell death. AMPK knock-down by Sh-RNA failed to prevent the effect of acadesine, indicating an AMPK-independent mechanism. The effect of acadesine was abrogated by GF109203X and Ro-32-0432, both inhibitor of classical and new PKCs and accordingly, acadesine triggered relocation and activation of several PKC isoforms in K562 cells. In addition, this compound exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in clonogenic assays of CML cells in methyl cellulose and in a xenograft model of K562 cells in nude mice. In conclusion, our work identifies an original and unexpected mechanism by which acadesine triggers autophagic cell death through PKC activation. Therefore, in addition to its promising effects in B-CLL, acadesine might also be beneficial for Imatinib-resistant CML patients. PMID:19924252

  1. Activation of AMPKα2 Is Not Required for Mitochondrial FAT/CD36 Accumulation during Exercise.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia; Whitfield, Jamie; Jain, Swati S; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to induce the translocation of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), a fatty acid transport protein, to both plasma and mitochondrial membranes. While previous studies have examined signals involved in the induction of FAT/CD36 translocation to sarcolemmal membranes, to date the signaling events responsible for FAT/CD36 accumulation on mitochondrial membranes have not been investigated. In the current study muscle contraction rapidly increased FAT/CD36 on plasma membranes (7.5 minutes), while in contrast, FAT/CD36 only increased on mitochondrial membranes after 22.5 minutes of muscle contraction, a response that was exercise-intensity dependent. Considering that previous research has shown that AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) α2 is not required for FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane, we investigated whether AMPK α2 signaling is necessary for mitochondrial FAT/CD36 accumulation. Administration of 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) induced AMPK phosphorylation, and resulted in FAT/CD36 accumulation on SS mitochondria, suggesting AMPK signaling may mediate this response. However, SS mitochondrial FAT/CD36 increased following acute treadmill running in both wild-type (WT) and AMPKα 2 kinase dead (KD) mice. These data suggest that AMPK signaling is not required for SS mitochondrial FAT/CD36 accumulation. The current data also implicates alternative signaling pathways that are exercise-intensity dependent, as IMF mitochondrial FAT/CD36 content only occurred at a higher power output. Taken altogether the current data suggests that activation of AMPK signaling is sufficient but not required for exercise-induced accumulation in mitochondrial FAT/CD36. PMID:25965390

  2. Phyllostachys edulis extract induces apoptosis signaling in osteosarcoma cells, associated with AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chi-Wen; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bamboo is distributed worldwide, and its different parts are used as foods or as a traditional herb. Recently, antitumoral effects of bamboo extracts on several tumors have been increasingly reported; however, antitumoral activity of bamboo extracts on osteosarcoma remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated effects of an aqueous Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract (PEE) on osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanism of inhibition. Methods The growth of human osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and MG-63 and lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Apoptosis was demonstrated using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and flow cytometric analysis. Phosphorylation and protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. Results After treatment with PEE, viability of 143B and MG-63 cells was dose-dependently reduced to 36.3%±1.6% of control values, which were similar to AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside) treatments. In parallel, ratios of apoptotic cells and cells in the sub-G1 phase were significantly increased. Further investigation showed that PEE treatments led to activation of caspase cascades and changes of apoptotic mediators Bcl2, Bax, and p53. Consistently, our results revealed that PEE activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, and the AMPK activation was associated with the induction of apoptotic signaling. Conclusion Our results indicated that PEE suppressed the growth of 143B and MG-63 cells but moderately affected MRC-5 cells. PEE-induced apoptosis may attribute to AMPK activation and the following activation of apoptotic signaling cascades. These findings revealed that PEE possesses antitumoral activity on human osteosarcoma cells by manipulating AMPK signaling, suggesting that PEE alone or combined with regular antitumor drugs may be beneficial as osteosarcoma

  3. Perturbing microtubule integrity blocks AMP-activated protein kinase-induced meiotic resumption in cultured mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ya, Ru; Downs, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    The oocyte meiotic spindle is comprised of microtubules (MT) that bind chromatin and regulate both metaphase plate formation and karyokinesis during meiotic maturation; however, little information is known about their role in meiosis reinitiation. This study was conducted to determine if microtubule integrity is required for meiotic induction and to ascertain how it affects activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important participant in the meiotic induction process. Treatment with microtubule-disrupting agents nocodazole and vinblastine suppressed meiotic resumption in a dose-dependent manner in both arrested cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) stimulated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and arrested denuded oocytes (DO) stimulated with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR). This effect coincided with suppression of AMPK activation as determined by western blotting and germinal vesicle immunostaining. Treatment with the MT stabilizer paclitaxel also suppressed meiotic induction. Targeting actin filament polymerization had only a marginal effect on meiotic induction. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that active AMPK colocalized with γ-tubulin during metaphase I and II stages, while it localized at the spindle midzone during anaphase. This discrete localization pattern was dependent on MT integrity. Treatment with nocodazole led to disruption of proper spindle pole localization of active AMPK, while paclitaxel induced excessive polymerization of spindle MT and formation of ectopic asters with accentuated AMPK colocalization. Although stimulation of AMPK increased the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB), spindle formation and polar body (PB) extrusion, the kinase had no effect on peripheral movement of the spindle. These data suggest that the meiosis-inducing action and localization of AMPK are regulated by MT spindle integrity during mouse oocyte maturation. PMID:23199370

  4. Furanodiene alters mitochondrial function in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in an AMPK-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhang-Feng; Tan, Wen; Qiang, William W; Scofield, Virginia L; Tian, Ke; Wang, Chun-Ming; Qiang, Wen-An; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-04-26

    Furanodiene is a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from the spice-producing Curcuma wenyujin plant (Y. H. Chen and C. Ling) (C. wenyujin), which is a commonly prescribed herb used in clinical cancer therapy by modern practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine. Previously, we have shown that furanodiene inhibits breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, however, the mechanism for this effect is not yet known. In this study, therefore, we asked (1) whether cultured breast cancer cells made resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) via serial selection protocols are susceptible to furanodiene's anticancer effect, and (2) whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells, participates in this effect. We show here (1) that doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/DOX(R)) cells treated with furanodiene exhibit altered mitochondrial function and reduced levels of ATP, resulting in apoptotic cell death, and (2) that AMPK is central to this effect. In these cells, furanodiene (as opposed to doxorubicin) noticeably affects the phosphorylation of AMPK and AMPK pathway intermediates, ACLY and GSK-3β, suggesting that furanodiene reduces mitochondrial function and cellular ATP levels by way of AMPK activation. Finally, we find that the cell permeable agent and AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC), abolishes furanodiene-induced anticancer activity in these MCF-7/DOX(R) cells, with regard to cell growth inhibition and AMPK activation; in contrast, AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside, acadesine), an AMPK activator, augments furanodiene-induced anticancer activity. Furthermore, specific knockdown of AMPK in MCF-7/DOX(R) cells protects these cells from furanodiene-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMPK and its pathway intermediates are promising therapeutic targets for treating chemoresistant breast cancer, and that furanodiene may be an important

  5. MicroRNA-122 Down-Regulation Is Involved in Phenobarbital-Mediated Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Shizu, Ryota; Shindo, Sawako; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of target genes, including CYP2B and 3A. Phenobarbital activates CAR, at least in part, in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. However, the precise mechanisms underlying phenobarbital activation of AMPK are still unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that phenobarbital administration to mice decreases hepatic miR-122, a liver-enriched microRNA involved in both hepatic differentiation and function. The time-course change in the phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 was inversely correlated with AMPK activation. Phenobarbital decreased primary miR-122 to approximately 25% of the basal level as early as 1 h and suppressed transactivity of mir-122 promoter in HuH-7 cells, suggesting that the down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. AMPK activation by metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside had no evident effect on miR-122 levels. An inhibitory RNA specific for miR-122 increased activated AMPK and CAR-mediated trancactivation of the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the reporter activity induced by the ectopic CAR was almost completely suppressed by co-transfection with the miR-122 mimic RNA. GFP-tagged CAR was expressed in the cytoplasm in addition to the nucleus in the majority of HuH-7 cells in which miR-122 was highly expressed. Co-transfection of the mimic or the inhibitor RNA for miR-122 further increased or decreased, respectively, the number of cells that expressed GFP-CAR in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results suggest that phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 is an early and important event in the AMPK-dependent CAR activation and transactivation of its target genes. PMID:22815988

  6. MicroRNA-122 down-regulation is involved in phenobarbital-mediated activation of the constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Shindo, Sawako; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of target genes, including CYP2B and 3A. Phenobarbital activates CAR, at least in part, in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. However, the precise mechanisms underlying phenobarbital activation of AMPK are still unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that phenobarbital administration to mice decreases hepatic miR-122, a liver-enriched microRNA involved in both hepatic differentiation and function. The time-course change in the phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 was inversely correlated with AMPK activation. Phenobarbital decreased primary miR-122 to approximately 25% of the basal level as early as 1 h and suppressed transactivity of mir-122 promoter in HuH-7 cells, suggesting that the down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. AMPK activation by metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside had no evident effect on miR-122 levels. An inhibitory RNA specific for miR-122 increased activated AMPK and CAR-mediated trancactivation of the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the reporter activity induced by the ectopic CAR was almost completely suppressed by co-transfection with the miR-122 mimic RNA. GFP-tagged CAR was expressed in the cytoplasm in addition to the nucleus in the majority of HuH-7 cells in which miR-122 was highly expressed. Co-transfection of the mimic or the inhibitor RNA for miR-122 further increased or decreased, respectively, the number of cells that expressed GFP-CAR in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results suggest that phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 is an early and important event in the AMPK-dependent CAR activation and transactivation of its target genes. PMID:22815988

  7. δ-Opioid receptors stimulate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase through coincident signaling with G(q/11)-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Olianas, Alessandra; Onali, Pierluigi

    2012-02-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and δ-opioid receptors (DORs) are both involved in controlling cell survival, energy metabolism, and food intake, but little is known on the interaction between these two signaling molecules. Here we show that activation of human DORs stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells increased AMPK activity and AMPK phosphorylation on Thr172. DOR-induced AMPK phosphorylation was prevented by pertussis toxin, reduced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators, and unaffected by PKA, transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C inhibitors. Conversely, the DOR effect was reduced by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) inhibition, apyrase treatment, G(q/11) antagonism, and blockade of P2 purinergic receptors. Apyrase treatment also depressed DOR stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas P2 receptor antagonism blocked DOR stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary olfactory bulb neurons, DOR activation failed to affect AMPK phosphorylation per se but potentiated the stimulation by either muscarinic agonists or 2-methyl-thio-ADP. Sequestration of G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) blocked the DOR potentiation of AMPK phosphorylation induced by oxotremorine-M. In CHO cells, the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribonucleoside stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake, whereas pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of AMPKα1, and P2Y receptor blockade reduced DOR-stimulated glucose uptake. The data indicate that in different cell systems, DOR activation up-regulates AMPK through a Gβγ-dependent synergistic interaction with G(q/11)-coupled receptors, potentiating Ca(2+) release and CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK phosphorylation. In CHO cells, this coincident signaling mechanism is involved in DOR-induced glucose uptake. PMID:22031472

  8. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-01

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  9. Activated AMPK inhibits PPAR-{alpha} and PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sozio, Margaret S; Lu, Changyue; Zeng, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) are critical regulators of short-term and long-term fatty acid oxidation, respectively. We examined whether the activities of these molecules were coordinately regulated. H4IIEC3 cells were transfected with PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression plasmids and a peroxisome-proliferator-response element (PPRE) luciferase reporter plasmid. The cells were treated with PPAR agonists (WY-14,643 and rosiglitazone), AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) and metformin, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Both AICAR and metformin decreased basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity; compound C increased agonist-stimulated reporter activity and partially reversed the effect of the AMPK activators. Similar effects on PPAR-γ were seen, with both AICAR and metformin inhibiting PPRE reporter activity. Compound C increased basal PPAR-γ activity and rosiglitazone-stimulated activity. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α), another nuclear receptor that dimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), was largely unaffected by the AMPK activators. Compound C modestly increased AM580 (an RAR agonist)-stimulated activity. The AMPK activators did not affect PPAR-α binding to DNA, and there was no consistent correlation between effects of the AMPK activators and inhibitor on PPAR and the nuclear localization of AMPK-α subunits. Expression of either a constitutively active or dominant negative AMPK-α inhibited basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity and basal and rosiglitazone-stimulated PPAR-γ activity. We concluded that the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin inhibited transcriptional activities of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, whereas inhibition of AMPK with compound C activated both PPARs. The effects of AMPK do not appear to be mediated through effects on RXR or on PPAR/RXR binding to DNA. These effects are independent of kinase activity and instead appear to

  10. A Member of the Second Carbohydrate Uptake Subfamily of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters Is Responsible for Ribonucleoside Uptake in Streptococcus mutans▿

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Alexander J.; Hosie, Arthur H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has a significant number of transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Members of this superfamily are involved in the translocation of a diverse range of molecules across membranes. However, the functions of many of these members remain unknown. We have investigated the role of the single S. mutans representative of the second subfamily of carbohydrate uptake transporters (CUT2) of the ABC superfamily. The genetic context of genes encoding this transporter indicates that it may have a role in ribonucleoside scavenging. Inactivation of rnsA (ATPase) or rnsB (solute binding protein) resulted in strains resistant to 5-fluorocytidine and 5-fluorouridine (toxic ribonucleoside analogues). As other ribonucleosides including cytidine, uridine, adenosine, 2-deoxyuridine, and 2-deoxycytidine protected S. mutans from 5-fluorocytidine and 5-fluorouridine toxicity, it is likely that this transporter is involved in the uptake of these molecules. Indeed, the rnsA and rnsB mutants were unable to transport [2-14C]cytidine or [2-14C]uridine and had significantly reduced [8-14C]adenosine uptake rates. Characterization of this transporter in wild-type S. mutans indicates that it is a high-affinity (Km = 1 to 2 μM) transporter of cytidine, uridine, and adenosine. The inhibition of [14C]cytidine uptake by a range of structurally related molecules indicates that the CUT2 transporter is involved in the uptake of most ribonucleosides, including 2-deoxyribonucleosides, but not ribose or nucleobases. The characterization of this permease has directly shown for the first time that an ABC transporter is involved in the uptake of ribonucleosides and extends the range of substrates known to be transported by members of the ABC transporter superfamily. PMID:16997965

  11. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    SciTech Connect

    Russe, Otto Quintus Möser, Christine V. Kynast, Katharina L. King, Tanya S. Olbrich, Katrin Grösch, Sabine Geisslinger, Gerd Niederberger, Ellen

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells.

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Antiviral Activity of Novel Ribonucleosides of 1,2,3‐Triazolylbenzyl‐aminophosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Ouahrouch, Abdelaaziz; Taourirte, Moha; Schols, Dominique; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Lazrek, Hassan B.

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of ribonucleosides of 1,2,3‐triazolylbenzyl‐aminophosphonates was synthesized through the Kabachnik–Fields reaction using I2 as catalyst followed by copper‐catalyzed cycloaddition of the azide–alkyne reaction (CuAAC). All structures of the newly prepared compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS spectra. The structures of 2e, 2f, 3d, and 3g were further confirmed by X‐ray diffraction analysis. These compounds were tested against various strains of DNA and RNA viruses; compounds 4b and 4c showed a modest inhibitory activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compound 4h displayed modest inhibitory activity against Coxsackie virus B4. PMID:26575425

  13. A simple and convenient synthesis of 3'-5'- or 2'-5'-linked oligoribonucleotide by polymerization of unprotected ribonucleoside using phosphorus tris-azole.

    PubMed Central

    Shimidzu, T; Yamana, K; Kanda, N; Maikuma, S

    1984-01-01

    Oligoribonucleotides have been synthesized directly from unprotected ribonucleosides by a chemical polymerization approach using phosphorus tris-azoles. The procedure involves two steps: (i) the reaction of unprotected ribonucleoside with phosphorus tris-azole and (ii) the in situ oxidation of the resulting phosphite with iodine and water. Several phosphorus tris-azoles were investigated for generating oligoribonucleotide chains. Phosphorus tris-azoles of which azoles are imidazole, 2-methylimidazole, and 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole were found to be most effective. Uridine, adenosine, and cytidine oligonucleotides were obtained rapidly in high yields without any protection. The inter-ribonucleotidic linkage of the oligomers consists of 3'-5'- and 2'-5'-linkages. The linkage isomers were easily separated by a reverse phase column chromatography. The present approach provides a convenient and potentially useful method for preparing 3'-5'- or 2'-5'-linked oligoribonucleotides. PMID:6326056

  14. AMPK regulation of the growth of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Asish K. . E-mail: aksaha@bu.edu; Persons, Kelly; Safer, Joshua D.; Luo Zhijun; Holick, Michael F.; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2006-10-20

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensing enzyme that responds to cellular energy depletion by increasing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that require ATP but are not acutely necessary for survival. In the present study, we examined the relationship between AMPK activation and the growth (proliferation) of cultured human keratinocytes and assessed whether the inhibition of keratinocyte growth by vitamin D involves AMPK activation. In addition, we explored whether the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation as they approach confluence could be AMPK-related. Keratinocytes were incubated for 12 h with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-{beta}-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). At concentrations of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} M, AICAR inhibited keratinocyte growth by 50% and 95%, respectively, based on measurements of thymidine incorporation into DNA. It also increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (P-AMPK and P-ACC) and decreased the concentration of malonyl CoA confirming that AMPK activation had occurred. Incubation with the thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (10{sup -6} M) caused similar alterations in P-AMPK, P-ACC, and cell growth. In contrast, the well known inhibition of keratinocyte growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (10{sup -7} and 10{sup -6} M) was not associated with changes in P-AMPK or P-ACC. Like most cells, the growth of keratinocytes diminished as they approached confluence. Thus, it was of note that we found a progressive increase in P-AMPK (1.5- to 2-fold, p < 0.05) as keratinocytes grown in control medium went from 25% to 100% confluence. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of AMPK acts as a signal to diminish the proliferation of cultured keratinocytes as they approach confluence. They also suggest that AMPK activators, such as AICAR and troglitazone, inhibit keratinocyte growth and that the inhibition of cell growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} is AMPK-independent.

  15. [AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism].

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-02-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells and underlying molecular mechanism. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-activated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with different concentrations of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR) or AMPK inhibitor compound C. And other HAECs were overexpressed with constitutive active or dominant negative AMPK protein and then treated with TNFα. The rates of monocytes adhering to endothelial cells were detected by fluorescent staining. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA levels and protein secretions were detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Acetylation of NF-κB p65 at lysine 221 site was assessed by Western blot. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by an ELISA-based method. By using small interfering RNA based strategy, p300 expression in HAECs was down-regulated and then cells were incubated with TNFα. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions and adhesion rates were detected, respectively. The activity of p300 was also detected by ELISA. The results showed that AICAR treatment significantly reduced monocyte-endothelial adhesion rate, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA levels and protein secretions, in TNFα-activated HAECs. Moreover, transfection of constitutive active AMPKα but not dominant negative AMPKα strongly diminished TNFα-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions and secretions, as well as monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Furthermore, AMPK activation decreased TNFα-mediated acetylation of NF-κB p65 at Lys221 site and reduced NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity. Silencing p300 by siRNA significantly abolished the effect of TNFα- induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Blocking AMPK activation by compound C almost

  16. Molecular modeling studies of 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline ribonucleosides with anti-HSV-1 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Seidl, Peter Rudolf; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca

    2011-12-01

    Eight human herpes viruses ( e.g., herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma) are responsible for several diseases from sub-clinic manifestations to fatal infections, mostly in immunocompromised patients. The major limitations of the currently available antiviral drug therapy are drug resistance, host toxicity, and narrow spectrum of activity. However, some non-nucleoside 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline derivatives ( e.g., PNU-183792) [4] shows broad spectrum antiviral activity. We have developed molecular modeling studies, including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, based on a model proposed by Liu and co-workers [14] in order to understand the mechanism of action of a 6-chloro substituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline ribonucleoside, synthesized by the synthetic group, which showed anti-HSV-1 activity [9]. The molecular docking simulations confirmed the Liu's model showing that the ligand needs to dislocate template residues from the active site in order to interact with the viral DNA polymerase enzyme, reinforcing that the interaction with the Val823 residue is pivotal for the inhibitory activity of non-nucleoside 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline derivatives, such as PNU-183792, with the HSV-1. The molecular dynamics simulations showed that the 6-chloro-benzyl group of PNU-183792 maintains its interaction with residues of the HSV-1 DNA polymerase hydrophobic pocket, considered important according to the Liu's model, and also showed that the methyl group bounded to the nitrogen atom from PNU-183792 is probably contributing to a push-pull effect with the carbonyl group.

  17. Metabolism of 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) in rodent tissues and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Romaszko, P; Slominska, E M; Orlewska, C; Lipinski, M; Smolenski, R T

    2011-05-01

    Our previous studies identified 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) phosphates in human erythrocytes. We demonstrated formation of these nucleotides by phosphorylation of 4PYR and potential toxicity due to disruption of erythrocyte energy balance. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the other cell types to phosphorylate 4PYR to characterize function and toxicity of these compounds. Homogenates of rat heart, kidneys, and liver were used to study the rate of 4PYR phosphorylation in the presence of ATP. In another experiment, 4PYR was administered into mouse as repeated subcutaneous injections and into rats as intraperitoneal infusion. After 7 days, heart, liver, kidney, lungs, and skeletal muscle were collected, and the concentration of 4PYR nucleotides was evaluated. HPLC was used to measure 4PYR and 4PYR nucleotides in homogenate and specimens from in vivo experiments. 4PYR was rapidly phosphorylated by the liver homogenate (390 ± 27 nmol/min/g wet wt). Significant rates were reported in the heart and kidneys' homogenates: 34.3 ± 4.3 nmol/min/g and 33.2 ± 9.2 nmol/min/g, respectively. Phosphorylation of 4PYR was almost completely inhibited by adenosine kinase inhibitor 5'-iodotubercidin. Administration of 4PYR in vivo resulted in accumulation of 4PYR monophosphate in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and lung (20-220 nmol/g dry wt) except kidney (<1 nmol/g). In contrast to erythrocytes, no 4PYR triphosphate formation (<1 nmol/g) was observed in any of the organs studied. We conclude that not only the erythrocytes but also other cell types are capable of phosphorylating 4PYR to form 4PYR monophosphate. Potential toxicity or physiological role of 4PYR in peripheral organs could be considered, but mechanisms will be different from that in erythrocytes. PMID:21312056

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits alkaline pH- and PKA-induced apical vacuolar H+-ATPase accumulation in epididymal clear cells.

    PubMed

    Hallows, Kenneth R; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Li, Hui; Gong, Fan; Smolak, Christy; Neumann, Dietbert; Pastor-Soler, Núria M

    2009-04-01

    Acidic luminal pH and low [HCO(3)(-)] maintain sperm quiescent during maturation in the epididymis. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in clear cells is a major contributor to epididymal luminal acidification. We have shown previously that protein kinase A (PKA), acting downstream of soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation by alkaline luminal pH or HCO(3)(-), induces V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation in clear cells. Here we examined whether the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates this PKA-induced V-ATPase apical membrane accumulation. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat and non-human primate epididymides revealed specific AMPK expression in epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat epididymis showed that perfusion in vivo with the AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or A-769662 induced a redistribution of the V-ATPase into subapical vesicles, even in the presence of a luminal alkaline (pH 7.8) buffer compared with that of controls perfused without drug. Moreover, preperfusion with AICAR blocked the PKA-mediated V-ATPase translocation to clear cell apical membranes induced by N(6)-monobutyryl-cAMP (6-MB-cAMP). Purified PKA and AMPK both phosphorylated V-ATPase A subunit in vitro. In HEK-293 cells [(32)P]orthophosphate in vivo labeling of the A subunit increased following PKA stimulation and decreased following RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AMPK. Finally, the extent of PKA-dependent in vivo phosphorylation of the A subunit increased with AMPK knockdown. In summary, our findings suggest that AMPK inhibits PKA-mediated V-ATPase apical accumulation in epididymal clear cells, that both kinases directly phosphorylate the V-ATPase A subunit in vitro and in vivo, and that AMPK inhibits PKA-dependent phosphorylation of this subunit. V-ATPase activity may be coupled to the sensing of acid-base status via PKA and to metabolic status via AMPK. PMID:19211918

  19. Beta-hydroxyphosphonate ribonucleoside analogues derived from 4-substituted-1,2,3-triazoles as IMP/GMP mimics: synthesis and biological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Van, Tai; Hospital, Audrey; Lionne, Corinne; Jordheim, Lars P; Dumontet, Charles; Périgaud, Christian; Chaloin, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of seventeen β-hydroxyphosphonate ribonucleoside analogues containing 4-substituted-1,2,3-triazoles was synthesized and fully characterized. Such compounds were designed as potential inhibitors of the cytosolic 5’-nucleotidase II (cN-II), an enzyme involved in the regulation of purine nucleotide pools. NMR and molecular modelling studies showed that a few derivatives adopted similar structural features to IMP or GMP. Five derivatives were identified as modest inhibitors with 53 to 64% of cN-II inhibition at 1 mM. PMID:27559400

  20. General and modular synthesis of isomeric 5-substituted pyridin-2-yl and 6-substituted pyridin-3-yl C-ribonucleosides bearing diverse alkyl, aryl, hetaryl, amino, carbamoyl, and hydroxy groups.

    PubMed

    Štefko, Martin; Slavětínská, Lenka; Klepetářová, Blanka; Hocek, Michal

    2011-08-19

    A general modular and practical methodology for preparation of diverse 5-substituted pyridin-2-yl and 6-substituted pyridin-3-yl C-ribonucleosides was developed. Regioselective lithiation of 2,5-dibromopyridine proceeded at position 5 or 2 depending on the solvent, and the resulting bromopyridyl lithium species underwent additions to TBS-protected ribonolactone and follow-up transformations to corresponding acetylated hemiketal intermediates 7 and 10 that were diastereoselectively reduced to give either 5-bromopyridin-2-yl or 6-bromopyridin-3-yl silyl-protected C-ribonucleosides 8 or 11 in 68% and 77% overall yields as pure β-anomers. These bromopyridyl C-nucleoside intermediates were then subjected to a series of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, aminations, aminocarbonylations, and hydroxylations to give a series of protected 1β-(5-alkyl-, 5-aryl-, 5-amino-, 5-carbamoyl-, and 5-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-C-ribonucleosides 13a-i and β-(6-alkyl-, 6-aryl-, 6-amino-, 6-carbamoyl-, and 6-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-C-ribonucleosides 15a-i. Deprotection of silylated nucleosides by Et(3)N·3HF, TBAF, or TFA gave a series of free C-nucleosides 14a-i and 16a-i. PMID:21739971

  1. Functional and structural characterization of DR_0079 from Deinococcus radiodurans, a novel Nudix hydrolase with a preference for cytosine (deoxy) ribonucleoside 5'-di- and triphosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Litvinova, Olga; Robinson, Howard; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2008-06-24

    The Deinococcus radiodurans Nudix hydrolase DR0079 was assayed for activity towards a wide variety of substrates and observed to have a marked specificity for cytosine ribonucleoside 5’-diphosphate (CDP) and cytosine ribonucleoside 5’-triphosphate (CTP) with a slight preference for CDP. The next most specific substrates, with a relative activity of <50%, were the corresponding deoxyribose nucleosides, dCDP and dCTP. Enzyme hydrolase activity at the site of the phosphodiester bond was corroborated using 31P NMR spectroscopy to follow the phosphorus resonances for two substrates, CDP and IDP, and the hydrolysis products, NMP and Pi. Optimum activity for CDP was determined to be at pH 9.0 – 9.5. The optimal divalent cation for CDP hydrolysis at this pH was Mg2+ followed by Mn2+ (~47%) and Co2+(~27%). The biochemical data is discussed with reference to the crystal structure for the D. radiodurans DR0079 that was determined in the apo-metal form at 1.9 Å resolution. The protein in the crystal structure contains nine β-strands, three α-helices, and two 3-10 helices that are organized into three subdomains; an N-terminal β-sheet, a central Nudix core, and a C-terminal helixturn- helix motif. As observed for all known structures of Nudix hydrolases, the α-helix of the ‘Nudix box’ is one of two helices that sandwich a ‘four-strand’ mixed β-sheet. Using 15N-labelled DR0079, NMR chemical shift mapping experiments were performed with the paramagnetic divalent cation Co2+ and the non-hydrolyzable substrate thymidine- 5’-O-(α,β-methylenediphosphate (TMP-CP). The results of the chemical shift perturbation experiments were mapped onto the crystal structure of DR0079 and a model for substrate binding proposed.

  2. From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?

    PubMed

    Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    During the last 2 decades, progress in deciphering the human gene map as well as the discovery of specific defective genes encoding particular proteins in some serious human diseases have resulted in attempts to treat sick patients with gene therapy. There has been considerable focus on human recombinant proteins which were gene-engineered and produced in vitro (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, erythropoietin). Unfortunately, these substances and methods also became improper tools for unscrupulous athletes. Biomedical research has focused on the possible direct insertion of gene material into the body, in order to replace some defective genes in vivo and/or to promote long-lasting endogenous synthesis of deficient proteins. Theoretically, diabetes, anaemia, muscular dystrophies, immune deficiency, cardiovascular diseases and numerous other illnesses could benefit from such innovative biomedical research, though much work remains to be done. Considering recent findings linking specific genotypes and physical performance, it is tempting to submit the young athletic population to genetic screening or, alternatively, to artificial gene expression modulation. Much research is already being conducted in order to achieve a safe transfer of genetic material to humans. This is of critical importance since uncontrolled production of the specifically coded protein, with serious secondary adverse effects (polycythaemia, acute cardiovascular problems, cancer, etc.), could occur. Other unpredictable reactions (immunogenicity of vectors or DNA-vector complex, autoimmune anaemia, production of wild genetic material) also remain possible at the individual level. Some new substances (myostatin blockers or anti-myostatin antibodies), although not gene material, might represent a useful and well-tolerated treatment to prevent progression of muscular dystrophies. Similarly, other molecules, in the roles of gene or metabolic activators [5-aminoimidazole-4

  3. Luminal fructose inhibits rat intestinal sodium-phosphate cotransporter gene expression and phosphate uptake24

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Séverine; Muduli, Anjali; Casirola, Donatella; Prum, Kannitha; Douard, Véronique; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2008-01-01

    Background While searching by microarray for sugar-responsive genes, we inadvertently discovered that sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2B (NaPi-2b) mRNA concentrations were much lower in fructose-perfused than in glucose-perfused intestines of neonatal rats. Changes in NaPi-2b mRNA abundance by sugars were accompanied by similar changes in NaPi-2b protein abundance and in rates of inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake. Objective We tested the hypothesis that luminal fructose regulates NaPi-2b. Design We perfused into the intestine fructose, glucose, and non-metabolizable or poorly transported glucose analogs as well as phlorizin. Results NaPi-2b mRNA concentrations and Pi uptake rates in fructose-perfused intestines were ≈30% of those in glucose and its analogs. NaPi-2b inhibition by fructose is specific because the mRNA abundance and activity of the fructose transporter GLUT5 (glucose transporter 5) increased with fructose perfusion, whereas those of other transporters were independent of the perfusate. Plasma Pi after 4 h of perfusion was independent of the perfusate, probably because normal kidneys can maintain normophosphatemia. Inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase, another fructose-responsive gene, with tungstate or vanadate nonspecifically inhibited NaPi-2b mRNA expression and Pi uptake in both glucose- or fructose-perfused intestines. The AMP kinase (AMPK)–activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) enhanced and the fatty acid synthase–AMPK inhibitor C75 (3-carboxy-4-octyl-2-methylene-butyrolactone trans-4-carboxy-5-octyl-3-methylenebutyrolactone) prevented fructose inhibition of NaPi-2b but had no effect on expression of other transporters. NaPi-2b expression decreased markedly with age and was inhibited by fructose in all age groups. Conclusions Energy levels in enterocytes may play a role in NaPi-2b inhibition by luminal fructose. Consumption of fructose that supplies ≈10% of caloric intake by Americans clearly affects absorption of

  4. Functional and Structural Characterization of DR_0079 from Deinococcus radiodurans, a Novel Nudix Hydrolase with a Preference for Cytosine (Deoxy)ribonucleoside 5 -Di- and Triphophates

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko,G.; Litvinova, O.; Robinson, H.; Yakunin, A.; Kennedy, M.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans encodes 21 Nudix hydrolases, of which only two have been characterized in detail. Here we report the activity and crystal structure for DR{_}0079, the first Nudix hydrolase observed to have a marked preference for cytosine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate (CDP) and cytosine ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate (CTP). After CDP and CTP, the next most preferred substrates for DR{_}0079, with a relative activity of <50%, were the corresponding deoxyribose nucleotides, dCDP and dCTP. Hydrolase activity at the site of the phosphodiester bond was corroborated using 31P NMR spectroscopy to follow the phosphorus resonances for three substrates, CDP, IDP, and CTP, and their hydrolysis products, CMP + Pi, IMP + Pi, and CMP + PPi, respectively. Nucleophilic substitution at the {beta}-phosphorus of CDP and CTP was established, using 31P NMR spectroscopy, by the appearance of an upfield-shifted Pi resonance and line-broadened PPi resonance, respectively, when the hydrolysis was performed in 40% H218O-enriched water. The optimal activity for CDP was at pH 9.0-9.5 with the reaction requiring divalent metal cation (Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Co2+). The biochemical data are discussed with reference to the crystal structure for DR{_}0079 that was determined in the metal-free form at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The protein contains nine {beta}-strands, three a-helices, and two 310-helices organized into three subdomains: an N-terminal {beta}-sheet, a central Nudix core, and a C-terminal helix-turn-helix motif. As observed for all known structures of Nudix hydrolases, the a-helix of the 'Nudix box' is one of two helices that sandwich a 'four-strand' mixed {beta}-sheet. To identify residues potentially involved in metal and substrate binding, NMR chemical shift mapping experiments were performed on 15N-labeled DR{_}0079 with the paramagnetic divalent cation Co2+ and the nonhydrolyzable substrate thymidine 5'-O-({alpha}, {beta

  5. Biochemical Characterization of the Active Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Metabolites of 2,6-Diaminopurine Ribonucleoside Prodrug Compared to Sofosbuvir and BMS-986094.

    PubMed

    Ehteshami, Maryam; Tao, Sijia; Ozturk, Tugba; Zhou, Longhu; Cho, Jong Hyun; Zhang, Hongwang; Amiralaei, Sheida; Shelton, Jadd R; Lu, Xiao; Khalil, Ahmed; Domaoal, Robert A; Stanton, Richard A; Suesserman, Justin E; Lin, Biing; Lee, Sam S; Amblard, Franck; Whitaker, Tony; Coats, Steven J; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2016-08-01

    Ribonucleoside analog inhibitors (rNAI) target the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) and cause RNA chain termination. Here, we expand our studies on β-d-2'-C-methyl-2,6-diaminopurine-ribonucleotide (DAPN) phosphoramidate prodrug 1 (PD1) as a novel investigational inhibitor of HCV. DAPN-PD1 is metabolized intracellularly into two distinct bioactive nucleoside triphosphate (TP) analogs. The first metabolite, 2'-C-methyl-GTP, is a well-characterized inhibitor of NS5B polymerase, whereas the second metabolite, 2'-C-methyl-DAPN-TP, behaves as an adenosine base analog. In vitro assays suggest that both metabolites are inhibitors of NS5B-mediated RNA polymerization. Additional factors, such as rNAI-TP incorporation efficiencies, intracellular rNAI-TP levels, and competition with natural ribonucleotides, were examined in order to further characterize the potential role of each nucleotide metabolite in vivo Finally, we found that although both 2'-C-methyl-GTP and 2'-C-methyl-DAPN-TP were weak substrates for human mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerase (POLRMT) in vitro, DAPN-PD1 did not cause off-target inhibition of mtRNA transcription in Huh-7 cells. In contrast, administration of BMS-986094, which also generates 2'-C-methyl-GTP and previously has been associated with toxicity in humans, caused detectable inhibition of mtRNA transcription. Metabolism of BMS-986094 in Huh-7 cells leads to 87-fold higher levels of intracellular 2'-C-methyl-GTP than DAPN-PD1. Collectively, our data characterize DAPN-PD1 as a novel and potent antiviral agent that combines the delivery of two active metabolites. PMID:27216050

  6. Treatment Combining X-Irradiation and a Ribonucleoside Anticancer Drug, TAS106, Effectively Suppresses the Growth of Tumor Cells Transplanted in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kon, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Akira; Kuwabara, Mikinori . E-mail: kuwabara@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To examine the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation combined with administration of a ribonucleoside anticancer drug, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-{beta}-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (TAS106, ECyd), to tumor cell-transplanted mice. Methods and Materials: Colon26 murine rectum adenocarcinoma cells and MKN45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated into the footpad in BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively. They were treated with a relatively low dose of X-irradiation (2 Gy) and low amounts of TAS106 (0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg). The tumor growth was monitored by measuring the tumor volume from Day 5 to Day 16 for Colon26 and from Day 7 to Day 20 for MKN45. Histologic analyses for proliferative and apoptotic cells in the tumors were performed using Ki-67 immunohistochemical and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. The expression of survivin, a key molecule related to tumor survival, was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: When X-irradiation and TAS106 treatment were combined, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in both types of tumors compared with mice treated with X-irradiation or TAS106 alone. Marked inhibition of tumor growth was observed in half of the mice that received the combined treatment three times at 2-day intervals. Parallel to these phenomena, the suppression of survivin expression and appearance of Ki-67-negative and apoptotic cells were observed. Conclusions: X-irradiation and TAS106 effectively suppress tumor growth in mice. The inhibition of survivin expression by TAS106 is thought to mainly contribute to the suppression of the tumor growth.

  7. 4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP), a novel NAD metabolite accumulating in erythrocytes of uremic children: a biomarker for a toxic NAD analogue in other tissues?

    PubMed

    Synesiou, Elena; Fairbanks, Lynnette D; Simmonds, H Anne; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Carrey, Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    We have identified a novel nucleotide, 4-pyridone 3/5-carboxamide ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP), which accumulates in human erythrocytes during renal failure. Using plasma and erythrocyte extracts obtained from children with chronic renal failure we show that the concentration of 4PyTP is increased, as well as other soluble NAD(+) metabolites (nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide and 4Py-riboside) and the major nicotinamide metabolite N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY), with increasing degrees of renal failure. We noted that 2PY concentration was highest in the plasma of haemodialysis patients, while 4PyTP was highest in erythrocytes of children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: its concentration correlated closely with 4Py-riboside, an authentic precursor of 4PyTP, in the plasma. In the dialysis patients, GTP concentration was elevated: similar accumulation was noted previously, as a paradoxical effect in erythrocytes during treatment with immunosuppressants such as ribavirin and mycophenolate mofetil, which deplete GTP through inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase in nucleated cells such as lymphocytes. We predict that 4Py-riboside and 4Py-nucleotides bind to this enzyme and alter its activity. The enzymes that regenerate NAD(+) from nicotinamide riboside also convert the drugs tiazofurin and benzamide riboside into NAD(+) analogues that inhibit IMP dehydrogenase more effectively than the related ribosides: we therefore propose that the accumulation of 4PyTP in erythrocytes during renal failure is a marker for the accumulation of a related toxic NAD(+) analogue that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase in other cells. PMID:22069723

  8. Site-specific regulatory interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase and 14-3-3 proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toroser, D.; Athwal, G. S.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We report an Mg2+-dependent interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) and endogenous 14-3-3 proteins, as evidenced by co-elution during gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation. The content of 14-3-3s associated with an SPS immunoprecipitate was inversely related to activity, and was specifically reduced when tissue was pretreated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, suggesting metabolite control in vivo. A synthetic phosphopeptide based on Ser-229 was shown by surface plasmon resonance to bind a recombinant plant 14-3-3, and addition of the phosphorylated SPS-229 peptide was found to stimulate the SPS activity of an SPS:14-3-3 complex. Taken together, the results suggest a regulatory interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with Ser-229 of SPS.

  9. Recognition of the bacterial alarmone ZMP through long-distance association of two RNA sub-domains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P.; Ferré-D’Amaré, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial alarmone 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside 5'-triphosphate (ZTP), derived from the monophosphorylated purine precursor ZMP, accumulates during folate starvation. ZTP regulates genes involved in purine and folate metabolism through a cognate riboswitch. The linker connecting this riboswitch’s two sub-domains varies in length by over 100 nucleotides. We report the co-crystal structure of the Fusobacterium ulcerans riboswitch bound to ZMP, which spans the two sub-domains whose interface also comprises a pseudoknot and ribose zipper. The riboswitch recognizes the carboxamide oxygen of ZMP through an unprecedented inner-sphere coordination with a Mg2+ ion. We demonstrate that the affinity of the riboswitch for ZMP is modulated by the linker length. Notably, ZMP can bind to the two sub-domains together even when synthesized as separate RNAs. The ZTP riboswitch demonstrates how specific small-molecule binding can drive association of distant non-coding RNA domains to regulate gene expression. PMID:26280533

  10. Regulation of the creatine transporter by AMP-activated protein kinase in kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Thali, Ramon F.; Smolak, Christy; Gong, Fan; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Wallimann, Theo; Scholz, Roland; Pastor-Soler, Núria M.; Neumann, Dietbert

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates several transport proteins, potentially coupling transport activity to cellular stress and energy levels. The creatine transporter (CRT; SLC6A8) mediates creatine uptake into several cell types, including kidney epithelial cells, where it has been proposed that CRT is important for reclamation of filtered creatine, a process critical for total body creatine homeostasis. Creatine and phosphocreatine provide an intracellular, high-energy phosphate-buffering system essential for maintaining ATP supply in tissues with high energy demands. To test our hypothesis that CRT is regulated by AMPK in the kidney, we examined CRT and AMPK distribution in the kidney and the regulation of CRT by AMPK in cells. By immunofluorescence staining, we detected CRT at the apical pole in a polarized mouse S3 proximal tubule cell line and in native rat kidney proximal tubules, a distribution overlapping with AMPK. Two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEV) measurements of Na+-dependent creatine uptake into CRT-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that AMPK inhibited CRT via a reduction in its Michaelis-Menten Vmax parameter. [14C]creatine uptake and apical surface biotinylation measurements in polarized S3 cells demonstrated parallel reductions in creatine influx and CRT apical membrane expression after AMPK activation with the AMP-mimetic compound 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside. In oocyte TEV experiments, rapamycin and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl 5′-monophosphate (ZMP) inhibited CRT currents, but there was no additive inhibition of CRT by ZMP, suggesting that AMPK may inhibit CRT indirectly via the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. We conclude that AMPK inhibits apical membrane CRT expression in kidney proximal tubule cells, which could be important in reducing cellular energy expenditure and unnecessary creatine reabsorption under conditions of local

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone reverses the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity on oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Minge, Cadence E; Bennett, Brenton D; Norman, Robert J; Robker, Rebecca L

    2008-05-01

    Obesity and its physiological consequences are increasingly prevalent among women of reproductive age and are associated with infertility. To investigate, female mice were fed a high-fat diet until the onset of insulin resistance, followed by assessments of ovarian gene expression, ovulation, fertilization, and oocyte developmental competence. We report defects to ovarian function associated with diet-induced obesity (DIO) that result in poor oocyte quality, subsequently reduced blastocyst survival rates, and abnormal embryonic cellular differentiation. To identify critical cellular mediators of ovarian responses to obesity induced insulin resistance, DIO females were treated for 4 d before mating with an insulin-sensitizing pharmaceutical: glucose and lipid-lowering AMP kinase activator, 5-aminoimidazole 4-carboxamide-riboside, 30 mg/kg.d; sodium salicylate, IkappaK inhibitor that reverses insulin resistance, 50 mg/kg.d; or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg.d. 5-aminoimidazole 4-carboxamide-riboside or sodium salicylate treatment did not have significant effects on the reproductive parameters examined. However, embryonic development to the blastocyst stage was significantly improved when DIO mice were treated with rosiglitazone, effectively repairing development rates. Rosiglitazone also normalized DIO-associated abnormal blastomere allocation to the inner cell mass. Such improvements to oocyte quality were coupled with weight loss, improved glucose metabolism, and changes in ovarian mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-regulated genes, Cd36, Scarb1, and Fabp4 cholesterol transporters. These studies demonstrate that peri-conception treatment with select insulin-sensitizing pharmaceuticals can directly influence ovarian functions and ultimately exert positive effects on oocyte developmental competence. Improved blastocyst quality in obese females treated with rosiglitazone before mating

  12. Salidroside exerts protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via AMPKα1-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mayun; Cai, Hui; Yu, Chang; Wu, Peiliang; Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaomei; Fan, Rong; Xu, Cunlai; Chen, Yanfan; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has shown to exert protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms were not well known. Based on our recent reports, we predicted the involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects in salidroside regulation of PAH. Firstly, to prove the hypothesis, rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia and treated with increasing concentrations of salidroside or a selective AMPK activator-5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) for 4 weeks. After salidroside or AICAR treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery remodeling were attenuated. Then the effects of salidroside or AICAR on hypoxia-induced excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which contributed to pulmonary arterial remodeling, were investigated. Our results suggested salidroside, as well as AICAR, reversed hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis resistance while AMPK inhibitor Compound C enhanced the effects of hypoxia. To reveal the potential cellular mechanisms, activation of AMPKα1 and expression of the genes related to proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions. The results demonstrated salidroside as well as AICAR might inhibit chronic hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation via AMPKα1-P53-P27/P21 pathway and reverse apoptosis resistance via AMPKα1-P53-Bax/Bcl-2-caspase 9-caspase 3 pathway. PMID:27069536

  13. Identification of a New Ribonucleoside Inhibitor of Ebola Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Reynard, Olivier; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Barateau, Véronique; Cimarelli, Andrea; Volchkov, Viktor E.

    2015-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa has claimed the lives of more than 15,000 people and highlights an urgent need for therapeutics capable of preventing virus replication. In this study we screened known nucleoside analogues for their ability to interfere with EBOV replication. Among them, the cytidine analogue β-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) demonstrated potent inhibitory activities against EBOV replication and spread at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Thus, NHC constitutes an interesting candidate for the development of a suitable drug treatment against EBOV. PMID:26633464

  14. Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Laverdière, Isabelle; Guillemette, Chantal; Tamouza, Ryad; Loiseau, Pascale; de Latour, Regis Peffault; Robin, Marie; Couture, Félix; Filion, Alain; Lalancette, Marc; Tourancheau, Alan; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Lévesque, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Effective immunosuppression is mandatory to prevent graft-versus-host disease and to achieve a successful clinical outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we tested whether germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes related to methotrexate and cyclosporine metabolism and activity influence the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in patients who undergo stem cell transplantation for hematologic disorders. Recipient genetic status of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 transporters, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/ inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase within the methotrexate pathway, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) loci exhibit a remarkable influence on severe acute graft-versus-host disease prevalence. Indeed, an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease was observed in association with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (hazard ratio=3.04; P=0.002), nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) (hazard ratio=2.69; P=0.004), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 (hazard ratio=3.53; P=0.0018) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 (hazard ratio=3.67; P=0.0005). While donor single nucleotide polymorphisms of dihydrofolate reductase and solute carrier family 19 (member 1) genes are associated with a reduced risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio=0.32–0.41; P=0.0009–0.008), those of nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 2) are found to increase such risk (hazard ratio=3.85; P=0.0004). None of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with the occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, by targeting drug-related biologically relevant genes, this work emphasizes the potential

  15. Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Laverdière, Isabelle; Guillemette, Chantal; Tamouza, Ryad; Loiseau, Pascale; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Robin, Marie; Couture, Félix; Filion, Alain; Lalancette, Marc; Tourancheau, Alan; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Lévesque, Éric

    2015-02-01

    Effective immunosuppression is mandatory to prevent graft-versus-host disease and to achieve a successful clinical outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we tested whether germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes related to methotrexate and cyclosporine metabolism and activity influence the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in patients who undergo stem cell transplantation for hematologic disorders. Recipient genetic status of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 transporters, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/ inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase within the methotrexate pathway, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) loci exhibit a remarkable influence on severe acute graft-versus-host disease prevalence. Indeed, an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease was observed in association with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (hazard ratio=3.04; P=0.002), nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) (hazard ratio=2.69; P=0.004), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 (hazard ratio=3.53; P=0.0018) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 (hazard ratio=3.67; P=0.0005). While donor single nucleotide polymorphisms of dihydrofolate reductase and solute carrier family 19 (member 1) genes are associated with a reduced risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio=0.32-0.41; P=0.0009-0.008), those of nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 2) are found to increase such risk (hazard ratio=3.85; P=0.0004). None of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with the occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, by targeting drug-related biologically relevant genes, this work emphasizes the potential role of

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual inhibitors of TS and AICARFTase and as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Meng; Zhang, Hongying; Yuan, Jiangsong; Zhang, Congying; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Huicai; Zhao, Lijuan; Du, Yumin; Wang, Lei; Ren, Leiming

    2016-06-10

    A new series of 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines, with an isosteric replacement of the side chain amide moiety to a sulfur atom, were designed and synthesized as multitargeted antifolates as well as potential antitumor agents. Starting from previously synthesized 2-amino-4-oxo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl-acetic acid, a reduction by lithium triethylborohydride and successive mesylation afforded the key mesylate. Nucleophilic substitution by mercaptoacetic or mercaptopropionic acid methyl esters, followed by hydrolysis and condensation with pyridinyl-methylamines provided the nonclassical compounds 1-6, whereas condensation with glutamic acid diethyl ester hydrochloride and saponification afforded the classical analogs 7-8. All target compounds exhibited inhibitory activities toward KB, SW620 and A549 tumor cell lines. The most potent compounds of this series, 7 and 8, are better inhibitors against A549 cells than methotrexate (MTX) and pemetrexed (PMX). Nucleoside protection assays establish compound 8 a dual inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFTase) targeting both de novo thymidylate and purine nucleotide biosynthesis, which is further verified by the molecular modeling studies. Analogous to PMX, target compound 8 alternates the cell cycle of SW620 cells with S-phase accumulation and induces apoptosis, leading to cell death. PMID:27017552

  17. Metabolite Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Carbohydrate-response Element-binding Protein (ChREBP): ROLE OF AMP AS AN ALLOSTERIC INHIBITOR.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shogo; Jung, Hunmin; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Pawlosky, Robert; Takeshima, Tomomi; Lee, Wan-Ru; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Laxman, Sunil; Wynn, R Max; Tu, Benjamin P; MacMillan, John B; De Brabander, Jef K; Veech, Richard L; Uyeda, Kosaku

    2016-05-13

    The carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that plays an essential role in converting excess carbohydrate to fat storage in the liver. In response to glucose levels, ChREBP is regulated by nuclear/cytosol trafficking via interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, CRM-1 (exportin-1 or XPO-1), or importins. Nuclear localization of ChREBP was rapidly inhibited when incubated in branched-chain α-ketoacids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide. Here, we discovered that protein-free extracts of high fat-fed livers contained, in addition to ketone bodies, a new metabolite, identified as AMP, which specifically activates the interaction between ChREBP and 14-3-3. The crystal structure showed that AMP binds directly to the N terminus of ChREBP-α2 helix. Our results suggest that AMP inhibits the nuclear localization of ChREBP through an allosteric activation of ChREBP/14-3-3 interactions and not by activation of AMPK. AMP and ketone bodies together can therefore inhibit lipogenesis by restricting localization of ChREBP to the cytoplasm during periods of ketosis. PMID:26984404

  18. Dystrophin–glycoprotein complex regulates muscle nitric oxide production through mechanoregulation of AMPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Garbincius, Joanne F.; Michele, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Patients deficient in dystrophin, a protein that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix via the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC), exhibit muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and impaired muscle nitric oxide (NO) production. We used live-cell NO imaging and in vitro cyclic stretch of isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes as a model system to investigate if and how the DGC directly regulates the mechanical activation of muscle NO signaling. Acute activation of NO synthesis by mechanical stretch was impaired in dystrophin-deficient mdx cardiomyocytes, accompanied by loss of stretch-induced neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) S1412 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, stretch induced the acute activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in normal cardiomyocytes but not in mdx cardiomyocytes, and specific inhibition of AMPK was sufficient to attenuate mechanoactivation of NO production. Therefore, we tested whether direct pharmacologic activation of AMPK could bypass defective mechanical signaling to restore nNOS activity in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes. Indeed, activation of AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or salicylate increased nNOS S1412 phosphorylation and was sufficient to enhance NO production in mdx cardiomyocytes. We conclude that the DGC promotes the mechanical activation of cardiac nNOS by acting as a mechanosensor to regulate AMPK activity, and that pharmacologic AMPK activation may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for restoring nNOS activity in dystrophin-deficient hearts and muscle. PMID:26483453

  19. Energy disruptors: rising stars in anticancer therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Bost, F; Decoux-Poullot, A-G; Tanti, J F; Clavel, S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic features of tumor cells diverge from those of normal cells. Otto Warburg was the first to observe that cancer cells dramatically increase their glucose consumption to generate ATP. He also claimed that cancer cells do not have functional mitochondria or oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) but simply rely on glycolysis to provide ATP to the cell, even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis). Several studies have revisited this observation and demonstrated that most cancer cells contain metabolically efficient mitochondria. Indeed, to sustain high proliferation rates, cancer cells require functional mitochondria to provide ATP and intermediate metabolites, such as citrate and cofactors, for anabolic reactions. This difference in metabolism between normal and tumors cells causes the latter to be more sensitive to agents that can disrupt energy homeostasis. In this review, we focus on energy disruptors, such as biguanides, 2-deoxyglucose and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, that interfere with the main metabolic pathways of the cells, OXPHOS, glycolysis and glutamine metabolism. We discuss the preclinical data and the mechanisms of action of these disruptors at the cellular and molecular levels. Finally, we consider whether these drugs can reasonably contribute to the antitumoral therapeutic arsenal in the future. PMID:26779810

  20. Studies on the π-π stacking features of imidazole units present in a series of 5-amino-1-alkylimidazole-4-carboxamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sibdas; Das, Aniruddha

    2015-06-01

    Reaction of 2-ethoxymethyleneamino-2-cyanoacetamide with primary alkyl amines in acetonitrile solvent affords 1-substituted-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamides. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of these imidazole compounds show that there are both anti-parallel and syn-parallel π-π stackings between two imidazole units in parallel-displaced (PD) conformations and the distance between two π-π stacked imidazole units depends mainly on the anti/ syn-parallel nature and to some extent on the alkyl group attached to N-1 of imidazole; molecules with anti-parallel PD-stacking arrangements of the imidazole units have got vertical π-π stacking distance short enough to impart stabilization whereas the imidazole unit having syn-parallel stacking arrangement have got much larger π-π stacking distances. DFT studies on a pair of anti-parallel imidazole units of such an AICA lead to curves for 'π-π stacking stabilization energy vs. π-π stacking distance' which have got similarity with the 'Morse potential energy diagram for a diatomic molecule' and this affords to find out a minimum π-π stacking distance corresponding to the maximum stacking stabilization energy between the pair of imidazole units. On the other hand, a DFT calculation based curve for 'π-π stacking stabilization energy vs. π-π stacking distance' of a pair of syn-parallel imidazole units is shown to have an exponential nature.

  1. Quercetin reduces obesity-associated ATM infiltration and inflammation in mice: a mechanism including AMPKα1/SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Lei; Bian, Hui-Xi; Xu, Na; Bao, Bin; Liu, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) plays a central role in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation and anti-insulin resistance properties. However, it is unclear whether quercetin can alleviate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ATM infiltration and inflammation in mice. In this study, 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD with 0.l% quercetin for 12 weeks, respectively. Dietary quercetin reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in mice. Meanwhile, dietary quercetin enhanced glucose transporter 4 translocation and protein kinase B signal in epididymis adipose tissues (EATs), suggesting that it heightened glucose uptake in adipose tissues. Histological and real-time PCR analysis revealed that quercetin attenuated mast cell and macrophage infiltration into EATs in HFD-fed mice. Dietary quercetin also modified the phenotype ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and enhanced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 phosphorylation and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) expression in EATs. Further, using AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β4-ribofuranoside and inhibitor Compound C, we found that quercetin inhibited polarization and inflammation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages through an AMPKα1/SIRT1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, dietary quercetin might suppress ATM infiltration and inflammation through the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway in HFD-fed mice. PMID:24465016

  2. AMPK Agonist AICAR Improves Cognition and Motor Coordination in Young and Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Guerrieri, Davide; Zhang, Yongqing; Collica, Sarah C.; Becker, Kevin G.; van Praag, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging can result in a decline of memory and muscle function. Exercise may prevent or delay these changes. However, aging-associated frailty can preclude physical activity. In young sedentary animals, pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a transcriptional regulator important for muscle physiology, enhanced…

  3. Energy metabolism and hindbrain AMPK: regulation by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Ibrahim, Baher A; Tamrakar, Pratistha

    2014-03-01

    Nerve cell energy status is screened within multiple classically defined hypothalamic and hindbrain components of the energy balance control network, including the hindbrain dorsal vagal complex (DVC). Signals of caudal DVC origin have a physiological role in glucostasis, e.g., maintenance of optimal supply of the critical substrate fuel, glucose, through control of motor functions such as fuel consumption and gluco-counterregulatory hormone secretion. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a likely source of these signals as combinatory laser microdissection/high-sensitivity Western blotting reveals expression of multiple biomarkers for metabolic sensing, including adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hypoglycemia elicits estradiol-dependent sex differences in A2 AMPK activation as phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) expression is augmented in male and ovariectomized (OVX) female, but not estrogen-replaced, OVX rats. This dichotomy may reflect, in part, estradiol-mediated up-regulation of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme expression during hypoglycemia. Our new model for short-term feeding abstinence has physiological relevance to planned (dieting) or unplanned (meal delay) interruption of consumption in modern life, which is negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity, and is useful for investigating how estrogen may mitigate the effects of disrupted fuel acquisition on energy balance via actions within the DVC. Estradiol reduces DVC AMPK activity after local delivery of the AMP mimic, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside, or cessation of feeding for 12 h but elevates pAMPK expression when these treatments are combined. These data suggest that estrogen maintains cellular energy stability over periods of suspended fuel acquisition and yet optimizes, by DVC AMPK-dependent mechanisms, counter-regulatory responses to metabolic challenges that occur during short-span feeding abstinence. PMID:25372736

  4. Avian renal proximal tubule urate secretion is inhibited by cellular stress-induced AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Amy M; Maffeo, Carla L; Renfro, J Larry

    2011-06-01

    Urate is a potent antioxidant at high concentrations but it has also been associated with a wide variety of health risks. Plasma urate concentration is determined by ingestion, production, and urinary excretion; however, factors that regulate urate excretion remain uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine whether cellular stress, which has been shown to affect other renal transport properties, modulates urate secretion in the avian renal proximal tubule. Chick kidney proximal tubule epithelial cell primary culture monolayers were used to study the transepithelial transport of radiolabeled urate. This model allowed examination of the processes, such as multidrug resistance protein 4 (Mrp4, Abcc4), which subserve urate secretion in a functional, intact, homologous system. Our results show that the recently implicated urate efflux transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2), does not significantly contribute to urate secretion in this system. Exposure to a high concentration of zinc for 6 h induced a cellular stress response and a striking decrease in transepithelial urate secretion. Acute exposure to zinc had no effect on transepithelial urate secretion or isolated membrane vesicle urate transport, suggesting involvement of a cellular stress adaptation. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a candidate modulator of ATP-dependent urate efflux, by 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribo-furanoside caused a decrease in urate secretion similar to that seen with zinc-induced cellular stress. This effect was prevented with the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Notably, the decrease in urate secretion seen with zinc-induced cellular stress was also prevented by compound C, implicating AMPK in regulation of renal uric acid excretion. PMID:21429974

  5. Extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dongmei; Jackson, Travis C.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels. Rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with adenosine, guanosine, or both. Guanosine (30 μmol/l) per se had little effect on extracellular adenosine levels. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) were 0.125 ± 0.020 μmol/l, indicating rapid disposition of extracellular adenosine. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) plus guanosine (30 μmol/l) were 1.173 ± 0.061 μmol/l, indicating slow disposition of extracellular adenosine. Cell injury increased extracellular levels of endogenous adenosine and guanosine, and the effects of cell injury on endogenous extracellular adenosine were modulated by altering the levels of endogenous extracellular guanosine with exogenous purine nucleoside phosphorylase (converts guanosine to guanine) or 8-aminoguanosine (inhibits purine nucleoside phosphorylase). Extracellular guanosine also slowed the disposition of extracellular adenosine in rat preglomerular vascular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and kidney epithelial cells and in human aortic and coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells and coronary artery endothelial cells. The effects of guanosine on adenosine levels were not mimicked or attenuated by 5-iodotubericidin (adenosine kinase inhibitor), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (adenosine deaminase inhibitor), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (guanine deaminase inhibitor), aristeromycin (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor), low sodium (inhibits concentrative nucleoside transporters), S-(4-nitrobenzyl)−6-thioinosine [inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) type 1], zidovudine (inhibits ENT type 2), or acadesine (known modulator of adenosine levels). Guanosine also increases extracellular inosine, uridine, thymidine, and cytidine, yet decreases

  6. AMPK activation protects from neuronal dysfunction and vulnerability across nematode, cellular and mouse models of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Manrique, Rafael P.; Farina, Francesca; Cambon, Karine; Dolores Sequedo, María; Parker, Alex J.; Millán, José María; Weiss, Andreas; Déglon, Nicole; Neri, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The adenosine monophosphate activated kinase protein (AMPK) is an evolutionary-conserved protein important for cell survival and organismal longevity through the modulation of energy homeostasis. Several studies suggested that AMPK activation may improve energy metabolism and protein clearance in the brains of patients with vascular injury or neurodegenerative disease. However, in Huntington's disease (HD), AMPK may be activated in the striatum of HD mice at a late, post-symptomatic phase of the disease, and high-dose regiments of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide may worsen neuropathological and behavioural phenotypes. Here, we revisited the role of AMPK in HD using models that recapitulate the early features of the disease, including Caenorhabditis elegans neuron dysfunction before cell death and mouse striatal cell vulnerability. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of aak-2/AMPKα shows that AMPK activation protects C. elegans neurons from the dysfunction induced by human exon-1 huntingtin (Htt) expression, in a daf-16/forkhead box O-dependent manner. Similarly, AMPK activation using genetic manipulation and low-dose metformin treatment protects mouse striatal cells expressing full-length mutant Htt (mHtt), counteracting their vulnerability to stress, with reduction of soluble mHtt levels by metformin and compensation of cytotoxicity by AMPKα1. Furthermore, AMPK protection is active in the mouse brain as delivery of gain-of-function AMPK-γ1 to mouse striata slows down the neurodegenerative effects of mHtt. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of considering the dynamic of HD for assessing the therapeutic potential of stress-response targets in the disease. We postulate that AMPK activation is a compensatory response and valid approach for protecting dysfunctional and vulnerable neurons in HD. PMID:26681807

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase is required for exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α translocation to subsarcolemmal mitochondria in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brennan K; Mukai, Kazutaka; Lally, James S; Maher, Amy C; Gurd, Brendon J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L; Holloway, Graham P

    2013-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as two subcellular populations known as subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria. SS mitochondria preferentially respond to exercise training, suggesting divergent transcriptional control of the mitochondrial genomes. The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) have been implicated in the direct regulation of the mitochondrial genome in mice, although SS and IMF differences may exist, and the potential signalling events regulating the mitochondrial content of these proteins have not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the potential for PGC-1α and Tfam to translocate to SS and IMF mitochondria in human subjects, and performed experiments in rodents to identify signalling mechanisms regulating these translocation events. Acute exercise in humans and rats increased PGC-1α content in SS but not IMF mitochondria. Acute exposure to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-ribofuranoside in rats recapitulated the exercise effect of increased PGC-1α protein within SS mitochondria only, suggesting that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling is involved. In addition, rendering AMPK inactive (AMPK kinase dead mice) prevented exercise-induced PGC-1α translocation to SS mitochondria, further suggesting that AMPK plays an integral role in these translocation events. In contrast to the conserved PGC-1α translocation to SS mitochondria across species (humans, rats and mice), acute exercise only increased mitochondrial Tfam in rats. Nevertheless, in rat resting muscle PGC-1α and Tfam co-immunoprecipate with α-tubulin, suggesting a common cytosolic localization. These data suggest that exercise causes translocation of PGC-1α preferentially to SS mitochondria in an AMPK-dependent manner. PMID:23297307

  8. Genetic and metabolomic analysis of AdeD and AdeI mutants of de novo purine biosynthesis: cellular models of de novo purine biosynthesis deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Duval, Nathan; Luhrs, Kyleen; Wilkinson, Terry G; Baresova, Veronika; Skopova, Vaclava; Kmoch, Stanislav; Vacano, Guido N; Zikanova, Marie; Patterson, David

    2013-03-01

    Purines are molecules essential for many cell processes, including RNA and DNA synthesis, regulation of enzyme activity, protein synthesis and function, energy metabolism and transfer, essential coenzyme function, and cell signaling. Purines are produced via the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in purine biosynthetic genes, for example phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase/phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase (PAICS, E.C. 6.3.2.6/E.C. 4.1.1.21), can lead to developmental anomalies in lower vertebrates. Alterations in PAICS expression in humans have been associated with various types of cancer. Mutations in adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL, E.C. 4.3.2.2) or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC, E.C. 2.1.2.3/E.C. 3.5.4.10) lead to inborn errors of metabolism with a range of clinical symptoms, including developmental delay, severe neurological symptoms, and autistic features. The pathogenetic mechanism is unknown for these conditions, and no effective treatments exist. The study of cells carrying mutations in the various de novo purine biosynthesis pathway genes provides one approach to analysis of purine disorders. Here we report the characterization of AdeD Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which carry genetic mutations encoding p.E177K and p.W363* variants of PAICS. Both mutations impact PAICS structure and completely abolish its biosynthesis. Additionally, we describe a sensitive and rapid analytical method for detection of purine de novo biosynthesis intermediates based on high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Using this technique we detected accumulation of AIR in AdeD cells. In AdeI cells, mutant for the ADSL gene, we detected accumulation of SAICAR and SAMP and, somewhat unexpectedly, accumulation of AIR. This method has great potential for metabolite profiling of de novo purine biosynthesis pathway mutants, identification of novel genetic

  9. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Suppresses Biosynthesis of Glucosylceramide by Reducing Intracellular Sugar Nucleotides*

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The membrane glycolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis. Its intracellular levels are thought to be tightly regulated. How cells regulate GlcCer levels remains to be clarified. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a crucial cellular energy sensor, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism to maintain energy homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether AMPK affects GlcCer metabolism. AMPK activators (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside and metformin) decreased intracellular GlcCer levels and synthase activity in mouse fibroblasts. AMPK inhibitors or AMPK siRNA reversed these effects, suggesting that GlcCer synthesis is negatively regulated by an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Although AMPK did not affect the phosphorylation or expression of GlcCer synthase, the amount of UDP-glucose, an activated form of glucose required for GlcCer synthesis, decreased under AMPK-activating conditions. Importantly, the UDP-glucose pyrophosphatase Nudt14, which degrades UDP-glucose, generating UMP and glucose 1-phosphate, was phosphorylated and activated by AMPK. On the other hand, suppression of Nudt14 by siRNA had little effect on UDP-glucose levels, indicating that mammalian cells have an alternative UDP-glucose pyrophosphatase that mainly contributes to the reduction of UDP-glucose under AMPK-activating conditions. Because AMPK activators are capable of reducing GlcCer levels in cells from Gaucher disease patients, our findings suggest that reducing GlcCer through AMPK activation may lead to a new strategy for treating diseases caused by abnormal accumulation of GlcCer. PMID:26048992

  10. Role of hypothalamic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the impaired counterregulatory response induced by repetitive neuroglucopenia.

    PubMed

    Alquier, Thierry; Kawashima, Junji; Tsuji, Youki; Kahn, Barbara B

    2007-03-01

    Antecedent hypoglycemia blunts counterregulatory responses that normally restore glycemia, a phenomenon known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). The mechanisms leading to impaired counterregulatory responses are largely unknown. Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a glucose sensor. To determine whether failure to activate AMPK could be involved in the etiology of HAAF, we developed a model of HAAF using repetitive intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) resulting in transient neuroglucopenia in normal rats. Ten minutes after a single icv injection of 2DG, both alpha1- and alpha2-AMPK activities were increased 30-50% in arcuate and ventromedial/dorsomedial hypothalamus but not in other hypothalamic regions, hindbrain, or cortex. Increased AMPK activity persisted in arcuate hypothalamus at 60 min after 2DG injection when serum glucagon and corticosterone levels were increased 2.5- to 3.4-fold. When 2DG was injected icv daily for 4 d, hypothalamic alpha1- and alpha2-AMPK responses were markedly blunted in arcuate hypothalamus, and alpha1-AMPK was also blunted in mediobasal hypothalamus 10 min after 2DG on d 4. Both AMPK isoforms were activated normally in arcuate hypothalamus at 60 min. Counterregulatory hormone responses were impaired by recurrent neuroglucopenia and were partially restored by icv injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside, an AMPK activator, before 2DG. Glycogen content increased 2-fold in hypothalamus after recurrent neuroglucopenia, suggesting that glycogen supercompensation could be involved in down-regulating the AMPK glucose-sensing pathway in HAAF. Thus, activation of hypothalamic AMPK may be important for the full counterregulatory hormone response to neuroglucopenia. Furthermore, impaired or delayed AMPK activation in specific hypothalamic regions may play a critical role in the etiology of HAAF. PMID:17185376

  11. Genetic and metabolomic analysis of AdeD and AdeI mutants of de novo purine biosynthesis: cellular models of de novo purine biosynthesis deficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Terry G.; Baresova, Veronika; Skopova, Vaclava; Kmoch, Stanislav; Vacano, Guido N.; Zikanova, Marie; Patterson, David

    2014-01-01

    Purines are molecules essential for many cell processes, including RNA and DNA synthesis, regulation of enzyme activity, protein synthesis and function, energy metabolism and transfer, essential coenzyme function, and cell signaling. Purines are produced via the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in purine biosynthetic genes, for example phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase/phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase (PAICS, E.C. 6.3.2.6/E.C. 4.1.1.21), can lead to developmental anomalies in lower vertebrates. Alterations in PAICS expression in humans have been associated with various types of cancer. Mutations in adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL, E.C. 4.3.2.2) or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC, E.C. 2.1.2.3/E.C. 3.5.4.10) lead to inborn errors of metabolism with a range of clinical symptoms, including developmental delay, severe neurological symptoms, renal stones, combined immunodeficiency, and autistic features. The pathogenetic mechanism is unknown for any of these conditions, and no effective treatments exist. The study of cells carrying mutations in the various de novo purine biosynthesis pathway genes provides one approach to analysis of purine disorders. Here we report the characterization of AdeD Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which carry genetic mutations encoding p.E177K and p.W363* variants of PAICS. Both mutations impact PAICS structure and completely abolish its biosynthesis. Additionally, we describe a sensitive and rapid analytical method for detection of purine de novo biosynthesis intermediates based on high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Using this technique we detected accumulation of AIR in AdeD cells. In AdeI cells, mutant for the ADSL gene, we detected accumulation of SAICAR and SAMP and, somewhat unexpectedly, accumulation of AIR. This method has great potential for metabolite profiling of de novo purine biosynthesis

  12. Isolation and characterization of human liver guanine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N K; Glantz, M D

    1985-01-01

    Guanine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.3, guanine aminohydrolase [GAH]) was purified 3248-fold from human liver to homogeneity with a specific activity of 21.5. A combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE-cellulose, hydroxylapatite, and affinity chromatography with guanine triphosphate ligand were used to purify the enzyme. The enzyme was a dimer protein of a molecular weight of 120,000 with each subunit of 59,000 as determined by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing gave a pI of 4.76. It was found to be an acidic protein, as evidenced by the amino acid analysis, enriched with glutamate, aspartate, alanine and glycine. It showed a sharp pH optimum of 8.0. The apparent Km for guanine was determined to be 1.53 X 10(-5) M at pH 6.0 and 2 X 10(-4) M for 8-azaguanine as a substrate at pH 6.0. The enzyme was found to be sensitive to p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibition with a Ki of 1.53 X 10(-5) M and a Ki of 5 X 10(-5) M with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide as an inhibitor. The inhibition with iodoacetic acid showed only a 7% loss in the activity at 1 X 10(-4) M and a 24% loss at 1 X 10(-3) M after 30 min of incubation, whereas p-hydroxymercuribenzoate incubation for 30 min resulted in a 91% loss of activity at a concentration of 1 X 10(-4) M. Guanine was the substrate for all of the inhibition studies. The enzyme was observed to be stable up to 40 degrees C, with a loss of almost all activity at 65 degrees C with 30 min incubation. Two pKa values were obtained at 5.85 and 8.0. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid proved to be valine while the C-terminal residue was identified as alanine. PMID:3966794

  13. Leptin Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Tau Phosphorylation in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Steven J.; Sarkar, Sraboni; Johnston, Jane M.; Zhu, Xiongwei; Su, Bo; Smith, Mark A.; Tezapsidis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    Leptin is a centrally-acting hormone controlling metabolic pathways. Recently, it was shown that leptin can reduce amyloid β levels both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, phosphorylation of tau was investigated following treatment of neuronal cells with leptin and insulin. Specifically, phosphorylation of tau at aa residues Ser202, Ser396 and Ser404 were monitored in retinoic-acid induced, human cell-lines: SH-SY5Y and NTera-2. Both hormones induced concentration- and time-dependent reductions of tau phosphoylation, and were synergestic at suboptimum concentrations. Importantly, leptin was 300-fold more potent than insulin (IC50L= 46.9 nM vs IC50I= 13.8 µM). A central role for AMP-dependent kinase as a mediator of leptin’s action is demonstrated by the ability of 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) to decrease tau phosphorylation and, by blocking leptin in the presence of Compound C. Thus, leptin, which ameliorates both, amyloid β and tau-related pathological pathways, holds promise as a novel therapeutic for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:18801339

  14. Investigating the intermediates in the reaction of ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii : An application of HF EPR-RFQ technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzerova, Julia; Krymov, Vladimir; Gerfen, Gary J.

    2011-12-01

    In this investigation high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HFEPR) in conjunction with innovative rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) technology is employed to study the exchange-coupled thiyl radical-cob(II)alamin system in ribonucleotide reductase from a prokaryote Lactobacillus leichmannii. The size of the exchange coupling ( Jex) and the values of the thiyl radical g tensor are refined, while confirming the previously determined (Gerfen et al. (1996) [20]) distance between the paramagnets. Conclusions relevant to ribonucleotide reductase catalysis and the architecture of the active site are presented. A key part of this work has been the development of a unique RFQ apparatus for the preparation of millisecond quench time RFQ samples which can be packed into small (0.5 mm ID) sample tubes used for CW and pulsed HFEPR - lack of this ability has heretofore precluded such studies. The technology is compatible with a broad range of spectroscopic techniques and can be readily adopted by other laboratories.

  15. Identification of 5' AMP-activated kinase as a target of reactive aldehydes during chronic ingestion of high concentrations of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Backos, Donald S; Orlicky, David J; Smathers-McCullough, Rebecca L; Petersen, Dennis R

    2014-05-30

    The production of reactive aldehydes including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is a key component of the pathogenesis in a spectrum of chronic inflammatory hepatic diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One consequence of ALD is increased oxidative stress and altered β-oxidation in hepatocytes. A major regulator of β-oxidation is 5' AMP protein kinase (AMPK). In an in vitro cellular model, we identified AMPK as a direct target of 4-HNE adduction resulting in inhibition of both H2O2 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced downstream signaling. By employing biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment of cells resulted in carbonylation of AMPKα/β, which was not observed in untreated cells. Using a murine model of alcoholic liver disease, treatment with high concentrations of ethanol resulted in an increase in phosphorylated as well as carbonylated AMPKα. Despite increased AMPK phosphorylation, there was no significant change in phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase. Mass spectrometry identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys(130), Cys(174), Cys(227), and Cys(304) on recombinant AMPKα and Cys(225) on recombinant AMPKβ. Molecular modeling analysis of identified 4-HNE adducts on AMPKα suggest that inhibition of AMPK occurs by steric hindrance of the active site pocket and by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation. The observed inhibition of AMPK by 4-HNE provides a novel mechanism for altered β-oxidation in ALD, and these data demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is subject to regulation by reactive aldehydes in vivo. PMID:24722988

  16. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide-1-β-D-ribofranoside stimulates the rat enhancer of split- and hairy-related protein-2 gene via atypical protein kinase C lambda.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yoshiko; Yanagisawa, Yuki; Moriizumi, Maya; Tsuchiya, Yuuki; Yokouchi, Honami; Otsuka, Hatsumi; Aoyagi, Mizuki; Tsukada, Akiko; Kanai, Yukiko; Haneishi, Ayumi; Takagi, Katsuhiro; Asano, Kosuke; Ono, Moe; Tanaka, Takashi; Tomita, Koji; Yamada, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a cellular energy sensor. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide-1-β-D-ribofranoside (AICAR) is a chemical activator of AMPK. In the liver, AICAR suppresses expression of thephosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK) gene. The rat enhancer of split- and hairy-related protein-2 (SHARP-2) is an insulin-inducible transcriptional repressor and its target is thePEPCKgene. In this study, we examined an issue of whether theSHARP-2gene expression is regulated by AICAR via the AMPK. AICAR increased the level of SHARP-2 mRNA in H4IIE cells. Whereas an AMPK inhibitor, compound-C, had no effects on the AICAR-induction, inhibitors for both phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) completely diminished the effects of AICAR. Western blot analyses showed that AICAR rapidly activated atypical PKC lambda (aPKCλ). In addition, when a dominant negative form of aPKCλ was expressed, the induction of SHARP-2 mRNA level by AICAR was inhibited. Calcium ion is not required for the activation of aPKCλ. A calcium ion-chelating reagent had no effects on the AICAR-induction. Furthermore, the AICAR-induction was inhibited by treatment with an RNA polymerase inhibitor or a protein synthesis inhibitor. Thus, we conclude that the AICAR-induction of theSHARP-2gene is mediated at transcription level by a PI 3-K/aPKCλ pathway. PMID:26590300

  17. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G.; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogenetic factors. Moreover, acadesine was highly synergistic, both in vitro and in vivo, with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, commonly used in combination therapy for MCL. Gene expression profiling analysis in harvested tumors suggested that acadesine modulates immune response, actin cytoskeleton organization and metal binding, pointing out a substantial impact on metabolic processes by the nucleoside analog. Rituximab also induced changes on metal binding and immune responses. The combination of both drugs enhanced the gene signature corresponding to each single agent, showing an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, metabolic stress, apoptosis and proliferation. These effects could be important as aberrant apoptotic and proinflammatory pathways play a significant role in the pathogenesis of MCL. In summary, our results suggest that acadesine exerts a cytotoxic effect in MCL in combination with rituximab, by decreasing the proliferative and survival signatures of the disease, thus supporting the clinical examination of this strategy in MCL patients. PMID:24519895

  18. Steric inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat-dependent trans-activation in vitro and in cells by oligonucleotides containing 2′-O-methyl G-clamp ribonucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Stephen C.; Arzumanov, Andrey A.; Gait, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a novel 2′-O-methyl (OMe) riboside phosphoramidite derivative of the G-clamp tricyclic base and incorporation into a series of small steric blocking OMe oligonucleotides targeting the apical stem–loop region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans- activation-responsive (TAR) RNA. Binding to TAR RNA is substantially enhanced for certain single site substitutions in the centre of the oligonucleotide, and doubly substituted anti-TAR OMe 9mers or 12mers exhibit remarkably low binding constants of <0.1 nM. G-clamp-containing oligomers achieved 50% inhibition of Tat-dependent in vitro transcription at ∼25 nM, 4-fold lower than for a TAR 12mer OMe oligonucleotide and better than found for any other oligonucleotide tested to date. Addition of one or two OMe G-clamps did not impart cellular trans-activation inhibition activity to cellularly inactive OMe oligonucleotides. Addition of an OMe G-clamp to a 12mer OMe–locked nucleic acid chimera maintained, but did not enhance, inhibition of Tat-dependent in vitro transcription and cellular trans-activation in HeLa cells. The results demonstrate clearly that an OMe G-clamp has remarkable RNA-binding enhancement ability, but that oligonucleotide effectiveness in steric block inhibition of Tat-dependent trans-activation both in vitro and in cells is governed by factors more complex than RNA-binding strength alone. PMID:12771202

  19. PAR-CLIP (Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Crosslinking and Immunoprecipitation): a Step-By-Step Protocol to the Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Binding Sites of RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Jessica; Hafner, Markus; Landthaler, Markus; Ascano, Manuel; Farazi, Thalia; Wardle, Greg; Nusbaum, Jeff; Khorshid, Mohsen; Burger, Lukas; Zavolan, Mihaela; Tuschl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed a protocol for the transcriptome-wide isolation of RNA recognition elements readily applicable to any protein or ribonucleoprotein complex directly contacting RNA (including RNA helicases, polymerases, or nucleases) expressed in cell culture models either naturally or ectopically (Hafner et al., 2010). Briefly, immunoprecipitation of the RNA-binding protein of interest is followed by isolation of the crosslinked and coimmunoprecipitated RNA. In the course of lysate preparation and immunoprecipitation, the mRNAs are partially degraded using Ribonu-clease T1. The isolated crosslinked RNA fragments are converted into a cDNA library and deep-sequenced using Solexa technology (see Explanatory Chapter: Next Generation Sequencing). By introducing photoreactive nucleosides that generate characteristic sequence changes upon crosslinking (see below), our protocol allows one to separate RNA segments bound by the protein of interest from the background un-crosslinked RNAs. PMID:24581442

  20. Chemical synthesis of oligoribonucleotides containing 2-aminopurine: substrates for the investigation of ribozyme function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doudna, J. A.; Szostak, J. W.; Rich, A.; Usman, N.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of a fully protected ribonucleoside phosphoramidite, containing 2-aminopurine as the base component, and its incorporation into short oligoribonucleotides as substrates for an engineered ribozyme from Tetrahymena is described.

  1. Nanopore-based identification of individual nucleotides for direct RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ayub, Mariam; Hardwick, Steven W.; Luisi, Ben F.; Bayley, Hagan

    2014-01-01

    We describe a label-free ribobase identification method, which uses ionic current measurement to resolve ribonucleoside monophosphates or diphosphates in α-hemolysin protein nanopores containing amino-cyclodextrin adapters. The accuracy of base identification is further investigated through the use of a guanidino-modified adapter. Based on these findings, an exosequencing approach is envisioned in which a processive exoribonuclease (polynucleotide phosphorylase) presents sequentially cleaved ribonucleoside diphosphates to a nanopore. PMID:24171554

  2. Permanent or reversible conjugation of 2′-O- or 5′-O-aminooxymethylated nucleosides with functional groups as a convenient and efficient approach to the modification of RNA and DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Cieślak, Jacek; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Ausín, Cristina; Gapeev, Alexei; Beaucage, Serge L.

    2012-01-01

    2′-O-Aminooxymethyl ribonucleosides are prepared from their 3′,5′-disilylated 2′-O-phthalimidooxymethyl derivatives by treatment with NH4F in MeOH. The reaction of these novel ribonucleosides with 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde results in the efficient formation of stable and yet reversible ribonucleoside 2′-conjugates in yields of 69–82%. Indeed, exposure of these conjugates to 0.5 M tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) in THF results in the cleavage of their iminoether functions to give the native ribonucleosides along with the innocuous nitrile side product. Conversely, the reaction of 5-cholesten-3-one or dansyl chloride with 2′-O-aminooxymethyl uridine provides permanent uridine 2′-conjugates, which are left essentially intact upon treatment with TBAF. Alternatively, 5′-O-aminooxymethyl thymidine is prepared by hydrazinolysis of its 3′-O-levulinyl-5′-O-phthalimidooxymethyl precursor. Pyrenylation of 5′-O-aminooxymethyl thymidine and the sensitivity of the 5′-conjugate to TBAF further exemplify the usefulness of this nucleoside for modifying DNA sequences either permanently or reversibly. Although the versatility and uniqueness of 2′-O-aminooxymethyl ribonucleosides in the preparation of modified RNA sequences is demonstrated by the single or double incorporation of a reversible pyrenylated uridine 2′-conjugate into an RNA sequence, the conjugation of 2′-O-aminooxymethyl ribonucleosides with aldehydes, including those generated from their acetals, provides reversible 2′-O-protected ribonucleosides for potential applications in the solid-phase synthesis of native RNA sequences. The synthesis of a chimeric polyuridylic acid is presented as an exemplary model. PMID:22067450

  3. MicroRNA modulation induced by AICA ribonucleotide in J1 mouse ES cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; YongyanWu; Ai, Zhiying; Du, Juan; Cao, Lixia; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    ES cells can propagate indefinitely, maintain self-renewal, and differentiate into almost any cell type of the body. These properties make them valuable in the research of embryonic development, regenerative medicine, and organ transplantation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to have essential functions in the maintenance and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ES cells). It was reported that, strong external stimuli, such as a transient low-pH and hypoxia stress, were conducive to the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). AICA ribonucleotide (AICAR) is an AMP-activated protein kinase activator, which can let cells in the state of energy stress. We have demonstrated that AICAR can maintain the pluripotency of J1 mouse ES cells through modulating protein expression in our previous research, but its effects on ES cell miRNA expression remain unknown. In this study, we conducted small RNA high-throughput sequencing to investigate AICAR influence on J1 mouse ES cells by comparing the miRNA expression patterns of the AICAR-treated cells and those without treatment. The result showed that AICAR can significantly modulate the expression of multiple miRNAs, including those have crucial functions in ES cell development. Some differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and confirmed by real-time PCR. For the differently expressed miRNAs identified, further study was conducted regarding the pluripotency and differentiation associated miRNAs with their targets. Moreover, miR-134 was significantly down-regulated after AICAR treatment, and this was suggested to be directly associated with the up-regulated pluripotency markers, Nanog and Sox2. Lastly, Myc was significantly down-regulated after AICAR treatment; therefore, we predicted miRNAs that may target Myc and identified that AICAR induced up-regulation of miR-34a, 34b, and 34c can repress Myc expression in J1 mouse ES cells. Taken together, our study provide a new mechanism for AICAR in ES cells

  4. Ribonucleotide reduction and the possible role of cobalamin in evolution.

    PubMed

    Dickman, S R

    1977-12-29

    The biological pathways of ribonucleotide reduction are briefly reviewed. The hypothesis is presented that reduction of ribonucleoside triphosphates to their deoxynucleotide analogs through the mediation of vitamin B12 or a similar corrinoid preceded and was necessary for the subsequent development of a DNA-type genome. There are two known biological systems for ribonucleotide reduction: (1) The ribonucleoside diphosphate reduction system which utilizes a nonheme iron ribonucleotide reductase enzyme, thioredoxin and its reductase, and NADPH. This enzyme complex is found in most bacteria, some higher organisms, and in all animals. (2) The ribonucleoside triphosphate reduction system which utilizes adenosyl cobalamin, ribonucleotide reductase and either thioredoxin or a disulfhydryl compound. The cobalamin-dependent reductase is restricted to a few species of bacteria and blue-gree algae. This system is considered more primitive than the iron reductase one based on their differences in distribution, components, and products. PMID:599575

  5. Aminoimidazole Carboxamide Ribotide Exerts Opposing Effects on Thiamine Synthesis in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto, Jannell V.; Heitman, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Salmonella enterica, the thiamine biosynthetic intermediate 5-aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) can be synthesized de novo independently of the early purine biosynthetic reactions. This secondary route to AIR synthesis is dependent on (i) 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribotide (AICAR) accumulation, (ii) a functional phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide (SAICAR) synthetase (PurC; EC 6.3.2.6), and (iii) methionine and lysine in the growth medium. Studies presented here show that AICAR is a direct precursor to AIR in vivo. PurC-dependent conversion of AICAR to AIR was recreated in vitro. Physiological studies showed that exogenous nutrients (e.g., methionine and lysine) antagonize the inhibitory effects of AICAR on the ThiC reaction and decreased the cellular thiamine requirement. Finally, genetic results identified multiple loci that impacted the effect of AICAR on thiamine synthesis and implicated cellular aspartate levels in AICAR-dependent AIR synthesis. Together, the data here clarify the mechanism that allows conditional growth of a strain lacking the first five biosynthetic enzymes, and they provide additional insights into the complexity of the metabolic network and its plasticity. IMPORTANCE In bacteria, the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine is derived from aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR), an intermediate in purine biosynthesis. A previous study described conditions under which AIR synthesis is independent of purine biosynthesis. This work is an extension of that previous study and describes a new synthetic pathway to thiamine that depends on a novel thiamine precursor and a secondary activity of the biosynthetic enzyme PurC. These findings provide mechanistic details of redundancy in the synthesis of a metabolite that is essential for nucleotide and coenzyme biosynthesis. Metabolic modifications that allow the new pathway to function or enhance it are also described. PMID:26100042

  6. The hypotensive effect of acute and chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation in normal and hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; McNaughton, Eilidh; Cooney, Josephine; Spickett, Corinne M.; Kennedy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in the arterial wall and is activated in response to cellular stressors that raise AMP relative to ADP/ATP. Activation of AMPK in vivo lowers blood pressure but the influence of hyperlipidemia on this response has not been studied. ApoE−/− mice on high fat diet for 6 weeks and age-matched controls were treated with the AMPK activator, AICAR daily for two weeks. Under anesthesia, the carotid artery was cannulated for blood pressure measurements. Aortic tissue was removed for in vitro functional experiments and AMPK activity was measured in artery homogenates by Western blotting. ApoE−/− mice had significantly raised mean arterial pressure; chronic AICAR treatment normalized this but had no effect in normolipidemic mice, whereas acute administration of AICAR lowered mean arterial pressure in both groups. Chronic AICAR treatment increased phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in normolipidemic but not ApoE−/− mice. In aortic rings, AMPK activation induced vasodilation and an anticontractile effect, which was attenuated in ApoE−/− mice. This study demonstrates that hyperlipidemia dysregulates the AMPK pathway in the arterial wall but this effect can be reversed by AMPK activation, possibly through improving vessel compliance. PMID:26196300

  7. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  8. New hypoxanthine nucleosides with RNA antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, V; Ussery, M A

    1992-08-01

    A series of novel C-2 functionalized hypoxanthine and purine ribonucleosides have been synthesized and evaluated against exotic RNA viruses of the family or genus alpha, arena, flavi, and rhabdo. Both specific and broad-spectrum antiviral activities were discovered but only with hypoxanthine nucleosides. PMID:1444325

  9. Chemical synthesis of nucleoside-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity.

    PubMed

    Janecka, A; Panusz, H; Pankowski, J; Koziołkiewicz, W

    1980-01-01

    A simple chemical procedure for the preparation of four common ribonucleoside 5-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity (up to 10 Ci/mmole) based on the condensation of orthophosphoric acid with the corresponding nucleoside 5-diphosphate in the presence of ethyl chloroformate as well as the methods of purification and identification of the products are described. PMID:7375446

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Kola, B; Bataveljic, A; Arnett, T R; Viollet, B; Saxon, L; Korbonits, M; Chenu, C

    2010-08-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of energy homeostasis, has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many hormones and antidiabetic drugs metformin and glitazones. The objective of this study was to determine if AMPK can be activated in osteoblasts by known AMPK modulators and if AMPK activity is involved in osteoblast function in vitro and regulation of bone mass in vivo. ROS 17/2.8 rat osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the presence of AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin), AMPK inhibitor (compound C), the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin and the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. AMPK activity was measured in cell lysates by a functional kinase assay and AMPK protein phosphorylation was studied by Western Blotting using an antibody recognizing AMPK Thr-172 residue. We demonstrated that treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with AICAR and metformin stimulates Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK and dose-dependently increases its activity. In contrast, treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with compound C inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Ghrelin and propranolol dose-dependently increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected by metformin treatment while AICAR significantly inhibited ROS 17/2.8 cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity at high concentrations. To study the effect of AMPK activation on bone formation in vitro, primary osteoblasts obtained from rat calvaria were cultured for 14-17days in the presence of AICAR, metformin and compound C. Formation of 'trabecular-shaped' bone nodules was evaluated following alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that both AICAR and metformin dose-dependently increase trabecular bone nodule formation, while compound C inhibits bone formation. When primary osteoblasts were co-treated with AICAR and compound C, compound C suppressed the stimulatory effect of AICAR on bone nodule formation

  11. Regulatory mode shift of Tbc1d1 is required for acquisition of insulin-responsive GLUT4-trafficking activity

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Tbc1d1 is key to skeletal muscle GLUT4 regulation. By using GLUT4 nanometry combined with a cell-based reconstitution model, we uncover a shift in the regulatory mode of Tbc1d1 by showing that Tbc1d1 temporally acquires insulin responsiveness, which triggers GLUT4 trafficking only after an exercise-mimetic stimulus such as aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) pretreatment. The functional acquisition of insulin responsiveness requires Ser-237 phosphorylation and an intact phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) 1 domain. Mutations in PTB1, including R125W (a natural mutant), thus result in complete loss of insulin-responsiveness acquisition, whereas AICAR-responsive GLUT4-liberation activity remains intact. Thus our data provide novel insights into temporal acquisition/memorization of Tbc1d1 insulin responsiveness, relying on the PTB1 domain, possibly a key factor in the beneficial effects of exercise on muscle insulin potency. PMID:23325788

  12. Complex coordinated extracellular metabolism: Acid phosphatases activate diluted human leukocyte proteins to generate energy flow as NADPH from purine nucleotide ribose.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, John B; Vavrin, Zdenek; Cox, James E

    2016-08-01

    Complex metabolism is thought to occur exclusively in the crowded intracellular environment. Here we report that diluted enzymes from lysed human leukocytes produce extracellular energy. Our findings involve two pathways: the purine nucleotide catabolic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway, which function together to generate energy as NADPH. Glucose6P fuel for NADPH production is generated from structural ribose of purine ribonucleoside monophosphates, ADP, and ADP-ribose. NADPH drives glutathione reductase to reduce an oxidized glutathione disulfide-glutathione redox couple. Acid phosphatases initiate ribose5P salvage from purine ribonucleoside monophosphates, and transaldolase controls the direction of carbon chain flow through the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. These metabolic control points are regulated by pH. Biologically, this energy conserving metabolism could function in perturbed extracellular spaces. PMID:26895212

  13. Complex coordinated extracellular metabolism: Acid phosphatases activate diluted human leukocyte proteins to generate energy flow as NADPH from purine nucleotide ribose

    PubMed Central

    Hibbs, John B.; Vavrin, Zdenek; Cox, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Complex metabolism is thought to occur exclusively in the crowded intracellular environment. Here we report that diluted enzymes from lysed human leukocytes produce extracellular energy. Our findings involve two pathways: the purine nucleotide catabolic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway, which function together to generate energy as NADPH. Glucose6P fuel for NADPH production is generated from structural ribose of purine ribonucleoside monophosphates, ADP, and ADP-ribose. NADPH drives glutathione reductase to reduce an oxidized glutathione disulfide-glutathione redox couple. Acid phosphatases initiate ribose5P salvage from purine ribonucleoside monophosphates, and transaldolase controls the direction of carbon chain flow through the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. These metabolic control points are regulated by pH. Biologically, this energy conserving metabolism could function in perturbed extracellular spaces. PMID:26895212

  14. Directed evolution of novel polymerase activities: Mutation of a DNA polymerase into an efficient RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Gang; Chen, Liangjing; Sera, Takashi; Fa, Ming; Schultz, Peter G.; Romesberg, Floyd E.

    2002-01-01

    The creation of novel enzymatic function is of great interest, but remains a challenge because of the large sequence space of proteins. We have developed an activity-based selection method to evolve DNA polymerases with RNA polymerase activity. The Stoffel fragment (SF) of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I is displayed on a filamentous phage by fusing it to a pIII coat protein, and the substrate DNA template/primer duplexes are attached to other adjacent pIII coat proteins. Phage particles displaying SF polymerases, which are able to extend the attached oligonucleotide primer by incorporating ribonucleoside triphosphates and biotinylated UTP, are immobilized to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and subsequently recovered. After four rounds of screening an SF library, three SF mutants were isolated and shown to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates virtually as efficiently as the wild-type enzyme incorporates dNTP substrates. PMID:12011423

  15. Synthesis of chimeric oligonucleotides containing phosphodiester, phosphorothioate, and phosphoramidate linkages.

    PubMed

    Maier, M A; Guzaev, A P; Manoharan, M

    2000-06-29

    [reaction: see text] H-Phosphonate monomers of 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) ribonucleosides have been synthesized. Oxidation of oligonucleotide H-phosphonates has been optimized to allow the synthesis of oligonucleotides containing either 2'-deoxy or 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) ribonucleoside residues combined with three different phosphate modifications in the backbone, i.e., phosphodiester (PO), phosphorothioate (PS), and phosphoramidate (PN). Phosphodiester linkages were introduced by oxidation with a cocktail of 0.1 M Et(3)N in CCl(4)/Pyr/H(2)O (5:9:1) without affecting phosphorothioate or phosphoramidate linkages. For the synthesis of phosphoramidate-modified oligonucleotides, N(4)-acetyl deoxycytidine-3'-H-phosphonate monomers were used to avoid transamination during the oxidation step. PMID:10891166

  16. Novel ribofuranosylnucleoside lead compounds for potent and selective inhibitors of mitochondrial thymidine kinase-2.

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, J; Zhu, C; De Clercq , E; Pérez-Pérez, M J; Chamorro, C; Camarasa, M J; Karlsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The ribonucleoside analogues (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uridine (5-BV-Urd) and 3'-spiro-(4'-amino-1',2'-oxathiole-2',2'-dioxide)-5-methyluridine (3'-AOD-5-MeUrd) emerged as potent and selective competitive inhibitors of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK)-2 with respect to thymidine (K(i)/K(m) values of 9.0 and 1.2 respectively). Cytosolic TK-1 did not show measurable affinity for these compounds. [(32)P]Phosphate transfer studies from [gamma-(32)P]ATP to 5-BV-Urd and 3'-AOD-5-MeUrd revealed extremely poor substrate activity but potent inhibitory potential of the compounds. It was concluded that the ribonucleosides 5-BV-Urd and 3'-AOD-5-MeUrd represent two new lead compounds for potent and selective inhibitors of mitochondrial TK-2. PMID:10998359

  17. The 5’-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Is Involved in the Augmentation of Antioxidant Defenses in Cryopreserved Chicken Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Seigneurin, François; Froment, Pascal; Combarnous, Yves; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Semen cryopreservation is a unique tool for the management of animal genetic diversity. However, the freeze-thaw process causes biochemical and physical alterations which make difficult the restoration of sperm energy-dependent functions needed for fertilization. 5’-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism. Mitochondria functions are known to be severely affected during sperm cryopreservation with deleterious oxidative and peroxidative effects leading to cell integrity and functions damages. The aim of this study was thus to examine the role of AMPK on the peroxidation/antioxidant enzymes defense system in frozen-thawed sperm and its consequences on sperm functions. Chicken semen was diluted in media supplemented with or without AMPK activators (AICAR or Metformin [MET]) or inhibitor (Compound C [CC]) and then cryopreserved. AMPKα phosphorylation, antioxidant enzymes activities, mitochondrial potential, ATP, citrate, viability, acrosome reaction ability (AR) and various motility parameters were negatively affected by the freeze-thaw process while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and lactate concentration were dramatically increased. AICAR partially restored superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Glutathione Reductase (GR), increased ATP, citrate, and lactate concentration and subsequently decreased the ROS and LPO (malondialdehyde) in frozen-thawed semen. Motility parameters were increased (i.e., + 23% for motility, + 34% for rapid sperm) as well as AR (+ 100%). MET had similar effects as AICAR except that catalase activity was restored and that ATP and mitochondrial potential were further decreased. CC showed effects opposite to AICAR on SOD, ROS, LPO and AR and motility parameters. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that, upon freeze-thaw process, AMPK stimulated intracellular anti-oxidative defense enzymes through ATP regulation, thus

  18. Combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates the effects of exercise in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Fujitani, Mina; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-03-01

    The combined activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) has been demonstrated to improve endurance and muscle function by mimicking the effects of exercise training. However, their combined pharmacological activation with exercise training has not been explored. Balb/c mice were trained on a treadmill and administered both the AMPK activator AICAR and the PPARδ agonist GW0742 for 4 weeks. AICAR treatment potentiated endurance, but the combination of AICAR and GW0742 further potentiated endurance and increased all running parameters significantly relative to exercised and nonexercised groups (138-179% and 355% increase in running time, respectively). Despite the lack of change in basal whole-body metabolism, a significant shift to fat as the main energy source with a decline in carbohydrate utilization was observed upon indirect calorimetry analysis at the period near exhaustion. Increased energy substrates before exercise, and elevated muscle nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and elevated muscle glycogen at exhaustion were observed together with increased PDK4 mRNA expression. Citrate synthase activity was elevated in AICAR-treated groups, while PGC-1α protein level tended to be increased in GW0742-treated groups. At exhaustion, Pgc1a was robustly upregulated together with Pdk4, Cd36, and Lpl in the muscle. A robust upregulation of Pgc1a and a downregulation in Chrebp were observed in the liver. Our data show that combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates endurance in trained mice by transcriptional changes in muscle and liver, increased available energy substrates, delayed hypoglycemia through glycogen sparing accompanied by increased NEFA availability, and improved substrate shift from carbohydrate to fat. PMID:26997622

  19. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Treatments Counteract Cachexia by Modulating Autophagy in Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pigna, Eva; Berardi, Emanuele; Aulino, Paola; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Zampieri, Sandra; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Merigliano, Stefano; Gruppo, Mario; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin; Rocchi, Marco; Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Di Felice, Valentina; Adamo, Sergio; Coletti, Dario; Moresi, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have correlated physical activity with a better prognosis in cachectic patients, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. In order to identify the pathways involved in the physical activity-mediated rescue of skeletal muscle mass and function, we investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on cachexia in colon carcinoma (C26)-bearing mice. Voluntary exercise prevented loss of muscle mass and function, ultimately increasing survival of C26-bearing mice. We found that the autophagic flux is overloaded in skeletal muscle of both colon carcinoma murine models and patients, but not in running C26-bearing mice, thus suggesting that exercise may release the autophagic flux and ultimately rescue muscle homeostasis. Treatment of C26-bearing mice with either AICAR or rapamycin, two drugs that trigger the autophagic flux, also rescued muscle mass and prevented atrogene induction. Similar effects were reproduced on myotubes in vitro, which displayed atrophy following exposure to C26-conditioned medium, a phenomenon that was rescued by AICAR or rapamycin treatment and relies on autophagosome-lysosome fusion (inhibited by chloroquine). Since AICAR, rapamycin and exercise equally affect the autophagic system and counteract cachexia, we believe autophagy-triggering drugs may be exploited to treat cachexia in conditions in which exercise cannot be prescribed. PMID:27244599

  20. Sirtuin 3–dependent mitochondrial dynamic improvements protect against acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Morigi, Marina; Perico, Luca; Rota, Cinzia; Longaretti, Lorena; Conti, Sara; Rottoli, Daniela; Novelli, Rubina; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health concern with an annual mortality rate that exceeds those of breast and prostate cancer, heart failure, and diabetes combined. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are drivers of AKI-associated pathology; however, the pathways that mediate these events are poorly defined. Here, using a murine cisplatin-induced AKI model, we determined that both oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are associated with reduced levels of renal sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR or the antioxidant agent acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) restored SIRT3 expression and activity, improved renal function, and decreased tubular injury in WT animals, but had no effect in Sirt3–/– mice. Moreover, Sirt3-deficient mice given cisplatin experienced more severe AKI than WT animals and died, and neither AICAR nor ALCAR treatment prevented death in Sirt3–/– AKI mice. In cultured human tubular cells, cisplatin reduced SIRT3, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation, while restoration of SIRT3 with AICAR and ALCAR improved cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our results indicate that SIRT3 is protective against AKI and suggest that enhancing SIRT3 to improve mitochondrial dynamics has potential as a strategy for improving outcomes of renal injury. PMID:25607838

  1. AMPK activation regulates apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis by eIF2{alpha} in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dagon, Yossi; Avraham, Yosefa; Berry, Elliot M. . E-mail: Berry@md.huji.ac.il

    2006-02-03

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, AMPK has been implicated in the control of adipose tissue content. Yet, the nature of this action is controversial. We examined the effect on F442a adipocytes of the AMPK activator-AICAR. Activation of AMPK induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death, inhibition of lipolysis, and downregulatation key adipogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}). We have identified the {alpha}-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2{alpha}) as a target gene which is phosphorylated following AICAR treatment. Such phosphorylation is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for downregulating protein synthesis. 2-Aminopurine (2-AP), an inhibitor of eIF2{alpha} kinases, could overcome the apoptotic effect of AICAR, abolishing the reduction of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha} and the lipolytic properties of AMPK. Thus, AMPK may diminish adiposity via reduction of fat cell number through eIF2{alpha}-dependent translation shutdown.

  2. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Treatments Counteract Cachexia by Modulating Autophagy in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pigna, Eva; Berardi, Emanuele; Aulino, Paola; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Zampieri, Sandra; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Merigliano, Stefano; Gruppo, Mario; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin; Rocchi, Marco; Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Di Felice, Valentina; Adamo, Sergio; Coletti, Dario; Moresi, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have correlated physical activity with a better prognosis in cachectic patients, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. In order to identify the pathways involved in the physical activity-mediated rescue of skeletal muscle mass and function, we investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on cachexia in colon carcinoma (C26)-bearing mice. Voluntary exercise prevented loss of muscle mass and function, ultimately increasing survival of C26-bearing mice. We found that the autophagic flux is overloaded in skeletal muscle of both colon carcinoma murine models and patients, but not in running C26-bearing mice, thus suggesting that exercise may release the autophagic flux and ultimately rescue muscle homeostasis. Treatment of C26-bearing mice with either AICAR or rapamycin, two drugs that trigger the autophagic flux, also rescued muscle mass and prevented atrogene induction. Similar effects were reproduced on myotubes in vitro, which displayed atrophy following exposure to C26-conditioned medium, a phenomenon that was rescued by AICAR or rapamycin treatment and relies on autophagosome-lysosome fusion (inhibited by chloroquine). Since AICAR, rapamycin and exercise equally affect the autophagic system and counteract cachexia, we believe autophagy-triggering drugs may be exploited to treat cachexia in conditions in which exercise cannot be prescribed. PMID:27244599

  3. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT < 2.0%); linearity (R > 0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV < 20%); limit of detection (stimulants and stimulant sulfo-conjugates < 10 ng/mL; norfenefrine; octopamine < 30 ng/mL; AICAR < 10 ng/mL; glycerol 100 μg/mL; ETG < 100 ng/mL); accuracy (AICAR 103.8-105.5%, glycerol 85.1-98.3% at three concentration levels) and ion suppression/enhancement effects. PMID

  4. Deferred feeding and body weight responses to short-term interruption of fuel acquisition: impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2015-07-01

    Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ovariectomized rats ate less food and gained less weight than FD animals implanted with oil (O). Full fed (FF)- and FD-EB consumed equal amounts of food over 24 h, but weight gain was greater in the latter; 24-h food intake and BW gain in FD-O exceeded FD-EB. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator AICAR increased dorsal vagal complex AMPK activity in FD-EB and FD-O, but elicited dissimilar adjustments in hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide transmitter expression, while respectively enhancing or reducing acute re-feeding in these animals and reversing FD-O weight gain. Drug-treated FD-EB and FD-O exhibited respective feeding and weight gain increases between 6-24 h. AICAR enhanced 24-h consumption in FD-EB vs. FF-EB, but cumulative intake and BW gain were greater in AICAR-treated FD-O vs. FD-EB. Results show that estradiol limits acute re-feeding after short-term feeding suspension, but augments acute re-feeding when energy depletion coincides with suspended feeding. This compound metabolic stress exerts steroid-dependent effects during later resumption of circadian-induced feeding, for example, increased consumption vs. weight gain in the presence vs. absence of estradiol. These studies provide novel evidence that estrogen mitigates acute and post-acute adverse effects of disrupted fuel acquisition on energy balance. PMID:25230326

  5. Regulation of FSP27 protein stability by AMPK and HSC70.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Heckmann, Bradlee L; Xie, Xitao; Saarinen, Alicia M; Liu, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) plays a pivotal role in controlling the formation of large lipid droplet and energy metabolism. The cellular levels of FSP27 are tightly regulated through the proteasomal ubiquitin-mediated degradation. However, the upstream signals that trigger FSP27 degradation and the underlying mechanism(s) have yet to be identified. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by AICAR (5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide) or phenformin induced the ubiquitination of FSP27 and promoted its degradation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The levels of FSP27 protein could be maintained by either knocking down AMPKα1 or blocking proteasomal pathway. Moreover, AICAR treatment induced multilocularization of LDs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, reminiscent of the morphological changes in cells depleted of FSP27. Furthermore, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis identified heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) as a novel binding protein of FSP27. The specific interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of both ectopically expressed and endogenous proteins. Importantly, knockdown of HSC70 by small interference RNA resulted in increased half-life of FSP27 in cells treated with a protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) or AICAR. However, silencing of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (COOH terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) failed to alter the stability of FSP27 protein under both conditions. Taken together, our data indicate that AMPK is a negative regulator of FSP27 stability through the proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. Promotion of FSP27 degradation may be an important factor responsible for the beneficial effect of AMPK activators on energy metabolism. PMID:25315694

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara G; Andersen, Marianne A; Ringholm, Stine; Risis, Steve; Larsen, Per S; Kristensen, Jonas M; Frøsig, Christian; Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Jørgensen, Sebastian; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Zierath, Juleen R; Goodyear, Laurie J; Pilegaard, Henriette; Treebak, Jonas T

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylases such as sirtuins (SIRTs) convert NAD to nicotinamide (NAM). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway responsible for converting NAM to NAD to maintain cellular redox state. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SIRT activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits SIRTs, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependent. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein by 16% (P < 0.05) in the trained, but not the untrained leg. Moreover, increases in Nampt mRNA following acute exercise or AICAR treatment (P < 0.05 for both) were maintained in mouse skeletal muscle lacking a functional AMPK α2 subunit. Nampt protein was reduced in skeletal muscle of sedentary AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD), but 6.5 weeks of endurance exercise training increased skeletal muscle Nampt protein to a similar extent in both wild-type (WT) (24%) and AMPK α2 KD (18%) mice. In contrast, 4 weeks of daily AICAR treatment increased Nampt protein in skeletal muscle in WT mice (27%), but this effect did not occur in AMPK α2 KD mice. In conclusion, functional α2-containing AMPK heterotrimers are required for elevation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein, but not mRNA induction. These findings suggest AMPK plays a post-translational role in the regulation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein abundance, and further indicate that the regulation of cellular energy charge and nutrient sensing is mechanistically related. PMID:23918774

  7. {sup 13}C-enrichment at carbons 8 and 2 of uric acid after {sup 13}C-labeled folate dose in man

    SciTech Connect

    Baggott, Joseph E.; Gorman, Gregory S.; Morgan, Sarah L.; Tamura, Tsunenobu . E-mail: tamurat@uab.edu

    2007-09-21

    To evaluate folate-dependent carbon incorporation into the purine ring, we measured {sup 13}C-enrichment independently at C{sub 2} and C{sub 8} of urinary uric acid (the final catabolite of purines) in a healthy male after an independent oral dose of [6RS]-5-[{sup 13}C]-formyltetrahydrofolate ([6RS]-5-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 4}folate) or 10-H{sup 13}CO-7,8-dihydrofolate (10-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 2}folate). The C{sub 2} position was {sup 13}C-enriched more than C{sub 8} after [6RS]-5-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 4}folate, and C{sub 2} was exclusively enriched after 10-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 2}folate. The enrichment of C{sub 2} was greater from [6RS]-5-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 4}folate than 10-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 2}folate using equimolar bioactive doses. Our data suggest that formyl C of [6RS]-10-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 4}folate was not equally utilized by glycinamide ribotide transformylase (enriches C{sub 8}) and aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribotide (AICAR) transformylase (enriches C{sub 2}), and the formyl C of 10-H{sup 13}CO-H{sub 2}folate was exclusively used by AICAR transformylase. 10-HCO-H{sub 2}folate may function in vivo as the predominant substrate for AICAR transformylase in humans.

  8. Chronic stress-induced memory deficits are reversed by regular exercise via AMPK-mediated BDNF induction.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-M; Leem, Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress has a detrimental effect on neurological insults, psychiatric deficits, and cognitive impairment. In the current study, chronic stress was shown to impair learning and memory functions, in addition to reducing in hippocampal Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Similar reductions were also observed for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin, and post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) levels, all of which was counter-regulated by a regime of regular and prolonged exercise. A 21-day restraint stress regimen (6 h/day) produced learning and memory deficits, including reduced alternation in the Y-maze and decreased memory retention in the water maze test. These effects were reversed post-administration by a 3-week regime of treadmill running (19 m/min, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). In hippocampal primary culture, phosphorylated-AMPK (phospho-AMPK) and BDNF levels were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by 5-amimoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) treatment, and AICAR-treated increase was blocked by Compound C. A 7-day period of AICAR intraperitoneal injections enhanced alternation in the Y-maze test and reduced escape latency in water maze test, along with enhanced phospho-AMPK and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. The intraperitoneal injection of Compound C every 4 days during exercise intervention diminished exercise-induced enhancement of memory improvement during the water maze test in chronically stressed mice. Also, chronic stress reduced hippocampal neurogenesis (lower Ki-67- and doublecortin-positive cells) and mRNA levels of BDNF, synaptophysin, and PSD-95. Our results suggest that regular and prolonged exercise can alleviate chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. Hippocampal AMPK-engaged BDNF induction is at least in part required for exercise-induced protection against chronic stress. PMID:26975895

  9. Regulation of FSP27 protein stability by AMPK and HSC70

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Heckmann, Bradlee L.; Xie, Xitao; Saarinen, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    Fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) plays a pivotal role in controlling the formation of large lipid droplet and energy metabolism. The cellular levels of FSP27 are tightly regulated through the proteasomal ubiquitin-mediated degradation. However, the upstream signals that trigger FSP27 degradation and the underlying mechanism(s) have yet to be identified. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by AICAR (5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide) or phenformin induced the ubiquitination of FSP27 and promoted its degradation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The levels of FSP27 protein could be maintained by either knocking down AMPKα1 or blocking proteasomal pathway. Moreover, AICAR treatment induced multilocularization of LDs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, reminiscent of the morphological changes in cells depleted of FSP27. Furthermore, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis identified heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) as a novel binding protein of FSP27. The specific interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of both ectopically expressed and endogenous proteins. Importantly, knockdown of HSC70 by small interference RNA resulted in increased half-life of FSP27 in cells treated with a protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) or AICAR. However, silencing of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (COOH terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) failed to alter the stability of FSP27 protein under both conditions. Taken together, our data indicate that AMPK is a negative regulator of FSP27 stability through the proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. Promotion of FSP27 degradation may be an important factor responsible for the beneficial effect of AMPK activators on energy metabolism. PMID:25315694

  10. Chain extension of ribonucleic acid by enzymes from rat liver cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, N. M.; Smellie, R. M. S.

    1968-01-01

    1. The 105000g supernatant fraction of rat liver catalyses the incorporation of ribonucleotides from ribonucleoside triphosphates into polyribonucleotide material. The reaction requires Mg2+ ions and is enhanced by the addition of an ATP-generating system and RNA, ATP, UTP and CTP but not GTP are utilized in this reaction. In the case of UTP, the product is predominantly a homopolymer containing 2–3 uridine residues, and there is evidence that these may be added to the 3′-hydroxyl ends of RNA or oligoribonucleotide primers. 2. The microsome fraction of rat liver incorporates ribonucleotides from ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP into polyribonucleotide material. This reaction requires Mg2+ ions and is enhanced slightly by the addition of an ATP-generating system, and by RNA but not DNA. Supplementation of the reaction mixture with the three complementary ribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates greatly increases the utilization of a single labelled ribonucleoside 5′-triphosphate. The optimum pH is in the range 7·0–8·5, and the reaction is strongly inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate and to a much smaller degree by inorganic orthophosphate. It is not inhibited by actinomycin D or by deoxyribonuclease. In experiments with [32P]UTP in the absence of ATP, GTP and CTP, 80–90% of 32P was recovered in UMP-2′ or -3′ after alkaline hydrolysis of the reaction product. When the reaction mixture was supplemented with ATP, GTP and CTP, however, about 40% of the 32P was recovered in nucleotides other than UMP-2′ or -3′. Although the reactions seem to lead predominantly to the synthesis of homopolymers, the possibility of some formation of some heteropolymer is not completely excluded. PMID:5683501

  11. "Old" metal oxide affinity chromatography as "novel" strategy for specific capture of cis-diol-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Ting; Huang, Wei; Deng, Yi-Fan; Gao, Qiang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-09-26

    The metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) materials have been extensively used for extraction of phosphate compounds in the past decade. Actually, some of these materials also possess adsorption affinity towards cis-diol-containing compounds, which was seldom explored in separation field so far. Here we present the proof-of-concept study to evaluate the feasibility of expanding MOAC for specific capture of cis-diol biomolecules. Benefitting from the high commercialisation of the metal oxide materials, such MOAC strategy possesses several advantages, like synthesis-free, low cost and high expandability. Firstly, the recognition of adenosine against 2'-deoxyadenosine was performed using zirconium oxide and cerium oxide, two typical commercial MOAC materials. The results showed that efficient adsorption and elution could be achieved easily by pH switching from basic to acidic. The isotherm curves demonstrated the adsorption process fitted well with Freundlich isotherm model and was spontaneous at room temperature (ΔG(0)<0) with an exothermic nature (ΔH(0)<0). Afterwards, the highly efficient and selective enrichment of various model cis-diol biomolecules, including ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and glycoproteins, was achieved using this MOAC strategy. Finally, the endogenous ribonucleosides and modified ribonucleosides were successfully purified from human urine sample, which demonstrated the potential application of MOAC materials in the enrichment of target compounds from complex biological samples. Besides the excellent performance of extraction for cis-diol-containing compounds, equally important is that these materials are commercially available with low cost, which makes the MOAC a promising strategy for the study of cis-diol biomolecules in metabolomics and proteomics. PMID:25138708

  12. Cellular toxicity of nicotinamide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Bolesław; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Słomińska, Ewa; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Swierczyński, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are almost 100 different substances called uremic toxins. Nicotinamide derivatives are known as new family of uremic toxins. These uremic compounds play a role in an increased oxidative stress and disturbances in cellular repair processes by inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. New members of this family were discovered and described. Their toxic properties were a subject of recent studies. This study evaluated the concentration of 4-pyridone-3-carboxamid-1-β-ribonucleoside-triphosphate (4PYTP) and 4-pyridone-3-carboxamid-1-β-ribonucleoside-monophosphate (4PYMP) in erythrocytes of patients with chronic renal failure. Serum and red blood cells were collected from chronic renal failure patients on conservative treatment, those treated with hemodialysis, and at different times from those who underwent kidney transplantation. Healthy volunteers served as a control group. Nicotinamide metabolites were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry based on originally discovered and described method. Three novel compounds were described: 4-pyridone-3-carboxamid-1-β-ribonucleoside (4PYR), 4PYMP, and 4PYTP. 4PYR concentration was elevated in the serum, whereas 4PYMP and 4PYTP concentrations were augmented in erythrocytes of dialysis patients. Interestingly, concentrations of these compounds were less elevated during the treatment with erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs). After successful kidney transplantation, concentrations of 4PYR and 4PYMP normalized according to the graft function, whereas that of 4PYTP was still elevated. During the incubation of erythrocytes in the presence of 4PYR, concentration of 4PYMP rose very rapidly while that of 4PYTP increased slowly. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4PYR, as a toxic compound, was actively absorbed by erythrocytes and metabolized to the 4PYMP and 4PYTP, which may interfere with function and life span of these cells. PMID:22200423

  13. Synergistic reduction of HIV-1 infectivity by 5-azacytidine and inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Roth, Megan E; Xie, Jiashu; Daly, Michele B; Clouser, Christine L; Landman, Sean R; Reilly, Cavan S; Bonnac, Laurent; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-06-01

    Although many compounds have been approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV-1) infection, additional anti-HIV-1 drugs (particularly those belonging to new drug classes) are still needed due to issues such as long-term drug-associated toxicities, transmission of drug-resistant variants, and development of multi-class resistance. Lethal mutagenesis represents an antiviral strategy that has not yet been clinically translated for HIV-1 and is based on the use of small molecules to induce excessive levels of deleterious mutations within the viral genome. Here, we show that 5-azacytidine (5-aza-C), a ribonucleoside analog that induces the lethal mutagenesis of HIV-1, and multiple inhibitors of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) interact in a synergistic fashion to more effectively reduce the infectivity of HIV-1. In these drug combinations, RNR inhibitors failed to significantly inhibit the conversion of 5-aza-C to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, suggesting that 5-aza-C acts primarily as a deoxyribonucleoside even in the presence of RNR inhibitors. The mechanism of antiviral synergy was further investigated for the combination of 5-aza-C and one specific RNR inhibitor, resveratrol, as this combination improved the selectivity index of 5-aza-C to the greatest extent. Antiviral synergy was found to be primarily due to the reduced accumulation of reverse transcription products rather than the enhancement of viral mutagenesis. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first demonstration of antiretroviral synergy between a ribonucleoside analog and RNR inhibitors, and encourage the development of additional ribonucleoside analogs and RNR inhibitors with improved antiretroviral activity. PMID:27117260

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for survival in chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Borger, Darrell R; Gavrilescu, L Cristina; Bucur, Maria C; Ivan, Mircea; Decaprio, James A

    2008-05-30

    This study was undertaken to interrogate cancer cell survival during long-term hypoxic stress. Two systems with relevance to carcinogenesis were employed: Fully transformed BJ cells and a renal carcinoma cell line (786-0). The dynamic of AMPK activity was consistent with a prosurvival role during chronic hypoxia. This was further supported by the effects of AMPK agonists and antagonists (AICAR and compound C). Expression of a dominant-negative AMPK alpha resulted in a decreased ATP level and significantly compromised survival in hypoxia. Dose-dependent prosurvival effects of rapamycin were consistent with mTOR inhibition being a critical downstream mediator of AMPK in persistent low oxygen. PMID:18359290

  15. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase reduces collagen production via p38 MAPK in cardiac fibroblasts induced by coxsackievirus B3.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Donglin; Zhao, Peng; He, Xinlong; Tian, Shunli; Wu, Xueming; Tao, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    Collagen deposition is the major cause of myocardial fibrosis, contributing to impaired cardiac contractile function in coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)-infected hearts. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been considered as a cellular fuel gauge and super metabolic regulator, however, whether AMPK has an effect on collagen production in CVB3‑infected heart remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the association between AMPK activation and CVB3‑infected neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) was investigated. Collagen production was determined by the hydroxyproline content of the supernatant and by the expression of type I/IV collagen in the cell lysate. Rat hydroxyproline ELISA was used to detect hydroxyproline content in the supernatant. The expression of type I/IV collagen, and the phosphorylation of AMPKα‑Thr172 and p38 in the cell lysate were evaluated using western blotting. As expected, it was found that the hydroxyproline content in the supernatant, and the production of collagen I/IV in the cell lysate were significantly promoted at 48 h post‑CVB3‑infection. However, this effect was inhibited in a dose‑dependent manner when pretreated with 5‑aminoimidazole‑4‑carboxamide‑1‑4‑ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 2 h prior to CVB3‑infection. However, if the cells were preincubated with compound C or SB203580 for 30 min prior the treatment with AICAR, the inhibitive effects of AICAR were reversed. The results of the western blotting indicated that the phosphorylation of AMPKα‑Thr172 and p38 were significantly increased by AICAR in the NRCFs. However, only the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) was inhibited by SB203580. In conclusion, AMPK activation reduced collagen production via the p38 MAPK‑dependent pathway in the cardiac fibroblasts induced by CVB3. The results of the present study may contribute to identifying an effective therapy for CVB3‑induced myocarditis and CVB3

  16. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure (S)-Methanocarbaribo Uracil Nucleoside Derivatives for Use as Antiviral Agents and P2Y Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Melman, Artem; Zhong, Minghong; Marquez, Victor E.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an approach toward enantiomerically pure (S)-methanocarba ribonucleosides based on several functional group transformations on a sensitive bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane system. D-Ribose was transformed into methanocarba alcohol 3 followed by conversion of the OH group to a nitrile with inversion of configuration at C4. The nitrile group was subsequently reduced in two stages to the 5′-hydroxymethyl group. An ester group appended to a tertiary carbon (C1) was transformed to an amino group as a nucleobase precursor. PMID:18811198

  17. Microbial Transformation of Antibiotics: Phosphorylation of Clindamycin by Streptomyces coelicolor Müller1

    PubMed Central

    Coats, John H.; Argoudelis, Alexander D.

    1971-01-01

    Addition of clindamycin to whole-cell cultures of Streptomyces coelicolor Müller resulted in the loss of in vitro activity against organisms sensitive to clindamycin. Incubation of such culture filtrates with alkaline phosphatase generated a biologically active material identified as clindamycin. Fermentation broths containing inactivated clindamycin yielded clindamycin 3-phosphate, the structure of which was established by physical-chemical and enzymatic studies. Clindamycin was phosphorylated by lysates and partially purified enzyme preparations from S. coelicolor Müller. These reactions require a ribonucleoside triphosphate and Mg2+. The product of the cell-free reactions was identified as clindamycin 3-phosphate. PMID:5166238

  18. Novel nucleoside-based antimalarial compounds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoyan; Tran, Huu-Anh; Manivannan, Srinivasan; Wen, Xianghui; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Snyder, Floyd F; Back, Thomas G

    2016-06-15

    The malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum employs a salvage pathway for the biosynthesis of nucleotides, in contrast to de novo biosynthesis that is utilized by the human host. A series of twenty-two 2-, 6- and 5'-modified adenosine ribonucleosides was synthesized, with the expectation that these compounds would generate toxic metabolites instead of active nucleotides by the pathogen, while remaining inert in host cells. Bioassays with P. falciparum (K1 strain) indicated IC50 values as low as 110nM and a selectivity index with respect to cytotoxicity toward an L6 rat myoblast cell line of >1000 for the most potent analogue. PMID:27156774

  19. Mechanistic possibilities in prebiotic thiophosphate chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapovits, I.; Nagyvary, J.

    1978-01-01

    The two types of thiophosphate reactivities were studied in a system that involves reactions of 5'-substituted adenosine derivatives. In this system, both nucleophilic displacement on carbon and P-S cleavage are possible. The products and possible mechanisms of cyclization experiments involving different leaving groups are reported. The data indicate superior reactivity of the 3'-OH of the ribonucleoside, although in most other systems the 2'-OH is found to show superior reactivity. It is suggested that thiophosphates might play a role in prebiotic activation and phosphorylation reactions.

  20. The synthesis of 2-nitro-1-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)imidazole (azomycin acyclonucleoside)

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis of acyclonucleosides as analogues of naturally occurring ribonucleosides has been the subject of major research investigations since the advent of the chemotherapeutic agent acyclovir (Zovirax), an acyclic analogue of guanosine. The intensity of research interest in this area is obvious from the fact that almost every conceivable acyclic analogue of naturally occurring or biologically active synthetic nucleosides have been prepared during the past decade. The synthesis of 2-nitro-1-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)imidazole, the acyclonucleoside analogue of antibiotic azomycin (azomycin acyclonucleoside), is accomplished via alkylation of azomycin with 2-benzoyloxyethoxymethylene chloride followed by debenzoylation.

  1. Platycodin D inhibits lipogenesis through AMPKα-PPARγ2 in 3T3-L1 cells and modulates fat accumulation in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Kang, Minseok; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2012-09-01

    Platycodin D (PD) has been reported to control obesity in vivo. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of PD, focusing on its ability to decrease the expression of adipogenic factors through AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) in adipocytes and its ability to prevent abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blotting. To determine the antiobesity effect in vivo, one group of mice were given a normal diet and the others were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. The high-fat diet mice were then assigned to one of three subgroups: aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), vehicle, and PD. PD significantly reduced fat accumulation by inhibiting adipogenic signal transcriptional factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), which functions via AMPK signaling, in vitro. PD reduced both body weight and fat volume; consequently, lipid metabolism was improved by increasing AMPKα, similar to AICAR, and reduced PPARγ2 and C/EBPα expression in adipose tissue. The results suggested that PD could be used to decrease the expression of adipogenic factors related to the AMPK pathway. Hence, PD could be an alternative treatment for controlling obesity by downregulating lipid accumulation. PMID:22872592

  2. Facile preparation of biocompatible sulfhydryl cotton fiber-based sorbents by "thiol-ene" click chemistry for biological analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Shao-Ting; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-10-22

    Sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) has been widely used as adsorbent for a variety of metal ions since 1971. Thanks to the abundant thiols on SCF, in this study, we reported a universal method for the facile preparation of SCF-based materials using "thiol-ene" click chemistry for the first time. With the proposed method, two types of SCF-based materials, phenylboronic acid grafted sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-PBA) and zirconium phosphonate-modified sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+)), were successfully prepared. The grafted functional groups onto the thiol group of SCF were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared fibrous materials exhibited excellent fiber strength, good stability in aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, and great biocompatibility. Moreover, we developed filter-free in-pipet-tip SPE using these SCF-based materials as adsorbent for the enrichment of ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. Our results showed that SCF-PBA adsorbent can selectively capture ribonucleosides and glycopeptides from complex biological samples. And SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+) adsorbent exhibited high selectivity and capacity in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of β-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), as well as human serum and nonfat milk digest. Generally, the preparation strategy can be a universal method for the synthesis of other functionalized cotton-based adsorbents with special requirement in microscale biological analysis. PMID:25268138

  3. Synthesis of nucleoside 3'-(S-alkyl phosphorothioates) and their use as substrates for nucleases.

    PubMed

    Saba, D; Dekker, C A

    1981-09-15

    The synthesis of cytidine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) by treatment of the 2',5'-di-O-(4-methoxytetrahydropyran-4-yl)ribonucleosides with 2-(methylthio 4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide is described. These nucleotide analogues are stable compounds both in the solid state and the neutral aqueous solution. All four of these compounds are degraded by RNase T2 to the parent nucleotides and methanethiol. In addition, cytidine and uridine 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) are substrates for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease and guanosine 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioate) is a substrate for RNase T1 and RNase U1. When used in conjunction with a chromophore-producing reagent, nucleoside 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) provide a means for direct kinetic measurement of ribonuclease activity over a wide pH range (pH 2-9). The reactivities of these substrates with ribonucleases are compared to the reactivities of other synthetic substrates as well as a number of natural substrates. The utility of ribonucleoside 3'-(S-methyl phosphorothioates) as substrates for the assay of ribonucleases is discussed. PMID:6271188

  4. Structure-catalytic activity relationships of dicyclohexylcarboxamidine analogs in phosphorylation and alkylation of nucleosides by a two-step phosphorylating agent, 2-methylthio-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (MTBO).

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Kawasaki, S

    1986-01-01

    Adenosine borate complex was phosphorylated and o-hydroxybenzylated by 2-methylthio-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (MTBO) in the presence of 4-morpholine-N,N'-dicyclohexylcarboxamidine (MDC) at first to give 1-(o-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine derivative followed by the rearrangement of the benzyl group to the N-6 amino group to give N6-(o-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine 5'-S-methyl phosphorothiolate. More than 20 analogs of MDC were examined for their catalytic activity in phosphorylation and o-hydroxybenzylation of ribonucleoside by MTBO. Dicyclohexylformamidine (DCF) and n-alkylamino analogs of MDC had no effect on the o-hydroxybenzylation of ribonucleoside by MTBO, but had great effect on the phosphorylation. Dialkylamino and cyclic imino analogs of MDC had high catalytic activities to the both reaction. The dicyclohexylcarboxamidine structure of MDC gave the catalytic ability for phosphorylation by MTBO, while the morpholine moiety had great effect on the selectivity of o-hydroxybenzylation by MTBO. PMID:3562278

  5. Prebiotically plausible oligoribonucleotide ligation facilitated by chemoselective acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Frank R.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Duffy, Colm D.; Gerland, Béatrice; Islam, Saidul; Powner, Matthew W.; Sutherland, John D.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-05-01

    The recent synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleoside-2‧,3‧-cyclic phosphates under prebiotically plausible conditions has strengthened the case for the involvement of ribonucleic acid (RNA) at an early stage in the origin of life. However, a prebiotic conversion of these weakly activated monomers, and their purine counterparts, to the 3‧,5‧-linked RNA polymers of extant biochemistry has been lacking (previous attempts led only to short oligomers with mixed linkages). Here we show that the 2‧-hydroxyl group of oligoribonucleotide-3‧-phosphates can be chemoselectively acetylated in water under prebiotically credible conditions, which allows rapid and efficient template-directed ligation. The 2‧-O-acetyl group at the ligation junction of the product RNA strand can be removed under conditions that leave the internucleotide bonds intact. Remarkably, acetylation of mixed oligomers that possess either 2‧- or 3‧-terminal phosphates is selective for the 2‧-hydroxyl group of the latter. This newly discovered chemistry thus suggests a prebiotic route from ribonucleoside-2‧,3‧-cyclic phosphates to predominantly 3‧,5‧-linked RNA via partially 2‧-O-acetylated RNA.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of Vibrio cholerae uridine phosphorylase in complex with 6-methyluracil

    PubMed Central

    Prokofev, Igor I.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdulkhakov, Azat G.; Dontsova, Mariya V.; Seregina, Tatyana A.; Mironov, Alexander S.; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Uridine phosphorylase catalyzes the phosphorolysis of ribonucleosides, with the nitrogenous base and ribose 1-phosphate as products. Additionally, it catalyzes the reverse reaction of the synthesis of ribonucleosides from ribose 1-phosphate and a nitrogenous base. However, the enzyme does not catalyze the synthesis of nucleosides when the substrate is a nitrogenous base substituted at the 6-­position, such as 6-methyluracil (6-MU). In order to explain this fact, it is essential to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the complex of 6-MU with uridine phosphorylase. 6-MU is a pharmaceutical agent that improves tissue nutrition and enhances cell regeneration by normalization of nucleotide exchange in humans. 6-MU is used for the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including infectious diseases. Here, procedures to obtain the uridine phosphorylase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae (VchUPh), purification of this enzyme, crystallization of the complex of VchUPh with 6-MU, and X-ray data collection and preliminary X-ray analysis of the VchUPh–6-MU complex at atomic resolution are reported. PMID:24419619

  7. Protein phosphorylation during Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Morales, Alberto; González-López, Lorena; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Cortés-Martínez, Leticia; Torres-Monzón, Jorge Aurelio; Gallegos-Pérez, José Luis; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; James, Anthony A; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Plasmodium gametogenesis within the mosquito midgut is a complex differentiation process involving signaling mediated by phosphorylation, which modulate metabolic routes and protein synthesis required to complete this development. However, the mechanisms leading to gametogenesis activation are poorly understood. We analyzed protein phosphorylation during Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis in vitro in serum-free medium using bidimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with immunoblotting (IB) and antibodies specific to phosphorylated serine, threonine and tyrosine. Approximately 75 protein exhibited phosphorylation changes, of which 23 were identified by mass spectrometry. These included components of the cytoskeleton, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in DNA synthesis and signaling pathways among others. Novel phosphorylation events support a role for these proteins during gametogenesis. The phosphorylation sites of six of the identified proteins, HSP70, WD40 repeat protein msi1, enolase, actin-1 and two isoforms of large subunit of ribonucleoside reductase were investigated using TiO2 phosphopeptides enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, transient exposure to hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleoside reductase, impaired male gametocytes exflagellation in a dose-dependent manner, and provides a resource for functional studies. PMID:26008612

  8. Templated synthesis of nylon nucleic acids and characterization by nuclease digestion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Risheng; Ding, Liang; Sha, Roujie

    2012-01-01

    Nylon nucleic acids containing oligouridine nucleotides with pendent polyamide linkers and flanked by unmodified heteronucleotide sequences were prepared by DNA templated synthesis. Templation was more efficient than the single-stranded synthesis: Coupling step yields were as high as 99.2%, with up to 7 amide linkages formed in the synthesis of a molecule containing 8 modified nucleotides. Controlled digestion by calf spleen phosphodiesterase enabled the mapping of modified nucleotides in the sequences. A combination of complete degradation of nylon nucleic acids by snake venom phosphodiesterase and dephosphorylation of the resulting nucleotide fragments by bacterial alkaline phosphatase, followed by LCMS analysis, clarified the linear structure of the oligo-amide linkages. The templated synthesis strategy afforded nylon nucleic acids in the target structure and was compatible with the presence heteronucleotides. The complete digestion procedure produced a new species of DNA analogues, nylon ribonucleosides, which display nucleosides attached via a 2′-alkylthio linkage to each diamine and dicarboxylate repeat unit of the original nylon nucleic acids. The binding affinity of a nylon ribonucleoside octamer to the complementary DNA was evaluated by thermal denaturing experiments. The octamer was found to form stable duplexes with an inverse dependence on salt concentration, in contrast to the salt-dependent DNA control. PMID:23125913

  9. GYY4137, a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing molecule, likely protects against high glucose-induced cytotoxicity by activation of the AMPK/mTOR signal pathway in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Bin; Hu, Xun; Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Li-Zhen; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) has become a major cause of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidences have proved that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) fulfills a positive role in regulating diabetic myocardial injury. The present study was designed to determine whether GYY4137, a novel H2S-releasing molecule, protected H9c2 cells against high glucose (HG)-induced cytotoxicity by activation of the AMPK/mTOR signal pathway. H9c2 cells were incubated in normal glucose (5.5 mM), 22, 33, and 44 mM glucose for 24 h to mimic the hyperglycemia in DCM in vitro. Then we added 50, 100, and 200 μM GYY4137, and measured the cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). 0.5 mM 5-amino-4-imidazole-carboxamide riboside (AICAR, an AMPK activator) and 1 mM adenine 9-β-D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-A, an AMPK inhibitor) were used to identity whether the AMPK/mTOR signal pathway was involved in GYY4137-mediated cardioprotection. We demonstrated that HG decreased cell viability and increased LDH enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner. 33 mM HG treatment for 24 h was chosen as our model group for further study. Both 100 and 200 μM GYY4137 treatments significantly attenuated HG-induced cell viability decrement, LDH enzyme activity increase, and MMP collapse. AICAR had similar effects to GYY4137 treatment while Ara-A attenuated GYY4137-mediated cardioprotection. Importantly, both GYY4137 and AICAR increased AMPK phosphorylation and decreased mTOR phosphorylation compared with the HG model group while Ara-A attenuated GYY4137-mediated AMPK phosphorylation increase and mTOR phosphorylation decrement. In conclusion, we propose that GYY4137 likely protects against HG-induced cytotoxicity by activation of the AMPK/mTOR signal pathway in H9c2 cells. PMID:24374752

  10. Running-Induced Systemic Cathepsin B Secretion Is Associated with Memory Function.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo Youl; Becke, Andreas; Berron, David; Becker, Benjamin; Sah, Nirnath; Benoni, Galit; Janke, Emma; Lubejko, Susan T; Greig, Nigel H; Mattison, Julie A; Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral processes that mediate beneficial effects of exercise on the brain remain sparsely explored. Here, we show that a muscle secretory factor, cathepsin B (CTSB) protein, is important for the cognitive and neurogenic benefits of running. Proteomic analysis revealed elevated levels of CTSB in conditioned medium derived from skeletal muscle cell cultures treated with AMP-kinase agonist AICAR. Consistently, running increased CTSB levels in mouse gastrocnemius muscle and plasma. Furthermore, recombinant CTSB application enhanced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and doublecortin (DCX) in adult hippocampal progenitor cells through a mechanism dependent on the multifunctional protein P11. In vivo, in CTSB knockout (KO) mice, running did not enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory function. Interestingly, in Rhesus monkeys and humans, treadmill exercise elevated CTSB in plasma. In humans, changes in CTSB levels correlated with fitness and hippocampus-dependent memory function. Our findings suggest CTSB as a mediator of effects of exercise on cognition. PMID:27345423

  11. Cerulenin-mediated apoptosis is involved in adenine metabolic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Sun, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Hee; Lee, Hyun-Jee; Choi, Shin-Jung; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Song, Kyung-Bin; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Simon, Julian . E-mail: jsimon@fhcrc.org; Won, Misun . E-mail: misun@kribb.re.kr

    2006-10-27

    Cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, induces apoptosis of variety of tumor cells. To elucidate mode of action by cerulenin, we employed the proteomics approach using Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The differential protein expression profile of S. pombe revealed that cerulenin modulated the expressions of proteins involved in stresses and metabolism, including both ade10 and adk1 proteins. The nutrient supplementation assay demonstrated that cerulenin affected enzymatic steps transferring a phosphoribosyl group. This result suggests that cerulenin accumulates AMP and p-ribosyl-s-amino-imidazole carboxamide (AICAR) and reduces other necessary nucleotides, which induces feedback inhibition of enzymes and the transcriptional regulation of related genes in de novo and salvage adenine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the deregulation of adenine nucleotide synthesis may interfere ribonucleotide reductase and cause defects in cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. In conclusion, cerulenin induces apoptosis through deregulation of adenine nucleotide biosynthesis resulting in nuclear division defects in S. pombe.

  12. Metal ion mediated nucleobase recognition by the ZTP riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Trausch, Jeremiah J.; Marcano-Velázquez, Joan G.; Matyjasik, Michal M.; Batey, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The ZTP riboswitch is a widespread family of regulatory RNAs that upregulate de novo purine synthesis in response to increased intracellular levels of ZTP or ZMP (AICAR). As an important intermediate in purine biosynthesis, ZMP also serves as a proxy for the concentration of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, a key component of one carbon metabolism. Here we report the structure of the ZTP riboswitch bound to ZMP at a resolution of 1.80 Å. The RNA contains two subdomains brought together through a long-range pseudoknot further stabilized through helix-helix packing. ZMP is bound at the subdomain interface of the RNA through a set of interactions with the ligand's base, ribose sugar and phosphate moieties. Unique to nucleobase recognition by RNAs, the Z base is inner sphere coordinated to a magnesium cation bound by two backbone phosphates. This interaction, along with steric hindrance by the backbone, imparts specificity over related analogs such as ATP/AMP. PMID:26144884

  13. Activation of AMPK and its Impact on Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, Ellen; King, Tanya S; Russe, Otto Quintus; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2015-11-01

    Activation of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) contributes to beneficial effects such as improvement of the hyperglycemic state in diabetes as well as reduction of obesity and inflammatory processes. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK activity has been associated with increased exercise capacity. A study published in 2008, directly before the Olympic Games in Beijing, showed that the AMPK activator AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide) increased the running capacity of mice without any training and thus, prompted the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to include certain AMPK activators in the list of forbidden drugs. This raises the question as to whether all AMPK activators should be considered for registration or whether the increase in exercise performance is only associated with specific AMPK-activating substances. In this review, we intend to shed light on currently published AMPK-activating drugs, their working mechanisms, and their impact on body fitness. PMID:26186961

  14. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  15. Summary: the modified nucleosides of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, P A; Crain, P F; McCloskey, J A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive listing is made of posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA reported in the literature through mid-1994. Included are chemical structures, common names, symbols, Chemical Abstracts registry numbers (for ribonucleoside and corresponding base), Chemical Abstracts Index Name, phylogenetic sources, and initial literature citations for structural characterization or occurrence, and for chemical synthesis. The listing is categorized by type of RNA: tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, snRNA, and other RNAs. A total of 93 different modified nucleosides have been reported in RNA, with the largest number and greatest structural diversity in tRNA, 79; and 28 in rRNA, 12 in mRNA, 11 in snRNA and 3 in other small RNAs. PMID:7518580

  16. Structural Determinants for Inhibitory Ligands of Orotidine-5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures. PMID:20452222

  17. A Simple, Inexpensive, High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Method for Separating Cytokinins in Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tudor H.; Carroll, James E.; Isenberg, Francis M. R.; Pendergrass, Ann; Howell, Lydia

    1975-01-01

    Separation of a mixture of the main cytokinins occurring naturally in plant tissues was achieved by high pressure liquid chromatography using insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone as the solid support. The separation of each cytokinin was first assessed over a range of salt and l-butanol concentrations and pH using a mixture of borate buffer and l-butanol as the mobile phase to determine the conditions necessary for optimum resolution. A discrete separation of zeatin, N-6-(Δ-2-isopentenyl)adenine, their related ribonucleosides, and kinetin was achieved using a simple isocratic elution with 0.025 m borate buffer at pH 6.8 and 4% (v/v) l-butanol. A number of cytokinin-active compounds were detected in cabbage extracts by the Amaranthus betacyanin bioassay using this separation technique. PMID:16659314

  18. Conformational analysis of a nucleoside of 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccur Leal, Kátia; Rudolf Seidl, Peter; Diniz Yoneda, Julliane; Santos, CarlaV. B.; Marques, Isakelly P.; Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Francisco Ferreira, Vitor

    2005-06-01

    The synthesis of new ribonucleosides is an essential research area in the investigation of new therapeutically useful agents, particularly those used in the treatment of HIV infection. The conformation of these nucleosides may have direct implications for their ability to bind to receptor targets. We have prepared the 7-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives and used the ensemble of low-energy minima to develop conformational profiles of quinolonic nucleosides and verify their accuracy in different calculations of structural parameters. Results are compared with experimental data obtained by X-ray and NMR analysis. Finally, we intend to test the applicability of these methods to conformational analysis of other nucleosides and verify if the preferential conformation is the one which gives the best anti-HIV or antiviral activity.

  19. Synthesis of 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-TBS mononucleosides using an organic catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunggi; Blaisdell, Thomas P.; Kasaplar, Pinar; Sun, Xixi

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes a highly effective method to produce 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-TBS mononucleosides selectively using a small organic catalyst. This methodology avoids the tedious protection/deprotection strategy necessary to differentiate the 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups in a ribonucleoside. The catalyst was synthesized in two steps starting from the condensation of valinol and cyclopentyl aldehyde, followed by anionic addition of N-methylimidazole. Ring closure of the amino alcohol with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal in methanol furnishes the catalyst. All four 2′-O-TBS protected mono-nucleosides, U, ABz, GIb, and CAc, were produced in a single step using 10 to 20 mol% of the catalyst at room temperature with excellent yields and selectivity. Further transformation to phosphoramidite demonstrates the utility of this protocol toward the preparation of monomers useful for automated synthesis of RNA. PMID:24961720

  20. DNA polymerases engineered by directed evolution to incorporate non-standard nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Laos, Roberto; Thomson, J. Michael; Benner, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    DNA polymerases have evolved for billions of years to accept natural nucleoside triphosphate substrates with high fidelity and to exclude closely related structures, such as the analogous ribonucleoside triphosphates. However, polymerases that can accept unnatural nucleoside triphosphates are desired for many applications in biotechnology. The focus of this review is on non-standard nucleotides that expand the genetic “alphabet.” This review focuses on experiments that, by directed evolution, have created variants of DNA polymerases that are better able to accept unnatural nucleotides. In many cases, an analysis of past evolution of these polymerases (as inferred by examining multiple sequence alignments) can help explain some of the mutations delivered by directed evolution. PMID:25400626

  1. Preparation of covalently linked DNA-RNA hybrids and arabinocytidine containing DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    de Vroom, E; Roelen, H C; Saris, C P; Budding, T N; van der Marel, G A; van Boom, J H

    1988-01-01

    It will be demonstrated that 5'-O-DMT-N-acyl-deoxyribonucleosides, 5'-O-Lev-2'-O-MTHP-N-acyl-ribonucleosides and, also, 2'-O-MTHP-N-acyl-ara-cytidine can be coupled, via the hydroxybenzotriazole phosphotriester approach, to afford two types of DNA-RNA hybrids as well as ara-C containing DNA-fragments. The final removal of acid-labile DMT and MTHP groups could be effected by 1 h treatment with 80% acetic acid of the otherwise unprotected DNA-RNA hybrids. The same acidic hydrolysis did not result in complete removal of the 2'-O-MTHP group from the ara-C unit. Complete deblocking was accomplished after an additional 2 h aqueous HC1 (0.01 M; pH 2.00) treatment. PMID:2453027

  2. Genome-wide identification of miRNA targets by PAR-CLIP

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Markus; Lianoglou, Steve; Tuschl, Thomas; Betel, Doron

    2012-01-01

    MiRNAs are short (20-23 nt) RNAs that are loaded into proteins of the Argonaute (AGO) family and guide them to partially complementary target sites on mRNAs, resulting in mRNA destabilization and/or translational repression. It is estimated that about 60% of the mammalian genes are potentially regulated by miRNAs, and therefore methods for experimental miRNA target determination have become valuable tools for the characterization of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Here we present a step-by-step protocol and guidelines for the computational analysis for the large-scale identification of miRNA target sites in cultured cells by photoactivatable ribonucleoside enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) of AGO proteins. PMID:22926237

  3. Ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, John D.

    2010-01-01

    It has normally been assumed that ribonucleotides arose on the early Earth through a process in which ribose, the nucleobases, and phosphate became conjoined. However, under plausible prebiotic conditions, condensation of nucleobases with ribose to give β-ribonucleosides is fraught with difficulties. The reaction with purine nucleobases is low-yielding and the reaction with the canonical pyrimidine nucleobases does not work at all. The reasons for these difficulties are considered and an alternative high-yielding synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is discussed. Fitting the new synthesis to a plausible geochemical scenario is a remaining challenge but the prospects appear good. Discovery of an improved method of purine synthesis, and an efficient means of stringing activated nucleotides together, will provide underpinning support to those theories that posit a central role for RNA in the origins of life. PMID:20452951

  4. Chemical Mutagenesis of an Emissive RNA Alphabet.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Alexander R; Fin, Andrea; Tor, Yitzhak

    2015-11-25

    An evolved fluorescent ribonucleoside alphabet comprising isomorphic purine ((tz)A, (tz)G) and pyrimidine ((tz)U, (tz)C) analogues, all derived from isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine as a common heterocyclic core, is described. Structural and biochemical analyses illustrate that the nucleosides, particularly the C-nucleosidic purine analogues, are faithful isomorphic and isofunctional surrogates of their natural counterparts and show improved features when compared to an RNA alphabet derived from thieno[3,4-d]-pyrimidine. The restoration of the nitrogen in a position equivalent to the purines' N7 leads to "isofunctional" behavior, as illustrated by the ability of adenosine deaminase to deaminate (tz)A as effectively as adenosine, the native substrate. PMID:26523462

  5. Inhibition of yeast ribonucleotide reductase by Sml1 depends on the allosteric state of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Misko, Tessianna A; Wijerathna, Sanath R; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Berdis, Anthony J; Ahmad, Md Faiz; Harris, Michael E; Dealwis, Chris G

    2016-06-01

    Sml1 is an intrinsically disordered protein inhibitor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribonucleotide reductase (ScRR1), but its inhibition mechanism is poorly understood. RR reduces ribonucleoside diphosphates to their deoxy forms, and balances the nucleotide pool. Multiple turnover kinetics show that Sml1 inhibition of dGTP/ADP- and ATP/CDP-bound ScRR follows a mixed inhibition mechanism. However, Sml1 cooperatively binds to the ES complex in the dGTP/ADP form, whereas with ATP/CDP, Sml1 binds weakly and noncooperatively. Gel filtration and mutagenesis studies indicate that Sml1 does not alter the oligomerization equilibrium and the CXXC motif is not involved in the inhibition. The data suggest that Sml1 is an allosteric inhibitor. PMID:27155231

  6. A kinetic estimate of the free aldehyde content of aldoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The relative free aldehyde content of eight hexoses and four pentoses has been estimated within about 10% from the rate constants for their reaction with urazole (1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione). These values of the percent free aldehyde are in agreement with those estimated from CD measurements, but are more accurate. The relative free aldehyde contents for the aldoses were then correlated to various literature NMR measurements to obtain the absolute values. This procedure was also done for three deoxyaldoses, which react much more rapidly than can be accounted for by the free aldehyde content. This difference in reactivity between aldoses and deoxyaldoses is due to the inductive effect of the H versus the OH on C-2'. This may help explain why deoxyribonucleosides hydrolyze much more rapidly than ribonucleosides.

  7. Preparation of isotopically labeled ribonucleotides for multidimensional NMR spectroscopy of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Batey, R T; Inada, M; Kujawinski, E; Puglisi, J D; Williamson, J R

    1992-01-01

    A general method for large scale preparation of uniformly isotopically labeled ribonucleotides and RNAs is described. Bacteria are grown on isotopic growth medium, and their nucleic acids are harvested and degraded to mononucleotides. These are enzymatically converted into ribonucleoside triphosphates, which are used in transcription reactions in vitro to prepare RNAs for NMR studies. For 15N-labeling, E.coli is grown on 15N-ammonium sulfate, whereas for 13C-labeling, Methylophilus methylotrophus is grown on 13C-methanol, which is more economical than 13C-glucose. To demonstrate the feasibility and utility of this method, uniformly 13C-labeled ribonucleotides were used to synthesize a 31 nucleotide HIV TAR RNA that was analyzed by 3D-NMR. This method should find widespread use in the structural analysis of RNA by NMR. Images PMID:1383928

  8. Sestrin 3 regulation in type 2 diabetic patients and its influence on metabolism and differentiation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Emmani Bm; Osler, Megan E; Zierath, Juleen R

    2013-12-01

    In mammals, the sestrin family is composed of three stress-responsive genes. Ablation of sestrin in Drosophila attenuates longevity, which is accompanied by increased S6K phosphorylation and decreased AMPK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, the metabolic role of sestrins in mammals is not comprehensively understood. We characterized the expression of individual sestrin family members and determined their role in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Expression of sestrin 1 or sestrin 2 mRNA was unaltered between the NGT and T2D participants. Conversely, sestrin 3 mRNA was increased in T2D patients and correlated with fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c. A trend for increased sestrin 3 protein was observed in T2D patients. In human primary myotubes, sestrin 3 mRNA increased during differentiation, and this response was unaltered in T2D-derived myotubes. Long-term treatment of myotubes with insulin or AICAR decreased sestrin 3 mRNA. Exposure of myotubes to the reactive oxygen species H2O2 increased mRNA expression of sestrin 1 and 2, whereas sestrin 3 was unaltered. siRNA-mediated silencing of sestrin 3 in myotubes was without effect on insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen or AICAR-stimulated palmitate oxidation. These results provide evidence against sestrin 3 in the direct control of glucose or lipid metabolism in human skeletal muscle. However, siRNA-mediated sestrin 3 gene silencing in myotubes increased myostatin expression. Collectively, our results indicate sestrin 3 is upregulated in T2D and could influence skeletal muscle differentiation without altering glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:24129397

  9. Ovarian tumor-initiating cells display a flexible metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Angela S.; Roberts, Paul C.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Schmelz, Eva M.

    2014-10-15

    An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-L{sub FFLv} (TIC), derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, to their parental (MOSE-L) and benign precursor (MOSE-E) cells. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion. In contrast to MOSE-L cells, TICs can increase their rate of glycolysis to overcome the inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin and can increase their oxygen consumption rate to maintain proton motive force when uncoupled, similar to the benign MOSE-E cells. TICs have an increased survival rate under limiting conditions as well as an increased survival rate when treated with AICAR, but exhibit a higher sensitivity to metformin than MOSE-E and MOSE-L cells. Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs. - Highlights: • Ovarian cancer TICs exhibit a decreased glucose and fatty acid oxidation. • TICs are more glycolytic and have highly active mitochondria. • TICs are more resistant to AICAR but not metformin. • A flexible metabolism allows TICs to adapt to their microenvironment. • This flexibility requires development of specific drugs targeting TIC-specific changes to prevent recurrent TIC outgrowth.

  10. Regulation of Pancreatic β Cell Mass by Cross-Interaction between CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein β Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Mieda, Yusuke; Shimizu, Shinobu; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Matsuura, Yuki; Takai, Tomoko; Suzuki, Emi; Kanno, Ayumi; Koyanagi-Kimura, Maki; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Bartolome, Alberto; Yokoi, Norihide; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Wataru; Seino, Susumu; Kido, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the development of type 2 diabetes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to not only insulin resistance but also to pancreatic beta cell failure. Conversely, cell function under various stressed conditions can be restored by reducing ER stress by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the details of this mechanism are still obscure. Therefore, the current study aims to elucidate the role of AMPK activity during ER stress-associated pancreatic beta cell failure. MIN6 cells were loaded with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR) and metformin to assess the relationship between AMPK activity and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) expression levels. The effect of C/EBPβ phosphorylation on expression levels was also investigated. Vildagliptin and metformin were administered to pancreatic beta cell-specific C/EBPβ transgenic mice to investigate the relationship between C/EBPβ expression levels and AMPK activity in the pancreatic islets. When pancreatic beta cells are exposed to ER stress, the accumulation of the transcription factor C/EBPβ lowers the AMP/ATP ratio, thereby decreasing AMPK activity. In an opposite manner, incubation of MIN6 cells with AICAR or metformin activated AMPK, which suppressed C/EBPβ expression. In addition, administration of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin and metformin to pancreatic beta cell-specific C/EBPβ transgenic mice decreased C/EBPβ expression levels and enhanced pancreatic beta cell mass in proportion to the recovery of AMPK activity. Enhanced C/EBPβ expression and decreased AMPK activity act synergistically to induce ER stress-associated pancreatic beta cell failure. PMID:26091000

  11. Diabetes-Related Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARP/Ankrd23) Modifies Glucose Homeostasis by Modulating AMPK Activity in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoshiaki; Matsuo, Kiyonari; Kitamura, Youhei; Ono, Kazunori; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matoba, Satoaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Wu, Tongbin; Chen, Ju; Emoto, Noriaki; Ikeda, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major site for glucose disposal, the impairment of which closely associates with the glucose intolerance in diabetic patients. Diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein (DARP/Ankrd23) is a member of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins, whose expression is enhanced in the skeletal muscle under diabetic conditions; however, its role in energy metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel role of DARP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through modulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. DARP is highly preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle, and its expression was substantially upregulated during myotube differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Interestingly, DARP-/- mice demonstrated better glucose tolerance despite similar body weight, while their insulin sensitivity did not differ from that in wildtype mice. We found that phosphorylation of AMPK, which mediates insulin-independent glucose uptake, in skeletal muscle was significantly enhanced in DARP-/- mice compared to that in wildtype mice. Gene silencing of DARP in C2C12 myotubes enhanced AMPK phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of DARP in C2C12 myoblasts reduced it. Moreover, DARP-silencing increased glucose uptake and oxidation in myotubes, which was abrogated by the treatment with AICAR, an AMPK activator. Of note, improved glucose tolerance in DARP-/- mice was abolished when mice were treated with AICAR. Mechanistically, gene silencing of DARP enhanced protein expression of LKB1 that is a major upstream kinase for AMPK in myotubes in vitro and the skeletal muscle in vivo. Together with the altered expression under diabetic conditions, our data strongly suggest that DARP plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions, and thus DARP is a new therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26398569

  12. Role of calcium and AMP kinase in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and GLUT4 levels in muscle.

    PubMed

    Ojuka, Edward O

    2004-05-01

    Contractile activity induces mitochondrial biogenesis and increases glucose transport capacity in muscle. There has been much research on the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations. The present paper reviews the evidence, which indicates that the decrease in the levels of high-energy phosphates, leading to activation of AMP kinase (AMPK), and the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), which activates Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK), are signals that initiate these adaptative responses. Although the events downstream of AMPK and CAMK have not been well characterized, these events lead to activation of various transcription factors, including: nuclear respiratory factors (NRF) 1 and 2, which cause increased expression of proteins of the respiratory chain; PPAR-alpha, which up regulates the levels of enzymes of beta oxidation; mitochondrial transcription factor A, which activates expression of the mitochondrial genome; myocyte-enhancing factor 2A, the transcription factor that regulates GLUT4 expression. The well-orchestrated expression of the multitude of proteins involved in these adaptations is mediated by the rapid activation of PPAR gamma co-activator (PGC) 1, a protein that binds to various transcription factors to maximize transcriptional activity. Activating AMPK using 5-aminoimidizole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-riboside (AICAR) and increasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) using caffeine, W7 or ionomycin in L6 myotubes increases the concentration of mitochondrial enzymes and GLUT4 and enhances the binding of NRF-1 and NRF-2 to DNA. AICAR and Ca-releasing agents also increase the levels of PGC-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A and myocyte-enhancing factors 2A and 2D. These results are similar to the responses seen in muscle during the adaptation to endurance exercise and show that L6 myotubes are a suitable model for studying the mechanisms by which exercise causes the adaptive responses in muscle mitochondria and glucose transport. PMID:15294043

  13. The deacetylase enzyme SIRT1 is not associated with oxidative capacity in rat heart and skeletal muscle and its overexpression reduces mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gurd, Brendon J; Yoshida, Yuko; Lally, James; Holloway, Graham P; Bonen, Arend

    2009-01-01

    Deacetylation of PGC-1α by SIRT1 is thought to be an important step in increasing PGC-1α transcriptional activity, since in muscle cell lines SIRT1 induces PGC-1α protein expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. We examined the relationship between SIRT1 protein and activity, PGC-1α and markers of mitochondrial density, (a) across a range of metabolically heterogeneous skeletal muscles and the heart, and when mitochondrial biogenesis was stimulated by (b) chronic muscle stimulation (7 days) and (c) AICAR administration (5 days), and finally, (d) we also examined the effects of SIRT1 overexpression on mitochondrial biogenesis and PGC-1α. SIRT1 protein and activity were correlated (r= 0.97). There were negative correlations between SIRT1 protein and PGC-1α (r=−0.95), COX IV (r=−0.94) and citrate synthase (r=−0.97). Chronic muscle stimulation and AICAR upregulated PGC-1α protein (22–159%) and oxidative capacity (COX IV, 20–69%); in each instance SIRT1 protein was downregulated by 20–40%, while SIRT1 intrinsic activity was increased. SIRT1 overexpression in rodent muscle increased SIRT1 protein (+240%) and doubled SIRT1 activity, but PGC-1α (−25%), mtTFA (−14%) and COX IV (−10%) proteins were downregulated. Taken altogether these experiments are not consistent with the notion that SIRT1 protein plays an obligatory regulatory role in the process of PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in mammalian muscle. PMID:19237425

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on chemerin secretion in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; López-Yoldi, Miguel; Sinal, Christopher J; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2016-03-01

    Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and insulin resistance. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) has shown beneficial properties on diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of α-LA on chemerin production in adipocytes in absence or presence of TNF-α, insulin and AICAR. The potential signaling pathways involved in α-LA effects on chemerin were also analyzed. α-LA actions on chemerin were tested in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in some cases in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Chemerin mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR and the amount of chemerin secreted to culture media was determined by ELISA. α-LA induced a concentration-dependent inhibition on both chemerin secretion and mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The AMPK activator AICAR and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abrogated both chemerin secretion and gene expression, and further potentiated the inhibitory effect of α-LA on chemerin secretion. Insulin was able to partially reverse the inhibitory action of α-LA on chemerin secretion. α-LA also reduced basal chemerin secretion in both subcutaneous and omental adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, α-LA was able to abolish the stimulatory effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α on chemerin secretion. Our data demonstrated the ability of α-LA to inhibit chemerin production, an adipokine associated to obesity and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that the reduction of chemerin could contribute to the antiobesity/antidiabetic properties described for α-LA. PMID:26721419

  15. Hypoxia promotes drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changfu; Zhang, Qiao; Yu, Tao; Sun, Shudong; Wang, Wenjun; Liu, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Drug resistance has been recognized to be a major obstacle to the chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. And the potential importance of hypoxia as a target to reverse drug resistance in osteosarcoma has been indicated, though the mechanism underlining such role is not clarified. The present study aims to investigate the role of hypoxia in the drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Experimental design We investigated the promotion of the resistance to doxorubicin of osteosarcoma MG-63 and U2-os cells in vitro, and then determined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)α and HIF-1β, the activation and regulatory role of AMPK in the osteosarcoma U2-os cells which were treated with doxorubicin under hypoxia. Results It was demonstrated that hypoxia significantly reduced the sensitivity of MG-63 and U2-os cells to doxorubicin, indicating an inhibited viability reduction and a reduced apoptosis promotion. And such reduced sensitivity was not associated with HIF-1α, though it was promoted by hypoxia in U2-os cells. Interestingly, the AMPK signaling was significantly promoted by hypoxia in the doxorubicin-treated U2-os cells, with a marked upregulation of phosphorylated AMPK (Thr 172) and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser 79), which were sensitive to the AMPK activator, AICAR and the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Moreover, the promoted AMPK activity by AICAR or the downregulated AMPK activity by Compound C significantly reduced or promoted the sensitivity of U2-os cells to doxorubicin. Conclusion The present study confirmed the AMPK signaling activation in the doxorubicin-treated osteosarcoma cells, in response to hypoxia, and the chemical upregulation or downregulation of AMPK signaling reduced or increased the chemo-sensitivity of osteosarcoma U2-os cells in vitro. Our study implies that AMPK inhibition might be a effective strategy to sensitize osteocarcoma cells to chemotherapy. PMID

  16. Structural and biochemical characterization of bacterial YpgQ protein reveals a metal-dependent nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ye Ji; Park, Sun Cheol; Song, Wan Seok; Kim, Ok-Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Yoon, Sung-Il

    2016-07-01

    The optimal balance of cellular nucleotides and the efficient elimination of non-canonical nucleotides are critical to avoiding erroneous mutation during DNA replication. One such mechanism involves the degradation of excessive or abnormal nucleotides by nucleotide-hydrolyzing enzymes. YpgQ contains the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain that is involved in the hydrolysis of nucleotides or nucleic acids, but the enzymatic activity and substrate specificity of YpgQ have never been characterized. Here, we unravel the catalytic activity and structural features of YpgQ to report the first Mn(2+)-dependent pyrophosphohydrolase that hydrolyzes (deoxy)ribonucleoside triphosphate [(d)NTP] to (deoxy)ribonucleoside monophosphate and pyrophosphate using the HD domain. YpgQ from Bacillus subtilis (bsYpgQ) displays a helical structure and assembles into a unique dimeric architecture that has not been observed in other HD domain-containing proteins. Each bsYpgQ monomer accommodates a metal ion and a nucleotide substrate in a cavity located between the N- and C-terminal lobes. The metal cofactor is coordinated by the canonical residues of the HD domain, namely, two histidine residues and two aspartate residues, and is positioned in close proximity to the β-phosphate group of the nucleotide, allowing us to propose a nucleophilic attack mechanism for the nucleotide hydrolysis reaction. YpgQ enzymes from other bacterial species also catalyze pyrophosphohydrolysis but exhibit different substrate specificity. Comparative structural and mutational studies demonstrated that residues outside the major substrate-binding site of bsYpgQ are responsible for the species-specific substrate preference. Taken together, our structural and biochemical analyses highlight the substrate-recognition mode and catalysis mechanism of YpgQ in pyrophosphohydrolysis. PMID:27062940

  17. Frequent Incorporation of Ribonucleotides during HIV-1 Reverse Transcription and Their Attenuated Repair in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Amie, Sarah M.; Bambara, Robert A.; Kim, Baek

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are well known long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1. Unlike activated CD4+ T cells, this nondividing HIV-1 target cell type contains a very low level of the deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) required for proviral DNA synthesis whereas the ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) levels remain in the millimolar range, resulting in an extremely low dNTP/rNTP ratio. Biochemical simulations demonstrate that HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) efficiently incorporates ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) during DNA synthesis at this ratio, predicting frequent rNMP incorporation by the virus specifically in macrophages. Indeed, HIV-1 RT incorporates rNMPs at a remarkable rate of 1/146 nucleotides during macrophage infection. This greatly exceeds known rates for cellular replicative polymerases. In contrast, little or no rNMP incorporation is detected in CD4+ T cells. Repair of these rNMP lesions is also substantially delayed in macrophages compared with CD4+ T cells. Single rNMPs embedded in a DNA template are known to induce cellular DNA polymerase pausing, which mechanistically contributes to mutation synthesis. Indeed, we also observed that embedded rNMPs in a dsDNA template also induce HIV-1 RT DNA synthesis pausing. Moreover, unrepaired rNMPs incorporated into the provirus during HIV-1 reverse transcription would be generally mutagenic as was shown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most importantly, the frequent incorporation of rNMPs makes them an ideal candidate for development of a new class of HIV RT inhibitors. PMID:22383524

  18. Distribution of purine nucleotides in uremic fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Bolesław; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Słomińska, Ewa; Swierczyński, Julian

    2010-09-01

    There are almost 100 different substances called uremic toxins. In this study, we analyze all findings concerning the new family of uremic compounds--nicotinamide end products: N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (Met2PY), N-methyl-4-pyridone-5-carboxamide, newly described 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) and 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PYTP). After few years of studies, we have found that these substances have higher plasma concentration in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) in comparison with the healthy population. We noted a 40-fold increase in plasma 4PYR concentration in patients with CRF. This increment correlates significantly with the decline of kidney function measured as an increase of serum creatinine concentration and decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate. Tested compounds are present and measurable in physiological fluids and tissues. We found higher saliva Met2PY concentration in patients with CRF in comparison with controls. Saliva Met2PY correlated negatively with estimated glomerular filtration rate and positively with serum creatinine concentration. One-third of studied group had higher concentration of Met2PY in the saliva than in plasma, and this segment of patients may be called as "good excretors." In rats with experimental CRF, we found that both Met2PY and N-methyl-4-pyridone-5-carboxamide accumulated in selected tissues. We also demonstrated formation of 4PYTP in intact human erythrocytes during incubation with the precursor 4PYR. Incubation with 4PYR leads to lowering concentration of adenosine-5'-triphosphate. 4PYTP formation may be a way to remove 4PYR from the circulation and save adenosine-5'-triphosphate depletion. Summarizing, end products of the nicotinamide family are members of uremic toxins; however, exact pathophysiological role of these compounds in the development of uremic syndrome needs further studies. PMID:20797575

  19. Polyethyleneimine-grafted boronate affinity materials for selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yun; Shi, Wenjun; Zhu, Bangjie; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2015-08-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-grafted and 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA)-functionalized SiO2 boronate affinity materials were synthesized for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Characterization results of scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, zeta potential, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the successful fabrication of SiO2@PEI-AAPBA materials. Chromatographic separation of test mixtures reveals that SiO2@PEI-AAPBA has high selective enrichment ability for cis-diol-containing compounds. The binding pH between SiO2@PEI-AAPBA and catechol was found to be as low as pH 4.5, while that between SiO2@PEI-AAPBA and adenosine was only ~7.5. This difference might be attributed to the strong electrostatic repulsion between the solid phase and analytes at a low pH. Furthermore, a diphasic separation column was fabricated based on boronate affinity chromatography, C18-reversed-phase chromatography and applied in pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC). Results showed that four polar nucleosides could be well captured by the boronate affinity chromatography (BAC) section and separated by reversed phase pCEC. Finally, SiO2@PEI600-AAPBA-based solid-phase extraction technology was applied to the purification of ribonucleosides in real urine samples, and results of UHPLC-MS/MS revealed that the intensities of the extracted ions (a neutral mass loss of m/z 132.04 Da) of the ribonucleosides were significantly enhanced after the enrichment. PMID:26048816

  20. 5-Azacytidine Enhances the Mutagenesis of HIV-1 by Reduction to 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Daly, Michele B; Xie, Jiashu; Clouser, Christine L; Landman, Sean R; Reilly, Cavan S; Bonnac, Laurent; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-04-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-aza-C) is a ribonucleoside analog that induces the lethal mutagenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by causing predominantly G-to-C transversions during reverse transcription. 5-Aza-C could potentially act primarily as a ribonucleotide (5-aza-CTP) or as a deoxyribonucleotide (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate [5-aza-dCTP]) during reverse transcription. In order to determine the primary form of 5-aza-C that is active against HIV-1, Illumina sequencing was performed using proviral DNA from cells treated with 5-aza-C or 5-aza-dC. 5-Aza-C and 5-aza-dC were found to induce highly similar patterns of mutation in HIV-1 in terms of the types of mutations observed, the magnitudes of effects, and the distributions of mutations at individual sequence positions. Further, 5-aza-dCTP was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in cells treated with 5-aza-C, demonstrating that 5-aza-C was a substrate for ribonucleotide reductase. Notably, levels of 5-aza-dCTP were similar in cells treated with equivalent effective concentrations of 5-aza-C or 5-aza-dC. Lastly, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was found to incorporate 5-aza-CTPin vitroat least 10,000-fold less efficiently than 5-aza-dCTP. Taken together, these data support the model that 5-aza-C enhances the mutagenesis of HIV-1 primarily after reduction to 5-aza-dC, which can then be incorporated during reverse transcription and lead to G-to-C hypermutation. These findings may have important implications for the design of new ribonucleoside analogs directed against retroviruses. PMID:26833151

  1. 5-Azacytidine Can Induce Lethal Mutagenesis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dapp, Michael J.; Clouser, Christine L.; Patterson, Steven; Mansky, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleosides inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report the antiviral mechanism for the ribonucleoside analog 5-azacytidine (5-AZC). We hypothesized that the anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-AZC was due to an increase in the HIV-1 mutation rate following its incorporation into viral RNA during transcription. However, we demonstrate that 5-AZC's primary antiviral activity can be attributed to its effect on the early phase of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, the antiviral activity was associated with an increase in the frequency of viral mutants, suggesting that 5-AZC's primary target is reverse transcription. Sequencing analysis showed an enrichment in G-to-C transversion mutations and further supports the idea that reverse transcription is an antiviral target of 5-AZC. These results indicate that 5-AZC is incorporated into viral DNA following reduction to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Incorporation into the viral DNA leads to an increase in mutant frequency that is consistent with lethal mutagenesis during reverse transcription as the primary antiviral mechanism of 5-AZC. Antiviral activity and increased mutation frequency were also associated with the late phase of HIV-1 replication; however, 5-AZC's effect on the late phase was less robust. These results reveal that the primary antiviral mechanism of 5-AZC can be attributed to its ability to increase the HIV-1 mutation frequency through viral-DNA incorporation during reverse transcription. Our observations indicate that 5-AZC can affect two steps in HIV-1 replication (i.e., transcription and reverse transcription) but that its primary antiviral activity is due to incorporation during reverse transcription. PMID:19726509

  2. Identification of a nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, E.; McGuire, P.M.

    1986-01-14

    A nucleoside triphosphate binding site on calf thymus RNA polymerase II was identified by using photoaffinity analogues of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and guanosine 5'-triphosphate. Both radiolabeled 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3ATP) and radiolabeled 8-azidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3GTP) bound to a single polypeptide of this enzyme. This polypeptide has a molecular mass of 37 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of 5.4. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was necessary for photolabeling to occur. In addition, no labeling occurred when the probe was prephotolyzed or when the enzyme was inactivated. Furthermore, photolabeling of the enzyme could be decreased by preincubation with natural substrates. To provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide forms a part of the domain of the nucleoside triphosphate binding site, experiments were performed using unlabeled 8-N3ATP. Although this unlabeled analogue was not a substrate for RNA polymerase II, it photoinactivated the enzyme in the presence of UV irradiation, and it inhibited transcription elongation by the enzyme in a competitive manner in the absence of UV irradiation. As in the case with photolabeling, photoinactivation by 8-N3ATP could be decreased by natural substrates; in both cases, purine ribonucleoside triphosphates were more efficient than pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates. Furthermore, photoinactivation was saturable at about the same concentration as the inhibition constant for 8-N3ATP. Collectively, these results provide evidence that the radiolabeled polypeptide in calf thymus RNA polymerase II is an essential component for activity and suggest that this polypeptide may be part of this enzyme's purine ribonucleoside triphosphate binding site.

  3. Characterization of DNA Primase Complex Isolated from the Archaeon, Thermococcus kodakaraensis*

    PubMed Central

    Chemnitz Galal, Wiebke; Pan, Miao; Kelman, Zvi; Hurwitz, Jerard

    2012-01-01

    In most organisms, DNA replication is initiated by DNA primases, which synthesize primers that are elongated by DNA polymerases. In this study, we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of the DNA primase complex and its subunits from the archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis. The T. kodakaraensis DNA primase complex is a heterodimer containing stoichiometric levels of the p41 and p46 subunits. The catalytic activity of the complex resides within the p41 subunit. We show that the complex supports both DNA and RNA synthesis, whereas the p41 subunit alone marginally produces RNA and synthesizes DNA chains that are longer than those formed by the complex. We report that the T. kodakaraensis primase complex preferentially interacts with dNTP rather than ribonucleoside triphosphates and initiates RNA as well as DNA chains de novo. The latter findings indicate that the archaeal primase complex, in contrast to the eukaryote homolog, can initiate DNA chain synthesis in the absence of ribonucleoside triphosphates. DNA primers formed by the archaeal complex can be elongated extensively by the T. kodakaraensis DNA polymerase (Pol) B, whereas DNA primers formed by the p41 catalytic subunit alone were not. Supplementation of reactions containing the p41 subunit with the p46 subunit leads to PolB-catalyzed DNA synthesis. We also established a rolling circle reaction using a primed 200-nucleotide circle as the substrate. In the presence of the T. kodakaraensis minichromosome maintenance (MCM) 3′ → 5′ DNA helicase, PolB, replication factor C, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, long leading strands (>10 kb) are produced. Supplementation of such reactions with the DNA primase complex supported lagging strand formation as well. PMID:22351771

  4. PARP-1 promotes autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway in CNE-2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells following ionizing radiation, while inhibition of autophagy contributes to the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, ZE-TAN; ZHAO, WEI; QU, SONG; LI, LING; LU, XIAO-DI; SU, FANG; LIANG, ZHONG-GUO; GUO, SI-YAN; ZHU, XIAO-DONG

    2015-01-01

    It was previously reported that poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulated ionizing radiation (IR)-induced autophagy in CNE-2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether PARP-1-mediated IR-induced autophagy occurred via activation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in CNE-2 cells. In addition, the effect of PARP-1 and AMPK inhibition on the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells was investigated. CNE-2 cells were treated with 10 Gy IR in the presence or absence of the AMPK activator 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). In addition, IR-treated CNE-2 cells were transfected with lentivirus-delivered small-hairpin RNA or treated with the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Western blot analysis was used to assess the protein expression of PARP-1, phosphorylated (p)-AMPK, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p-P70S6K. Cell viability and clone formation assays were performed to determine the effect of PARP-1 silencing and AMPK inhibition on the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells. The results showed that IR promoted PARP-1, p-AMPK and LC3-II protein expression as well as decreased p-P70S6K expression compared with that of the untreated cells. In addition, AICAR increased the expression of p-AMPK and LC3-II as well as decreased p-P70S6K expression compared with that of the IR-only group; however, AICAR did not increase PARP-1 expression. Furthermore, PARP-1 gene silencing decreased the expression of PARP-1, p-AMPK and LC3-II as well as increased p-P70S6K expression. Compound C decreased p-AMPK and LC3-II expression as well as increased p-P70S6K expression; however, Compound C did not increase PARP-1 expression. Western blot analysis detected limited expression of p-LKB1 in all treatment groups. Cell viability and clone formation assays revealed that PARP-1 or

  5. Investigation of LKB1 Ser431 phosphorylation and Cys433 farnesylation using mouse knockin analysis reveals an unexpected role of prenylation in regulating AMPK activity

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Vanessa P.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Gourlay, Robert; Varghese, Joby; Davies, Paul; Shpiro, Natalia; Sakamoto, Kei; Alessi, Dario R.

    2013-01-01

    The LKB1 tumour suppressor protein kinase functions to activate two isoforms of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and 12 members of the AMPK-related family of protein kinases. The highly conserved C-terminal residues of LKB1 are phosphorylated (Ser431) by PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) and farnesylated (Cys433) within a CAAX motif. To better define the role that these post-translational modifications play, we created homozygous LKB1S431A/S431A and LKB1C433S/C433S knockin mice. These animals were viable, fertile and displayed no overt phenotypes. Employing a farnesylation-specific monoclonal antibody that we generated, we established by immunoprecipitation that the vast majority, if not all, of the endogenous LKB1 is prenylated. Levels of LKB1 localized at the membrane of the liver of LKB1C433S/C433S mice and their fibroblasts were reduced substantially compared with the wild-type mice, confirming that farnesylation plays a role in mediating membrane association. Although AMPK was activated normally in the LKB1S431A/S431A animals, we unexpectedly observed in all of the examined tissues and cells taken from LKB1C433S/C433S mice that the basal, as well as that induced by the AMP-mimetic AICAR (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside), AMPK activation, phenformin and muscle contraction were significantly blunted. This resulted in a reduced ability of AICAR to inhibit lipid synthesis in primary hepatocytes isolated from LKB1C433S/C433S mice. The activity of several of the AMPK-related kinases analysed [BRSK1 (BR serine/threonine kinase 1), BRSK2, NUAK1 (NUAK family, SNF1-like kinase 1), SIK3 (salt-inducible kinase 3) and MARK4 (MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4)] was not affected in tissues derived from LKB1S431A/S431A or LKB1C433S/C433S mice. Our observations reveal for the first time that farnesylation of LKB1 is required for the activation of AMPK. Previous reports have indicated that a pool of AMPK is localized at the

  6. RNA intrusions change DNA elastic properties and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Evich, Marina; Lesiak, Annie L.; Germann, Markus W.; Bongiorno, Angelo; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    The units of RNA, termed ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), have been recently found as the most abundant defects present in DNA. Despite the relevance, it is largely unknown if and how rNMPs embedded in DNA can change the DNA structure and mechanical properties. Here, we report that rNMPs incorporated in DNA can change the elastic properties of DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule elasticity measurements show that rNMP intrusions in short DNA duplexes can decrease - by 32% - or slightly increase the stretch modulus of DNA molecules for two sequences reported in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a series of significant local structural alterations of DNA containing embedded rNMPs, especially at the rNMPs and nucleotide 3' to the rNMP sites. The demonstrated ability of rNMPs to locally alter DNA mechanical properties and structure may help in understanding how such intrusions impact DNA biological functions and find applications in structural DNA and RNA nanotechnology.The units of RNA, termed ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), have been recently found as the most abundant defects present in DNA. Despite the relevance, it is largely unknown if and how rNMPs embedded in DNA can change the DNA structure and mechanical properties. Here, we report that rNMPs incorporated in DNA can change the elastic properties of DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule elasticity measurements show that rNMP intrusions in short DNA duplexes can decrease - by 32% - or slightly increase the stretch modulus of DNA molecules for two sequences reported in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a series of significant local structural alterations of DNA containing embedded rNMPs, especially at the rNMPs and nucleotide 3' to the rNMP sites. The demonstrated ability of rNMPs to locally alter DNA mechanical properties and structure

  7. Lkb1 Deletion Promotes Ectopic Lipid Accumulation in Muscle Progenitor Cells and Mature Muscles

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, TIZHONG; ZHANG, PENGPENG; BI, PENGPENG; KUANG, SHIHUAN

    2015-01-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triglycerides (muscle lipids) are associated with reduced contractile function, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes, but what governs lipid accumulation in muscle is unclear. Here we report a role of Lkb1 in regulating lipid metabolism in muscle stem cells and their descendent mature muscles. We used MyodCre and Lkb1flox/flox mice to specifically delete Lkb1 in myogenic cells including stem and differentiated cells, and examined the lipid accumulation and gene expression of myoblasts cultured from muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Genetic deletion of Lkb1 in myogenic progenitors led to elevated expression of lipogenic genes and ectopic lipid accumulation in proliferating myoblasts. Interestingly, the Lkb1-deficient myoblasts differentiated into adipocyte-like cells upon adipogenic induction. However, these adipocyte-like cells maintained myogenic gene expression with reduced ability to form myotubes efficiently. Activation of AMPK by AICAR prevented ectopic lipid formation in the Lkb1-null myoblasts. Notably, Lkb1-deficient muscles accumulated excessive lipids in vivo in response to high-fat diet feeding. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 acts through AMPK to limit lipid deposition in muscle stem cells and their derivative mature muscles, and point to the possibility of controlling muscle lipid content using AMPK activating drugs. PMID:25251157

  8. Role of the AMP kinase in cytokine-induced human EndoC-βH1 cell death.

    PubMed

    Fred, Rikard G; Kappe, Camilla; Ameur, Adam; Cen, Jing; Bergsten, Peter; Ravassard, Phillippe; Scharfmann, Raphael; Welsh, Nils

    2015-10-15

    The aim of the present investigation was to delineate cytokine-induced signaling and death using the EndoC-βH1 cells as a model for primary human beta-cells. The cytokines IL-1β and IFN-γ induced a rapid and transient activation of NF-κB, STAT-1, ERK, JNK and eIF-2α signaling. The EndoC-βH1 cells died rapidly when exposed to IL-1β + IFN-γ, and this occurred also in the presence of the actinomycin D. Inhibition of NF-κB and STAT-1 did not protect against cell death, nor did the cytokines activate iNOS expression. Instead, cytokines promoted a rapid decrease in EndoC-βH1 cell respiration and ATP levels, and we observed protection by the AMPK activator AICAR against cytokine-induced cell death. It is concluded that EndoC-βH1 cell death can be prevented by AMPK activation, which suggests a role for ATP depletion in cytokine-induced human beta-cell death. PMID:26213325

  9. Molecular characterization of the AdeI mutant of Chinese hamster ovary Cells: a cellular model of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vliet, Lydia K.; Wilkinson, Terry G.; Duval, Nathan; Vacano, Guido; Graham, Christine; Zikánová, Marie; Skopova, Vaclava; Baresova, Veronika; Hnízda, Aleš; Kmoch, Stanislav; Patterson, David

    2010-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL, E. C. 4.3.2.2) carries out two non-sequential steps in de novo AMP synthesis, the conversion of succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAR) to aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribotide (AICAR) and the conversion of succinyl AMP (AMPS) to AMP. In humans, mutations in ADSL lead to an inborn error of metabolism originally characterized by developmental delay, often with autistic features. There is no effective treatment for ADSL deficiency. Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis include toxicity of high levels of SAICAR, AMPS, or their metabolites, deficiency of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, or lack of a completely functional purine cycle in muscle and brain. One important approach to understand ADSL deficiency is to develop cell culture models that allow investigation of the properties of ADSL mutants and the consequences of ADSL deficiency at the cellular level. We previously reported the isolation and initial characterization of mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells (Ade I) that lack detectable ADSL activity, accumulate SAICAR and AMPS, and require adenine for growth. Here we report the cDNA sequences of ADSL from CHO-K1 and Ade I cells and describe a mutation resulting in an alanine to valine amino acid substitution at position 291 (A291V) in Ade I ADSL. This substitution lies in the “signature sequence” of ADSL, inactivates the enzyme, and validates Ade I as a cellular model of ADSL deficiency. PMID:20884265

  10. ROLE OF AMPK THOUGHOUT MEIOTIC MATURATION IN THE MOUSE OOCYTE: EVIDENCE FOR PROMOTION OF POLAR BODY FORMATION AND SUPPRESSION OF PREMATURE ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Stephen M.; Ya, Ru; Davis, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the role of AMPK in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes from the germinal vesicle stage to metaphase II. Exposure of mouse cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) and denuded oocytes (DO) during spontaneous maturation in vitro to AMPK-activating agents resulted in augmentation of the rate and frequency of polar body formation. Inhibitors of AMPK had an opposite, inhibitory effect. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor, compound C (Cmpd C) increased the frequency of oocyte activation. The stimulatory action of the AMPK-activating agent, AICAR, and the inhibitory action of Cmpd C were diminished if exposure was delayed, indicating an early action of AMPK on polar body formation. The frequency of spontaneous and Cmpd C-induced activation in CEO was reduced as the period of hormonal priming was increased, and AMPK stimulation eliminated the activation response. Immunostaining of oocytes with antibody to active AMPK revealed an association of active kinase with chromatin, spindle poles and midbody during maturation. Immunolocalization of the α1 catalytic subunit of AMPK showed an association with condensed chromatin and the meiotic spindle, but not in the spindle poles or midbody; α2 stained only diffusely throughout the oocyte. These data suggest that AMPK is involved in a regulatory capacity throughout maturation and helps promote the completion of meiosis while suppressing premature activation. PMID:20830737

  11. Metformin synergizes 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) combination therapy through impairing intracellular ATP production and DNA repair in breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jaslyn Sian-Siu; Ng, Char-Hong; Tan, Si Hoey; Malik, Rozita Abdul; Teh, Yew-Ching; Tan, Boon-Shing; Ho, Gwo-Fuang; See, Mee-Hoong; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Yip, Cheng-Har; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2015-10-01

    Metformin, an AMPK activator, has been reported to improve pathological response to chemotherapy in diabetic breast cancer patients. To date, its mechanism of action in cancer, especially in cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that metformin, but not other AMPK activators (e.g. AICAR and A-769662), synergizes 5-fluouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) combination chemotherapy in non-stem breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells. We show that this occurs through an AMPK-dependent mechanism in parental breast cancer cell lines. In contrast, the synergistic effects of metformin and FEC occurred in an AMPK-independent mechanism in breast CSCs. Further analyses revealed that metformin accelerated glucose consumption and lactate production more severely in the breast CSCs but the production of intracellular ATP was severely hampered, leading to a severe energy crisis and impairs the ability of CSCs to repair FEC-induced DNA damage. Indeed, addition of extracellular ATP completely abrogated the synergistic effects of metformin on FEC sensitivity in breast CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that metformin synergizes FEC sensitivity through distinct mechanism in parental breast cancer cell lines and CSCs, thus providing further evidence for the clinical relevance of metformin for the treatment of cancers. PMID:26276035

  12. AMP-activated kinase α2 deficiency protects mice from denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuting; Meng, Jin; Tang, Yinglong; Wang, Ting; Wei, Bin; Feng, Run; Gong, Bing; Wang, Huiwen; Ji, Guangju; Lu, Zhongbing

    2016-06-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways. Recently, AMPK activation by AICAR has been shown to increase myofibrillar protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes via stimulating autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome system. However, the impact of AMPKα on denervation induced muscle atrophy has not been tested. In this study, we performed sciatic denervation on hind limb muscles in both wild type (WT) and AMPKα2(-/-) mice. We found that AMPKα was phosphorylated in atrophic muscles following denervation. In addition, deletion of AMPKα2 significantly attenuated denervation induced skeletal muscle wasting and protein degradation, as evidenced by preserved muscle mass and myofiber area, as well as lower levels of ubiquitinated protein, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, and LC3-II/I ratio in tibial anterior (TA) muscles. Interestingly, the phosphorylated FoxO3a at Ser253 was significantly decreased in atrophic TA muscles, which was preserved in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data support the notion that the activation of AMPKα2 contributes to the atrophic effects of denervation. PMID:27136709

  13. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through the NHR-49 and MDT-15 Transcriptional Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Arriola, Elizabeth; EL Hafidi, Mohammed; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Carvajal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Cellular energy regulation relies on complex signaling pathways that respond to fuel availability and metabolic demands. Dysregulation of these networks is implicated in the development of human metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AMP-activated protein kinase, AAK, has been associated with longevity and stress resistance; nevertheless its precise role in energy metabolism remains elusive. In the present study, we find an evolutionary conserved role of AAK in oxidative metabolism. Similar to mammals, AAK is activated by AICAR and metformin and leads to increased glycolytic and oxidative metabolic fluxes evidenced by an increase in lactate levels and mitochondrial oxygen consumption and a decrease in total fatty acids and lipid storage, whereas augmented glucose availability has the opposite effects. We found that these changes were largely dependent on the catalytic subunit AAK-2, since the aak-2 null strain lost the observed metabolic actions. Further results demonstrate that the effects due to AAK activation are associated to SBP-1 and NHR-49 transcriptional factors and MDT-15 transcriptional co-activator, suggesting a regulatory pathway that controls oxidative metabolism. Our findings establish C. elegans as a tractable model system to dissect the relationship between distinct molecules that play a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism in human metabolic diseases. PMID:26824904

  14. Differential effects of AMPK agonists on cell growth and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Emma E.; Coelho, Paula P.; Blagih, Julianna; Griss, Takla; Viollet, Benoit; Jones, Russell G.

    2016-01-01

    As a sensor of cellular energy status, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to act in opposition to the metabolic phenotypes favored by proliferating tumor cells. Consequently, compounds known to activate AMPK have been proposed as cancer therapeutics. However, the extent to which the anti-neoplastic properties of these agonists are mediated by AMPK is unclear. Here we examined the AMPK-dependence of six commonly used AMPK agonists (metformin, phenformin, AICAR, 2DG, salicylate and A-769662) and their influence on cellular processes often deregulated in tumor cells. We demonstrate that the majority of these agonists display AMPK-independent effects on cell proliferation and metabolism with only the synthetic activator, A-769662, exerting AMPK-dependent effects on these processes. We find that A-769662 promotes an AMPK-dependent increase in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC). Finally, contrary to the view of AMPK activity being tumor suppressive, we find A-769662 confers a selective proliferative advantage to tumor cells growing under nutrient deprivation. Our results indicate that many of the anti-growth properties of these agonists cannot be attributed to AMPK activity in cells, and thus any observed effects using these agonists should be confirmed using AMPK-deficient cells. Ultimately, our data urge caution, not only regarding the type of AMPK agonist proposed for cancer treatment, but also the context in which they are used. PMID:25241895

  15. Ultraviolet (UV) and Hydrogen Peroxide Activate Ceramide-ER Stress-AMPK Signaling Axis to Promote Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin; Bi, Hui-E; Sheng, Yi; Cheng, Li-Bo; Wendu, Ri-Le; Wang, Cheng-Hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) impair the physiological functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells by inducing cell apoptosis, which is the main cause of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The mechanism by which UV/ROS induces RPE cell death is not fully addressed. Here, we observed the activation of a ceramide-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling axis in UV and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated RPE cells. UV and H2O2 induced an early ceramide production, profound ER stress and AMPK activation. Pharmacological inhibitors against ER stress (salubrinal), ceramide production (fumonisin B1) and AMPK activation (compound C) suppressed UV- and H2O2-induced RPE cell apoptosis. Conversely, cell permeable short-chain C6 ceramide and AMPK activator AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide) mimicked UV and H2O2’s effects and promoted RPE cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that UV/H2O2 activates the ceramide-ER stress-AMPK signaling axis to promote RPE cell apoptosis. PMID:23685869

  16. Depletion of p18/LAMTOR1 promotes cell survival via activation of p27(kip1) -dependent autophagy under starvation.

    PubMed

    Zada, Sahib; Noh, Hae Sook; Baek, Seon Mi; Ha, Ji Hye; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2015-11-01

    The MAPK and mTOR signal pathways in endosomes or lysosomes play a crucial role in cell survival and death. They are also closely associated with autophagy, a catabolic process highly regulated under various cellular stress or nutrient deprivation. Recently we have isolated a protein, named p18/LAMTOR1, that specifically regulates the ERK or mTOR pathway in lysosomes. p18/LAMTOR1 also interacts with p27(kip1) . Here we examined how p18/LAMTOR1 plays a role in autophagy under nutrient deprivation. The p18(+/+) MEF cells were more susceptible to cell death under starvation or in the presence of AICAR in comparison with p18(-/-) MEF cells. Cleavage of caspase-3 was increased in p18(+/+) MEF cells under starvation, and phosphorylation at the threonine 198 of p27(kip1) was highly elevated in starved p18(-/-) MEF cells. Furthermore, LC3-II formation and other autophagy-associated proteins were largely increased in p18-deficient cells, and suppression of p27(kip1) expression in p18(-/-) MEF cells mitigated starvation-induced cell death. These data suggest that ablation of p18/LAMTOR1 suppresses starvation-induced cell death by stimulating autophagy through modulation of p27(kip1) activity. PMID:26032166

  17. Effects of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase on cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Huang, Qiuju; Shu, Zhaohui; Liu, Peiqing; Chen, Shaorui; Pan, Xuediao; Zang, Linquan; Zhou, Sigui

    2016-07-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), a key enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, plays an important role in cardiac hypertrophy. However, its effect on the cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unknown. We aimed to determine the role of SCAD in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expression of SCAD were significantly down-regulated in the cardiomyocyte apoptosis model. Inhibition of SCAD with siRNA-1186 significantly decreased SCAD expression, enzyme activity and ATP content, but obviously increased the content of free fatty acids. Meanwhile, SCAD siRNA treatment triggered the same apoptosis as cardiomyocytes treated with tBHP, such as the increase in cell apoptotic rate, the activation of caspase3 and the decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which showed that SCAD may play an important role in primary cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The changes of phosphonate AMP-activated protein kinase α (p-AMPKα) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were consistent with that of SCAD. Furthermore, PPARα activator fenofibrate and AMPKα activator AICAR treatment significantly increased the expression of SCAD and inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, for the first time our findings directly demonstrated that SCAD may be as a new target to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the AMPK/PPARα/SCAD signal pathways. PMID:26989860

  18. Combined activation of the energy and cellular-defense pathways may explain the potent anti-senescence activity of methylene blue

    PubMed Central

    Atamna, Hani; Atamna, Wafa; Al-Eyd, Ghaith; Shanower, Gregory; Dhahbi, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) delays cellular senescence, induces complex-IV, and activates Keap1/Nrf2; however, the molecular link of these effects to MB is unclear. Since MB is redox-active, we investigated its effect on the NAD/NADH ratio in IMR90 cells. The transient increase in NAD/NADH observed in MB-treated cells triggered an investigation of the energy regulator AMPK. MB induced AMPK phosphorylation in a transient pattern, which was followed by the induction of PGC1α and SURF1: both are inducers of mitochondrial and complex-IV biogenesis. Subsequently MB-treated cells exhibited >100% increase in complex-IV activity and a 28% decline in cellular oxidants. The telomeres erosion rate was also significantly lower in MB-treated cells. A previous research suggested that the pattern of AMPK activation (i.e., chronic or transient) determines the AMPK effect on cell senescence. We identified that the anti-senescence activity of MB (transient activator) was 8-times higher than that of AICAR (chronic activator). Since MB lacked an effect on cell cycle, an MB-dependent change to cell cycle is unlikely to contribute to the anti-senescence activity. The current findings in conjunction with the activation of Keap1/Nrf2 suggest a synchronized activation of the energy and cellular defense pathways as a possible key factor in MB's potent anti-senescence activity. PMID:26386875

  19. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Human Adenylosuccinate Lyase (ADSL) and the R303C ADSL Deficiency Associated Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Stephen P.; Deaton, Michelle K.; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Calkins, Lauren A. F.; Sawle, Lucas; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Patterson, David; Pegan, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which causes a defect in purine metabolism resulting in neurological and physiological symptoms. ADSL executes two non-sequential steps in the de novo synthesis of AMP: the conversion of phosphoribosylsuccinyl-aminoimidazole carboxamide (SAICAR) to phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxamide (AICAR), which occurs in the de novo synthesis of IMP, and the conversion of adenylosuccinate (AMPS) to AMP, which occurs in the de novo synthesis of AMP and also in the purine nucleotide cycle, using the same active site. Mutation of ADSL’s arginine 303 to a cysteine is known to lead to ADSL deficiency. Interestingly, unlike other mutations leading to ADSL deficiency, the R303C mutation has been suggested to more significantly affect the enzyme’s ability to catalyze the conversion of SAMP than that of SAICAR to their respective products. To better understand the causation of disease due to the R303C mutation, as well as to gain insights as to why the R303C mutation potentially has a disproportional decrease in activity toward its substrates, the wild-type (WT) and the R303C mutation of ADSL were investigated enzymatically, and thermodynamically. Additionally, the X-ray structures of ADSL in its apo form as well as with the R303C mutation were elucidated, providing insight into ADSL’s cooperativity. By utilizing this information a model for the interaction between ADSL and SAICAR is proposed. PMID:22812634

  20. Molecular characterization of the AdeI mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells: a cellular model of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vliet, Lydia K; Wilkinson, Terry G; Duval, Nathan; Vacano, Guido; Graham, Christine; Zikánová, Marie; Skopova, Vaclava; Baresova, Veronika; Hnízda, Aleš; Kmoch, Stanislav; Patterson, David

    2011-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL, E. C. 4.3.2.2) carries out two non-sequential steps in de novo AMP synthesis, the conversion of succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAR) to aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribotide (AICAR) and the conversion of succinyl AMP (AMPS) to AMP. In humans, mutations in ADSL lead to an inborn error of metabolism originally characterized by developmental delay, often with autistic features. There is no effective treatment for ADSL deficiency. Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis include toxicity of high levels of SAICAR, AMPS, or their metabolites, deficiency of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, or lack of a completely functional purine cycle in muscle and brain. One important approach to understand ADSL deficiency is to develop cell culture models that allow investigation of the properties of ADSL mutants and the consequences of ADSL deficiency at the cellular level. We previously reported the isolation and initial characterization of mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells (AdeI) that lack detectable ADSL activity, accumulate SAICAR and AMPS, and require adenine for growth. Here we report the cDNA sequences of ADSL from CHO-K1 and AdeI cells and describe a mutation resulting in an alanine to valine amino acid substitution at position 291 (A291V) in AdeI ADSL. This substitution lies in the "signature sequence" of ADSL, inactivates the enzyme, and validates AdeI as a cellular model of ADSL deficiency. PMID:20884265

  1. α-Lipoic Acids Promote the Protein Synthesis of C2C12 Myotubes by the TLR2/PI3K Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Cai, Xingcai; Xu, Yaqiong; Zhu, Canjun; Wang, Lina; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is regulated by endocrine hormones, nutrients, and inflammation. α-Lipoic acid (ALA) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ALA on protein synthesis in skeletal muscles and reveal the underlying mechanism. ALA (25 μM) significantly increased the protein synthesis and phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and S6 in C2C12 myotubes with attenuated phosphorylation of AMPK, Ikkα/β, and eIF2α. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg ALA also produced the same results in mouse gastrocnemius. Both the PI3K (LY294002) and mTOR (rapamycin) inhibitors abolished the effects of ALA on protein synthesis in the C2C12 myotubes. However, AICAR (AMPK agonist) failed to block the activation of mTOR and S6 by ALA. ALA increased TLR2 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the C2C12 myotubes. TLR2 knockdown by siRNA almost eliminated the effects of ALA on protein synthesis and the Akt/mTOR pathway in the C2C12 myotubes. Immunoprecipitation data showed that ALA enhanced the p85 subunit of PI3K binding to MyD88. These findings indicate that ALA induces protein synthesis and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by TLR2. PMID:26855124

  2. Bortezomib induces AMPK-dependent autophagosome formation uncoupled from apoptosis in drug resistant cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Sajjeev; Malek, Ehsan; Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Driscoll, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an effective anti-cancer agent for the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma but clinical response is hindered by the emergence of drug resistance through unknown mechanisms. Drug sensitive myeloma cells were exposed to bortezomib to generate drug resistant cells that displayed a significant increase in subunits of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK activity in resistant cells was increased and bortezomib resistant cells contained a ~4-fold greater level of autophagosomes than drug sensitive cells. Real-time measurements indicated that bortezomib reduced the oxygen consumption rate in drug sensitive cells more readily than in resistant cells. Genetic ablation of AMPK activity reduced the bortezomib effect on autophagy. The autophagy-related gene (Atg)5 is required for autophagosome formation and enhances cellular susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. Atg5 knockout eliminated bortezomib-induced autophagosome formation and reduced susceptibility to bortezomib. Bortezomib treatment of myeloma cells lead to ATG5 cleavage through a calpain-dependent manner while calpain inhibition or a calpain-insensitive Atg5 mutant promoted bortezomib-resistance. In contrast, AICAR, an AMPK activator, enhanced bortezomib-induced cleavage of ATG5 and increased bortezomib-induced killing. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ATG5 cleavage provokes apoptosis and represents a molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis with therapeutic implications. PMID:25481044

  3. In vivo correction of COX deficiency by activation of the AMPK/PGC-1α axis.

    PubMed

    Viscomi, Carlo; Bottani, Emanuela; Civiletto, Gabriele; Cerutti, Raffaele; Moggio, Maurizio; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Schon, Eric A; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo

    2011-07-01

    Increased mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of PPAR- or AMPK/PGC-1α-dependent homeostatic pathways has been proposed as a treatment for mitochondrial disease. We tested this hypothesis on three recombinant mouse models characterized by defective cytochrome c-oxidase (COX) activity: a knockout (KO) mouse for Surf1, a knockout/knockin mouse for Sco2, and a muscle-restricted KO mouse for Cox15. First, we demonstrated that double-recombinant animals overexpressing PGC-1α in skeletal muscle on a Surf1 KO background showed robust induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and increase of mitochondrial respiratory chain activities, including COX. No such effect was obtained by treating both Surf1(-/-) and Cox15(-/-) mice with the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate, which instead showed adverse effects in either model. Contrariwise, treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR led to partial correction of COX deficiency in all three models, and, importantly, significant motor improvement up to normal in the Sco2(KO/KI) mouse. These results open new perspectives for therapy of mitochondrial disease. PMID:21723506

  4. Activation of AMPK/MnSOD signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Hong, Hong-Hai; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ma, Cai-Qi; Liu, Han-Yan; Yao, Ya-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-apoptotic capability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Targeted knockdown of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) genes as well as AMPK agonist AICAR and antagonist compound C were employed to determine the correlations of expression of these genes. RESULTS: HBV markedly protected the hepatoma cells from growth suppression and cell death in the condition of serum deprivation. A decrease of superoxide anion production accompanied with an increase of MnSOD expression and activity was found in HepG2.215 cells. Moreover, AMPK activation contributed to the up-regulation of MnSOD. HBx protein was identified to induce the expression of AMPK and MnSOD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HBV suppresses mitochondrial superoxide level and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by activating AMPK/MnSOD signaling pathway, which may provide a novel pharmacological strategy to prevent HCC. PMID:27158203

  5. Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (Veratrum nigrum L.) and Its Constituent Jervine Prevent Adipogenesis via Activation of the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC Axis In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinbong; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dae-Seung; Han, Yo-Han; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Yoon, Daeyeon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Junhee; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the antiobese effects of the ethanolic extract of Veratri Nigri Rhizoma et Radix (VN), a herb with limited usage, due to its toxicology. An HPLC analysis identified jervine as a constituent of VN. By an Oil Red O assay and a Real-Time RT-PCR assay, VN showed higher antiadipogenic effects than jervine. In high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese C57BL/6J mice, VN administration suppressed body weight gain. The levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), adiponectin, resistin, and LIPIN1 were suppressed by VN, while SIRT1 was upregulated. Furthermore, VN activated phosphorylation of the liver kinase B1- (LKB1-) AMP-activated protein kinase alpha- (AMPKα-) acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) axis. Further investigation of cotreatment of VN with the AMPK agonist AICAR or AMPK inhibitor Compound C showed that VN can activate the phosphorylation of AMPKα in compensation to the inhibition of Compound C. In conclusion, VN shows antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, VN has antiadipogenic features, which is due to activating the LKB1-AMPKα-ACC axis. These results suggest that VN has a potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:27143989

  6. Mogrol Derived from Siraitia grosvenorii Mogrosides Suppresses 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation by Reducing cAMP-Response Element-Binding Protein Phosphorylation and Increasing AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Ishihara, Mikako; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Ito, Yuta; Tabata, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Yasushi A; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mogrol, an aglycone of mogrosides from Siraitia grosvenorii, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Mogrol, but not mogrosides, suppressed triglyceride accumulation by affecting early (days 0-2) and late (days 4-8), but not middle (days 2-4), differentiation stages. At the late stage, mogrol increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and reduced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. At the early stage, mogrol promoted AMPK phosphorylation, inhibited the induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ; a master regulator of adipogenesis), and reduced 3T3-L1 cell contents (e.g., clonal expansion). In addition, mogrol, but not the AMPK activator AICAR, suppressed the phosphorylation and activity of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which regulates C/EBPβ expression. These results indicated that mogrol suppressed adipogenesis by reducing CREB activation in the initial stage of cell differentiation and by activating AMPK signaling in both the early and late stages of this process. PMID:27583359

  7. Metformin prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting M2-like polarization of tumor associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ling; Liang, Guikai; Yao, Zhangting; Zhang, Jieqiong; Liu, Ruiyang; Chen, Huihui; Zhou, Yulu; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo; He, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that M2-like polarized tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) plays an important role in cancer progression and metastasis, establishing TAMs, especially M2-like TAMs as an appealing target for therapy intervention. Here we found that metformin significantly suppressed IL-13 induced M2-like polarization of macrophages, as illustrated by reduced expression of CD206, down-regulation of M2 marker mRNAs, and inhibition of M2-like macrophages promoted migration of cancer cells and endothelial cells. Metformin triggered AMPKα1 activation in macrophage and silencing of AMPKα1 partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of metformin in IL-13 induced M2-like polarization. Administration of AICAR, another activator of AMPK, also blocked the M2-like polarization of macrophages. Metformin greatly reduced the number of metastases of Lewis lung cancer without affecting tumor growth. In tumor tissues, the percentage of M2-like macrophage was decreased and the area of pericyte-coated vessels was increased. Further, the anti-metastatic effect of metformin was abolished when the animals were treated with macrophages eliminating agent clodronate liposome. These findings suggest that metformin is able to block the M2-like polarization of macrophages partially through AMPKα1, which plays an important role in metformin inhibited metastasis of Lewis lung cancer. PMID:26497364

  8. Metformin Protects Skeletal Muscle from Cardiotoxin Induced Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Langone, Francesca; Cannata, Stefano; Fuoco, Claudia; Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Testa, Stefano; Nardozza, Aurelio Pio; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Castagnoli, Luisa; Gargioli, Cesare; Cesareni, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable capacity to regenerate upon injury. Recent studies have suggested that this regenerative process is improved when AMPK is activated. In the muscle of young and old mice a low calorie diet, which activates AMPK, markedly enhances muscle regeneration. Remarkably, intraperitoneal injection of AICAR, an AMPK agonist, improves the structural integrity of muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Building on these observations we asked whether metformin, a powerful anti-hyperglycemic drug, which indirectly activates AMPK, affects the response of skeletal muscle to damage. In our conditions, metformin treatment did not significantly influence muscle regeneration. On the other hand we observed that the muscles of metformin treated mice are more resilient to cardiotoxin injury displaying lesser muscle damage. Accordingly myotubes, originated in vitro from differentiated C2C12 myoblast cell line, become more resistant to cardiotoxin damage after pre-incubation with metformin. Our results indicate that metformin limits cardiotoxin damage by protecting myotubes from necrosis. Although the details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect remain to be elucidated, we report a correlation between the ability of metformin to promote resistance to damage and its capacity to counteract the increment of intracellular calcium levels induced by cardiotoxin treatment. Since increased cytoplasmic calcium concentrations characterize additional muscle pathological conditions, including dystrophies, metformin treatment could prove a valuable strategy to ameliorate the conditions of patients affected by dystrophies. PMID:25461598

  9. AMPK Suppresses Connexin43 Expression in the Bladder and Ameliorates Voiding Dysfunction in Cyclophosphamide-induced Mouse Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiling; Yao, Jian; Gao, Kun; Chi, Yuan; Mitsui, Takahiko; Ihara, Tatsuya; Sawada, Norifumi; Kamiyama, Manabu; Fan, Jianglin; Takeda, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder voiding dysfunction is closely related to local oxidation, inflammation, and enhanced channel activities. Given that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and channel-inhibiting properties, we examined whether and how AMPK affected bladder activity. AMPK activation in rat bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) using three different AMPK agonists resulted in a decrease in connexin43 (Cx43) expression and function, which was associated with reduced CREB phosphorylation, Cx43 promoter activity and mRNA expression, but not Cx43 degradation. Downregulation of CREB with siRNA increased Cx43 expression. A functional analysis revealed that AMPK weakened BSMC contraction and bladder capacity. AMPK also counteracted the IL-1β- and TNFα-induced increase in Cx43 in BSMCs. In vivo administration of the AMPK agonist AICAR attenuated cyclophosphamide-initiated bladder oxidation, inflammation, Cx43 expression and voiding dysfunction. Further analysis comparing the responses of the wild-type (Cx43+/+) and heterozygous (Cx43+/−) Cx43 mice to cyclophosphamide revealed that the Cx43+/− mice retained a relatively normal micturition pattern compared to the Cx43+/+ mice. Taken together, our results indicate that AMPK inhibits Cx43 in BSMCs and improves bladder activity under pathological conditions. We propose that strategies that target AMPK can be developed as novel therapeutic approaches for treating bladder dysfunction. PMID:26806558

  10. Alterations in cellular metabolism modulate CD1d-mediated NKT-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Webb, Tonya J; Carey, Gregory B; East, James E; Sun, Wenji; Bollino, Dominique R; Kimball, Amy S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical role in the host's innate immune response. CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipid antigens to NKT cells has been established; however, the mechanisms by which NKT cells recognize infected or cancerous cells remain unclear. 5(')-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of lipogenic pathways. We hypothesized that activation of AMPK during infection and malignancy could alter the repertoire of antigens presented by CD1d and serve as a danger signal to NKT cells. In this study, we examined the effect of alterations in metabolism on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells and found that an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rapidly increased CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) enhance T-cell effector functions during infection, therefore antigen presenting cells pretreated with pharmacological agents that inhibit glycolysis, induce HIF and activate AMPK were assessed for their ability to induce NKT-cell responses. Pretreatment with 2-deoxyglucose, cobalt chloride, AICAR and metformin significantly enhanced CD1d-mediated NKT-cell activation. In addition, NKT cells preferentially respond to malignant B cells and B-cell lymphomas express HIF-1α. These data suggest that targeting cellular metabolism may serve as a novel means of inducing innate immune responses. PMID:27297969

  11. Determination of phosphate in soil extracts in the field: A green chemistry enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ellen R; Warsko, Kayla; Davidson, Anna-Marie; Bill Campbell, Wilbur H

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of ortho-phosphate in soil extracts usually involves sending dried samples of soil to a laboratory for analysis and waiting several weeks for the results. Phosphate determination methods often involve use of strong acids, heavy metals, and organic dyes. To overcome limitations of this approach, we have developed a phosphate determination method which can be carried out in the field to obtain results on the spot. This new method uses: •Small volumes.•An enzymatic reaction.•Green chemistry. First, the soil sample is extracted with deionized water and filtered. Next, an aliquot of the soil extract (0.5 mL) is transferred to a disposable cuvette, containing 0.5 mL of reaction mixture [200 mM HEPES, pH 7.6, 20 mM MgCl2, with 80 nmol 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (MESG) and 1 unit of recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 2.4.2.1)], mixed, and incubated for 10 min at field temperature. Absorbance of the completed reaction is measured at 360 nm in open-source, portable photometer linked by bluetooth to a smartphone. The phosphate and phosphorus content of the soil is determined by comparison of its absorbance at 360 nm to a previously prepared standard phosphate curve, which is stored in the smartphone app. PMID:26150991

  12. Dissecting Enzyme Regulation by Multiple Allosteric Effectors: Nucleotide Regulation of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase†

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Hsiao, Jennifer J.; Gryncel, Kimberly R.; Kantrowitz, Evan R.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Genyuan; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase, EC 2.1.3.2 of Escherichia coli), which catalyzes the committed step of pyrimidine biosynthesis, is allosterically regulated by all four ribonucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) in a nonlinear manner. Here, we dissect this regulation using the recently developed approach of random sampling–high-dimensional model representation (RS–HDMR). ATCase activity was measured in vitro at 300 random NTP concentration combinations, each involving (consistent with in vivo conditions) all four NTPs being present. These data were then used to derive a RS–HDMR model of ATCase activity over the full four-dimensional NTP space. The model accounted for 90% of the variance in the experimental data. Its main elements were positive ATCase regulation by ATP and negative by CTP, with the negative effects of CTP dominating the positive ones of ATP when both regulators were abundant (i.e., a negative cooperative effect of ATP × CTP). Strong sensitivity to both ATP and CTP concentrations occurred in their physiological concentration ranges. UTP had only a slight effect, and GTP had almost none. These findings support a predominant role of CTP and ATP in ATCase regulation. The general approach provides a new paradigm for dissecting multifactorial regulation of biological molecules and processes. PMID:18454556

  13. Synthesis of 2'-modified nucleotides and their incorporation into hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Beigelman, L; Karpeisky, A; Matulic-Adamic, J; Haeberli, P; Sweedler, D; Usman, N

    1995-01-01

    Several 2'-modified ribonucleoside phosphoramidites have been prepared for structure-activity studies of the hammerhead ribozyme. The aim of these studies was to design and synthesize catalytically active and nuclease-resistant ribozymes. Synthetic schemes for stereoselective synthesis of the R isomer of 2'-deoxy-2'-C-allyl uridine and cytidine phosphoramidites, based on the Keck allylation procedure, were developed. Protection of the 2'-amino group in 2'-deoxy-2'-aminouridine was optimized and a method for the convenient preparation of 5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-2'-deoxy-2'-phthalimidouridine 3'-O-(2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite) was developed. During the attempted preparation of the 2'-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl-3'-O-phosphoramidite of arabinouridine a reversed regioselectivity in the silylation reaction, compared with the published procedure, was observed, as well as the unexpected formation of the 2,2'-anhydronucleoside. A possible mechanism for this cyclization is proposed. The synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-methylene and 2'-deoxy-2'-difluoromethylene uridine phosphoramidites is described. Based on a '5-ribose' model for essential 2'-hydroxyls in the hammerhead ribozyme these 2'-modified monomers were incorporated at positions U4 and/or U7 of the catalytic core. A number of these ribozymes had almost wild-type catalytic activity and improved stability in human serum, compared with an all-RNA molecule. PMID:7501467

  14. Isolation of full-length RNA from a thermophilic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Luo, X Z; Stevens, S E

    1997-11-01

    Isolation of full-length mRNA without degradation is critical in the study of in vivo gene regulation and transcription, cDNA synthesis and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. It is particularly difficult to isolate full-length mRNA from thermophiles, which have higher turnover rates of mRNA degradation. Mastigocladus laminosus is a thermophilic heterocystous cyanobacterium. The assay of M. laminosus cell lysates showed that RNase activity was high and was resistant to the conventional guanidine thiocyanate and 2-mercaptoethanol denaturation methods. The mRNA isolated by several conventional methods was completely degraded. A method was developed to purify full-length mRNA by a combination of fast cooling, vanadyl-ribonucleoside-complex inhibition, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction, lithium chloride precipitation and the lysing of cells with the French Press. This method produced high-quality, full-length mRNA in high yield. Purified mRNA was suitable for Northern blotting, cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR. This method could be applicable to other thermophiles in which the RNase activity is high and/or is resistant to guanidine thiocyanate. PMID:9383558

  15. The synthesis of polyribonucleotides by cytoplasmic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wykes, J. R.; Smellie, R. M. S.

    1966-01-01

    1. The possibility that the cell cytoplasm contains enzymes catalysing the biosynthesis of RNA was investigated in fractions obtained by differential centrifugation of homogenates of Landschutz ascites-tumour cells. 2. The microsomal fraction was shown to be most active in incorporating UMP residues from [α-32P]UTP into polyribonucleotide material. 3. The same fraction also incorporated [3H]CTP, [3H]ATP and [3H]GTP separately and independently of the presence of complementary ribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates. 4. The reaction was promoted by the addition of RNA and showed an absolute requirement for Mg2+ ions. 5. Analysis of alkaline hydrolysates of the reaction products after the incorporation of [α-32P]UTP showed that most of the radioactivity was recovered in (2′,3′)-UMP residues irrespective of whether CTP, ATP and GTP were present in the reaction mixture. 6. Extraction of RNA from the reaction mixtures after the incorporation of [3H]ATP, [3H]GTP or [3H]CTP and analysis by sucrosedensity-gradient centrifugation showed no labelling of the ribosomal RNA. Radioactive material appeared between the 4s region and the meniscus of the sucrose gradient. In agreement with this observation, determinations of the chain length of the product showed that only short sequences of polynucleotides were synthesized. It is concluded that only homopolyribonucleotide synthesis is catalysed by the microsomal fractions and that there is little or no synthesis of RNA-like heteropolymers. PMID:5947148

  16. mRNA transcription in nuclei isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, J F; Jaehning, J A

    1986-01-01

    We developed an improved method for the isolation of transcriptionally active nuclei from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which allows analysis of specific transcripts. When incubated with alpha-32P-labeled ribonucleoside triphosphates in vitro, nuclei isolated from haploid or diploid cells transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and mRNAs in a strand-specific manner, as shown by slot blot hybridization of the in vitro synthesized RNA to cloned genes encoding 5.8S, 18S and 28S rRNAs, tRNATyr, and GAL7, URA3, TY1 and HIS3 mRNAs. A yeast strain containing a high-copy-number plasmid which overproduced GAL7 mRNA was initially used to facilitate detection of a discrete message. We optimized conditions for the transcription of genes expressed by each of the three yeast nuclear RNA polymerases. Under optimal conditions, labeled transcripts could be detected from single-copy genes normally expressed at low levels in the cells (HIS3 and URA3). We determined that the alpha-amanitin sensitivity of transcript synthesis in the isolated nuclei paralleled the sensitivity of the corresponding purified RNA polymerases; in particular, mRNA synthesis was 50% sensitive to 1 microgram of alpha-amanitin per ml, establishing transcription of mRNA by RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:3537708

  17. Sesquiterpene lactones: Mechanism of antineoplastic activity; relationship of cellular glutathione to cytotoxicity; and disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Grippo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibited the growth of P388 lymphocytic and L1210 lymphoid leukemia, and Ehrlich ascites and KB carcinoma cells. The L1210 leukemia cells were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of helenalin. Helenalin's antineoplastic effects were due to inhibition of DNA synthesis by suppressing the activities of enzymes involved in this biosynthetic pathway; i.e., IMP dehydrogenase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thioredoxin complex, GSH disulfide oxidoreductase and DNA polymerase {alpha} activities. The relationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) to the cytotoxic effects of helanalin was evaluated. L1210 cells, which were more sensitive to helenalin's toxicity, contained lower basal concentrations of GSH. Helenalin decreased the concentration of reduced glutathione in both L1210 and P388 leukemia cells. Concurrent administration of helanalin with agents reported to raise GSH concentrations did not substantially effect GSH levels, nor were survival times of tumor-bearing mice enhanced. Following intraperitoneal administration of {sup 3}H-plenolin, no radioactive drug and/or metabolite was sequestered in the organs of BDF{sub 1} mice. Approximately 50% of {sup 3}H-plenolin and/or its metabolites were eliminated via urine while lesser amounts of radioactive drug and/or metabolites were eliminated in the feces.

  18. A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Hoyce, G. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several types of RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been identified in biological systems and generated in the laboratory. Considering the variety of known RNA enzymes and the similarity of DNA and RNA, it is reasonable to imagine that DNA might be able to function as an enzyme as well. No such DNA enzyme has been found in nature, however. We set out to identify a metal-dependent DNA enzyme using in vitro selection methodology. RESULTS: Beginning with a population of 10(14) DNAs containing 50 random nucleotides, we carried out five successive rounds of selective amplification, enriching for individuals that best promote the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of a target ribonucleoside 3'-O-P bond embedded within an otherwise all-DNA sequence. By the fifth round, the population as a whole carried out this reaction at a rate of 0.2 min-1. Based on the sequence of 20 individuals isolated from this population, we designed a simplified version of the catalytic domain that operates in an intermolecular context with a turnover rate of 1 min-1. This rate is about 10(5)-fold increased compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro selection techniques, we obtained a DNA enzyme that catalyzes the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester in a reaction that proceeds with rapid turnover. The catalytic rate compares favorably to that of known RNA enzymes. We expect that other examples of DNA enzymes will soon be forthcoming.

  19. DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells: metabolic and antimetabolic studies of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bestwick, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    HeLa cells were used for the quantitation of cellular and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) and ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) pools and of changes in pools in response to treatment with the antimetabolites methotrexate (mtx) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR). Use of an enzymatic assay of dNTPs and of improved nucleotide extraction methods allowed quantitation of mitochondrial dNTP pools. All four mitochondrial dNTP pools expand following treatment with mtx or FUdR whereas cellular dTTP and dGTP pools are depleted. Mitochrondrial rNTP pools were also found to expand in response to these antimetabolites. Mouse L-cells were used to determine the relative contributions of an exogenously supplied precursor to nuclear and mitochrondrial DNA replication. Cells were labeled to near steady state specific activities with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate and subsequently labeled with (/sup 3/H)uridine, a general pyrimidine precursor, in the continuing presence of /sup 32/P. Deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates derived from these DNAs were separated by HPLC and the /sup 3/H//sup 32/P ratio in each pyrimidine determined. The dCMP residues in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were found to be derived exclusively from the exogenous supplied uridine. The dTMP residues from nuclear and mtDNA and the dCMP residues from nuclear DNA were seen to be synthesized partly from exogenous sources and partly from other sources, presumably de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

  20. Synthesis of Morpholino Monomers, Chlorophosphoramidate Monomers, and Solid-Phase Synthesis of Short Morpholino Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Jhuma; Pattanayak, Sankha; Sinha, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are a highly capable class of synthetic antisense oligonucleotides that are used to study gene functions in in vitro and in vivo models. This unit describes the synthesis of exocyclic-amine-protected 7'-hydroxy and 7'-chlorophosphoramidate-activated morpholino monomers of A, T, G, and C, together with their incorporation into short PMO oligomers by solid-phase synthesis. Starting from ribonucleosides, the exocyclic-amine-protected 7'-hydroxy monomers are prepared following a modified Summerton protocol, which consists of a periodate cleavage/Schiff base formation/reduction cycle. The exocyclic amine protections are installed at a later stage (except G) to avoid the use of costly exocyclic-amine-protected counterparts that give control over protecting group manipulation. The 7'-hydroxy monomers with N-Trit/N-MMTr are then converted to the 7'-chlorophosphoramidate morpholino monomers in one step employing a combination of lithium bromide and DBU. These chlorophosphoramidate monomers are finally assembled by solid-support synthesis to obtain the short PMO oligomers. PMID:26380905

  1. Bayesian hidden Markov models to identify RNA-protein interaction sites in PAR-CLIP.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jonghyun; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Guanghua

    2014-06-01

    The photoactivatable ribonucleoside enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) has been increasingly used for the global mapping of RNA-protein interaction sites. There are two key features of the PAR-CLIP experiments: The sequence read tags are likely to form an enriched peak around each RNA-protein interaction site; and the cross-linking procedure is likely to introduce a specific mutation in each sequence read tag at the interaction site. Several ad hoc methods have been developed to identify the RNA-protein interaction sites using either sequence read counts or mutation counts alone; however, rigorous statistical methods for analyzing PAR-CLIP are still lacking. In this article, we propose an integrative model to establish a joint distribution of observed read and mutation counts. To pinpoint the interaction sites at single base-pair resolution, we developed a novel modeling approach that adopts non-homogeneous hidden Markov models to incorporate the nucleotide sequence at each genomic location. Both simulation studies and data application showed that our method outperforms the ad hoc methods, and provides reliable inferences for the RNA-protein binding sites from PAR-CLIP data. PMID:24571656

  2. Most short DNA molecules isolated from 3T3 cells are not nascent.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, J; Denhardt, D T

    1978-01-01

    The population of short DNA molecules (less than 10(3) nucleotides) in 3T3 cells has been studied using in vivo and in vitro pulse labeling techniques and in vitro end-labeling. There is a large number of molecules of less than 100 nucleotides present in equal numbers in both Go and S phase cells. In S phase cells, most of these molecules are not replicating intermediates because they do not become density-labeled after a moderate period of substitution of BrdUMP, although they are detected by end-labeling in vitro. This population includes the nascent Okazaki pieces that can be labeled in a short pulse with [3H]dThd or [3H]dTTP, however, these represent less than 10% of the total population. Alkaline hydrolysis of the molecules that had been end-labeled with 32P using [gamma32P]ATP and polynucleotide kinase did not reveal significant release of [32P] 2'(3'), 5' ribonucleoside diphosphates. PMID:724517

  3. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 35/S)cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form.

  4. RNA involvement in T4 DNA synthesis in toluene-treated cells.

    PubMed

    Dicou, E

    1980-01-01

    In T4-infected cells made permeable with toluene, pulses with [(alpha-32P deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates demonstrated covalent linkage of RNA to DNA of the Okazaki fragments. Analysis of the transfer of the 32P label to the 2'(3') ribonucleoside monophosphates indicated that the 3'-end of the RNA primer is heterogeneous. The most frequently encountered ribonucleotide was rCMP, but also transfer to rUMP, rAMP and rGMP occurred at different frequencies. In contrast, no heterogeneity was observed for the deoxyribonucleoside at the RNA-DNA junction. Of all the [to-32P] deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates tested, transfer of the 32P label to 2'(3') rNMPs was predominant when [alpha32P] dGTP was the substrate, indicating that the deoxyribonucleoside most frequently encountered at the RNA-DNA linkage is dG. These observations suggest that the starts for the Okazaki fragments may occur at unique sites of the T4 genome. PMID:17941178

  5. Nucleolipids of Canonical Purine ß‐d‐Ribo‐Nucleosides: Synthesis and Cytostatic/Cytotoxic Activities Toward Human and Rat Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Christine; Hammerbacher, Katharina; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report on the synthesis of two series of canonical purine ß‐d‐ribonucleoside nucleolipids derived from inosine and adenosine, which have been characterized by elemental analyses, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) as well as by 1H and 13C NMR, and pH‐dependent UV/Vis spectroscopy. A selection of the novel nucleolipids with different lipophilic moieties were first tested on their cytotoxic effect toward human macrophages. Compounds without a significant inhibitory effect on the viability of the macrophages were tested on their cytostatic/cytotoxic effect toward human astrocytoma/oligodendroglioma GOS‐3 cells as well as against the rat malignant neuroectodermal BT4Ca cell line. In order to additionally investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effects of the derivatives on GOS‐3 or BT4Ca cells, we evaluated the induction of apoptosis and observed the particular activity of the nucleolipid ethyl 3‐{4‐hydroxymethyl‐2‐methyl‐6‐[6‐oxo‐1‐(3,7,11‐trimethyl‐dodeca‐2,6,10‐trienyl)‐1,6‐dihydro‐purin‐9‐yl]‐tetrahydro‐furo[3,4‐d][1,3]dioxol‐2‐yl}propionate (8 c) toward both human and rat glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. PMID:27308225

  6. Long-term study of an infection with ranaviruses in a group of edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) and partial characterization of two viruses based on four genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Anke C; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Papp, Tibor; Robert, Nadia; Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-08-01

    Several edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) collected into a single group from various ponds in Europe died suddenly with reddening of the skin (legs, abdomen) and haemorrhages in the gastrointestinal tract. Ranavirus was detected in some of the dead frogs using PCR, and virus was also isolated in cell culture. Over the following 3 years, another two outbreaks occurred with low to high mortality in between asymptomatic periods. In the first 2 years, the same ranavirus was detected repeatedly, but a new ranavirus was isolated in association with the second mass-mortality event. The two different ranaviruses were characterized based on nucleotide sequences from four genomic regions, namely, major capsid protein, DNA polymerase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit genes. The sequences showed slight variations to each other or GenBank entries and both clustered to the Rana esculenta virus (REV-like) clade in the phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, a quiescent infection was demonstrated in two individuals. By comparing samples taken before and after transport and caging in groups it was possible to identify the pond of origin and a ranavirus was detected for the first time in wild amphibians in Germany. PMID:23535222

  7. RNA structure and scalar coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G.

    1994-12-01

    Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.

  8. Determination of phosphate in soil extracts in the field: A green chemistry enzymatic method

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ellen R.; Warsko, Kayla; Davidson, Anna-Marie; (Bill) Campbell, Wilbur H.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of ortho-phosphate in soil extracts usually involves sending dried samples of soil to a laboratory for analysis and waiting several weeks for the results. Phosphate determination methods often involve use of strong acids, heavy metals, and organic dyes. To overcome limitations of this approach, we have developed a phosphate determination method which can be carried out in the field to obtain results on the spot. This new method uses: • Small volumes. • An enzymatic reaction. • Green chemistry. First, the soil sample is extracted with deionized water and filtered. Next, an aliquot of the soil extract (0.5 mL) is transferred to a disposable cuvette, containing 0.5 mL of reaction mixture [200 mM HEPES, pH 7.6, 20 mM MgCl2, with 80 nmol 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (MESG) and 1 unit of recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 2.4.2.1)], mixed, and incubated for 10 min at field temperature. Absorbance of the completed reaction is measured at 360 nm in open-source, portable photometer linked by bluetooth to a smartphone. The phosphate and phosphorus content of the soil is determined by comparison of its absorbance at 360 nm to a previously prepared standard phosphate curve, which is stored in the smartphone app. PMID:26150991

  9. Mammalian WTAP is a regulatory subunit of the RNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xiao-Li; Sun, Bao-Fa; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Wen-Jia; Adhikari, Samir; Shi, Yue; Lv, Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Xu; Li, Ang; Yang, Ying; Dahal, Ujwal; Lou, Xiao-Min; Liu, Xi; Huang, Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Cheng, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Rendtlew Danielsen, Jannie M; Liu, Feng; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2014-02-01

    The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14). WTAP interacts with METTL3 and METTL14, and is required for their localization into nuclear speckles enriched with pre-mRNA processing factors and for catalytic activity of the m6A methyltransferase in vivo. The majority of RNAs bound by WTAP and METTL3 in vivo represent mRNAs containing the consensus m6A motif. In the absence of WTAP, the RNA-binding capability of METTL3 is strongly reduced, suggesting that WTAP may function to regulate recruitment of the m6A methyltransferase complex to mRNA targets. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses in combination with photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) illustrate that WTAP and METTL3 regulate expression and alternative splicing of genes involved in transcription and RNA processing. Morpholino-mediated knockdown targeting WTAP and/or METTL3 in zebrafish embryos caused tissue differentiation defects and increased apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that WTAP may function as a regulatory subunit in the m6A methyltransferase complex and play a critical role in epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. PMID:24407421

  10. Isolation and characterization of rabbit anti-m3 2,2,7G antibodies.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, R; Appel, B; Bringmann, P; Rinke, J; Reuter, R; Rothe, S; Bald, R

    1982-11-25

    Antibodies specific for intact 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (m3 2,2,7G) were induced by immunization of rabbits with a nucleoside-human serum albumen (HSA) conjugate. Competition radioimmunoassay showed that the antibody distinguishes well between intact m3 2,2,7G and its alkali-hydrolysed form (m3 2,2,7G*). Antibody specificity is largely dependent on the presence of all three methyl groups in m3 2,2,7G: none of the less extensively methylated nucleosides m7G, m2G and m2 2,2G is able to compete efficiently with the homologous hapten. Little or no competition was observed with m1G, m1A, m6A, m5U and each of the four unmodified ribonucleosides. Binding studies with nucleoplasmic RNAs from Ehrlich ascites cells suggest that the antibody reacts specifically with the m3 2,2,7G-containing cap structure of the small nuclear U-RNAs (U-snRNAs). Thus the antibody should be a valuable tool for studying the role of the 5'-terminal regions of the U-snRNAs of eucaryotic cells. PMID:7155893

  11. Simultaneous Quantification of Methylated Cytidine and Adenosine in Cellular and Tissue RNA by Nano-Flow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with the Stable Isotope-dilution Method

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lijuan; Amato, Nicolas J.; Wang, Pengcheng; McGowan, Sara J.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The rising interest in understanding the functions, regulation and maintenance of the epitranscriptome calls for robust and accurate analytical methods for the identification and quantification of post-transcriptionally modified nucleosides in RNA. Mono-methylations of cytidine and adenosine are common post-transcriptional modifications in RNA. Herein, we developed an LC-MS/MS/MS coupled with the stable isotope-dilution method for the sensitive and accurate quantifications of 5-methylcytidine (m5C), 2′-O-methylcytidine (Cm), N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and 2′-O-methyladenosine (Am) in RNA isolated from mammalian cells and tissues. Our results showed that the distributions of the four methylated nucleosides are tissue-specific. In addition, the 2′-O-methylated ribonucleosides (Cm and Am) are present at higher levels than the corresponding methylated nucleobase products (m5C and m6A) in total RNA isolated from mouse brain, pancreas and spleen, but not mouse heart. We also found that the levels of m5C, Cm and Am are significantly lower (by 6.5-43 fold) in mRNA than in total RNA isolated from HEK293T cells, whereas the level of m6A was slightly higher (by 1.6 fold) in mRNA than in total RNA. The availability of this analytical method, in combination with genetic manipulation, may facilitate the future discovery of proteins involved in the maintenance and regulation of these RNA modifications. PMID:26158405

  12. Incorporation of Mevalonic Acid into Ribosylzeatin in Tobacco Callus Ribonucleic Acid Preparations 1

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Norimoto; Armstrong, Donald J.; Skoog, Folke

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 14C-2-mevalonic acid into transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA (high molecular weight RNA) in rapidly growing, cytokinin-dependent tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin No. 38) callus cultures has been investigated. Approximately 40% of the label incorporated into transfer RNA was present in a ribonucleoside with chromatographic properties identical to those of cis-ribosylzeatin. The remainder of the label in the transfer RNA appears to be nonspecific incorporation resulting from degradation and metabolism of 14C-2-mevalonic acid by the tobacco callus tissue. Although the total radioactivity incorporated into ribosomal RNA was roughly the same as in transfer RNA, the specific radioactivity of the transfer RNA was about four times higher than that of the ribosomal RNA, and the ribosomal RNA labeling could be distinguished from the cytokinin labeling observed in transfer RNA. The distributions of the 14C-2-mevalonic acid label and cytokinin activity in tobacco callus transfer RNA fractionated by benzoylated diethylaminoethylcellulose chromatography indicate that at least two cytokinin-containing transfer RNA species are present in this tissue. PMID:16659180

  13. Adenosine reagent-free detection by co-immobilization of adenosine deaminase and phenol red on an optical biostrip.

    PubMed

    Bartzoka, Foteini; Venetsanou, Katerina; Clonis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine detection in human serum is important because this ribonucleoside has established clinical applications, modulating many physiological processes. Furthermore, a simple and cheap detection method is useful in adenosine production processes. Adenosine can be determined enzymatically using either S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and (3) [H]-adenosine, or adenosine kinase combined with GTP and luciferase, or an amperometric biosensor carrying adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase. We developed a simple and cheap method relying on a transparent biostrip bearing ADA and the indicator phenol red (PR), co-immobilized to polyacrylamide, itself chemically adhered to a derivatized glass strip. The ADA-catalyzed conversion of adenosine to inosine and ammonia leads to a local pH alteration, changing the absorbance maximum of PR (from 425 to 567 nm), which is measured optically. The biostrip shows an analytical range 0.05-1.5 mM adenosine and is reusable when stored at 4 °C. When the biostrip was tested with serum, spiked with adenosine (70 and 100 μM), and filtered for protein and adenosine phosphates depletion, it showed good adenosine recovery. In summary, we show the proof-of-concept that adenosine can be determined reagent-free, at moderate sensitivity on an easy to construct, cheap, and reusable biostrip, based on commercially available molecular entities. PMID:25293641

  14. Rbfox3 Controls the Biogenesis of a Subset of MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kee K.; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Adelstein, Robert S.; Kawamoto, Sachiyo

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate numerous aspects of gene expression, thus identification of endogenous targets of RBPs is important for understanding their functions in cells. Here we identified transcriptome-wide targets of Rbfox3 in neuronally differentiated P19 cells and mouse brain using Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Crosslinking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP). Although Rbfox3 is known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing through binding to the UGCAUG motif, PAR-CLIP analysis revealed diverse Rbfox3 targets including primary-microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) which lack the UGCAUG motif. Induced expression and depletion of Rbfox3 led to changes in the expression levels of a subset of PAR-CLIP-detected miRNAs. In vitro analyses revealed that Rbfox3 functions as a positive and a negative regulator at the stage of pri-miRNA processing to precursor-miRNA. Rbfox3 binds directly to pri-miRNAs and regulates the recruitment of the microprocessor complex to pri-miRNAs. Our study proposes a novel function for Rbfox3 in miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25240799

  15. Enzymatic regioselective acylation of nucleosides in biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: kinetic study and enzyme substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Li; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2013-03-10

    Enzymatic regioselective acylation of pyrimidine nucleosides was mediated by immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a bio-solvent derived from biomass. Despite of the moderate dissolution ability of MeTHF toward nucleosides, the initial enzymatic reaction rate was much higher in this eco-friendly solvent than in other commonly used organic solvents. This could be explained by the lower apparent activation energy of the enzymatic reaction (24.5 vs. 43.3-57.1kJ/mol) and the higher catalytic efficiency of the enzyme (Vmax/Km, 5.8 vs. 1.1-2.9h(-1)) in MeTHF. The enzymatic acylation of a group of ribonucleosides afforded the desirable 5'-esters with the conversions of 96-99% and 5'-regioselectivities of 96 to >99%. In enzymatic acylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides, however, 5'-regioselectivities showed a clear dependence on the 5-substituents present in the base moiety although the substrate conversions reached >98% within 1-3h. In the cases of 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs, the reaction rate decreased markedly due to the lack of 3'-hydroxyl. PMID:23337886

  16. Investigation of Pokemon-regulated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xin; Jin, Yibao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is a transcription regulator involved in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. It is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple human cancers including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is considered as a promising biomarker for HCC. In this work, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to investigate the proteomic profile associated with Pokemon in human HCC cell line QGY7703 and human hepatocyte line HL7702. Samples were labeled with four-plex iTRAQ reagents followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 24 differentially expressed proteins were selected as significant. Nine proteins were potentially up-regulated by Pokemon while 15 proteins were potentially down-regulated and many proteins were previously identified as potential biomarkers for HCC. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment revealed that the listed proteins were mainly involved in DNA metabolism and biosynthesis process. The changes of glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD, up-regulated) and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large sub-unit (RIM1, down-regulated) were validated by Western blotting analysis and denoted as Pokemon's function of oncogenesis. We also found that Pokemon potentially repressed the expression of highly clustered proteins (MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7) which played key roles in promoting DNA replication. Altogether, our results may help better understand the role of Pokemon in HCC and promote the clinical applications. PMID:24261083

  17. The range and specificity of antinuclear antibodies in systematic lupus erythematosus*

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Segovia, D.; Fishbein, Eugenia; Alcalá, Hilda; Olguín-Palacios, Eugenia; Estrada-Parra, S.

    1970-01-01

    Antibodies to nine calf thymus nuclear antigens were sought by complement fixation methods in twenty-four sera from sixteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. These antigens included whole nuclei, native and heat denatured DNA, particulate and soluble nucleoprotein and Sm antigen. Soluble antigens were also tested by tanned red-cell agglutination tests. A wide variation in the presence and titres of antibodies to these various antigens was found in the sera studied even when from the same patient but at different times. To further test the range and specificity of antinuclear antibodies in SLE, nineteen ribonucleosides, nucleotides and monophosphoric dinucleotides were coupled to human serum albumin and used as antigens in precipitin studies. A wide variation of reactivity was also found in each serum. Exquisite specificity became apparent, capable of reacting with a nucleoside but not with the corresponding nucleotide or vice versa, with a dinucleotide but not with the nucleotides or nucleosides which it contained, with a given dinucleotide but not with the opposite sequence. Antinuclear antibodies in systemic lupus are, therefore, markedly heterogeneous. Those to a `single' antigen such as DNA may be directed to antigenic sites which may variously be at the bases, single or in sequence, at the site of union of base and sugar–phosphate moiety, at the backbone of deoxyribophosphate or actually dependent on the secondary structure. PMID:4097823

  18. PAR-CLIP analysis uncovers AUF1 impact on target RNA fate and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; De, Supriyo; Srikantan, Subramanya; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Noh, Ji Heon; White, Elizabeth J.F.; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Kang, Min-Ju; Wood, William H.; Hooten, Nicole Noren; Evans, Michele K.; Becker, Kevin G.; Tripathi, Vidisha; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Tuschl, Thomas; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hafner, Markus; Gorospe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation is robustly regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we describe the collection of RNAs regulated by AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1), an RBP linked to cancer, inflammation and aging. Photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) analysis reveals that AUF1 primarily recognizes U-/GU-rich sequences in mRNAs and noncoding RNAs and influences target transcript fate in three main directions. First, AUF1 lowers the steady-state levels of numerous target RNAs, including long noncoding RNA NEAT1, in turn affecting the organization of nuclear paraspeckles. Second, AUF1 does not change the abundance of many target RNAs, but ribosome profiling reveals that AUF1 promotes the translation of numerous mRNAs in this group. Third, AUF1 unexpectedly enhances the steady-state levels of several target mRNAs encoding DNA-maintenance proteins. Through its actions on target RNAs, AUF1 preserves genomic integrity, in agreement with the AUF1-elicited prevention of premature cellular senescence. PMID:25366541

  19. Polynucleotide phosphorylase plays an important role in the generation of spontaneous mutations in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Becket, Elinne; Tse, Lawrence; Yung, Madeline; Cosico, Alexander; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2012-10-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) plays a central role in RNA degradation, generating a pool of ribonucleoside diphosphates (rNDPs) that can be converted to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs) by ribonucleotide reductase. We report here that spontaneous mutations resulting from replication errors, which are normally repaired by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, are sharply reduced in a PNP-deficient Escherichia coli strain. This is true for base substitution mutations that occur in the rpoB gene leading to Rif(r) and the gyrB gene leading to Nal(r) and for base substitution and frameshift mutations that occur in the lacZ gene. These results suggest that the increase in the rNDP pools generated by polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) degradation of RNA is responsible for the spontaneous mutations observed in an MMR-deficient background. The PNP-derived pool also appears responsible for the observed mutations in the mutT mutator background and those that occur after treatment with 5-bromodeoxyuridine, as these mutations are also drastically reduced in a PNP-deficient strain. However, mutation frequencies are not reduced in a mutY mutator background or after treatment with 2-aminopurine. These results highlight the central role in mutagenesis played by the rNDP pools (and the subsequent dNTP pools) derived from RNA degradation. PMID:22904280

  20. Polynucleotide Phosphorylase Plays an Important Role in the Generation of Spontaneous Mutations in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Becket, Elinne; Tse, Lawrence; Yung, Madeline; Cosico, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) plays a central role in RNA degradation, generating a pool of ribonucleoside diphosphates (rNDPs) that can be converted to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs) by ribonucleotide reductase. We report here that spontaneous mutations resulting from replication errors, which are normally repaired by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, are sharply reduced in a PNP-deficient Escherichia coli strain. This is true for base substitution mutations that occur in the rpoB gene leading to Rifr and the gyrB gene leading to Nalr and for base substitution and frameshift mutations that occur in the lacZ gene. These results suggest that the increase in the rNDP pools generated by polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) degradation of RNA is responsible for the spontaneous mutations observed in an MMR-deficient background. The PNP-derived pool also appears responsible for the observed mutations in the mutT mutator background and those that occur after treatment with 5-bromodeoxyuridine, as these mutations are also drastically reduced in a PNP-deficient strain. However, mutation frequencies are not reduced in a mutY mutator background or after treatment with 2-aminopurine. These results highlight the central role in mutagenesis played by the rNDP pools (and the subsequent dNTP pools) derived from RNA degradation. PMID:22904280

  1. Occult Breast Cancer Presenting as Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Primary: Clinical Presentation, Immunohistochemistry, and Molecular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Talmon, Geoffrey; Hankins, Jordan H.; Enke, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare presentation of a 66-year-old female with diffuse metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary involving liver, lymphatic system and bone metastases. The neoplastic cells were positive for CK7 and OC125, while negative for CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1, CDX2, BRST-2, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no amplification of the HER2/neu gene. Molecular profiling reported a breast cancer origin with a very high confidence score of 98%. The absence of immunohistochemistry staining for ER, PR, and HER2/neu further classified her cancer as triple-negative breast cancer. Additional studies revealed high expression levels of topoisomerase (Topo) I, androgen receptor, and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit; the results were negative for thymidylate synthase, Topo II-a and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The patient was initially treated with a combination regimen of cisplatin and etoposide, and she experienced a rapid resolution of cancer-related symptoms. Unfortunately, her therapy was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), which was thought to be related to cisplatin and high serum mucin. After recovery from the CVA, the patient was successfully treated with second-line chemotherapy based on her tumor expression profile. We highlight the role of molecular profiling in the diagnosis and management of this patient and the implication of personalized chemotherapy in this challenging disease. PMID:22379471

  2. Detection methods for milk pathogenic bacteria by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wentao; Song, Xiaoning; Wang, Jingxin; Li, Zhen; Ji, Mingjiang; Li, Yufeng

    2014-12-01

    Milk is a common food, which is consumed all over the world. It is an important source of calcium. Meanwhile, it provides abundant protein, minerals and vitamins. However, pathogenic bacteria which exist in milk not only causes nutrition loss, but also produces toxins which may cause diarrhea, food poisoning, and even death. In order to control the microbial level of raw milk and eliminate the contamination of materials, this assay applied loop-mediated isothermal amplification to explore a new way to detect enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in raw milk. The best reaction condition in detecting ETEC from raw milk was confirmed to be: 0.016 μM each of forward outer primer (primer F3) and backward outer primer (primer B3), 0.128 μM each of forward inner primer (primer FIP) and backward inner primer (primer BIP), 0.45 μM deoxy-ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTPs), 2IU Bst DNA polymerase large fragment and template DNA were incubated at 63°C for 60 min. LAMP was proved to be specific, rapid and sensitive in detecting pathogenic bacteria which exist in milk. PMID:25641177

  3. Mixture models and wavelet transforms reveal high confidence RNA-protein interaction sites in MOV10 PAR-CLIP data.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Cem; Schlumpf, Tommy; Sawarkar, Ritwick; Comoglio, Federico; Paro, Renato

    2012-11-01

    The Photo-Activatable Ribonucleoside-enhanced CrossLinking and ImmunoPrecipitation (PAR-CLIP) method was recently developed for global identification of RNAs interacting with proteins. The strength of this versatile method results from induction of specific T to C transitions at sites of interaction. However, current analytical tools do not distinguish between non-experimentally and experimentally induced transitions. Furthermore, geometric properties at potential binding sites are not taken into account. To surmount these shortcomings, we developed a two-step algorithm consisting of a non-parametric two-component mixture model and a wavelet-based peak calling procedure. Our algorithm can reduce the number of false positives up to 24% thereby identifying high confidence interaction sites. We successfully employed this approach in conjunction with a modified PAR-CLIP protocol to study the functional role of nuclear Moloney leukemia virus 10, a putative RNA helicase interacting with Argonaute2 and Polycomb. Our method, available as the R package wavClusteR, is generally applicable to any substitution-based inference problem in genomics. PMID:22844102

  4. Repositioning of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor GW8510 as a ribonucleotide reductase M2 inhibitor to treat human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y-Y; Chou, C-J; Lo, H-L; Yang, P-M

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in males and females in the world. It is of immediate importance to develop novel therapeutics. Human ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1/RRM2) has an essential role in converting ribonucleoside diphosphate to 2'-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate to maintain the homeostasis of nucleotide pools. RRM2 is a prognostic biomarker and predicts poor survival of CRC. In addition, increased RRM2 activity is associated with malignant transformation and tumor cell growth. Bioinformatics analyses show that RRM2 was overexpressed in CRC and might be an attractive target for treating CRC. Therefore, we attempted to search novel RRM2 inhibitors by using a gene expression signature-based approach, connectivity MAP (CMAP). The result predicted GW8510, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, as a potential RRM2 inhibitor. Western blot analysis indicated that GW8510 inhibited RRM2 expression through promoting its proteasomal degradation. In addition, GW8510 induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the sensitivities of CRC cells to GW8510 were associated with the levels of RRM2 and endogenous autophagic flux. Taken together, our study indicates that GW8510 could be a potential anti-CRC agent through targeting RRM2. PMID:27551518

  5. Selective Phosphorylation of South and North-Cytidine and Adenosine Methanocarba-Nucleosides by Human Nucleoside and Nucleotide Kinases Correlates with Their Growth Inhibitory Effects on Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Sjuvarsson, Elena; Marquez, Victor E; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Here bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane locked deoxycytidine (S-MCdC, N-MCdC), and deoxyadenosine analogs (S-MCdA and N-MCdA) were examined as substrates for purified preparations of human deoxynucleoside kinases: dCK, dGK, TK2, TK1, the ribonucleoside kinase UCK2, two NMP kinases (CMPK1, TMPK) and a NDP kinase. dCK can be important for the first step of phosphorylation of S-MCdC in cells, but S-MCdCMP was not a substrate for CMPK1, TMPK, or NDPK. dCK and dGK had a preference for the S-MCdA whereas N-MCdA was not a substrate for dCK, TK1, UCK2, TK2, dGK nucleoside kinases. The cell growth experiments suggested that N-MCdC and S-MCdA could be activated in cells by cellular kinases so that a triphosphate metabolite was formed. List of abbreviations: ddC, 2', 3'-didioxycytosine, Zalcitabine; 3TC, β-L-(-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, Lamivudine; CdA, 2-cloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Cladribine; AraA, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine; hCNT 1-3, human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2 and 3; hENT 1-4, human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter type 1, 2, 3, and 4. PMID:26167664

  6. Expression, purification and functional characterization of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype-1 (hENT1) protein from Sf9 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shahid; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-10-01

    Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) is the major plasma membrane transporter involved in transportation of natural nucleosides as well as nucleoside analog drugs, used in anti-cancer and anti-viral therapies. Despite extensive biochemical and pharmacological studies, little is known about the structure-function relationship of this protein. The major obstacles to purification include a low endogenous expression level, the lack of an efficient expression and purification protocol, and the hydrophobic nature of the protein. Here, we report protein expression, purification and functional characterization of hENT1 from Sf9 insect cells. hENT1 expressed by Sf9 cells is functionally active as demonstrated by saturation binding with a Kd of 1.2±0.2nM and Bmax of 110±5pmol/mg for [(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ([(3)H]NBMPR). We also demonstrate purification of hENT1 using FLAG antibody affinity resin in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol detergent with a Kd of 4.3±0.7nM. The yield of hENT1 from Sf9 cells was ∼0.5mg active transporter per liter of culture. The purified protein is functionally active, stable, homogenous and appropriate for further biophysical and structural studies. PMID:26162242

  7. Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Proteins in Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Traylen, Chris; Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin; Almohammad, Rajaei; Heesom, Kate; Sweet, Steve M M; Matthews, David A; Sinclair, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The working model to describe the mechanisms used to replicate the cancer-associated virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is partly derived from comparisons with other members of the Herpes virus family. Many genes within the EBV genome are homologous across the herpes virus family. Published transcriptome data for the EBV genome during its lytic replication cycle show extensive transcription, but the identification of the proteins is limited. We have taken a global proteomics approach to identify viral proteins that are expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. We combined an enrichment method to isolate cells undergoing EBV lytic replication with SILAC-labeling coupled to mass-spectrometry and identified viral and host proteins expressed during the OPEN ACCESS Pathogens 2015, 4 740 EBV lytic replication cycle. Amongst the most frequently identified viral proteins are two components of the DNA replication machinery, the single strand DNA binding protein BALF2, DNA polymerase accessory protein BMRF1 and both subunits of the viral ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase enzyme (BORF2 and BaRF1). An additional 42 EBV lytic cycle proteins were also detected. This provides proteomic identification for many EBV lytic replication cycle proteins and also identifies post-translational modifications. PMID:26529022

  8. Mammalian WTAP is a regulatory subunit of the RNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xiao-Li; Sun, Bao-Fa; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Wen-Jia; Adhikari, Samir; Shi, Yue; Lv, Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Xu; Li, Ang; Yang, Ying; Dahal, Ujwal; Lou, Xiao-Min; Liu, Xi; Huang, Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Cheng, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Danielsen, Jannie M Rendtlew; Liu, Feng; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2014-01-01

    The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14). WTAP interacts with METTL3 and METTL14, and is required for their localization into nuclear speckles enriched with pre-mRNA processing factors and for catalytic activity of the m6A methyltransferase in vivo. The majority of RNAs bound by WTAP and METTL3 in vivo represent mRNAs containing the consensus m6A motif. In the absence of WTAP, the RNA-binding capability of METTL3 is strongly reduced, suggesting that WTAP may function to regulate recruitment of the m6A methyltransferase complex to mRNA targets. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses in combination with photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) illustrate that WTAP and METTL3 regulate expression and alternative splicing of genes involved in transcription and RNA processing. Morpholino-mediated knockdown targeting WTAP and/or METTL3 in zebrafish embryos caused tissue differentiation defects and increased apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that WTAP may function as a regulatory subunit in the m6A methyltransferase complex and play a critical role in epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. PMID:24407421

  9. A novel nucleoside hydrolase from Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 catalyzing hydrolysis of 2'-O-methylribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Yuuki; Hibi, Makoto; Matsutani, Narihiro; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2016-08-01

    2'-O-Methylribonucleosides (2'-OMe-NRs) are promising raw materials for nucleic acid drugs because of their high thermal stability and nuclease tolerance. In the course of microbial screening for metabolic activity toward 2'-OMe-NRs, Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 was found to decompose 2'-O-methyluridine (2'-OMe-UR). The enzyme responsible was partially purified from L. buchneri LBK78 cells by a four-step purification procedure, and identified as a novel nucleoside hydrolase. This enzyme, LbNH, belongs to the nucleoside hydrolase superfamily, and formed a homotetrameric structure composed of subunits with a molecular mass around 34 kDa. LbNH hydrolyzed 2'-OMe-UR to 2'-O-methylribose and uracil, and the kinetic constants were Km of 0.040 mM, kcat of 0.49 s(-1), and kcat/Km of 12 mM(-1) s(-1). In a substrate specificity analysis, LbNH preferred ribonucleosides and 2'-OMe-NRs as its hydrolytic substrates, but reacted weakly with 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. In a phylogenetic analysis, LbNH showed a close relationship with purine-specific nucleoside hydrolases from trypanosomes. PMID:27180876

  10. Topoisomerase 1-dependent deletions initiated by incision at ribonucleotides are biased to the non-transcribed strand of a highly activated reporter

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jang-Eun; Kim, Nayun; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerases incorporate ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) into genomic DNA at a low level and such rNMPs are efficiently removed in an error-free manner by ribonuclease (RNase) H2. In the absence of RNase H2 in budding yeast, persistent rNMPs give rise to short deletions via a mutagenic process initiated by Topoisomerase 1 (Top1). We examined the activity of a 2-bp, rNMP-dependent deletion hotspot [the (TG)2 hotspot] when on the transcribed or non-transcribed strand (TS or NTS, respectively) of a reporter placed in both orientations near a strong origin of replication. Under low-transcription conditions, hotspot activity depended on whether the (TG)2 sequence was part of the newly synthesized leading or lagging strand of replication. In agreement with an earlier study, deletions occurred at a much higher rate when (TG)2 was on the nascent leading strand. Under high-transcription conditions, however, hotspot activity was not dependent on replication direction, but rather on whether the (TG)2 sequence was on the TS or NTS of the reporter. Deletion rates were several orders of magnitude higher when (TG)2 was on the NTS. These results highlight the complex interplay between replication and transcription in regulating Top1-dependent genetic instability. PMID:26271994

  11. Modulation of adenosine signaling prevents scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Josiane Woutheres; Melo, Gabriela Madalena de; Cognato, Giana de Paula; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-02-01

    Adenosine, a purine ribonucleoside, exhibits neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects in the brain and is involved in memory formation and cognitive function. Adenosine signaling is mediated by adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3); in turn, nucleotide and nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes and adenosine transporters regulate its levels. Scopolamine, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, has profound amnesic effects in a variety of learning paradigms and has been used to induce cognitive deficits in animal models. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to caffeine (a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors A1 and A2A), ZM 241385 (adenosine receptor A2A antagonist), DPCPX (adenosine receptor A1 antagonist), dipyridamole (inhibitor of nucleoside transporters) and EHNA (inhibitor of adenosine deaminase) in a model of pharmacological cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in adult zebrafish. Caffeine, ZM 241385, DPCPX, dipyridamole, and EHNA were acutely administered independently via i.p. in zebrafish, followed by exposure to scopolamine dissolved in tank water (200μM). These compounds prevented the scopolamine-induced amnesia without impacting locomotor activity or social interaction. Together, these data support the hypothesis that adenosine signaling may modulate memory processing, suggesting that these compounds present a potential preventive strategy against cognitive impairment. PMID:25490060

  12. Expedient and generic synthesis of imidazole nucleosides by enzymatic transglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Vichier-Guerre, S; Dugué, L; Bonhomme, F; Pochet, S

    2016-04-14

    A straightforward route to original imidazole-based nucleosides that makes use of an enzymatic N-transglycosylation step is reported in both the ribo- and deoxyribo-series. To illustrate the scope of this approach, a diverse set of 4-aryl and 4-heteroaryl-1H-imidazoles featuring variable sizes and hydrogen-bonding patterns was prepared using a microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These imidazole derivatives were examined as possible substrates for the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from L. leichmannii and the purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli. The optimum transglycosylation conditions, including the use of co-adjuvants to address solubility issues, were defined. Enzymatic conversion of 4-(hetero)arylimidazoles to 2'-deoxyribo- or ribo-nucleosides proceeded in good to high conversion yields, except bulky hydrophobic imidazole derivatives. Nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase of class II was found to convert the widest range of functionalized imidazoles into 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and was even capable of bis-glycosylating certain heterocyclic substrates. Our findings should enable chemoenzymatic access to a large diversity of flexible nucleoside analogues as molecular probes, drug candidates and original building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26986701

  13. Computer Simulations Reveal Substrate Specificity of Glycosidic Bond Cleavage in Native and Mutant Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Hopmann, Kathrin Helen; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-04-12

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine ribonucleosides and 2'-deoxyribonucleosides, yielding the purine base and (2'-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate as products. While this enzyme has been extensively studied, several questions with respect to the catalytic mechanism have remained largely unanswered. The role of the phosphate and key amino acid residues in the catalytic reaction as well as the purine ring protonation state is elucidated using density functional theory calculations and extensive empirical valence bond (EVB) simulations. Free energy surfaces for adenosine, inosine, and guanosine are fitted to ab initio data and yield quantitative agreement with experimental data when the surfaces are used to model the corresponding enzymatic reactions. The cognate substrates 6-aminopurines (inosine and guanosine) interact with PNP through extensive hydrogen bonding, but the substrate specificity is found to be a direct result of the electrostatic preorganization energy along the reaction coordinate. Asn243 has previously been identified as a key residue providing substrate specificity. Mutation of Asn243 to Asp has dramatic effects on the substrate specificity, making 6-amino- and 6-oxopurines equally good as substrates. The principal effect of this particular mutation is the change in the electrostatic preorganization energy between the native enzyme and the Asn243Asp mutant, clearly favoring adenosine over inosine and guanosine. Thus, the EVB simulations show that this particular mutation affects the electrostatic preorganization of the active site, which in turn can explain the substrate specificity. PMID:26985580

  14. Error-free and mutagenic processing of topoisomerase 1-provoked damage at genomic ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Justin L; Burgers, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Genomic ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication are commonly repaired by RNase H2-dependent ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). When RNase H2 is compromised, such as in Aicardi-Goutières patients, genomic ribonucleotides either persist or are processed by DNA topoisomerase 1 (Top1) by either error-free or mutagenic repair. Here, we present a biochemical analysis of these pathways. Top1 cleavage at genomic ribonucleotides can produce ribonucleoside-2′,3′-cyclic phosphate-terminated nicks. Remarkably, this nick is rapidly reverted by Top1, thereby providing another opportunity for repair by RER. However, the 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate-terminated nick is also processed by Top1 incision, generally 2 nucleotides upstream of the nick, which produces a covalent Top1–DNA complex with a 2-nucleotide gap. We show that these covalent complexes can be processed by proteolysis, followed by removal of the phospho-peptide by Tdp1 and the 3′-phosphate by Tpp1 to mediate error-free repair. However, when the 2-nucleotide gap is associated with a dinucleotide repeat sequence, sequence slippage re-alignment followed by Top1-mediated religation can occur which results in 2-nucleotide deletion. The efficiency of deletion formation shows strong sequence-context dependence. PMID:25777529

  15. The RNA Binding Protein IMP2 Preserves Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Preventing let-7 Target Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Degrauwe, Nils; Schlumpf, Tommy B; Janiszewska, Michalina; Martin, Patricia; Cauderay, Alexandra; Provero, Paolo; Riggi, Nicolo; Suvà, Mario-L; Paro, Renato; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2016-05-24

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can drive tumor growth, and their maintenance may rely on post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including that mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The let-7 miRNA family has been shown to induce differentiation by silencing stem cell programs. Let-7-mediated target gene suppression is prevented by LIN28A/B, which reduce let-7 biogenesis in normal embryonic and some cancer stem cells and ensure maintenance of stemness. Here, we find that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) lack LIN28 and express both let-7 and their target genes, suggesting LIN28-independent protection from let-7 silencing. Using photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), we show that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IMP2) binds to let-7 miRNA recognition elements (MREs) and prevents let-7 target gene silencing. Our observations define the RNA-binding repertoire of IMP2 and identify a mechanism whereby it supports GSC and neural stem cell specification. PMID:27184842

  16. The pivotal role of uridine-cytidine kinases in pyrimidine metabolism and activation of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, André B P; Meinsma, Rutger

    2016-09-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase (UCK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine as well as the pharmacological activation of several cytotoxic pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogues. In this study, we investigated the functional role of two isoforms of UCK in neuroblastoma cell lines. Analysis of mRNA coding for UCK1 and UCK2 showed that UCK2 is the most abundantly expressed UCK in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines. Transient and stable overexpression of UCK2 in neuroblastoma cells increased the metabolism of uridine and cytidine as well as the cytotoxicity of 3-deazauridine. Knockdown of endogenous UCK2 as well as overexpression of UCK1 resulted in decreased metabolism of uridine and cytidine and protected the neuroblastoma cells from 3-deazauridine-induced toxicity. Subcellular localization studies showed that UCK1-GFP and UCK2-GFP were localized in the cell nucleus and cytosol, respectively. However, co-expression of UCK1 with UCK2 resulted in a nuclear localization of UCK2 instead of its normal cytosolic localization, thereby impairing its normal function. The physical association of UCK1 and UCK2 was further demonstrated through pull-down analysis using his-tagged UCK. The discovery that UCK2 is highly expressed in neuroblastoma opens the possibility for selectively targeting neuroblastoma cells using UCK2-dependent pyrimidine analogues, while sparing normal tissues. PMID:27239701

  17. A Functional Genomics Approach to Establish the Complement of Carbohydrate Transporters in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bidossi, Alessandro; Mulas, Laura; Decorosi, Francesca; Colomba, Leonarda; Ricci, Susanna; Pozzi, Gianni; Deutscher, Josef; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo

    2012-01-01

    The aerotolerant anaerobe Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal nasopharyngeal microbiota of humans and one of the most important invasive pathogens. A genomic survey allowed establishing the occurrence of twenty-one phosphotransferase systems, seven carbohydrate uptake ABC transporters, one sodium∶solute symporter and a permease, underlining an exceptionally high capacity for uptake of carbohydrate substrates. Despite high genomic variability, combined phenotypic and genomic analysis of twenty sequenced strains did assign the substrate specificity only to two uptake systems. Systematic analysis of mutants for most carbohydrate transporters enabled us to assign a phenotype and substrate specificity to twenty-three transport systems. For five putative transporters for galactose, pentoses, ribonucleosides and sulphated glycans activity was inferred, but not experimentally confirmed and only one transport system remains with an unknown substrate and lack of any functional annotation. Using a metabolic approach, 80% of the thirty-two fermentable carbon substrates were assigned to the corresponding transporter. The complexity and robustness of sugar uptake is underlined by the finding that many transporters have multiple substrates, and many sugars are transported by more than one system. The present work permits to draw a functional map of the complete arsenal of carbohydrate utilisation proteins of pneumococci, allows re-annotation of genomic data and might serve as a reference for related species. These data provide tools for specific investigation of the roles of the different carbon substrates on pneumococcal physiology in the host during carriage and invasive infection. PMID:22428019

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel gene (CTPsH) homologous to murine CTP synthase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.Z.; Dng, J.H.; Roe, C.R.

    1994-09-01

    CTP synthase (CTPs) plays an important role in pyrimidine metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Alteration of this enzyme was associated with multidrug resistant phenotype of cancer cells to several cytotoxic pyrimidine ribonucleosides. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this type of drug resistance, a murine CTP synthase cDNA has been previously isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library. Here report the identification of a new gene which is highly similar to mouse CTPs gene. A cDNA clone, designated CTPsH, contained an open reading frame of 1758 nucleotides that predicts a polypeptide of 586 amino acids with an M(r) of 66,002.6. The predicted amino acid sequence shares 79% identity with mouse liver CTPs gene. Both genes are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, as judged by RNA blot analysis, but the relative levels of the two mRNAs differ. So far this is the only gene which shares many features with murine CTPs gene. The availability of the CTPsH would provide an opportunity to characterize the biological function of this gene. The possible role of this new gene (CTPsH) in drug resistance of malignant cells is under investigation.

  19. Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Proteins in Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Traylen, Chris; Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin; Almohammad, Rajaei; Heesom, Kate; Sweet, Steve M. M.; Matthews, David A.; Sinclair, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    The working model to describe the mechanisms used to replicate the cancer-associated virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is partly derived from comparisons with other members of the Herpes virus family. Many genes within the EBV genome are homologous across the herpes virus family. Published transcriptome data for the EBV genome during its lytic replication cycle show extensive transcription, but the identification of the proteins is limited. We have taken a global proteomics approach to identify viral proteins that are expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. We combined an enrichment method to isolate cells undergoing EBV lytic replication with SILAC-labeling coupled to mass-spectrometry and identified viral and host proteins expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. Amongst the most frequently identified viral proteins are two components of the DNA replication machinery, the single strand DNA binding protein BALF2, DNA polymerase accessory protein BMRF1 and both subunits of the viral ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase enzyme (BORF2 and BaRF1). An additional 42 EBV lytic cycle proteins were also detected. This provides proteomic identification for many EBV lytic replication cycle proteins and also identifies post-translational modifications. PMID:26529022

  20. Repositioning of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor GW8510 as a ribonucleotide reductase M2 inhibitor to treat human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Y-Y; Chou, C-J; Lo, H-L; Yang, P-M

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in males and females in the world. It is of immediate importance to develop novel therapeutics. Human ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1/RRM2) has an essential role in converting ribonucleoside diphosphate to 2′-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate to maintain the homeostasis of nucleotide pools. RRM2 is a prognostic biomarker and predicts poor survival of CRC. In addition, increased RRM2 activity is associated with malignant transformation and tumor cell growth. Bioinformatics analyses show that RRM2 was overexpressed in CRC and might be an attractive target for treating CRC. Therefore, we attempted to search novel RRM2 inhibitors by using a gene expression signature-based approach, connectivity MAP (CMAP). The result predicted GW8510, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, as a potential RRM2 inhibitor. Western blot analysis indicated that GW8510 inhibited RRM2 expression through promoting its proteasomal degradation. In addition, GW8510 induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the sensitivities of CRC cells to GW8510 were associated with the levels of RRM2 and endogenous autophagic flux. Taken together, our study indicates that GW8510 could be a potential anti-CRC agent through targeting RRM2. PMID:27551518

  1. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  2. Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Eun; Lim, Ajin; Park, Sun-Hyun; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Suk-Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11 mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26471000

  3. Regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by plant nitrate reductase in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Peter; Strube, Frank; Rockel, Andra; Wildt, Juergen; Kaiser, Werner M

    2002-01-01

    NO (nitric oxide) production from sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.), detached spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.), desalted spinach leaf extracts or commercial maize (Zea mays L.) leaf nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) was continuously followed as NO emission into the gas phase by chemiluminescence detection, and its response to post-translational NR modulation was examined in vitro and in vivo. NR (purified or in crude extracts) in vitro produced NO at saturating NADH and nitrite concentrations at about 1% of its nitrate reduction capacity. The K(m) for nitrite was relatively high (100 microM) compared to nitrite concentrations in illuminated leaves (10 microM). NO production was competitively inhibited by physiological nitrate concentrations (K(i)=50 microM). Importantly, inactivation of NR in crude extracts by protein phosphorylation with MgATP in the presence of a protein phosphatase inhibitor also inhibited NO production. Nitrate-fertilized plants or leaves emitted NO into purified air. The NO emission was lower in the dark than in the light, but was generally only a small fraction of the total NR activity in the tissue (about 0.01-0.1%). In order to check for a modulation of NO production in vivo, NR was artificially activated by treatments such as anoxia, feeding uncouplers or AICAR (a cell permeant 5'-AMP analogue). Under all these conditions, leaves were accumulating nitrite to concentrations exceeding those in normal illuminated leaves up to 100-fold, and NO production was drastically increased especially in the dark. NO production by leaf extracts or intact leaves was unaffected by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. It is concluded that in non-elicited leaves NO is produced in variable quantities by NR depending on the total NR activity, the NR activation state and the cytosolic nitrite and nitrate concentration. PMID:11741046

  4. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase regulates hippocampal neuronal pH by recruiting Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE5 to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Tushare; Szabó, Elöd Z; Numat, Masayuki; Orlowski, John

    2014-07-25

    Strict regulation of intra- and extracellular pH is an important determinant of nervous system function as many voltage-, ligand-, and H(+)-gated cationic channels are exquisitely sensitive to transient fluctuations in pH elicited by neural activity and pathophysiologic events such as hypoxia-ischemia and seizures. Multiple Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) are implicated in maintenance of neural pH homeostasis. However, aside from the ubiquitous NHE1 isoform, their relative contributions are poorly understood. NHE5 is of particular interest as it is preferentially expressed in brain relative to other tissues. In hippocampal neurons, NHE5 regulates steady-state cytoplasmic pH, but intriguingly the bulk of the transporter is stored in intracellular vesicles. Here, we show that NHE5 is a direct target for phosphorylation by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in response to metabolic stresses. In NHE5-transfected non-neuronal cells, activation of AMPK by the AMP mimetic AICAR or by antimycin A, which blocks aerobic respiration and causes acidification, increased cell surface accumulation and activity of NHE5, and elevated intracellular pH. These effects were effectively blocked by the AMPK antagonist compound C, the NHE inhibitor HOE694, and mutation of a predicted AMPK recognition motif in the NHE5 C terminus. This regulatory pathway was also functional in primary hippocampal neurons, where AMPK activation of NHE5 protected the cells from sustained antimycin A-induced acidification. These data reveal a unique role for AMPK and NHE5 in regulating the pH homeostasis of hippocampal neurons during metabolic stress. PMID:24936055

  5. AMPK reverses the mesenchymal phenotype of cancer cells by targeting the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3a signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lai, I-Lu; Wang, Dasheng; Mo, Xiaokui; Kulp, Samuel K; Shapiro, Charles L; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-09-01

    In cancer cells, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers the ability to invade basement membranes and metastasize to distant sites, establishing it as an appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report a novel function of the master metabolic kinase AMPK in suppressing EMT by modulating the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3 signaling axis. This mechanistic link was supported by the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacologic activation of AMPK on epithelial and mesenchymal markers in established breast and prostate cancer cells. Exposure of cells to OSU-53, a novel allosteric AMPK activator, as well as metformin and AICAR, was sufficient to reverse their mesenchymal phenotype. These effects were abrogated by AMPK silencing. Phenotypic changes were mediated by Foxo3a activation, insofar as silencing or overexpressing Foxo3a mimicked the effects of AMPK silencing or OSU-53 treatment on EMT, respectively. Mechanistically, Foxo3a activation led to the transactivation of the E-cadherin gene and repression of genes encoding EMT-inducing transcription factors. OSU-53 activated Foxo3a through two Akt-dependent pathways, one at the level of nuclear localization by blocking Akt- and IKKβ-mediated phosphorylation, and a second at the level of protein stabilization via cytoplasmic sequestration of MDM2, an E3 ligase responsible for Foxo3a degradation. The suppressive effects of OSU-53 on EMT had therapeutic implications illustrated by its ability to block invasive phenotypes in vitro and metastatic properties in vivo. Overall, our work illuminates a mechanism of EMT regulation in cancer cells mediated by AMPK, along with preclinical evidence supporting a tractable therapeutic strategy to reverse mesenchymal phenotypes associated with invasion and metastasis. PMID:24994714

  6. Folliculin (Flcn) inactivation leads to murine cardiac hypertrophy through mTORC1 deregulation

    PubMed Central

    Hasumi, Yukiko; Baba, Masaya; Hasumi, Hisashi; Huang, Ying; Lang, Martin; Reindorf, Rachel; Oh, Hyoung-bin; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Nagashima, Kunio; Haines, Diana C.; Schneider, Michael D.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Schmidt, Laura S.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Marston Linehan, W.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy, an adaptive process that responds to increased wall stress, is characterized by the enlargement of cardiomyocytes and structural remodeling. It is stimulated by various growth signals, of which the mTORC1 pathway is a well-recognized source. Here, we show that loss of Flcn, a novel AMPK–mTOR interacting molecule, causes severe cardiac hypertrophy with deregulated energy homeostasis leading to dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. We found that mTORC1 activity was upregulated in Flcn-deficient hearts, and that rapamycin treatment significantly reduced heart mass and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction. Phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-alpha (T172) was reduced in Flcn-deficient hearts and nonresponsive to various stimulations including metformin and AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide). ATP levels were elevated and mitochondrial function was increased in Flcn-deficient hearts, suggesting that excess energy resulting from up-regulated mitochondrial metabolism under Flcn deficiency might attenuate AMPK activation. Expression of Ppargc1a, a central molecule for mitochondrial metabolism, was increased in Flcn-deficient hearts and indeed, inactivation of Ppargc1a in Flcn-deficient hearts significantly reduced heart mass and prolonged survival. Ppargc1a inactivation restored phospho-AMPK-alpha levels and suppressed mTORC1 activity in Flcn-deficient hearts, suggesting that up-regulated Ppargc1a confers increased mitochondrial metabolism and excess energy, leading to inactivation of AMPK and activation of mTORC1. Rapamycin treatment did not affect the heart size of Flcn/Ppargc1a doubly inactivated hearts, further supporting the idea that Ppargc1a is the critical element leading to deregulation of the AMPK–mTOR-axis and resulting in cardiac hypertrophy under Flcn deficiency. These data support an important role for Flcn in cardiac homeostasis in the murine model. PMID:24908670

  7. Pharmacological activation of AMPK ameliorates perivascular adipose/endothelial dysfunction in a manner interdependent on AMPK and SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Li, Jia; Xiao, Na; Wang, Meng; Kou, Junping; Qi, Lianwen; Huang, Fang; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Kang

    2014-11-01

    Adipose and endothelial dysfunction is tightly associated with cardiovascular diseases in obesity and insulin resistance. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds vessels directly and influences vessel functions through paracrine effect, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) show similarities in modulation of metabolic pathway, we hypothesized that activation of AMPK and SIRT1 in PVAT might regulate the endothelial function in pathological settings. Thus, in this study, we focused on the regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 activities implicated in adipocytokine expression and endothelial homeostasis under inflammatory conditions by using salicylate, metformin, AICA riboside (AICAR) and resveratrol as AMPK activating agents. We prepared conditioned medium (CM) by stimulating PVAT with palmitic acid (PA) and observed the effects of AMPK activating agents on adipocytokine expression and vessel vasodilation in rats. Moreover, we explored the effects of resveratrol and metformin in fructose-fed rats. We observed that PA stimulation induced inflammation and dysregulation of adipocytokine expression accompanied with reduced AMPK activity and SIRT1 abundance in PVAT. AMPK activating agents inhibited NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and suppressed gene expression of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, and upregulated adiponectin and PPARγ expression in PVAT in an AMPK/SIRT1-interdependent manner. Meanwhile, CM stimulation impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine (ACh). Pretreatment of CM with AMPK-activating agents enhanced eNOS phosphorylation in the aorta and restored the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas this action was abolished by co-treatment with AMPK inhibitor compound C or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Long-term fructose-feeding in rats induced dysregulation of adipocytokine expression in PVAT and the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas these alterations were reversed by oral

  8. Effects of lipoic acid on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Martinez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound with beneficial effects on obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the mechanisms involved. Our results revealed that LA induced a dose- and time-dependent lipolytic action, which was reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, the PKA inhibitor H89, and the AMP-activated protein kinase activator AICAR. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 and the PDE3B antagonist cilostamide enhanced LA-induced lipolysis. LA treatment for 1 h did not modify total protein content of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) but significantly increased the phosphorylation of HSL at Ser563 and at Ser660, which was reversed by H89. LA treatment also induced a marked increase in PKA-mediated perilipin phosphorylation. LA did not significantly modify the protein levels of adipose triglyceride lipase or its activator comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) and inhibitor G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2). Furthermore, LA caused a significant inhibition of adipose-specific phospholipase A2 (AdPLA) protein and mRNA levels in parallel with a decrease in the amount of prostaglandin E2 released and an increase in cAMP content. Together, these data suggest that the lipolytic actions of LA are mainly mediated by phosphorylation of HSL through cAMP-mediated activation of protein kinase A probably through the inhibition of AdPLA and prostaglandin E2. PMID:22941773

  9. Cucurbitacin E ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in vivo and in vitro through activation of AMPK and blocking mTOR-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Yao, You-Li; Li, Zhi-Man; Han, Xin; Lian, Li-Hua; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated the potential protective effect and underlying mechanism of Cucurbitacin E (CuE) in both thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis and activated HSCs. CuE inhibited the proliferation of activated HSC/T-6 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner; triggered the activation of caspase-3, cleaved PARP, altered ratio of bcl-2-to-bax, and affected cytochrome C protein in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CuE arrested activated HSCs at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, CuE reduced levels of p-Erk/MAPK and also inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of α-SMA, TIMP-1 and collagen I in activated HSC-T6 cells. CuE inhibited PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, and reduced the levels of p-mTOR and p-P70S6K and increased the expression of p-AMPK, which is similar with AICAR and metformin. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with thioacetamide (TAA) for five continuous weeks (100 or 200mg/kg, three times per week) along with daily administration of CuE (5 or 10mg/kg/d) and curcumin (Cur, 20mg/kg). CuE treatments significantly reduced serum ALT/AST levels, α-SMA, TIMP-1, and collagen I protein expressions. HE, Masson trichrome, Sirius red and immunohistochemical staining also suggested that CuE could ameliorate hepatic fibrosis. Our findings suggest that CuE induces apoptosis of activated HSC and ameliorates TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis through activation of AMPK and blocking mTOR-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:27363783

  10. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Pan, Pin-Ho; Chen, Wen-Ying; Huang, Hsuan-Yi; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  11. Malondialdehyde inhibits an AMPK-mediated nuclear translocation and repression activity of ALDH2 in transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Chun; Ha, Moon-Kyung; Song, Kye-Yong; Youn, Hong-Duk; Park, Sang Chul

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALDH2 is an MDA-modified protein in old rat kidney tissues. {yields} AMPK associates with ALDH2 and triggers the nuclear localization of ALDH2. {yields} ALDH2 serves as a general transcriptional repressor by associating with HDACs. {yields} MDA inhibits the AMPK-mediated translocation of ALDH2 and its repression activity. -- Abstract: Aging process results from deleterious damages by reactive oxygen species, in particular, various metabolic aldehydes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying various aldehydes under oxidative conditions. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in controlling metabolic process. However, little was known about the relationship of ALDH2 with AMPK under oxidative conditions. Here, we, by using MDA-specific monoclonal antibody, screened the tissues of young and old rats for MDA-modified proteins and identified an ALDH2 as a prominent MDA-modified protein band in the old rat kidney tissue. ALDH2 associates with AMPK and is phosphorylated by AMPK. In addition, AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, induces the nuclear translocation of ALDH2. ALDH2 in nucleus is involved in general transcription repression by association with histone deacetylases. Furthermore, MDA modification inhibited the translocation of ALDH2 and the association with AMPK, and ultimately led to de-repression of transcription in the reporter system analysis. In this study, we have demonstrated that ALDH2 acts as a transcriptional repressor in response to AMPK activation, and MDA modifies ALDH2 and inhibits repressive activity of ALDH2 in general transcription. We thus suggest that increasing amount of MDA during aging process may interrupt the nuclear function of ALDH2, modulated by AMPK.

  12. An ent-kaurane diterpenoid from Croton tonkinensis induces apoptosis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-HEP1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sul, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Song, In Sang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality worldwide. Traditional chemotherapy for HCC is not widely accepted by clinical practitioners because of its toxic side effects. Thus, there is a need to identify chemotherapeutic drugs against HCC. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a biologic sensor for cellular energy status that acts a tumor suppressor and a potential cancer therapeutic target. The traditional Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis shows cytotoxicity in various cancer cells; however, its anticancer mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we determined whether the ent-kaurane diterpenoid ent-18-acetoxy-7β-hydroxy kaur-15-oxo-16-ene (CrT1) isolated from this plant plays a role as a chemotherapeutic drug targeting AMPK. CrT1 blocked proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP1 cells. CrT1 induced sub-G(1) arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. CrT1 activated caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and its effect was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk suppressing caspase-3 cleavage. CrT1 induced increases in p53 and Bax levels but decreased Bcl(2) levels. In addition, CrT1 resulted in increased translocation of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. We showed that CrT1-activated AMPK activation was followed by modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K pathway and was inactivated by treating cells with compound C. Treatment with CrT1 and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) synergistically activated AMPK. CrT1-induced AMPK activation regulated cell viability and apoptosis. These results suggest that CrT1 is a novel AMPK activator and that AMPK activation in SK-HEP1 cells is responsible for CrT1-induced anticancer activity including apoptosis. PMID:23302650

  13. AMPK and PKA interaction in the regulation of survival of liver cancer cells subjected to glucose starvation

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Anabela C.; Tonucci, Facundo M.; Hidalgo, Florencia; Almada, Evangelina; Larocca, Maria C.; Favre, Cristián

    2016-01-01

    The signaling pathways that govern survival response in hepatic cancer cells subjected to nutritional restriction have not been clarified yet. In this study we showed that liver cancer cells undergoing glucose deprivation both arrested in G0/G1 and died mainly by apoptosis. Treatment with the AMPK activator AICAR phenocopied the effect of glucose deprivation on cell survival, whereas AMPK silencing in HepG2/C3A, HuH-7 or SK-Hep-1 cells blocked the cell cycle arrest and the increase in apoptotic death induced by glucose starvation. Both AMPK and PKA were promptly activated after glucose withdrawal. PKA signaling had a dual role during glucose starvation: whereas it elicited an early decreased in cell viability, it later improved this parameter. We detected AMPK phosphorylation (AMPKα(Ser173)) by PKA, which was increased in glucose starved cells and was associated with diminution of AMPK activation. To better explore this inhibitory effect, we constructed a hepatocarcinoma derived cell line which stably expressed an AMPK mutant lacking that PKA phosphorylation site: AMPKα1(S173C). Expression of this mutant significantly decreased viability in cells undergoing glucose starvation. Furthermore, after 36 h of glucose deprivation, the index of AMPKα1(S173C) apoptotic cells doubled the apoptotic index observed in control cells. Two main remarks arise: 1. AMPK is the central signaling kinase in the scenario of cell cycle arrest and death induced by glucose starvation in hepatic cancer cells; 2. PKA phosphorylation of Ser173 comes out as a strong control point that limits the antitumor effects of AMPK in this situation. PMID:26894973

  14. G9a Inhibition Induces Autophagic Cell Death via AMPK/mTOR Pathway in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Gao, Yang; Guan, Zhenfeng; Ma, Zhenkun; Shi, Qi; Du, Chong; Jia, Jing; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke; He, Dalin; Guo, Peng

    2015-01-01

    G9a has been reported to highly express in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and G9a inhibition significantly attenuates cell proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The present study aimed at examining the potential role of autophagy in the anti-proliferation effect of G9a inhibition on TCC T24 and UMUC-3 cell lines in vitro. We found that both pharmaceutical and genetical G9a inhibition significantly attenuated cell proliferation by MTT assay, Brdu incorporation assay and colony formation assay. G9a inhibition induced autophagy like morphology as determined by transmission electron microscope and LC-3 fluorescence assay. In addition, autophagy flux was induced by G9a inhibition in TCC cells, as determined by p62 turnover assay and LC-3 turnover assay. The autophagy induced positively contributed to the inhibition of cell proliferation because the growth attenuation capacity of G9a inhibition was reversed by autophagy inhibitors 3-MA. Mechanically, AMPK/mTOR pathway was identified to be involved in the regulation of G9a inhibition induced autophagy. Intensively activating mTOR by Rheb overexpression attenuated autophagy and autophagic cell death induced by G9a inhibition. In addition, pre-inhibiting AMPK by Compound C attenuated autophagy together with the anti-proliferation effect induced by G9a inhibition while pre-activating AMPK by AICAR enhanced them. In conclusion, our results indicate that G9a inhibition induces autophagy through activating AMPK/mTOR pathway and the autophagy induced positively contributes to the inhibition of cell proliferation in TCC cells. These findings shed some light on the functional role of G9a in cell metabolism and suggest that G9a might be a therapeutic target in bladder TCC in the future. PMID:26397365

  15. Radiation-Resistant Micrococcus luteus SC1204 and Its Proteomics Change Upon Gamma Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wuyuan; Yang, Yang; Gao, Peng; Chen, Hao; Wen, Wenting; Sun, Qun

    2016-06-01

    To explore the radiation-resistance mechanisms in bacteria, a radiation-resistant strain SC1204 was isolated from the surrounding area of a (60)Co-γ radiation facility. SC1204 could survive up to 8 kGy dose of gamma irradiation and was identified as Micrococcus luteus by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Its proteomic changes under 2-kGy irradiation were examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analysis. The results showed that at least 24 proteins displayed significant changes (p < 0.05) at expression level under the radiation stress, among which 22 were successfully identified and classified into the major functional categories of metabolism, energy production and conservation, translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis. Among these proteins, leucyl aminopeptidase involved in synthesis of glutathione was the most abundant induced protein during postirradiation recovery, indicating that anti-oxidation protection was the most important line of defense in SC1204 against radiation. The next abundant protein was phosphoribosyl aminoimidazole carboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (AICAR Tfase/IMPCH), the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of purine that is anti-radiation compound. Other proteins changing significantly (p < 0.05) after radiation exposure included urocanate hydratase, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit alpha, phosphoglycerate kinase, cell division protein FtsZ, elongation factor Ts and Tu, translation elongation factor Tu and G, 30S ribosomal protein S1, histidyl-tRNA synthetase, and arginyl-tRNA synthetase, which were considered to be the key proteins in urocanate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, cell division process, and synthesis process of proteins. Therefore, these proteins may also play important roles in radiation resistance in M. luteus. PMID:26920868

  16. Turn up the power –pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Komen, J C; Thorburn, D R

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in mitochondria is responsible for the generation of the majority of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Patients with genetic OXPHOS disorders form the largest group of inborn errors of metabolism. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of efficient therapies for these disorders other than management of symptoms. Developing therapies has been complicated because, although the total group of OXPHOS patients is relatively large, there is enormous clinical and genetic heterogeneity within this patient population. Thus there has been a lot of interest in generating relevant mouse models for the different kinds of OXPHOS disorders. The most common treatment strategies tested in these mouse models have aimed to up-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, in order to increase the residual OXPHOS activity present in affected animals and thereby to ameliorate the energy deficiency. Drugs such as bezafibrate, resveratrol and AICAR target the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis PGC-1α either directly or indirectly to manipulate mitochondrial metabolism. This review will summarize the outcome of preclinical treatment trials with these drugs in mouse models of OXPHOS disorders and discuss similar treatments in a number of mouse models of common diseases in which pathology is closely linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In the majority of these studies the pharmacological activation of the PGC-1α axis shows true potential as therapy; however, other effects besides mitochondrial biogenesis may be contributing to this as well. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24102298

  17. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates apoptosis in response to bioenergetic stress through activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain-3-only protein BMF.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Seán M; Farrelly, Angela M; Bonner, Caroline; Ward, Manus W; Nyhan, Kristine C; Concannon, Caoimhín G; Wollheim, Claes B; Byrne, Maria M; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2010-11-12

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) gene result in the pathogenesis of maturity-onset diabetes-of-the-young type 3, (HNF1A-MODY). This disorder is characterized by a primary defect in metabolism-secretion coupling and decreased beta cell mass, attributed to excessive beta cell apoptosis. Here, we investigated the link between energy stress and apoptosis activation following HNF1A inactivation. This study employed single cell fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and gene silencing to study the effects of overexpression of dominant-negative (DN)-HNF1A expression on cellular bioenergetics and apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Induction of DN-HNF1A expression led to reduced ATP levels and diminished the bioenergetic response to glucose. This was coupled with activation of the bioenergetic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which preceded the onset of apoptosis. Pharmacological activation of AMPK using aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) was sufficient to induce apoptosis in naive cells. Conversely, inhibition of AMPK with compound C or AMPKα gene silencing protected against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, AMPK mediated the induction of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain-3-only protein Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor). Bmf expression was also elevated in islets of DN-HNF1A transgenic mice. Furthermore, knockdown of Bmf expression in INS-1 cells using siRNA was sufficient to protect against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Our study suggests that overexpression of DN-HNF1A induces bioenergetic stress and activation of AMPK. This in turn mediates the transcriptional activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-homology protein BMF, coupling prolonged energy stress to apoptosis activation. PMID:20841353

  19. Pretreatment of rats with increased bioavailable berberine attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via down regulation of adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijia; Wei, Shengnan; Yu, Yang; Xue, Huan; Yao, Fan; Zhang, Ming; Xiao, Jun; Hatch, Grant M; Chen, Li

    2016-05-15

    Berberine (BBR) exhibits multiple beneficial biological effects. However, poor bioavailability of BBR has limited its clinical application. We previously demonstrated that solid dispersion of BBR with sodium caprate (HGSD) remarkably improves its bioavailability. We examined whether this increased bioavailability of BBR could protect the brain from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced injury. Rats treated with HGSD, SC and saline for 7 days then subjected to cerebral ischemia reperfusion by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed 12h reperfusion. Neurological deficit scores, infarct size, SOD, MDA and NO levels were examined. P-AMPK, Bax, cleaved-Caspase-3 in brain was determined. To further probe for the mechanism of beneficial effect of HGSD, PC12 cells were incubated with serum from control or HGSD pretreated animals, incubated with 300μM H2O2 to induce apoptosis. Caspase-3 activity and cell apoptosis was evaluated. HGSD pretreatment significantly attenuated neurological deficit scores, reduced infarct size, increased SOD and decreased MDA and NO after cerebral IR injury compared to controls. Meanwhile, HGSD pretreatment significantly reduced expression of p-AMPK, Bax, cleaved-Caspase-3 after cerebral IR injury. Sodium caprate (100mg/kg/d) pretreatment alone did not exhibit any of these beneficial effects. PC12 cell apoptosis was attenuated when cells were cultured with HGSD serum compared to control. The presence of AMPK activator (AICAR) attenuated whereas AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) augmented the protective effect of HGSD serum on PC12 cell apoptosis.The results indicate that HGSD-pretreatment of rats protects the brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury and the mechanism is due to its anti-apoptotic effect mediated by decreased activation of AMPK. PMID:26957053

  20. AMPK promotes osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis through AMPK-Gfi1-OPN axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Gang; Qu, Xin-Hua; Yang, Ying; Han, Xiu-Guo; Wang, Lei; Qiao, Han; Fan, Qi-Ming; Tang, Ting-Ting; Dai, Ke-Rong

    2016-09-01

    Several metabolic, genetic and oncogenic bone diseases share the common pathological phenotype of defective bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) differentiation. Many reports in bone science in the past several years have suggested that the skeleton also has an endocrine role. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy metabolism sensor and how it regulates BMSC differentiation is largely unknown. In the current study, we used AMPK agonists to activate AMPK in MC3T3-E1 cells to investigate the functional roles of AMPK in osteogenesis. However, metformin and AICAR failed to activate AMPK consistently. Therefore, we established MC3T3-E1 and 3T3-L1 cell models of AMPK α subunit overexpression through lentivirus vector, in which AMPK was overactivated. AMPK hyperactivation stimulated MC3T3-E1 cell osteogenesis and inhibited 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis. Osteopontin (OPN) mediated AMPK regulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Furthermore, we provided evidence that the transcriptional repressor growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1) was downregulated and disassociated from the OPN promoter in response to AMPK activation, resulting in the upregulation of OPN. Overexpression of wild-type and dominant-negative Gfi1 modulated MC3T3-E1 osteogenesis and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Further evidence suggested that AMPK enhanced ectopic bone formation of MC3T3-E1 cells through the AMPK-Gfi1-OPN axis. In conclusion, AMPK was sufficient to stimulate osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 cells and inhibit adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells through the AMPK-Gfi1-OPN axis. These findings helped elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying AMPK regulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis. PMID:27283242

  1. Proteinivorax tanatarense gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, haloalkaliphilic, proteolytic bacterium isolated from a decaying algal bloom, and proposal of Proteinivoraceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Kevbrin, Vadim; Boltyanskaya, Yulia; Zhilina, Tatjana; Kolganova, Tatjana; Lavrentjeva, Elena; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2013-09-01

    Two strains of a novel anaerobic, protein- and nucleoside-utilizing bacterium, Z-910(T) and Z-810, were isolated. The strains were spore-forming, mainly nonmotile rods, exhibiting positive Gram reaction with Gram-positive cell wall structure. The strains were mesophilic and haloalkaliphilic. Cultures used proteins and proteinaceous substrates as carbon, nitrogen, and energy sources. Both strains used also ribonucleosides, cellobiose, pyruvate, and glycerol. Ribose and nucleobases did not support growth. The fermentation products from all utilized substrates were identical but varied in content and included straight and branched acids, as well as hydrogen and ammonia. When grown on tryptone, strain Z-910(T) was able to reduce fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Neither nitrate nor sulfate was reduced. The DNA G + C content of strain Z-910(T) was 32.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed that strains Z-910(T) and Z-810 represented a new branch within the order Clostridiales, with 90.2 % similarity to the nearest genus with a validly published name Anaerobranca gottschalkii DSM 13577(T). According to their physiological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties, strains Z-910(T) and Z-810 represented a new genus and novel species, for which the name Proteinivorax tanatarense gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genera Proteinivorax gen. nov. and Anaerobranca formed a separate cluster within the order Clostridiales. The family Proteinivoraceae fam. nov. comprising the genera Proteinivorax gen. nov. and Anaerobranca was therefore proposed within the order Clostridiales of the phylum Firmicutes with Proteinivorax as a type genus of the new family. PMID:23807772

  2. Codon-biased translation can be regulated by wobble-base tRNA modification systems during cellular stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Lauren; Dedon, Peter C; Begley, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    tRNA (tRNA) is a key molecule used for protein synthesis, with multiple points of stress-induced regulation that can include transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and has the potential to influence specific anticodon-codon interactions and regulate translation. Notably, altered tRNA modification has been linked to mitochondrial diseases and cancer progression. In this review, specific to Eukaryotic systems, we discuss how recent systems-level analyses using a bioanalytical platform have revealed that there is extensive reprogramming of tRNA modifications in response to cellular stress and during cell cycle progression. Combined with genome-wide codon bias analytics and gene expression studies, a model emerges in which stress-induced reprogramming of tRNA drives the translational regulation of critical response proteins whose transcripts display a distinct codon bias. Termed Modification Tunable Transcripts (MoTTs),1 we define them as (1) transcripts that use specific degenerate codons and codon biases to encode critical stress response proteins, and (2) transcripts whose translation is influenced by changes in wobble base tRNA modification. In this review we note that the MoTTs translational model is also applicable to the process of stop-codon recoding for selenocysteine incorporation, as stop-codon recoding involves a selective codon bias and modified tRNA to decode selenocysteine during the translation of a key subset of oxidative stress response proteins. Further, we discuss how in addition to RNA modification analytics, the comprehensive characterization of translational regulation of specific transcripts requires a variety of tools, including high coverage codon-reporters, ribosome profiling and linked genomic and proteomic approaches. Together these tools will yield important new insights into the role of translational

  3. A broadly applicable continuous spectrophotometric assay for measuring aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, A J; Thomann, H U; Ibba, M; Söll, D

    1995-01-01

    We describe a convenient, simple and novel continuous spectrophotometric method for the determination of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity. The assay relies upon the measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate generated in the first step of the aminoacylation of a tRNA. Pyrophosphate release is coupled to inorganic pyrophosphatase, to generate phosphate, which in turn is used as the substrate of purine nucleoside phosphorylase to catalyze the N-glycosidic cleavage of 2-amino 6-mercapto 7-methylpurine ribonucleoside. Of the reaction products, ribose 1-phosphate and 2-amino 6-mercapto 7-methylpurine, the latter has a high absorbance at 360 nm relative to the nucleoside and hence provides a spectrophotometric signal that can be continuously followed. The non-destructive nature of the spectrophotometric assay allowed the re-use of the tRNAs in question in successive experiments. The usefulness of this method was demonstrated for glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Initial velocities measured using this assay correlate closely with those assayed by quantitation of [3H]Gln-tRNA or [14C]Trp-tRNA formation respectively. In both cases amino acid transfer from the aminoacyl adenylate to the tRNA represents the rate determining step. In addition, aminoacyl adenylate formation by aspartyl-tRNA synthetase was followed and provided a more sensitive means of active site titration than existing techniques. Finally, this novel method was used to provide direct evidence for the cooperativity of tRNA and ATP binding to GlnRS. PMID:7659511

  4. Thermodynamics and kinetics of inhibitor binding to human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Shahid; Ashok, Yashwanth; Nanekar, Rahul; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-12-15

    Many nucleoside transport inhibitors are in clinical use as anti-cancer, vasodilator and cardioprotective drugs. However, little is known about the binding energetics of these inhibitors to nucleoside transporters (NTs) due to their low endogenous expression levels and difficulties in the biophysical characterization of purified protein with ligands. Here, we present kinetics and thermodynamic analyses of inhibitor binding to the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), also known as SLC29A1. Using a radioligand binding assay, we obtained equilibrium binding and kinetic rate constants of well-known NT inhibitors--[(3)H]nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ([(3)H]NBMPR), dilazep, and dipyridamole--and the native permeant, adenosine, to hENT1. We observed that the equilibrium binding affinities for all inhibitors decreased whereas, the kinetic rate constants increased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, we found that binding is enthalpy driven and thus, an exothermic reaction, implying that the transporter does not discriminate between its inhibitors and substrates thermodynamically. This predominantly enthalpy-driven binding by four chemically distinct ligands suggests that the transporter may not tolerate diversity in the type of interactions that lead to high affinity binding. Consistent with this, the measured activation energy of [(3)H]NBMPR association was relatively large (20 kcal mol(-1)) suggesting a conformational change upon inhibitor binding. For all three inhibitors the enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) contributions to the reaction energetics were determined by van't Hoff analysis to be roughly similar (25-75% ΔG°). Gains in enthalpy with increasing polar surface area of inhibitors suggest that the binding is favored by electrostatic or polar interactions between the ligands and the transporter. PMID:26428002

  5. TRAP-5' stem loop interaction increases the efficiency of transcription termination in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader region.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Adam P; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Babitzke, Paul

    2007-11-01

    TRAP regulates expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon by a transcription attenuation mechanism in which tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to 11 (G/U)AG repeats in the nascent trp leader transcript. Bound TRAP blocks formation of an antiterminator structure and allows formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5' stem-loop (5'SL) structure located upstream of the triplet repeat region also interacts with TRAP. TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction participates in the transcription attenuation mechanism by preferentially increasing the affinity of TRAP for the nascent trp leader transcript during the early stages of transcription, when only a few triplet repeats have been synthesized. Footprinting assays indicated that the 5'SL contacts TRAP through two discrete groups of single-stranded nucleotides that lie in the hairpin loop and in an internal loop. Filter binding and in vivo expression assays of 5'SL mutants established that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop, and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop are critical for proper 5'SL function. These nucleotides are conserved among certain other 5'SL-containing organisms. Single-round transcription results indicated that the 5'SL increases the termination efficiency when transcription is fast; however, the influence of the 5'SL was lost when transcription was slowed by reducing the ribonucleoside triphosphate concentration. Since there is a limited amount of time for TRAP to bind to the nascent transcript and promote termination, our data suggest that the contribution of TRAP-5'SL interaction increases the rate of TRAP binding, which, in turn, increases the efficiency of transcription termination. PMID:17881743

  6. N(6)-methyladenosine-dependent RNA structural switches regulate RNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Dai, Qing; Zheng, Guanqun; He, Chuan; Parisien, Marc; Pan, Tao

    2015-02-26

    RNA-binding proteins control many aspects of cellular biology through binding single-stranded RNA binding motifs (RBMs). However, RBMs can be buried within their local RNA structures, thus inhibiting RNA-protein interactions. N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), the most abundant and dynamic internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA, can be selectively recognized by the YTHDF2 protein to affect the stability of cytoplasmic mRNAs, but how m(6)A achieves its wide-ranging physiological role needs further exploration. Here we show in human cells that m(6)A controls the RNA-structure-dependent accessibility of RBMs to affect RNA-protein interactions for biological regulation; we term this mechanism 'the m(6)A-switch'. We found that m(6)A alters the local structure in mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) to facilitate binding of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (HNRNPC), an abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein responsible for pre-mRNA processing. Combining photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and anti-m(6)A immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) approaches enabled us to identify 39,060 m(6)A-switches among HNRNPC-binding sites; and global m(6)A reduction decreased HNRNPC binding at 2,798 high-confidence m(6)A-switches. We determined that these m(6)A-switch-regulated HNRNPC-binding activities affect the abundance as well as alternative splicing of target mRNAs, demonstrating the regulatory role of m(6)A-switches on gene expression and RNA maturation. Our results illustrate how RNA-binding proteins gain regulated access to their RBMs through m(6)A-dependent RNA structural remodelling, and provide a new direction for investigating RNA-modification-coded cellular biology. PMID:25719671

  7. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S.; Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  8. DIS3 shapes the RNA polymerase II transcriptome in humans by degrading a variety of unwanted transcripts.

    PubMed

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Borowski, Lukasz S; Kulinski, Tomasz M; Adamska, Dorota; Kosinska, Joanna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Human DIS3, the nuclear catalytic subunit of the exosome complex, contains exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic active domains. To identify DIS3 targets genome-wide, we combined comprehensive transcriptomic analyses of engineered HEK293 cells that expressed mutant DIS3, with Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) experiments. In cells expressing DIS3 with both catalytic sites mutated, RNAs originating from unannotated genomic regions increased ∼2.5-fold, covering ∼70% of the genome and allowing for thousands of novel transcripts to be discovered. Previously described pervasive transcription products, such as Promoter Upstream Transcripts (PROMPTs), accumulated robustly upon DIS3 dysfunction, representing a significant fraction of PAR-CLIP reads. We have also detected relatively long putative premature RNA polymerase II termination products of protein-coding genes whose levels in DIS3 mutant cells can exceed the mature mRNAs, indicating that production of such truncated RNA is a common phenomenon. In addition, we found DIS3 to be involved in controlling the formation of paraspeckles, nuclear bodies that are organized around NEAT1 lncRNA, whose short form was overexpressed in cells with mutated DIS3. Moreover, the DIS3 mutations resulted in misregulation of expression of ∼50% of transcribed protein-coding genes, probably as a secondary effect of accumulation of various noncoding RNA species. Finally, cells expressing mutant DIS3 accumulated snoRNA precursors, which correlated with a strong PAR-CLIP signal, indicating that DIS3 is the main snoRNA-processing enzyme. EXOSC10 (RRP6) instead controls the levels of the mature snoRNAs. Overall, we show that DIS3 has a major nucleoplasmic function in shaping the human RNA polymerase II transcriptome. PMID:26294688

  9. Plant, Animal, and Fungal Micronutrient Queuosine Is Salvaged by Members of the DUF2419 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNAAsp with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  10. Kinetic mechanism of nick sealing by T4 RNA ligase 2 and effects of 3′-OH base mispairs and damaged base lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chauleau, Mathieu; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    T4 RNA ligase 2 (Rnl2) repairs 3′-OH/5′-PO4 nicks in duplex nucleic acids in which the broken 3′-OH strand is RNA. Ligation entails three chemical steps: reaction of Rnl2 with ATP to form a covalent Rnl2–(lysyl-Nζ)–AMP intermediate (step 1); transfer of AMP to the 5′-PO4 of the nick to form an activated AppN– intermediate (step 2); and attack by the nick 3′-OH on the AppN– strand to form a 3′–5′ phosphodiester (step 3). Here we used rapid mix-quench methods to analyze the kinetic mechanism and fidelity of single-turnover nick sealing by Rnl2–AMP. For substrates with correctly base-paired 3′-OH nick termini, kstep2 was fast (9.5 to 17.9 sec−1) and similar in magnitude to kstep3 (7.9 to 32 sec−1). Rnl2 fidelity was enforced mainly at the level of step 2 catalysis, whereby 3′-OH base mispairs and oxoguanine, oxoadenine, or abasic lesions opposite the nick 3′-OH elicited severe decrements in the rate of 5′-adenylylation and relatively modest slowing of the rate of phosphodiester synthesis. The exception was the noncanonical A:oxoG base pair, which Rnl2 accepted as a correctly paired end for rapid sealing. These results underscore (1) how Rnl2 requires proper positioning of the 3′-terminal ribonucleoside at the nick for optimal 5′-adenylylation and (2) the potential for nick-sealing ligases to embed mutations during the repair of oxidative damage. PMID:24158792

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of the Conjugal Transfer Genes of Rickettsia bellii RML 369-C

    PubMed Central

    Heu, Chan C.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Nelson, Curtis M.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia bellii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is one of the few rickettsiae that encode a complete set of conjugative transfer (tra) genes involved in bacterial conjugation and has been shown to exhibit pili-like structures. The reductive genomes of rickettsiae beg the question whether the tra genes are nonfunctional or functioning to enhance the genetic plasticity and biology of rickettsiae. We characterized the transcriptional dynamics of R. bellii tra genes in comparison to genes transcribed stably and above the background level to understand when and at what levels the tra genes are active or whether the tra genes are degenerative. We determined that the best reference genes, out of 10 tested, were methionyl tRNA ligase (metG) or a combination of metG and ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 2 subunit beta (nrdF), using statistical algorithms from two different programs: Normfinder and BestKeeper. To validate the use of metG with other rickettsial genes exhibiting variable transcriptional patterns we examined its use with sca2 and rickA, genes involved in actin based motility. Both were shown to be up-regulated at different times of replication in Vero cells, showing variable and stable transcription levels of rickA and sca2, respectively. traATi was up-regulated at 72 hours post inoculation in the tick cell line ISE6, but showed no apparent changes in the monkey cell line Vero and mouse cell line L929. The transcription of tra genes was positively correlated with one another and up-regulated from 12 to 72 hours post inoculation (HPI) when compared to RBE_0422 (an inactivated transposase-derivative found within the tra cluster). Thus, the up-regulation of the tra genes indicated that the integrity and activity of each gene were intact and may facilitate the search for the optimal conditions necessary to demonstrate conjugation in rickettsiae. PMID:26352829

  12. Synthesis of 5-chloroformycin A, 5-chloro-2'-deoxyformycin A and certain related 5,7-disubstituted 3-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo[4,3-d] pyrimidines from formycin A.

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, K G; Sanghvi, Y S; Robins, R K; Revankar, G R; Ugarkar, B G

    1986-01-01

    A facile synthesis of 7-amino-5-chloro-3-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidine (5-chloroformycin A, 6), 7-amino-5-chloro-3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl) pyrazolo [4,3-d]-pyrimidine (5-chloro-2'-deoxyformycin A, 13) and certain related 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine ribonucleosides is described starting with formycin A. Thiation of tri-O-acetyloxoformycin B (4b) with phosphorus pentasulfide, followed 3-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-7-thioxopyrazolo[4,3-d] pyrimidin-5(1H,4H,6H)-one (3b) in excellent yield. Chlorination of 4b with either phosphorus oxychloride or phenyl phosphonicdichloride furnished the key intermediate 5,7-dichloro-3-(2,3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine (5a), which on deacetylation afforded 5,7-dichloro-3-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidine (5b). Ammonolysis of 5a with liquid ammonia gave 6, whereas with MeOH/NH3, a mixture of 6 and 7-methoxy-5-chloro-3-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine (7) was obtained. Reaction of 6 with lithium azide and subsequent hydrogenation afforded 5-aminoformycin A (10). Treatment of 5a with thiourea gave 5-chloro-3-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl) pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine-7(1H,6H)-thione (8a), which on further reaction with sodium hydrosulfide furnished 3-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidine-5,7(1H,4H,6H)-dithione (11). The four-step deoxygenation procedure using phenoxythiocarbonylation of the 2'-hydroxy group of the 3', 5'-protected 6 gave 5-chloro-2'-deoxyformycin A (13). PMID:3951995

  13. Phylogeny and differentiation of reptilian and amphibian ranaviruses detected in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Anke C; López-Bueno, Alberto; Blahak, Silvia; Caeiro, Maria F; Rosa, Gonçalo M; Alves de Matos, António Pedro; Martel, An; Alejo, Alí; Marschang, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Ranaviruses in amphibians and fish are considered emerging pathogens and several isolates have been extensively characterized in different studies. Ranaviruses have also been detected in reptiles with increasing frequency, but the role of reptilian hosts is still unclear and only limited sequence data has been provided. In this study, we characterized a number of ranaviruses detected in wild and captive animals in Europe based on sequence data from six genomic regions (major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit-like proteins (RNR-α and -β), viral homolog of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, eIF-2α (vIF-2α) genes and microsatellite region). A total of ten different isolates from reptiles (tortoises, lizards, and a snake) and four ranaviruses from amphibians (anurans, urodeles) were included in the study. Furthermore, the complete genome sequences of three reptilian isolates were determined and a new PCR for rapid classification of the different variants of the genomic arrangement was developed. All ranaviruses showed slight variations on the partial nucleotide sequences from the different genomic regions (92.6-100%). Some very similar isolates could be distinguished by the size of the band from the microsatellite region. Three of the lizard isolates had a truncated vIF-2α gene; the other ranaviruses had full-length genes. In the phylogenetic analyses of concatenated sequences from different genes (3223 nt/10287 aa), the reptilian ranaviruses were often more closely related to amphibian ranaviruses than to each other, and most clustered together with previously detected ranaviruses from the same geographic region of origin. Comparative analyses show that among the closely related amphibian-like ranaviruses (ALRVs) described to date, three recently split and independently evolving distinct genetic groups can be distinguished. These findings underline the wide host range of

  14. Predicting gemcitabine transport and toxicity in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with the positron emission tomography tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E

    2010-02-15

    The abundance of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) has recently been shown to be a predictive marker of benefit from gemcitabine therapy in patients with pancreatic cancer. Since hENT1 is also important for the uptake of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) in various cultured human cell lines, this study was undertaken to determine if FLT uptake predicts gemcitabine uptake and/or toxicity in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Capan-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PL45, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1). Capan-2 cells displayed the lowest levels of (1) extracellular nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR) binding, which represents cell-surface hENT1, (2) FLT and gemcitabine uptake during short (1-45s) and prolonged (1h) periods, and (3) gemcitabine sensitivity. Exposure to NBMPR (inhibits only hENT1) or dilazep (inhibits hENT1 and hENT2) reduced FLT and gemcitabine uptake and gemcitabine sensitivity, with dilazep having greater effects than NBMPR. Gemcitabine permeation was almost completely mediated, primarily by hENT1 and to a lesser extent by hENT2, whereas FLT permeation included a substantial component of passive diffusion. In five of six cell lines, correlations were observed between (1) FLT and gemcitabine initial rates of uptake, (2) gemcitabine uptake and gemcitabine toxicity, (3) FLT uptake and gemcitabine toxicity, and (4) ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 expression and gemcitabine toxicity. FLT and gemcitabine uptake were comparable for predicting gemcitabine toxicity in the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines suggesting that FLT PET may provide clinically useful information about tumor gemcitabine transport capacity and sensitivity. PMID:19788890

  15. Imitating prebiotic homochirality on Earth.

    PubMed

    Breslow, Ronald; Levine, Mindy; Cheng, Zhan-Ling

    2010-02-01

    We show how the amino acids needed on prebiotic earth in their homochiral L form can be produced by a reaction of L-alpha-methyl amino acids-that have been identified in the Murchison meteorite-with alpha-keto acids under credible prebiotic conditions. When they are simply heated together they perform a process of decarboxylative transamination but with almost no chiral transfer, and that in the wrong direction, producing D-amino acids from the L-alpha-methyl amino acids. With copper ion a square planar complex with two of the reaction intermediates is formed, and now there is the desired L to L transformation, producing small enantioexcesses of the normal L-amino acids. We also show how these can be amplified, not by making more of the L form but by increasing its concentration in water solution. The process can start with a miniscule excess and in one step generate water solutions with L/D ratios in the over 90% region. Kinetic processes can exceed the results from equilibria. We have also examined such amplifications with ribonucleosides, and have shown that initial modest excesses of the D-nucleosides can be amplified to afford water solutions with D to L ratios in the high 90's. We have shown that the homochiral compound has two effects on the solubility of the racemate. On one hand it decreases the solubility of the racemate by its role in the solubility product, as a theoretical equation predicts. On the other hand, it increases the solubility of the racemate by changing the nature of the solvent, acting as a cosolvent with the water. This explains why the amplification, while large, is not as large as the simple theoretical equation predicts. Thus when credible examples are produced where small enantioexcesses of D-ribose are created under credible prebiotic conditions, the prerequisites for the RNA world will have been exemplified. PMID:19911303

  16. A simplified HPLC method for simultaneously quantifying ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides in cell extracts or frozen tissues.

    PubMed

    Cross, D R; Miller, B J; James, S J

    1993-07-01

    Agents and conditions that induce alterations in deoxyribonucleotide pools can have important regulatory effects on the rate of DNA synthesis as well as cell cycle progression. A simplified procedure for the separation of both ribonucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) is presented which utilizes reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. The simultaneous resolution of NTP and dNTP peaks within the same cell extract effectively eliminates the need for post-extraction steps such as periodate oxidation and/or boronate affinity chromatography previously used to degrade or isolate co-eluting NTP from dNTP. The resolution of two nucleotides, dGTP and ADP, was found empirically to vary with the efficiency of the C18 column. High efficiency columns (> 90,000 plates/m) provided good separation; however, less efficient columns resulted in co-elution of dGTP and ADP. These co-eluting nucleotides can be accurately quantified, if necessary, using diode array technology and a mathematical expression which incorporates molar peak coefficients and peak areas obtained by monitoring at dual wave-lengths. Tissue samples or single cell suspensions were extracted with trichloroacetic acid and the neutralized extract was injected directly into the column without prior lyophilization. The per cent recovery of standards was > or = 99% and replicate extractions within or between samples were highly reproducible (SD < 5%). The single step method described minimizes potential losses associated with post-extraction manipulation and provides the capability to examine alterations in nucleotide precursor-product metabolism under various physiological and pharmacological conditions. PMID:8343561

  17. HIV-1 RNAs are Not Part of the Argonaute 2 Associated RNA Interference Pathway in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Shivendra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Hall, Jonathan; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Metzner, Karin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Methods The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP), which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs. Results and Conclusion PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages. PMID:26226348

  18. Phylogeny and Differentiation of Reptilian and Amphibian Ranaviruses Detected in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Anke C.; López-Bueno, Alberto; Blahak, Silvia; Caeiro, Maria F.; Rosa, Gonçalo M.; Alves de Matos, António Pedro; Martel, An; Alejo, Alí; Marschang, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Ranaviruses in amphibians and fish are considered emerging pathogens and several isolates have been extensively characterized in different studies. Ranaviruses have also been detected in reptiles with increasing frequency, but the role of reptilian hosts is still unclear and only limited sequence data has been provided. In this study, we characterized a number of ranaviruses detected in wild and captive animals in Europe based on sequence data from six genomic regions (major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit-like proteins (RNR-α and -β), viral homolog of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, eIF-2α (vIF-2α) genes and microsatellite region). A total of ten different isolates from reptiles (tortoises, lizards, and a snake) and four ranaviruses from amphibians (anurans, urodeles) were included in the study. Furthermore, the complete genome sequences of three reptilian isolates were determined and a new PCR for rapid classification of the different variants of the genomic arrangement was developed. All ranaviruses showed slight variations on the partial nucleotide sequences from the different genomic regions (92.6–100%). Some very similar isolates could be distinguished by the size of the band from the microsatellite region. Three of the lizard isolates had a truncated vIF-2α gene; the other ranaviruses had full-length genes. In the phylogenetic analyses of concatenated sequences from different genes (3223 nt/10287 aa), the reptilian ranaviruses were often more closely related to amphibian ranaviruses than to each other, and most clustered together with previously detected ranaviruses from the same geographic region of origin. Comparative analyses show that among the closely related amphibian-like ranaviruses (ALRVs) described to date, three recently split and independently evolving distinct genetic groups can be distinguished. These findings underline the wide host range of

  19. Live-Cell Bioorthogonal Chemical Imaging: Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy of Vibrational Probes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Shen, Yihui; Zhang, Luyuan; Min, Wei

    2016-08-16

    Innovations in light microscopy have tremendously revolutionized the way researchers study biological systems with subcellular resolution. In particular, fluorescence microscopy with the expanding choices of fluorescent probes has provided a comprehensive toolkit to tag and visualize various molecules of interest with exquisite specificity and high sensitivity. Although fluorescence microscopy is currently the method of choice for cellular imaging, it faces fundamental limitations for studying the vast number of small biomolecules. This is because common fluorescent labels, which are relatively bulky, could introduce considerable perturbation to or even completely alter the native functions of vital small biomolecules. Hence, despite their immense functional importance, these small biomolecules remain largely undetectable by fluorescence microscopy. To address this challenge, a bioorthogonal chemical imaging platform has recently been introduced. By coupling stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, an emerging nonlinear Raman microscopy technique, with tiny and Raman-active vibrational probes (e.g., alkynes and stable isotopes), bioorthogonal chemical imaging exhibits superb sensitivity, specificity, and biocompatibility for imaging small biomolecules in live systems. In this Account, we review recent technical achievements for visualizing a broad spectrum of small biomolecules, including ribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, choline, glucose, cholesterol, and small-molecule drugs in live biological systems ranging from individual cells to animal tissues and model organisms. Importantly, this platform is compatible with live-cell biology, thus allowing real-time imaging of small-molecule dynamics. Moreover, we discuss further chemical and spectroscopic strategies for multicolor bioorthogonal chemical imaging, a valuable technique in the era of "omics". As a unique tool for biological discovery, this platform has been applied to

  20. The roles of the conserved pyrimidine bases in hammerhead ribozyme catalysis: evidence for a magnesium ion-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J B; Adams, C J; Arnold, J R; Stockley, P G

    1995-01-01

    We report details of the synthesis and characterization of oligoribonucleotides containing 4-thiouridine or 2-pyrimidinone ribonucleoside (4HC). We have used these probes to examine the roles of the conserved pyrimidines in the central core of the hammerhead ribozyme. The effects on catalysis of singly-substituted hammerhead ribozyme and substrate strands were quantified in multiple-turnover reactions. Various effects were observed on kcat. and Km, with up to a 7-fold decrease and a 3-fold increase respectively. For substitutions with 4HC at positions 3 or 17, catalytic activity in single turnover reactions can be increased up to 8-fold equivalent to 40% of wild-type activity, by increasing the concentration of the Mg2+ cofactor, implying that these substitutions had a deleterious effect on Mg2+ binding. Calculations of the change in the apparent free energy of binding for variants at positions 3, 4 or 17 are each consistent with deletion of a single hydrogen-bond to an uncharged group in the ribozyme. The cytidine 5' to the scissile phosphate had not previously been thought to play a direct role in catalysis, however, removal of the exocyclic amino group decreased kcat. 4-fold. Recently, the crystal structures of a hammerhead ribozyme bound to either a non-cleavable 2'-deoxy substrate strand or a ribo-substrate strand have been reported. The kinetic properties of the variants described here are consistent with several key interactions seen in the crystals, in particular they provide experimental support for the assignment of the proposed catalytically active magnesium ion-binding site. PMID:7487885

  1. 227 Views of RNA: Is RNA Unique in Its Chemical Isomer Space?

    PubMed Central

    Meringer, Markus; Goodwin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the two nucleic acids used by extant biochemistry and plays a central role as the intermediary carrier of genetic information in transcription and translation. If RNA was involved in the origin of life, it should have a facile prebiotic synthesis. A wide variety of such syntheses have been explored. However, to date no one-pot reaction has been shown capable of yielding RNA monomers from likely prebiotically abundant starting materials, though this does not rule out the possibility that simpler, more easily prebiotically accessible nucleic acids may have preceded RNA. Given structural constraints, such as the ability to form complementary base pairs and a linear covalent polymer, a variety of structural isomers of RNA could potentially function as genetic platforms. By using structure-generation software, all the potential structural isomers of the ribosides (BC5H9O4, where B is nucleobase), as well as a set of simpler minimal analogues derived from them, that can potentially serve as monomeric building blocks of nucleic acid–like molecules are enumerated. Molecules are selected based on their likely stability under biochemically relevant conditions (e.g., moderate pH and temperature) and the presence of at least two functional groups allowing the monomers to be incorporated into linear polymers. The resulting structures are then evaluated by using molecular descriptors typically applied in quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) studies and predicted physicochemical properties. Several databases have been queried to determine whether any of the computed isomers had been synthesized previously. Very few of the molecules that emerge from this structure set have been previously described. We conclude that ribonucleosides may have competed with a multitude of alternative structures whose potential proto-biochemical roles and abiotic syntheses remain to be explored. Key Words: Evolution—Chemical evolution

  2. A clickable UTP analog for the posttranscriptional chemical labeling and imaging of RNA.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Anupam A; Mukherjee, Progya P; Jangid, Rahul K; Galande, Sanjeev; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2016-06-28

    The development of robust tools and practical RNA labeling strategies that would facilitate the biophysical analysis of RNA in both cell-free and cellular systems will have profound implications in the discovery of new RNA diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. In this context, we describe the development of a new alkyne-modified UTP analog, 5-(1,7-octadinyl)uridine triphosphate (ODUTP), which serves as an efficient substrate for the introduction of a clickable alkyne label into RNA transcripts by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian cellular RNA polymerases. The ODU-labeled RNA is effectively used by reverse transcriptase to produce cDNA, a property which could be utilized in expanding the chemical space of a RNA library in the aptamer selection scheme. Further, the alkyne label on RNA provides a convenient tool for the posttranscriptional chemical functionalization with a variety of biophysical tags (fluorescent, affinity, amino acid and sugar) by using alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction. Importantly, the ability of endogenous RNA polymerases to specifically incorporate ODUTP into cellular RNA transcripts enabled the visualization of newly transcribing RNA in cells by microscopy using click reactions. In addition to a clickable alkyne group, ODU contains a Raman scattering label (internal disubstituted alkyne), which exhibits characteristic Raman shifts that fall in the Raman-silent region of cells. Our results indicate that an ODU label could potentially facilitate two-channel visualization of RNA in cells by using click chemistry and Raman spectroscopy. Taken together, ODU represents a multipurpose ribonucleoside tool, which is expected to provide new avenues to study RNA in cell-free and cellular systems. PMID:27173127

  3. Studies on the phosphorylation of the oncogene product p53 and the large tumor antigen of SV40

    SciTech Connect

    Samad, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Since the role of phosphorylation in modulation of oncogene function is largely unknown, an attempt was made to precisely map and chemically characterize the phosphates on p53. Starting with p53 prepared by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE from /sup 32/P-labeled SV40-transformed 3T3 cells, we have found: (a) a minimum of 4 phosphorylation sites. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by HPLC has allowed sequence identification of 2 sites as Serine-312 and Serine-389. One additional threonine and one serine site reside in the first 100 amino-terminal residues; (b) the chemical reactivity of p53 supports the presence of phosphomonoesters, but not phosphoamides or acylphosphates; (c) phosphate on Ser-389 is largely resistant to both alkaline phosphatase (AP) and alkali hydrolyses, and liberates four ribonucleoside monophosphates upon alkali or RNase hydrolysis; (d) in further support of covalent linkage to RNA, variation in proteolytic digestion of the Ser-389 peptide alters both the elution from HPLC, and the electrophoretic migration, of the bound RNA, and conversely, RNase hydrolysis of the RNA alters the elution from HPLC, and the electrophoretic migration, of the bound peptide. Also, digestion with AP renders the SER-389 peptide retained on a boronate HPLC column possessing an affinity for cis-diols, while the undigested peptide is unretained; (e) Ser-312 exists as 3 charged forms; (f) one of the aminoterminal phosphates is metabolically labile, with a half-life of less than 3 hours, contrasted with a protein half-life of nearly 24 hours.

  4. Plant, animal, and fungal micronutrient queuosine is salvaged by members of the DUF2419 protein family.

    PubMed

    Zallot, Rémi; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gaston, Kirk W; Forouhar, Farhad; Limbach, Patrick A; Hunt, John F; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2014-08-15

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNA(Asp) with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  5. Adenosine Kinase: Exploitation for Therapeutic Gain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphotransferase that converts the purine ribonucleoside adenosine into 5′-adenosine-monophosphate. This enzymatic reaction plays a fundamental role in determining the tone of adenosine, which fulfills essential functions as a homeostatic and metabolic regulator in all living systems. Adenosine not only activates specific signaling pathways by activation of four types of adenosine receptors but it is also a primordial metabolite and regulator of biochemical enzyme reactions that couple to bioenergetic and epigenetic functions. By regulating adenosine, ADK can thus be identified as an upstream regulator of complex homeostatic and metabolic networks. Not surprisingly, ADK dysfunction is involved in several pathologies, including diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Consequently, ADK emerges as a rational therapeutic target, and adenosine-regulating drugs have been tested extensively. In recent attempts to improve specificity of treatment, localized therapies have been developed to augment adenosine signaling at sites of injury or pathology; those approaches include transplantation of stem cells with deletions of ADK or the use of gene therapy vectors to downregulate ADK expression. More recently, the first human mutations in ADK have been described, and novel findings suggest an unexpected role of ADK in a wider range of pathologies. ADK-regulating strategies thus represent innovative therapeutic opportunities to reconstruct network homeostasis in a multitude of conditions. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology of ADK and will then focus on pathologies and therapeutic interventions. Challenges to translate ADK-based therapies into clinical use will be discussed critically. PMID:23592612

  6. Demonstration in vitro of inhibition in normal rat tissues yet stimulation in Jensen sarcoma cells of 5-fluorouracil anabolism by purine nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Beltz, R.E.; Haddad-Zackrison, L.

    1986-05-01

    It has been shown previously that the ability of tumor cells to anabolize 5-fluorouracil (FUra) to nucleotides can often be enhanced by exposing the cells to various purine nucleosides. Increases in FUra cytotoxicity have been observed to accompany this enhancement. In the present study the effects of purine nucleosides on FUra anabolism in rat tumor cells and in normal rat tissues sensitive to FUra were compared. Pieces of small intestine (SI), bone marrow suspensions (BM) and Jensen tumor cells were incubated in culture medium at 37/sup 0/ for 1 hr in the presence (or absence) of a selected purine nucleoside, then (2-/sup 14/C)FUra was added and the incubation was continued for another hr. Incorporation of radioactivity into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction in each case was determined as a measure of FUra anabolism. Inosine, adenosine and N/sup 6/-methyl-adenosine, 1 mM, stimulated FUra incorporation into the acid-insoluble fraction 2-3 fold in the tumor cells but inhibited this incorporation 59-70% in SI and 31-70% in BM. Attempts to further suppress FUra anabolism in the normal tissues resulted in a maximal inhibition of 92% in SI, using 1 mM alloxanthine, and a maximal inhibition of 84% in BM, employing combined 1 mM alloxanthine and 1 mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carbox-amide ribonucleoside. These data suggest ways of selectively altering FUra anabolism in normal tissue and in tumor tissue of the tumor-bearing rat to improve the therapeutic index of FUra.

  7. Docking of anti-HIV-1 oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone derivatives as potential HSV-1 DNA polymerase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Santos, Fernanda da Costa; Batalha, Pedro Netto; Brozeguini, Leonardo; Seidl, Peter R.; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Cunha, Anna Cláudia; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Giongo, Viveca A.; Cirne-Santos, Cláudio; Paixão, Izabel C. P.

    2014-09-01

    Although there are many antiviral drugs available for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, still the synthesis of new anti-HSV candidates is an important strategy to be pursued, due to the emergency of resistant HSV strains mainly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Some 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinolines, such as PNU-183792 (1), show a broad spectrum antiviral activity against human herpes viruses, inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase (POL) without affecting the human POLs. Thus, on an ongoing antiviral research project, our group has synthesized ribonucleosides containing the 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (quinolone) heterocyclic moiety, such as the 6-Cl derivative (2), which is a dual antiviral agent (HSV-1 and HIV-1). Molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of 1 and 2 with the HSV-1 POL suggest that structural modifications of 2 should increase its experimental anti-HSV-1 activity, since its ribosyl and carboxyl groups are highly hydrophilic to interact with a hydrophobic pocket of this enzyme. Therefore, in this work, comparative molecular docking simulations of 1 and three new synthesized oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone HIV-1 inhibitors (3-5), which do not contain those hydrophilic groups, were carried out, in order to access these modifications in the proposition of new potential anti-HSV-1 agents, but maintaining the anti-HIV-1 activity. Among the docked compounds, the oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 3 is the best candidate for an anti-HSV-1 agent, and, in addition, it showed anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 3.4 ± 0.3 μM). Compounds 2 and 3 were used as templates in the design of four new oxoquinoline-acylhydrazones (6-9) as potential anti-HSV-1 agents to increase the antiviral activity of 2. Among the docked compounds, oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 7 was selected as the best candidate for further development of dual anti-HIV/HSV activity.

  8. Inhibition of ATP Synthase by Chlorinated Adenosine Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lisa S.; Nowak, Billie J.; Ayres, Mary L.; Krett, Nancy L.; Rosen, Steven T.; Zhang, Shuxing; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a ribonucleoside analogue that is currently in clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on the decline in cellular ATP pool following 8-Cl-Ado treatment, we hypothesized that 8-Cl-ADP and 8-Cl-ATP may interfere with ATP synthase, a key enzyme in ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of two major parts; FO intermembrane base and F1 domain, containing α and β subunits. Crystal structures of both α and β subunits that bind to the substrate, ADP, are known in tight binding (αdpβdp) and loose binding (αtpβtp) states. Molecular docking demonstrated that 8-Cl-ADP/8-Cl-ATP occupied similar binding modes as ADP/ATP in the tight and loose binding sites of ATP synthase, respectively, suggesting that the chlorinated nucleotide metabolites may be functional substrates and inhibitors of the enzyme. The computational predictions were consistent with our whole cell biochemical results. Oligomycin, an established pharmacological inhibitor of ATP synthase, decreased both ATP and 8-Cl-ATP formation from exogenous substrates, however, did not affect pyrimidine nucleoside analogue triphosphate accumulation. Synthesis of ATP from ADP was inhibited in cells loaded with 8-Cl-ATP. These biochemical studies are in consent with the computational modeling; in the αtpβtp state 8-Cl-ATP occupies similar binding as ANP, a non-hydrolyzable ATP mimic that is a known inhibitor. Similarly, in the substrate binding site (αdpβdp) 8-Cl-ATP occupies a similar position as ATP mimic ADP-BeF3 −. Collectively, our current work suggests that 8-Cl-ADP may serve as a substrate and the 8-Cl-ATP may be an inhibitor of ATP synthase. PMID:19477165

  9. 227 Views of RNA: Is RNA Unique in Its Chemical Isomer Space?

    PubMed

    Cleaves, H James; Meringer, Markus; Goodwin, Jay

    2015-07-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the two nucleic acids used by extant biochemistry and plays a central role as the intermediary carrier of genetic information in transcription and translation. If RNA was involved in the origin of life, it should have a facile prebiotic synthesis. A wide variety of such syntheses have been explored. However, to date no one-pot reaction has been shown capable of yielding RNA monomers from likely prebiotically abundant starting materials, though this does not rule out the possibility that simpler, more easily prebiotically accessible nucleic acids may have preceded RNA. Given structural constraints, such as the ability to form complementary base pairs and a linear covalent polymer, a variety of structural isomers of RNA could potentially function as genetic platforms. By using structure-generation software, all the potential structural isomers of the ribosides (BC5H9O4, where B is nucleobase), as well as a set of simpler minimal analogues derived from them, that can potentially serve as monomeric building blocks of nucleic acid-like molecules are enumerated. Molecules are selected based on their likely stability under biochemically relevant conditions (e.g., moderate pH and temperature) and the presence of at least two functional groups allowing the monomers to be incorporated into linear polymers. The resulting structures are then evaluated by using molecular descriptors typically applied in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies and predicted physicochemical properties. Several databases have been queried to determine whether any of the computed isomers had been synthesized previously. Very few of the molecules that emerge from this structure set have been previously described. We conclude that ribonucleosides may have competed with a multitude of alternative structures whose potential proto-biochemical roles and abiotic syntheses remain to be explored. PMID:26200431

  10. Use of human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes to examine sunitinib mediated cardiotoxicity and electrophysiological alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Babiarz, J.E.; Abrams, R.M.; Guo, L.; Kameoka, S.; Chiao, E.; Taunton, J.; Kolaja, K.L.

    2011-11-15

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stroma tumor, is associated with clinical cardiac toxicity. Although the precise mechanism of sunitinib cardiotoxicity is not known, both the key metabolic energy regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and ribosomal S 6 kinase (RSK) have been hypothesized as causative, albeit based on rodent models. To study the mechanism of sunitinib-mediated cardiotoxicity in a human model, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) having electrophysiological and contractile properties of native cardiac tissue were investigated. Sunitinib was cardiotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with an IC{sub 50} in the low micromolar range, observed by a loss of cellular ATP, an increase in oxidized glutathione, and induction of apoptosis in iPSC-CMs. Pretreatment of iPSC-CMs with AMPK activators AICAR or metformin, increased the phosphorylation of pAMPK-T172 and pACC-S79, but only marginally attenuated sunitinib mediated cell death. Furthermore, additional inhibitors of AMPK were not directly cytotoxic to iPSC-CMs up to 250 {mu}M concentrations. Inhibition of RSK with a highly specific, irreversible, small molecule inhibitor (RSK-FMK-MEA) did not induce cytotoxicity in iPSC-CMs below 250 {mu}M. Extensive electrophysiological analysis of sunitinib and RSK-FMK-MEA mediated conduction effects were performed. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibition of AMPK and RSK are not a major component of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Although the exact mechanism of cardiotoxicity of sunitinib is not known, it is likely due to inhibition of multiple kinases simultaneously. These data highlight the utility of human iPSC-CMs in investigating the potential molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced cardiotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytoxic effect of sunitinib on human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes Black

  11. Toll-like receptor 4 knockout alleviates paraquat-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction through an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyi; Zhu, Xiaoling; Xiong, Lize; Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-08-22

    Paraquat, a quarternary nitrogen herbicide, is a toxic prooxidant leading to multi-organ failure including the heart although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study was designed to examine the role of the innate proinflammatory mediator toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile anomalies and the underlying mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy, a conservative machinery governing protein and organelle degradation and recycling for cardiac homeostasis. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) mice were challenged with paraquat (45mg/kg, i.p.) for 48h. Paraquat challenge did not affect mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in WT mice nor did paraquat treatment alter TREM-1 levels. Paraquat challenge elicited cardiac mechanical defects including compromised cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, and overt autophagy as manifested by increased LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio, Atg5, Atg7 and p62 levels. Interestingly, TLR4 knockout significantly attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) derangement as well as alterations of autophagy markers. Paraquat-elicited changes in cardiac autophagy markers (LC3BII, LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and p62) were augmented by lysosomal inhibition using bafilomycin A1 in WT mice. TLR4 knockout significantly attenuated or negated paraquat-elicited increase in LC3BII, LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and p62 levels in the presence of lysosomal inhibition. In addition, paraquat challenge promoted phosphorylation of AMPK while suppressing the phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1 (the autophagy inhibitory Ser(757)), the effects of which were significantly attenuated by TLR4 ablation. In vitro study revealed that AMPK activation using AICAR or mTOR inhibition using rapamycin effectively negated the beneficial cardiomyocyte mechanical effects of TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095) against paraquat toxicity, supporting a permissive role for AMPK-mTOR in TLR4 inhibition

  12. Cilostazol Modulates Autophagic Degradation of β-Amyloid Peptide via SIRT1-Coupled LKB1/AMPKα Signaling in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Suk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Kim, Hye Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-01-01

    A neuroprotective role of autophagy mediates the degradation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The previous study showed cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing beclin1, Atg5 and LC3-II expressions, and depletes intracellular Aβ accumulation. This study elucidated the mechanisms through which cilostazol modulates the autophagic degradation of Aβ in neurons. In N2a cells, cilostazol (10–30 μM), significantly increased the expression of P-AMPKα (Thr 172) and downstream P-ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) (Ser 79) as did resveratrol (SIRT1 activator), or AICAR (AMPK activator), which were blocked by KT5720, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or sirtinol. Furthermore, phosphorylated-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phosphorylated-P70S6K (Thr 389) expressions were suppressed, and LC3-II levels were elevated in association with decreased P62/Sqstm1 by cilostazol. Cilostazol increased cathepsin B activity and decreased p62/SQSTM 1, consequently decreased accumulation of Aβ1–42 in the activated N2aSwe cells, and these results were blocked by sirtinol, compound C and bafilomycin A1 (autophagosome blocker), suggesting enhanced autophagosome formation by cilostazol. In SIRT1 gene-silenced N2a cells, cilostazol failed to increase the expressions of P-LKB1 (Ser 428) and P-AMPKα, which contrasted with its effect in negative control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA duplex. Further, N2a cells transfected with expression vectors encoding pcDNA SIRT1 showed increased P-AMPKα expression, which mimicked the effect of cilostazol in N2a cells; suggesting cilostazol-stimulated expressions of P-LKB1 and P-AMPKα were SIRT1-dependent. Unlike their effects in N2a cells, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1, cilostazol and resveratrol did not elevate SIRT1 or P-AMPKα expression, indicating cilostazol and resveratrol-stimulated expressions of SIRT1 and P-AMPKα are LKB1-dependent. In conclusion, cilostazol upregulates autophagy by activating SIRT1-coupled P-LKB1/P-AMPKα and

  13. Comparative effects of whey protein versus L-leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and markers of ribosome biogenesis following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; Thompson, Richard M; Healy, James C; Santucci, Vincent; Kephart, Wesley C; McCloskey, Anna E; Kim, Mike; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S; Moon, Jordan R; Young, Kaelin C; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    We compared immediate post-exercise whey protein (WP, 500 mg) versus L-leucine (LEU, 54 mg) feedings on skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) mechanisms and ribosome biogenesis markers 3 h following unilateral plantarflexor resistance exercise in male, Wistar rats (~250 g). Additionally, in vitro experiments were performed on differentiated C2C12 myotubes to compare nutrient (i.e., WP, LEU) and 'exercise-like' treatments (i.e., caffeine, hydrogen peroxide, and AICAR) on ribosome biogenesis markers. LEU and WP significantly increased phosphorylated-rpS6 (Ser235/236) in the exercised (EX) leg 2.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 2.7-fold (P < 0.001) compared to the non-EX leg, respectively, whereas vehicle-fed control (CTL) did not (+65 %, P > 0.05). Compared to the non-EX leg, MPS levels increased 32 % and 52 % in the EX leg of CTL (P < 0.01) and WP rats (P < 0.001), respectively, but not in LEU rats (+15 %, P > 0.05). Several genes associated with ribosome biogenesis robustly increased in the EX versus non-EX legs of all treatments; specifically, c-Myc mRNA, Nop56 mRNA, Bop1 mRNA, Ncl mRNA, Npm1 mRNA, Fb1 mRNA, and Xpo-5 mRNA. However, only LEU significantly increased 45S pre-rRNA levels in the EX leg (63 %, P < 0.001). In vitro findings confirmed that 'exercise-like' treatments similarly altered markers of ribosome biogenesis, but only LEU increased 47S pre-rRNA levels (P < 0.01). Collectively, our data suggests that resistance exercise, as well as 'exercise-like' signals in vitro, acutely increase the expression of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis independent of nutrient provision. Moreover, while EX with or without WP appears superior for enhancing translational efficiency (i.e., increasing MPS per unit of RNA), LEU administration (or co-administration) may further enhance ribosome biogenesis over prolonged periods with resistance exercise. PMID:26507545

  14. MOUSE VERSUS RAT: PROFOUND DIFFERENCES IN MEIOTIC REGULATION AT THE LEVEL OF THE ISOLATED OOCYTE

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO), denuded oocytes (DO) or dissected follicles were obtained 44–48 h after priming immature mice (20–23-days-old) with 5 IU or immature rats (25–27-days-old) with 12.5 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and exposed to a variety of culture conditions. Mouse oocytes were more effectively maintained in meiotic arrest by hypoxanthine, dbcAMP, IBMX, milrinone, and 8-Br-cGMP. The guanylate cyclase activator, atrial natriuretic peptide, suppressed maturation in CEO from both species, but mycophenolic acid reversed IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in mouse CEO with little activity in rat CEO. IBMX-arrested mouse, but not rat, CEO were induced to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and amphiregulin, while human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was ineffective in both species. Nevertheless, FSH and amphiregulin stimulated cumulus expansion in both species. FSH and hCG were both effective inducers of GVB in cultured mouse and rat follicles while amphiregulin was stimulatory only in mouse follicles. Changing the culture medium or altering macromolecular supplementation had no effect on FSH-induced maturation in rat CEO. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, AICAR, was a potent stimulator of maturation in mouse CEO and DO, but only marginally stimulatory in rat CEO and ineffective in rat DO. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, blocked meiotic induction more effectively in hCG-treated mouse follicles and heat-treated mouse CEO. Both agents produced contrasting results on polar body formation in cultured CEO in the two species. Active AMPK was detected in germinal vesicles of immature mouse, but not rat, oocytes prior to hCG-induced maturation in vivo; it colocalized with chromatin after GVB in rat and mouse oocytes, but did not appear at the spindle poles in rat oocytes as it did in mouse oocytes. Finally, cultured mouse and rat CEO displayed disparate maturation responses to energy substrate

  15. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, V.V.; Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Webb, R.C.; Tostes, R.C.; Giachini, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca2+/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  16. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain.

    PubMed

    Lima, V V; Lobato, N S; Filgueira, F P; Webb, R C; Tostes, R C; Giachini, F R

    2014-10-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2 ± 2 vs 7.9 ± 1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4 ± 2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3 ± 2 vs 7.5 ± 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1 ± 2 vs 7.4 ± 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  17. Cilostazol Modulates Autophagic Degradation of β-Amyloid Peptide via SIRT1-Coupled LKB1/AMPKα Signaling in Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, So Youn; Lee, Hye Rin; Lee, Won Suk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Kim, Hye Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-01-01

    A neuroprotective role of autophagy mediates the degradation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The previous study showed cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing beclin1, Atg5 and LC3-II expressions, and depletes intracellular Aβ accumulation. This study elucidated the mechanisms through which cilostazol modulates the autophagic degradation of Aβ in neurons. In N2a cells, cilostazol (10-30 μM), significantly increased the expression of P-AMPKα (Thr 172) and downstream P-ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) (Ser 79) as did resveratrol (SIRT1 activator), or AICAR (AMPK activator), which were blocked by KT5720, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or sirtinol. Furthermore, phosphorylated-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phosphorylated-P70S6K (Thr 389) expressions were suppressed, and LC3-II levels were elevated in association with decreased P62/Sqstm1 by cilostazol. Cilostazol increased cathepsin B activity and decreased p62/SQSTM 1, consequently decreased accumulation of Aβ1-42 in the activated N2aSwe cells, and these results were blocked by sirtinol, compound C and bafilomycin A1 (autophagosome blocker), suggesting enhanced autophagosome formation by cilostazol. In SIRT1 gene-silenced N2a cells, cilostazol failed to increase the expressions of P-LKB1 (Ser 428) and P-AMPKα, which contrasted with its effect in negative control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA duplex. Further, N2a cells transfected with expression vectors encoding pcDNA SIRT1 showed increased P-AMPKα expression, which mimicked the effect of cilostazol in N2a cells; suggesting cilostazol-stimulated expressions of P-LKB1 and P-AMPKα were SIRT1-dependent. Unlike their effects in N2a cells, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1, cilostazol and resveratrol did not elevate SIRT1 or P-AMPKα expression, indicating cilostazol and resveratrol-stimulated expressions of SIRT1 and P-AMPKα are LKB1-dependent. In conclusion, cilostazol upregulates autophagy by activating SIRT1-coupled P-LKB1/P-AMPKα and

  18. Functional production and reconstitution of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interaction of inhibitors of nucleoside transport with recombinant hENT1 and a glycosylation-defective derivative (hENT1/N48Q).

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M F; Mani, R S; Sundaram, M; Hogue, D L; Young, J D; Baldwin, S A; Cass, C E

    1999-01-01

    We have produced recombinant human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have compared the binding of inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transport with the wild-type transporter and a N-glycosylation-defective mutant transporter. Equilibrium binding of 3H-labelled nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside ¿6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl purine; NBMPR¿ to hENT1-producing yeast revealed a single class of high-affinity sites that were shown to be in membrane fractions by (1) equilibrium binding (means+/-S.D.) of [3H]NBMPR to intact yeast (Kd 1.2+/-0.2 nM; Bmax 5.0+/-0.5 pmol/mg of protein) and membranes (Kd 0.7+/-0.2 nM; Bmax 6.5+/-1 pmol/mg of protein), and (2) reconstitution of hENT1-mediated [3H]thymidine transport into proteoliposomes that was potently inhibited by NBMPR. Dilazep and dipyridamole inhibited NBMPR binding to hENT1 with IC50 values of 130+/-10 and 380+/-20 nM respectively. The role of N-linked glycosylation in the interaction of NBMPR with hENT1 was examined by the quantification of binding of [3H]NBMPR to yeast producing either wild-type hENT1 or a glycosylation-defective mutant (hENT1/N48Q) in which Asn-48 was converted into Gln. The Kd for binding of NBMPR to hENT1/N48Q was 10. 5+/-1.6 nM, indicating that the replacement of an Asn residue with Gln decreased the affinity of hENT1 for NBMPR. The decreased affinity of hENT1/N48Q for NBMPR was due to an increased rate of dissociation (koff) and a decreased rate of association (kon) of specifically bound [3H]NBMPR because the values for hENT1-producing and hENT1/N48Q-producing yeast were respectively 0.14+/-0.02 and 0. 36+/-0.05 min-1 for koff, and (1.2+/-0.1)x10(8) and (0.40+/-0. 04)x10(8) M-1.min-1 for kon. These results indicated that the conservative conversion of an Asn residue into Gln at position 48 of hENT1 and/or the loss of N-linked glycosylation capability altered the binding characteristics of the transporter for NBMPR

  19. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of a new C-6 alkylated pyrimidine derivative as a PET imaging agent for HSV1-tk gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ursina; Ross, Tobias L; Ranadheera, Charlene; Slavik, Roger; Müller, Adrienne; Born, Mariana; Trauffer, Evelyn; Sephton, Selena Milicevic; Scapozza, Leonardo; Krämer, Stefanie D; Ametamey, Simon M

    2013-01-01

    [18F]FHOMP (6-((1-[18F]-fluoro-3-hydroxypropan-2-yloxy)methyl)-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione), a C-6 substituted pyrimidine derivative, has been synthesized and evaluated as a potential PET agent for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression. [18F]FHOMP was prepared by the reaction of the tosylated precursor with tetrabutylammonium [18F]-fluoride followed by acidic cleavage of the protecting groups. In vitro cell accumulation of [18F]FHOMP and [18F]FHBG (reference) was studied with HSV1-tk transfected HEK293 (HEK293TK+) cells. Small animal PET and biodistribution studies were performed with HEK293TK+ xenograft-bearing nude mice. The role of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) in the transport and uptake of [18F] FHOMP was also examined in nude mice after treatment with ENT1 inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside phosphate (NBMPR-P). [18F]FHOMP was obtained in a radiochemical yield of ~25% (decay corrected) and the radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. The uptake of [18F]FHOMP in HSV1-TK containing HEK293TK+ cells was 52 times (at 30 min) and 244 times (at 180 min) higher than in control HEK293 cells. The uptake ratios between HEK293TK+ and HEK293 control cells for [18F]FHBG were significantly lower i.e. 5 (at 30 min) and 81 (240 min). In vivo, [18F]FHOMP accumulated to a similar extend in HEK293TK+ xenografts as [18F]FHBG but with a higher general background. Blocking of ENT1 reduced [18F]FHOMP uptake into brain from a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 0.10±0.01 to 0.06±0.02, but did not reduce the general background signal in PET. Although [18F]FHOMP does not outperform [18F]FHBG in its in vivo performance, this novel C-6 pyrimidine derivative may be a useful probe for monitoring HSV1-tk gene expression in vivo. PMID:23342302

  20. Recombinant dengue virus type 1 NS3 protein exhibits specific viral RNA binding and NTPase activity regulated by the NS5 protein.

    PubMed

    Cui, T; Sugrue, R J; Xu, Q; Lee, A K; Chan, Y C; Fu, J

    1998-07-01

    The full-length dengue virus NS3 protein has been successfully expressed as a 94-kDa GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Treatment of the purified fusion protein with thrombin released a 68-kDa protein which is the expected molecular mass for the DEN1 NS3 protein. The identity of this protein was confirmed by Western blotting using dengue virus antisera. Two related activities of the recombinant NS3 protein were characterized, which were the binding of the protein to the 3'-noncoding region of the dengue virus RNA genome and NTPase activity. We demonstrated using a band shift assay that the DEN1 NS3 protein could form a complex with the stem-loop structure in the 3'-noncoding region (3'-NCR), although sites outside the stem-loop may also participate in binding. Using various unlabeled homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNAs as competitors for binding, it was further shown that the DEN1 NS3 protein exhibits preferential binding to a 94-nt RNA transcript from the 3'-NCR of the dengue virus. The NTPase activity of the recombinant DEN1 NS3 protein was characterized using a thin-layer chromatography assay. We found that the DEN1 NS3 protein possesses some aspects of NTPase activity, which are distinct from those found in other flaviviruses. Although the NS3 protein was able to utilize all four ribonucleoside triphosphates as its substrates, the NS3 protein showed a distinct preference for purine triphosphates (i.e., ATP and GTP). The addition of poly(U) did not stimulate NTPase activity in DEN1 NS3 protein, which contrasts with the reports for other flaviviral NS3 proteins. However, NTPase activity was specifically stimulated by the viral NS5 protein, which was manifested by a more than twofold increase in the rate of ATP hydrolysis and a 25% increase in the yield of ADP at the end of a 120-min reaction. These data suggest that the NTPase activity of the NS3 protein may be regulated by the viral NS5 protein during virus replication. PMID:9657959

  1. The progene hypothesis: the nucleoprotein world and how life began.

    PubMed

    Altstein, Anatoly D

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I review the results of studies on the origin of life distinct from the popular RNA world hypothesis. The alternate scenario postulates the origin of the first bimolecular genetic system (a polynucleotide gene and a polypeptide processive polymerase) with simultaneous replication and translation and includes the following key features: 1. The bimolecular genetic system emerges not from mononucleotides and monoamino acids, but from progenes, namely, trinucleotides aminoacylated on 3'-end by a non-random amino acid (NpNpNp ~ pX ~ Aa, where N--deoxyribo- or ribonucleoside, p--phosphate, X--a bifunctional agent, for example ribose, Aa--amino acid, ~ macroerge bond). Progenes are used as substrates for simultaneous synthesis of a polynucleotide and a polypeptide. Growth of the system is controlled by the growing polypeptide, and the bimolecular genetic system emerges as an extremely rare event. The first living being (virus-like organism protoviroid, Protoviroidum primum) arises and reproduces in prebiotic liposome-like structures using progenes. A population of protoviroids possessing the genetic system evolves in accordance with the Darwinian principle. Early evolution from protoviroid world to protocell world is shortly described. 2. The progene forming mechanism (NpNp + Np ~ pX ~ Aa) makes it possible to explain the emergence of the prebiotic physicochemical group genetic code, as well as the selection of organic compounds for the future genetic system from the racemic environment. 3. The protoviroid is reproduced on a progene basis via replicative transcription-translation (RTT, the first molecular genetic process) that is similar to its modern counterparts. Nothing is required for the emergence and reproduction of the protoviroid except for progenes and conditions for their formation. 4. The general scheme of early evolution is as follows: prebiotic world → protoviroid (nucleoprotein) world → protocell (DNA-RNA-protein) world → LUCA

  2. Transcriptomic clues to understand the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in cheese

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a non-starter lactic acid bacterium that plays a significant role during cheese ripening, leading to the formation of flavor. In long-ripened cheeses it persists throughout the whole time of ripening due to its capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The versatile adaptability of L. rhamnosus to different ecosystems has been associated with the capacity to use non-conventional energy sources, regulating different metabolic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing the growth of L. rhamnosus in the cheese dairy environment are still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to identify genes potentially contributing to the growth ability of L. rhamnosus PR1019 in cheese-like medium (CB) using a transcriptomic approach, based on cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR). Results Using three primer combinations, a total of 89 and 98 transcript-derived fragments were obtained for L. rhamnosus PR1019 grown in commercial MRS medium and CB, respectively. The cDNA-AFLP results were validated on selected regulated genes by qPCR. In order to investigate the main adaptations to growth in a cheese-mimicking system, we focused on 20 transcripts over-expressed in CB with respect to MRS. It is worth noting the presence of transcripts involved in the degradation of pyruvate and ribose. Pyruvate is a intracellular metabolite that can be produced through different metabolic routes starting from the carbon sources present in cheese, and can be released in the cheese matrix with the starter lysis. Similarly the ribonucleosides released with starter lysis could deliver ribose that represents a fermentable carbohydrate in environments, such as cheese, where free carbohydrates are lacking. Both pyruvate degradation and ribose catabolism induce a metabolite flux toward acetate, coupled with ATP production via acetate kinase. Taking into

  3. Role of Arginine 293 and Glutamine 288 in Communication between Catalytic and Allosteric Sites in Yeast Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Kaushal, Prem Singh; Wan, Qun; Wijerathna, Sanath R.; An, Xiuxiang; Huang, Mingxia; Dealwis, Chris Godfrey

    2012-11-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RRs) catalyze the rate-limiting step of de novo deoxynucleotide (dNTP) synthesis. Eukaryotic RRs consist of two proteins, RR1 ({alpha}) that contains the catalytic site and RR2 ({beta}) that houses a diferric-tyrosyl radical essential for ribonucleoside diphosphate reduction. Biochemical analysis has been combined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), X-ray crystallography and yeast genetics to elucidate the roles of two loop 2 mutations R293A and Q288A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae RR1 (ScRR1). These mutations, R293A and Q288A, cause lethality and severe S phase defects, respectively, in cells that use ScRR1 as the sole source of RR1 activity. Compared to the wild-type enzyme activity, R293A and Q288A mutants show 4% and 15%, respectively, for ADP reduction, whereas they are 20% and 23%, respectively, for CDP reduction. ITC data showed that R293A ScRR1 is unable to bind ADP and binds CDP with 2-fold lower affinity compared to wild-type ScRR1. With the Q288A ScRR1 mutant, there is a 6-fold loss of affinity for ADP binding and a 2-fold loss of affinity for CDP compared to the wild type. X-ray structures of R293A ScRR1 complexed with dGTP and AMPPNP-CDP [AMPPNP, adenosine 5-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate tetralithium salt] reveal that ADP is not bound at the catalytic site, and CDP binds farther from the catalytic site compared to wild type. Our in vivo functional analyses demonstrated that R293A cannot support mitotic growth, whereas Q288A can, albeit with a severe S phase defect. Taken together, our structure, activity, ITC and in vivo data reveal that the arginine 293 and glutamine 288 residues of ScRR1 are crucial in facilitating ADP and CDP substrate selection.

  4. Mw Spectroscopy Coupled with Ultrafast UV Laser Vaporization: {RIBOSE} Found in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocinero, Emilio J.; Ecija, Patricia; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Fernandez, Jose A.; Castano, Fernando; Lesarri, Alberto; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2012-06-01

    Sugars are aldoses or ketoses with multiple hydroxy groups which have been elusive to spectroscopic studies. Here we report a rotational study of the aldopentose ribose. According to any standard textbook aldopentoses can exhibit either linear forms, cyclic five-membered (furanose) structures or six-membered (pyranose) rings, occurring either as α- or β- anomers depending on the orientation of the hydroxy group at C-1 (anomeric carbon). β-Furanose is predominant in ribonucleosides, RNA, ATP and other biochemically relevant derivatives, but is β-furanose the native form also of free ribose? Recent condensed-phase X-ray and older NMR studies delivered conflicting results. In order to solve this question we conducted a microwave study on D-ribose that, owing to ultrafast UV laser vaporization, has become the first C-5 sugar observed with rotational resolution. The spectrum revealed six conformations of free ribose, preferentially adopting β-pyranose chairs as well as higher-energy α-pyranose forms. The method also allowed for unambiguous distinction between different orientations of the hydroxy groups, which stabilize the structures by cooperative hydrogen-bond networks. No evidence was observed of the α-/β-furanoses or linear forms found in the biochemical derivatives. i) D. Šišak, L. B. McCusker, G. Zandomeneghi, B. H. Meier, D. Bläser, R. Boese, W. B. Schweizer, R. Gylmour and J. D. Dunitz Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 4503, 2010. ii) W. Saenger Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 6487, 2010. i) M. Rudrum, and D. F. Shaw, J. Chem. Soc. 52, 1965. ii) R. U. Lemieux and J. D. Stevens Can. J. Chem. 44, 249, 1966. iii) E. Breitmaier and U. Hollstein Org. Magn. Reson. 8, 573, 1976. E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, F. J. Basterretxea, J. U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández and F. Castaño Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. in press: DOI: 10.1002/anie.201107973, 2012.

  5. EBV BART MicroRNAs Target Multiple Pro-apoptotic Cellular Genes to Promote Epithelial Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong; Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpesvirus that can give rise to cancers of both B-cell and epithelial cell origin. In EBV-induced cancers of epithelial origin, including nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and gastric carcinomas, the latent EBV genome expresses very high levels of a cluster of 22 viral pre-miRNAs, called the miR-BARTs, and these have previously been shown to confer a degree of resistance to pro-apoptotic drugs. Here, we present an analysis of the ability of individual miR-BART pre-miRNAs to confer an anti-apoptotic phenotype and report that five of the 22 miR-BARTs demonstrate this ability. We next used photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) to globally identify the mRNA targets bound by these miR-BARTs in latently infected epithelial cells. This led to the identification of ten mRNAs encoding pro-apoptotic mRNA targets, all of which could be confirmed as valid targets for the five anti-apoptotic miR-BARTs by indicator assays and by demonstrating that ectopic expression of physiological levels of the relevant miR-BART in the epithelial cell line AGS resulted in a significant repression of the target mRNA as well as the encoded protein product. Using RNA interference, we further demonstrated that knockdown of at least seven of these cellular miR-BART target transcripts phenocopies the anti-apoptotic activity seen upon expression of the relevant EBV miR-BART miRNA. Together, these observations validate previously published reports arguing that the miR-BARTs can exert an anti-apoptotic effect in EBV-infected epithelial cells and provide a mechanistic explanation for this activity. Moreover, these results identify and validate a substantial number of novel mRNA targets for the anti-apoptotic miR-BARTs. PMID:26070070

  6. Escherichia coli Fis and DnaA proteins bind specifically to the nrd promoter region and affect expression of an nrd-lac fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, L B; Jacobson, B A; Fuchs, J A

    1994-01-01

    The Escherichia coli nrd operon contains the genes encoding the two subunits of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. The regulation of the nrd operon has been observed to be very complex. The specific binding of two proteins to the nrd regulatory region and expression of mutant nrd-lac fusions that do not bind these proteins are described. A partially purified protein from an E. coli cell extract was previously shown to bind to the promoter region and to regulate transcription of the nrd operon (C. K. Tuggle and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 172:1711-1718, 1990). We have purified this protein to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and identified it as the E. coli factor for inversion stimulation (Fis). Cu-phenanthroline footprinting experiments showed that Fis binds to a site centered 156 bp upstream of the start of nrd transcription. Mutants with deletion and site-directed mutations that do not bind Fis at this site have two- to threefold-lower expression of an nrd-lac fusion. The previously reported negative regulatory nature of this site (C. K. Tuggle and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 172:1711-1718, 1990) was found to be due to a change in polarity in the vectors used to construct promoter fusions. Two nine-base sequences with homology to the DnaA consensus binding sequence are located immediately upstream of the nrd putative -35 RNA polymerase binding site. Binding of DnaA to these sequences on DNA fragments containing the nrd promoter region was confirmed by in vitro Cu-phenanthroline footprinting. Footprinting experiments on fragments with each as well as both of the mutated 9-mers suggests cooperativity between the two sites in binding DnaA. Assay of in vivo expression from wild-type and DnaA box-mutated nrd promoter fragments fused to lacZ on single-copy plasmids indicates a positive effect of DnaA binding on expression of nrd. Images PMID:8288532

  7. The Relative Reactivity of Deoxyribose and Ribose: Did DNA Come Before RNA?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    If it is assumed that there was a precursor to the ribose-phosphate backbone of RNA in the preRNA world (such as peptide nucleic acid), then the entry of various sugars into the genetic material may be related to the stability and non-enzymatic reactivity of the aldose. The rate of decomposition of 2-deoxyribose has been determined to be 1/3 that of ribose. In addition we have measured the amount of free aldehyde by H-1 and C-13 NMR and find that it has approximately 0.15% free aldehyde compared to 0.05% for ribose at 25 C. This suggests that deoxyribose would be significantly more reactive with early bases in the absence of enzymes. This is confirmed by urazole and deoxyribose reacting to form the deoxynucleoside 45 times faster as 25 C than urazole reacts with ribose to form the Ribonucleoside. Urazole is a potential precursor of uracil and is a plausible prebiotic compound which reacts with aldoses to form nucleosides. Thus the non-enzymatic reactivity of deoxyribose would favor its early use over ribose until enzymes could change the relative reactivities. Most of the reasons that RNA is presumed to have come before DNA are extrapolations back from contemporary metabolism (e.g. the abundance of ribose based coenzymes, the biosynthesis of histidine, deoxyribonucleotides are synthesized from ribonucleotides, etc.). It is very difficult to reconstruct biochemical pathways much before the last common ancestor, and it is even more difficult to do more than guess at the biochemistry of very early self-replicating systems. Thus we believe that these reasons are not compelling and that the non-enzymatic chemistry may be more important than enzymatic pathways for constructing the earliest of biochemical pathways. While the RNA world has been discussed at great length, there has not been an exploration of the transition out of the RNA world. We have constructed many possible schemes of genetic takeover events from preRNA to modern DNA, RNA, protein system which could

  8. The Crystal Structure of a Cardiovirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Reveals an Unusual Conformation of the Polymerase Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Vives-Adrian, Laia; Lujan, Celia; Oliva, Baldo; van der Linden, Lonneke; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a member of the Cardiovirus genus within the large Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for viral genome replication. In this study, we report the X-ray structures of two different crystal forms of the EMCV RdRp determined at 2.8- and 2.15-Å resolution. The in vitro elongation and VPg uridylylation activities of the purified enzyme have also been demonstrated. Although the overall structure of EMCV 3Dpol is shown to be similar to that of the known RdRps of other members of the Picornaviridae family, structural comparisons show a large reorganization of the active-site cavity in one of the crystal forms. The rearrangement affects mainly motif A, where the conserved residue Asp240, involved in ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) selection, and its neighbor residue, Phe239, move about 10 Å from their expected positions within the ribose binding pocket toward the entrance of the rNTP tunnel. This altered conformation of motif A is stabilized by a cation-π interaction established between the aromatic ring of Phe239 and the side chain of Lys56 within the finger domain. Other contacts, involving Phe239 and different residues of motif F, are also observed. The movement of motif A is connected with important conformational changes in the finger region flanked by residues 54 to 63, harboring Lys56, and in the polymerase N terminus. The structures determined in this work provide essential information for studies on the cardiovirus RNA replication process and may have important implications for the development of new antivirals targeting the altered conformation of motif A. IMPORTANCE The Picornaviridae family is one of the largest virus families known, including many important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for picornavirus genome replication and a validated

  9. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    perme-ation, even though it is non-negligibly populated in aqueous solution. The differences in free energy barrier between ribose and arabinose or xylose are due to stronger, highly cooperative, intramolecular interactions between consecutive exocyclic hydroxyl groups, which are stable in non-polar media, but rare in water. Most recently, we extended calculations of permeations to ribonucleosides and their anomers. We determined that, in contrast to sugars, permeation of membranes to these species is nearly identical. This is because sugars of nucleotides exist in the furanose rather than pyranose form. In this form intermolecular interactions between hydroxyl groups are not nearly as efficient for sterical reasons. Our results contribute to the discussion about autotrophic vs. heterotrophic origins of life. Chemical reactions inside protobiological vesicle required supply of organic material from the environment. What was the inventory of organics that must have been delivered to primitive cells is still being debated. According to the autotrophic hypothesis, ancestors of cells pro-duced complex organic molecules from simple substrates. In contrast, the heterotrophic model implies that protocells were able to utilize complex organics delivered from external sources. A possibility of sufficiently efficient uptake of molecules needed to build biopolymers provides an important argument supporting the heterotrophic hypothesis [3]. Viewed in the context of the "RNA world" hypothesis [4], which states that RNA molecules were the first biological poly-mers and acted as both catalysts of biochemical reactions and information storage systems, our results demonstrate that, in the absence of sophisticated mechanisms available to contemporary organisms for achieving selectivity during synthesis and transmembrane transport, preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might have provided a kinetic mechanism that favored its selective incorporation into nucleic acids and

  10. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    neurodevelopmental disorders. In the context of neural differentiation, Martine Uittenbogaard and Anne Chiaramello (Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, USA) [7] thoroughly describe the implication of mitochondrial biogenesis on neuronal differentiation, its timing, its regulation by specific signaling pathways and new potential therapeutic strategies. The maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for neuronal development. A mitochondrial dynamic balance is necessary between mitochondrial fusion, fission and quality control systems and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concerning the signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis this review highlights the implication of different regulators such as AMPK, SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, etc. on the specific case of neuronal development, providing examples of diseases in which these pathways are altered and transgenic mouse models lacking these regulators. A common hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases (Huntington´s Disease, Alzheimer´s Disease and Parkinson´s Disease) is the impaired function or expression of PGC-1α, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Among the promising strategies to ameliorate mitochondrial-based diseases these authors highlight the induction of PGC-1α via activation of PPAR receptors (rosiglitazone, bezafibrate) or modulating its activity by AMPK (AICAR, metformin, resveratrol) or SIRT1 (SRT1720 and several isoflavone-derived compounds). This article also presents a review of the current animal and cellular models useful to study mitochondriogenesis. Although it is known that many neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases are originated in mitochondria, the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has never been extensively studied. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:24606795