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Sample records for 5-aminosalicylic acid enhance

  1. Metronidazole and 5-aminosalicylic acid enhance the contractile activity of histaminergic agonists on the guinea-pig isolated ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Winbery, S.L.; Barker, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of metronidazole and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on histamine receptor-effector systems in the small intestine and right atrium of the guinea pig were studied. In an apparently all-or-none manner, both caused a sinistral shift in dose-response curves for the phasic component of the contractile response to histamine at H1 receptors on the ileum. In the presence of either, the EC50 value for histamine was reduced from 0.07 to about 0.03 microM. Similarly, in an apparently all-or-none fashion, both produced an elevation in the dose-response curve for the actions of dimaprit at H2-receptors in the ileum; the response to all doses was increased about 30% with no significant change in the EC50 value. Metronidazole and 5-ASA did not alter dose-response curves for the tonic contractile response to histamine or curves generated by the cumulative addition of histamine. Also, neither altered the positive chronotropic response on isolated right atria or the phasic contractile response on isolated segments of jejunum and duodenum to histamine or dimaprit. Likewise, neither altered dose-response curves for the direct action of carbamylcholine at muscarinic receptors or for the indirect actions of dimethylphenylpiperazinium on the ileum. The effects of 5-ASA or metronidazole on the response to histamine could be prevented as well as reversed by scopolamine or tetrodotoxin. The results suggest that metronidazole and 5-ASA enhance the actions of histamine and dimaprit on the ileum by an action on myenteric plexus neurons.

  2. Radical-derived oxidation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Klotz, U

    1994-11-04

    5-Aminosalicylic acid is an agent effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Its ability to scavenge radicals is considered to be a major factor responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. In this study oxidation products of aminosalicylates with hydroxyl radicals were produced. The compounds that could be discovered by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis originate from a 1,4-benzoquinone monoimine intermediate which subsequently undergoes multiple reactions such as hydrolysis, reductive 1,4-Michael addition, reoxidation and decarboxylation. Some of these products could represent metabolites formed under in vivo conditions and thus provide a tool for screening biological material from subjects under different clinical conditions.

  3. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Burcak; Ozer, Digdem; Akdogan, Meral; Ozaslan, Ersan; Yuksel, Osman

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control. CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain. PMID:18567081

  4. 5-Aminosalicylic acid protection against oxidative damage to synaptosomal membranes by alkoxyl radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kanski, J; Lauderback, C; Butterfield, D A

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of 5-aminosalicylic acid in vitro were evaluated in a synaptosomal membrane system prepared from gerbil cortical synaptosomes using EPR spin labeling and spectroscopic techniques. MAL-6 (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-maleimidopiperidin-1-oxyl) and 5-NS (5-nitroxide stearate) spin labels were used to assess changes in protein oxidation and membrane lipid fluidity, respectively. Synaptosomal membranes were subjected to oxidative stress by incubation with 1 mM azo-bis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) or 1 mM 2,2'-azobis(amidino propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes. The EPR analyses of the samples showed significant oxidation of synaptosomal proteins and a decrease in membrane fluidity. 5-Aminosalicylic acid also was evaluated by means of FRAP (the ferric reducing ability of plasma) test as a potential antioxidant. 5-Aminosalicylic acid also showed protection against the oxidation in gerbil cortical synaptosomes system caused by AIBN and AAPH. These results are consistent with the notion of antioxidant protection against free radical induced oxidative stress in synaptosomal membrane system by this agent.

  5. Reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with peroxyl radicals: protection and recovery by ascorbic acid and amino acids.

    PubMed

    López-Alarcón, Camilo; Rocco, Claudia; Lissi, Eduardo; Carrasco, Catalina; Squella, J Arturo; Nuñez-Vergara, Luis; Speisky, Hernan

    2005-10-01

    The aims of the study are to analyze the interaction between 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and peroxyl radicals and to evaluate the effect of some endogenous compounds such as ascorbic acid and amino acids on the oxidation of 5-ASA induced by 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. The consumption and/or the recovery of 5-ASA (7.6 microM) exposed to a peroxyl radical source [2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)] was followed by techniques such as spectrofluorescence, high-performance liquid chromatography, and differential pulse voltammetry. 5-Aminosalicylic acid was found to readily react with peroxyl radicals at micromolar concentrations and to protect c-Phycocyanin in a very similar fashion to that shown by Trolox. Exposure of 5-ASA to peroxyl radicals led to its oxidation into the corresponding quinone-imine. Disappearance of 5-ASA was prevented by tryptophan, cysteine, glutathione, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, some of these compounds induced the partial (cysteine and glutathione) or total (ascorbic acid) recovery of 5-ASA when added after its almost total consumption. 5-Aminosalicylic acid is a very efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. The 5-ASA oxidation by peroxyl radicals was prevented by ascorbic acid, cysteine, and glutathione. In addition, 5-ASA can be regenerated by these endogenous compounds, which would be a valuable mechanism to preserve 5-ASA in tissues undergoing oxidative stress conditions.

  6. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

  7. Release of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA) from Mesalamine Formulations at Various pH Levels.

    PubMed

    Abinusawa, Adeyinka; Tenjarla, Srini

    2015-05-01

    Oral formulations of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for treatment of ulcerative colitis have been developed to minimize absorption prior to the drug reaching the colon. In this study, we investigate the release of 5-ASA from available oral mesalamine formulations in physiologically relevant pH conditions. Release of 5-ASA from 6 mesalamine formulations (APRISO®, Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., USA; ASACOL® MR, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd.; ASACOL® HD, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, USA; MEZAVANT XL®, Shire US Inc.; PENTASA®, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., UK; SALOFALK®, Dr. Falk Pharma UK Ltd.) was evaluated using United States Pharmacopeia apparatus I and II at pH values of 1.0 (2 h), 6.0 (1 h), and 6.8 (8 h). Dissolution profiles were determined for each formulation, respectively. Of the tested formulations, only the PENTASA formulation demonstrated release of 5-ASA at pH 1.0 (48%), with 56% cumulative release after exposure to pH 6.0 and 92% 5-ASA release after 6-8 h at pH 6.8. No other mesalamine formulation showed >1% drug release at pH 1.0. The APRISO formulation revealed 36% 5-ASA release at pH 6.0, with 100% release after 3 h at pH 6.8. The SALOFALK formulation revealed 11% 5-ASA release at pH 6.0, with 100% release after 1 h at pH 6.8. No 5-ASA was released by the ASACOL MR, ASACOL HD, and MEZAVANT XL formulations at pH 6.0. At pH 6.8, the ASACOL MR and ASACOL HD formulations exhibited complete release of 5-ASA after 4 and 2 h, respectively, and the MEZAVANT XL formulation demonstrated complete 5-ASA release over 6-7 h. 5-Aminosalicylic acid release profiles were variable among various commercially available formulations. Shire Development LLC.

  8. Dextran and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) conjugates: synthesis, characterisation and enzymic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shavej; Tester, Richard F; Corbett, Alistair; Karkalas, John

    2006-11-27

    Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Crohn's disease. A scheme for the synthesis of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) conjugates of dextrans was developed with a focus on Crohn's disease applications. Dextrans were oxidised using sodium periodate (NaIO(4)), where the aldehyde groups formed were coupled with the alpha-amino (-NH(2)) group of 5-ASA. The resulting imine bonds were unstable in water and were consequently reduced to secondary amine groups. The effects of different aspects of the conjugation reaction were studied. These included the following: the molecular weight of the dextrans, the molar proportion of NaIO(4) to the dextrans (for periodate oxidation), the pH of the conjugation solutions, the ratio 5-ASA to oxidised polysaccharide and the relationship between the degree of conjugation and the amount of enzyme hydrolysis. Conjugates incubated in HCl were stable in 0.5 and 1.0M HCl, but they underwent degradation in 2.0 and 4.0M HCl. Dextrans (MW 20,000) with various degrees of oxidation (12%, 26%, 46%, 65%, 90% and 93%) were also prepared. Each oxidised dextran sample was conjugated with 5-ASA, and the product was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dextrans with a maximum degree of oxidation (93%) unsurprisingly gave maximum conjugation of 5-ASA (49.1mg per 100mg of product) but were resistant to dextranase hydrolysis. Less oxidised dextrans (12%) conjugated proportionally less 5-ASA (15.1mg per 100mg of product) but were successfully hydrolysed by dextranase, suggesting their potential applications for the treatment of Crohn's disease in the distal ileum and proximal colon.

  9. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging.

    PubMed

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper; Boetker, Johan Peter; Wittendorff, Jørgen; Rantanen, Jukka; Østergaard, Jesper

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid extrudates were film coated with ethyl cellulose in a typical lab system coater equipped with one Wurster partition. Dissolution testing was performed first in a conventional paddle dissolution apparatus and second, in a flow through geometry equipped with a UV imaging system. Selected film coated extrudates from four different coating levels were placed in agarose gels and UV imaging was performed for a total of 240 min. Absorbance maps were obtained thus visualizing the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid over time and it was possible to detect a decrease in release as a function of increased ethyl cellulose coating weight gain. Using a calibration curve the released amount was calculated and the individual release profiles for each coating weight gain in general resulted in comparable release profiles. Furthermore, the release profiles were consistent with the dissolution results obtained from the paddle dissolution testing. The release from defect extrudates was visualized by the absorbance maps and the release was highest from the compromised part of the extrudates. UV imaging has proven to be a useful technique to visualize the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single film coated extrudates and it has potential for detection of film coating defects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Importance of the evaluation of N-acetyltransferase enzyme activity prior to 5-aminosalicylic acid medication for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Matthis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Bin; Denson, Lee A.; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Aihara, Eitaro; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2016-01-01

    Background 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a classic anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. N-Acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes convert 5-ASA to its metabolite N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid (Ac-5-ASA) and it is unresolved whether 5-ASA or Ac-5-ASA is the effective therapeutic molecule. We previously demonstrated that colonic production of Ac-5-ASA (NAT activity) is decreased in Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Our hypothesis is that 5-ASA is the therapeutic molecule to improve colitis, with the corollary that altered NAT activity affects drug efficacy. Since varying clinical effectiveness of 5-ASA has been reported, we also ask if NAT activity varies with inflammation in pediatric or adult patients. Method Acute colonic inflammation was induced in C57BL/6 NAT wild-type (WT) or knockout (KO) mice, using 3.5 % DSS (w/v) concurrent with 5-ASA treatment. Adult and pediatric rectosigmoid biopsies were collected from control or ulcerative colitis patients. Tissue was analyzed for NAT and myeloperoxidase activity. Results DSS induced colitis was of similar severity in both NAT WT and KO mice, and NAT activity was significantly decreased in NAT WT mice. In the setting of colitis, 5-ASA significantly restored colon length and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in NAT KO, but not WT mice. Myeloperoxidase activity negatively correlated with NAT activity in pediatric patients, but correlation was not observed in adult patients. Conclusions Inflammation decreases NAT activity in colon of mice and human pediatric patients. Decreased NAT activity enhances the therapeutic effect of 5-ASA in mice. A NAT activity assay could be useful to help predict the efficacy of 5-ASA therapy. PMID:27416043

  11. 5-Aminosalicylic acid attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthma.

    PubMed

    Raju, K Rama Satyanarayana; Kumar, M N Sathish; Gupta, Saurabh; Naga, Srinivas T; Shankar, Jaya K; Murthy, Vishakantha; Madhunapanthula, Subba Rao V; Mulukutla, Shashank; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Tummala, Shashank; Vishnuvarthan, V J; Azam, Afzal; Elango, Kannan

    2014-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate the magnitude of allergic reactions during asthma. Tumor necrosis factor--alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) play a crucial role in aggravating the inflammatory conditions during allergic asthma. In addition, oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma by altering the physiological condition resulting in the development of status asthmaticus. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids are being widely used for treating allergic asthma. In the present study 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a salicylic acid derivative, was evaluated, in vivo for its potential to suppress TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 using ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic asthma in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of 65, 130 and 195 mg/kg 5-ASA significantly reduced the OVA induced total and differential leucocyte count, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13, nitrite, nitrate, MDA, MPO and TPL levels in the lung lavage samples. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-ASA is a potent immunomodulator and suppresses key Th2 cytokines production and oxidative stress in OVA-induced asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibits Acute Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits toxin A-induced generation of colonic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and toxin A colitis in rats. Isolated colonic segments in anesthetized rats were treated intraluminally with toxin A for 3 hours with or without 30 minutes of pretreatment with either 5-ASA or sulfapyridine and then colonic tissue levels of LTB4 were measured and inflammation was assessed. Separately, sulfasalazine was administered to rats in their drinking water for 5 days, isolated colonic segments were then prepared, toxin A was administered, and inflammation was assessed as before. Pretreatment with 5-ASA inhibited toxin A-induced increased tissue LTB4 concentration in the colon. Sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not sulfapyridine significantly inhibited toxin A colitis. However, pretreatment with 5-ASA did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by capsaicin. Toxin A stimulated the release of substance P (SP), and this effect was also inhibited by sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not by sulfapyridine. Thus, toxin A stimulates colonic LTB4 resulting in activation of TRPV1, release of SP, and colitis. Inhibition of 5-LO by 5-ASA disrupts this pathway and supports the concept that LTB4 activation of TRPV1 plays a role in toxin A colitis.

  13. Optimizing clinical use of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Chadwick; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Rioux, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Mesalazine [5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)] has been used for over 30 years in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is a highly effective, safe, and well-tolerated drug for treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, which represents most patients with this disease. Recent studies of patient adherence to 5-ASA therapies in ulcerative colitis have highlighted the need for regimens that enable long-term compliance to significantly reduce the risk of troublesome and debilitating flares in the short term, and possibly colon cancer in the long term. Indeed, much of the recent innovation in clinical use of 5-ASA in colitis has come from studies of novel delivery mechanisms and simplified oral dosing schedules. These studies have provided much needed clarity on essential matters such as starting dose, dose escalation, and efficacy in terms of the ideal clinical endpoint - mucosal healing. Various manufacturers are re-evaluating their products to determine the safety and efficacy of such dosing regimens. Although once widely employed in the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD), the accumulated body of evidence now suggests that there is a much more limited role for 5-ASA in this particular form of inflammatory bowel disease. Recent 5-ASA randomized-controlled trials, comparative studies, and outcomes research have led to refined treatment strategies and awareness for practitioners to better inform, engage and facilitate patients in optimal use of 5-ASA in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21765868

  14. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibits Acute Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vigna, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits toxin A-induced generation of colonic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and toxin A colitis in rats. Isolated colonic segments in anesthetized rats were treated intraluminally with toxin A for 3 hours with or without 30 minutes of pretreatment with either 5-ASA or sulfapyridine and then colonic tissue levels of LTB4 were measured and inflammation was assessed. Separately, sulfasalazine was administered to rats in their drinking water for 5 days, isolated colonic segments were then prepared, toxin A was administered, and inflammation was assessed as before. Pretreatment with 5-ASA inhibited toxin A-induced increased tissue LTB4 concentration in the colon. Sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not sulfapyridine significantly inhibited toxin A colitis. However, pretreatment with 5-ASA did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by capsaicin. Toxin A stimulated the release of substance P (SP), and this effect was also inhibited by sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not by sulfapyridine. Thus, toxin A stimulates colonic LTB4 resulting in activation of TRPV1, release of SP, and colitis. Inhibition of 5-LO by 5-ASA disrupts this pathway and supports the concept that LTB4 activation of TRPV1 plays a role in toxin A colitis. PMID:25045574

  15. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajeh, Nisreen A; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M

    2017-02-01

    To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out.  Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats.  Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E.

  16. Comparison of bismuth citrate and 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in distal ulcerative colitis: a controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, R D; Ganesh, S; Mani, V; Morris, J; Evans, B K; Williams, G T; Rhodes, J

    1993-01-01

    An enema that contained a complex of bismuth citrate and polyacrylate was compared with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) enemas for treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. The multicentre trial involving 63 patients was randomised and double blind with enemas given over four weeks; clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological assessments were made. Improvements were seen in both treatment groups. Clinical remission was seen in 18 of 32 patients treated with 5-ASA and 12 of 31 patients treated with bismuth citrate-carbomer (chi 2 1.94; p = 0.16). Sigmoidoscopic remission occurred in 20 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 15 of 31 patients given bismuth (chi 2 1.27; p = 0.26). Improvement of rectal biopsy histology by at least one grade was seen in 16 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 14 of 31 patients with bismuth (chi 2 0.15; p = 0.70). Analysis of covariance gave no significant difference between groups, although there was a trend favouring 5-ASA. There was no evidence of bismuth accumulation during the trial. Bismuth enemas may offer a new therapeutic option in distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:8504970

  17. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  18. 5-aminosalicylic acid in combination with nimesulide inhibits proliferation of colon carcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hai-Ming; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Ma, Wei-Juan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in combination with nimesulide on the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Inhibitory effects of drugs (5-ASA, nimesulide and their combination) on HT-29 colon carcinoma cells were investigated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular apoptosis and proliferation were detected by TUNEL assay and immunocytochemical staining, respectively. RESULTS: Pretreatment with 5-ASA or nimesulide at the concentration of 10-1000 μmol/L inhibited proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (t = 5.122, P < 0.05; t = 3.086, P < 0.05, respectively). The inhibition rate of HT-29 colon carcinoma cell proliferation was also increased when pretreated with 5-ASA (100 μmol/L) or nimesulide (100 μmol/L) for 12-96 h, which showed an obvious time-effect relationship (t = 6.149, P < 0.05; t = 4.159, P < 0.05, respectively). At the concentration of 10-500 μmol/L, the apoptotic rate of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells significantly increased (t = 18.156, P < 0.001; t = 19.983, P < 0.001, respectively), while expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was remarkably decreased (t = 6.828, P < 0.05; t = 14.024, P < 0.05, respectively). 5-ASA in combination with nimesulide suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells more than either of these agents in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (t = 5.448, P < 0.05; t = 4.428, P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: 5-ASA and nimesulide may inhibit the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and coadministration of these agents may have additional chemopreventive potential. PMID:17569127

  19. New Genetic Biomarkers Predicting Azathioprine Blood Concentrations in Combination Therapy with 5-Aminosalicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Takagi, Tomohisa; Iwamoto, Yasunori; Kondo, Norihiko; Okayama, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naohisa; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Handa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Sakagami, Junichi; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. AZA is catabolized by thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), which exhibits genetic polymorphisms. It has also been reported that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits TPMT activity, and that increased 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN, a metabolite of AZA) blood concentrations result in an increased number of ADRs. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to differential gene expression affecting AZA drug metabolism in combination therapy with 5-ASA were examined. Methods To identify genetic biomarkers for the prediction of 6-TGN blood concentration, ExpressGenotyping analysis was used. ExpressGenotyping analysis is able to detect critical pharmacogenetic SNPs by analyzing drug-induced expression allelic imbalance (EAI) of premature RNA in HapMap lymphocytes. We collected blood samples on 38 patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with AZA and corroboration of the obtained SNPs was attempted in clinical samples. Results A large number of SNPs with AZA/5-ASA-induced EAI within the investigated HapMap lymphocytes was identified by ExpressGenotyping analysis. The respective SNPs were analyzed in IBD patients' blood samples. Among these SNPs, several that have not yet been described to be induced by AZA/5-ASA were found. SNPs within SLC38A9 showed a particular correlation with patients' 6-TGN blood concentrations. Conclusions Based on these results, ExpressGenotyping analysis and genotyping of patients appears to be a useful way to identify inter-individual differences in drug responses and ADRs to AZA/5-ASA. This study provides helpful information on genetic biomarkers for optimized AZA/5-ASA treatment of IBD patients. PMID:24762746

  20. Acute murine colitis reduces colonic 5-aminosalicylic acid metabolism by regulation of N-acetyltransferase-2

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Alcántara, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy based on 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a preferred treatment for ulcerative colitis, but variable patient response to this therapy is observed. Inflammation can affect therapeutic outcomes by regulating the expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; its effect on 5-ASA metabolism by the colonic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzyme isoforms is not firmly established. We examined if inflammation affects the capacity for colonic 5-ASA metabolism and NAT enzyme expression. 5-ASA metabolism by colonic mucosal homogenates was directly measured with a novel fluorimetric rate assay. 5-ASA metabolism reported by the assay was dependent on Ac-CoA, inhibited by alternative NAT substrates (isoniazid, p-aminobenzoylglutamate), and saturable with Km (5-ASA) = 5.8 μM. A mouse model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis caused pronounced inflammation in central and distal colon, and modest inflammation of proximal colon, defined by myeloperoxidase activity and histology. DSS colitis reduced capacity for 5-ASA metabolism in central and distal colon segments by 52 and 51%, respectively. Use of selective substrates of NAT isoforms to inhibit 5-ASA metabolism suggested that mNAT2 mediated 5-ASA metabolism in normal and colitis conditions. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR identified that proximal and distal mucosa had a decreased mNAT2 protein-to-mRNA ratio after DSS. In conclusion, an acute colonic inflammation impairs the expression and function of mNAT2 enzyme, thereby diminishing the capacity for 5-ASA metabolism by colonic mucosa. PMID:24742986

  1. Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

  2. Toxicity of 50-nm polystyrene particles co-administered to mice with acetaminophen, 5-aminosalicylic acid or tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Isoda, K; Nozawa, T; Tezuka, M; Ishida, I

    2014-09-01

    We investigated whether nano-sized polystyrene particles affect drug-induced toxicity. The particles, which are widely used industrially, had diameters of 50 (NPP50), 200 (NPP200) or 1000 (NPP1000) nm. The toxic chemicals tested were acetaminophen (APAP), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), tetracycline (TC), and sodium valproate (VPA). All treatments in the absence of the nanoparticles were non-lethal and did not result in severe toxicity. However, when mice were injected with APAP, 5-ASA or TC together with polystyrene particles, synergistic, enhanced toxicity was observed in mice injected with NPP50. These synergic effects were not observed in mice co-injected with NPP200 or NPP1000. On the other hand, co-administration of VPA and NPP50, NPP200 or NPP1000 did not elevate toxicity. The results show that NPP50 differs in hepatotoxicity depending on the drug co-administered. These findings suggest that further evaluation of the interactions between polystyrene nanoparticles and drugs is a critical prerequisite to the pharmaceutical application of nanotechnology.

  3. Radiographic and endoscopic regression of metastatic gastric cancer to the colon in the setting of 5-aminosalicylic acid use

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Shannon J.; Zhang, Xuefeng; Jaffe, Tracy; Shimpi, Rahul A.

    2016-01-01

    Colonic metastases from gastric cancer are a rare phenomenon and sparsely reported in the literature. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with vague abdominal symptoms and initial computer tomography (CT) imaging suggestive of a colonic apple-core lesion with serial colonoscopic biopsies diagnostic of metastatic signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma. This case is unique given the evolving CT and endoscopic findings that suggested a regression in colonic wall thickening in the setting of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) use prior to histologic diagnosis. PMID:28078130

  4. Epstein-Barr virus is related with 5-aminosalicylic acid, tonsillectomy, and CD19+ cells in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Ballester, Juan C; Gil-Borrás, Rafael; García-Ballesteros, Carlos; Catalán-Serra, Ignacio; Amigo, Victoria; Fernández-Fígares, Virgina; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG antibodies in Crohn´s disease in relation to treatment, immune cells, and prior tonsillectomy/appendectomy. METHODS: This study included 36 CD patients and 36 healthy individuals (controls), and evaluated different clinical scenarios (new patient, remission and active disease), previous mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue removal (tonsillectomy and appendectomy) and therapeutic regimens (5-aminosalicylic acid, azathioprine, anti-tumor necrosis factor, antibiotics, and corticosteroids). T and B cells subsets in peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry (markers included: CD45, CD4, CD8, CD3, CD19, CD56, CD2, CD3, TCRαβ and TCRγδ) to relate with the levels of anti-EBV IgG antibodies, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The lowest anti-EBV IgG levels were observed in the group of patients that were not in a specific treatment (95.4 ± 53.9 U/mL vs 131.5 ± 46.2 U/mL, P = 0.038). The patients that were treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid showed the highest anti-EBV IgG values (144.3 U/mL vs 102.6 U/mL, P = 0.045). CD19+ cells had the largest decrease in the group of CD patients that received treatment (138.6 vs 223.9, P = 0.022). The analysis of anti-EBV IgG with respect to the presence or absence of tonsillectomy showed the highest values in the tonsillectomy group of CD patients (169.2 ± 20.7 U/mL vs 106.1 ± 50.3 U/mL, P = 0.002). However, in the group of healthy controls, no differences were seen between those who had been tonsillectomized and subjects who had not been operated on (134.0 ± 52.5 U/mL vs 127.7 ± 48.1 U/mL, P = 0.523). CONCLUSION: High anti-EBV IgG levels in CD are associated with 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment, tonsillectomy, and decrease of CD19+ cells. PMID:25914477

  5. [Effectiveness of new, once-daily 5-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Péter László; Lakatos, László

    2009-03-01

    5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agents remain the mainstay treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC). A number of oral 5-ASA agents is commercially available, including azo-bond pro-drugs such as sulfasalazine, olsalazine and balsalazide, and delayed- and controlled-release forms of mesalazine. In addition, the effectiveness of oral therapy relies on good compliance, which may be adversely affected by frequent daily dosing and a large number of tablets. Furthermore, poor adherence has been shown to be an important barrier to successful management of patients with UC. Recently, new, once-daily formulations of mesalazine including the unique multi-matrix delivery system and mesalazine granules were proven to be efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in mild-to-moderate UC, with a good safety profile comparable to that of other oral mesalazine formulations. In addition, they offer the advantage of low pill burden and may contribute to increased long-term compliance and treatment success in clinical practice and might potentially further contribute to a decline in the risk for UC-associated colon cancers. In this systematic review, the authors summarize the available literature on the short- and medium-term efficacy and safety of the new once-daily mesalazine formulations.

  6. Once daily 5-aminosalicylic acid for the treatment of ulcerative colitis; are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agents remain the mainstay treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC). A number of oral 5-ASA agents are commercially available, including azo-bond pro-drugs such as sulfasalazine, olsalazine and balsalazide, and delayed- and controlled-release forms of mesalazine. In addition, the effectiveness of oral therapy relies on good compliance, which may be adversely affected by frequent daily dosing and a large number of tablets. Furthermore, poor adherence has been shown to be an important barrier to successful management of patients with UC. Recently, new, once daily formulations of mesalazine including the unique multi-matrix delivery system and mesalazine granules were proven to be efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in mild-to-moderate UC, with a good safety profile comparable to that of other oral mesalazine formulations. In addition, they offer the advantage of low pill burden and may contribute to increased long-term compliance and treatment success in clinical practice and might potentially further contribute to a decline in the risk for UC-associated colon cancers. In this systematic review, the authors summarize the available literature on the short- and medium-term efficacy and safety of the new once daily mesalazine formulations.

  7. Obtaining the palygorskite:chitosan composite for modified release of 5-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana Cristina Sousa Gramoza Vilarinho; Sobrinho, José Lamartine Soares; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da; Nunes, Livio Cesar Cunha

    2017-04-01

    This study's aim was to obtain composites from palygorskite (PLG) and chitosan (CS) in order to modify 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) release. Initially, the PLG:CS composite was obtained using glutaraldehyde (GLA) as a reticular agent. Then, PLG, CS and PLG:CS were characterized by means of analytical techniques such as CHN elemental analysis, surface area analysis, XRD, FTIR, DSC and TG, SEM, adsorption tests and release profiles. Based on analytical data, the formation of the PLG:CS composite which showed the presence about 19% of CS, decrease in specific surface area, morphological analysis modified, visible change of crystallinity, of FTIR and thermal analysis. In relation to the drug-composite interaction, PLG:CS exhibited a significant increase in adsorption with 5-ASA at 58.24% in relation to PLG and CS which were at 16.29% and 23.96% respectively. The release profiles show that the PLG:CS composite changed the 5-ASA release speed in analyzed simulated fluids (intestinal and stomach) unlike other systems. Thus, the PLG:CS composite with proven synergy of the PLG and CS inherent properties showing 5-ASA effective modified release. Hence, this composite has potential benefits for the vectorization of drugs.

  8. A validated HPLC method with electrochemical detection for simultaneous assay of 5-aminosalicylic acid and its metabolite in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Giancarlo; Bacchi, Simona; Primavera, Luisa; Palumbo, Paola; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2005-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed, validated and applied to the simultaneous determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and its acetylated metabolite (acetyl-5-ASA) in human plasma. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction with methanol followed by isocratic reversed-phase chromatography on a Kromasil KR100 C(18) column with electrochemical detection. The recovery, selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated from spiked human plasma samples. The effects of mobile phase composition, buffer concentration, mobile phase pH and concentration of organic modifiers on retention of 5-ASA, acetyl 5-ASA and internal standard were investigated. Limits' of detection were 5 ng/mL for 5-ASA and 10 ng/mL for acetyl-5-ASA, respectively. The method can be used for supporting therapeutical drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies.

  9. Effect of 70-nm silica particles on the toxicity of acetaminophen, tetracycline, trazodone, and 5-aminosalicylic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Kondoh, M; Watari, A; Hasezaki, T; Isoda, K; Tsutsumi, Y; Yagi, K

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to nano-sized particles is increasing because they are used in a wide variety of industrial products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Some animal studies indicate that such nanomaterials may have some toxicity, but their synergistic actions on the adverse effects of drugs are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether 70-nm silica particles (nSP70), which are widely used in cosmetics and drug delivery, affect the toxicity of a drug for inflammatory bowel disease (5-aminosalicylic acid), an antibiotic drug (tetracycline), an antidepressant drug (trazodone), and an antipyretic drug (acetaminophen) in mice. Co-administration of nSP70 with trazodone did not increase a biochemical marker of liver injury. In contrast, co-administration increased the hepatotoxicity of the other drugs. Co-administration of nSP70 and tetracycline was lethal. These findings indicate that evaluation of synergistic adverse effects is important for the application of nano-sized materials.

  10. A magnetic organic-inorganic composite: Synthesis and characterization of magnetic 5-aminosalicylic acid intercalated layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui . E-mail: huizhang67@gst21.com; Zou Kang; Sun Hui; Duan Xue . E-mail: duanx@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2005-11-15

    A core-shell structured magnetic layered organic-inorganic material involving 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) is assembled by a coprecipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction results show the coexistence of the clear but weak diffractions of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ordered relatively stronger reflections of 5-ASA intercalated LDHs. The TEM image of magnetic 5-ASA intercalated LDHs reveals that the LDHs layer covers the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles or their aggregates with particle size of 50-80 nm. The vibration sample magnetization (VSM) measurements exhibit the increase in saturation magnetization of magnetic 5-ASA intercalated LDHs samples with increasing amount of magnetic core. The XPS analyses account for a majority of Zn, Al and O atoms on the surface of magnetic particles. It is suggested that the magnetic core MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was coated with LDHs layer probably through Zn-O-Mg and Al-O-Mg linkages, and a core-shell structured model is tentatively proposed.

  11. Pre-clinical toxicity of a combination of berberine and 5-aminosalicylic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Man; Fu, Hai-Bo; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that a combination of alternative medicine berberine and conventional 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) showed promise to be a novel therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC). This present study aims to sketch the pre-clinical toxicity profile of this combination (1:10 dose ratio) on mice. In acute toxicity test, the determined median lethal dose (LD50) was 278.7 mg/kg berberine plus 2787 mg/kg 5-ASA. The results from subacute toxicity test demonstrated that no toxic signs of clinical symptoms, no significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were detected in mice treated with 14 + 140, 28 + 280 or 56 + 560 mg/kg of berberine plus 5-ASA treatment. Histological examinations revealed that accompanied with an increase in spleen weight, frequently recorded enlargement and white pulp hyperplasia of spleen were detected in mice when exposed to three doses of combination treatments. Further in vitro assessment suggested that the spleen toxicity was originated from berberine by its inhibition in cell viability and cell proliferation of lymphocytes. The results of this study indicate that the combination of berberine and 5-ASA shows a slight toxic effect on spleen, suggesting that this combination should be used with caution for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal antiinflammatory effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Christel; Lefebvre, Bruno; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Lefebvre, Philippe; Romano, Olivier; Auwerx, Johan; Metzger, Daniel; Wahli, Walter; Desvergne, Béatrice; Naccari, Gian Carlo; Chavatte, Philippe; Farce, Amaury; Bulois, Philippe; Cortot, Antoine; Colombel, Jean Frédéric; Desreumaux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an antiinflammatory drug widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. It is known to inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators, but the mechanism underlying the intestinal effects of 5-ASA remains unknown. Based on the common activities of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands and 5-ASA, we hypothesized that this nuclear receptor mediates 5-ASA therapeutic action. To test this possibility, colitis was induced in heterozygous PPAR-γ+/− mice and their wild-type littermates, which were then treated with 5-ASA. 5-ASA treatment had a beneficial effect on colitis only in wild-type and not in heterozygous mice. In epithelial cells, 5-ASA increased PPAR-γ expression, promoted its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and induced a modification of its conformation permitting the recruitment of coactivators and the activation of a peroxisome-proliferator response element–driven gene. Validation of these results was obtained with organ cultures of human colonic biopsies. These data identify PPAR-γ as a target of 5-ASA underlying antiinflammatory effects in the colon. PMID:15824083

  13. Transintestinal transport mechanisms of 5-aminosalicylic acid (in situ rat intestine perfusion, Caco-2 cells) and Biopharmaceutics Classification System.

    PubMed

    Smetanová, Libuše; Stětinová, Věra; Kholová, Dagmar; Kuneš, Martin; Nobilis, Milan; Svoboda, Zbyněk; Květina, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to estimate permeability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), 2) to categorize 5-ASA according to BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System), and 3) to contribute to determination of 5-ASA transintestinal transport and biotransformation mechanisms. The in situ rat intestine perfusion was used as an initial method to study 5-ASA transport. The amount of 5-ASA (released from tablet) transferred into portal circulation reached 5.79 ± 0.24%. During this transport, the intestinal formation of 5-ASA main metabolite (N-ac-5-ASA) occurred. N-ac-5-ASA was found in perfusate both from intestinal lumen and from v. portae. In in vitro Caco-2 monolayers, transport of 5-ASA (10-1000 µmol/l) was studied in apical-basolateral and basolateral-apical direction (iso-pH 7.4 conditions). The transport of total 5-ASA (parent drug plus intracellularly formed N-ac-5-ASA) was linear with time, concentration- and direction-dependent. Higher basolateral-apical (secretory) transport was mainly caused by higher transport of the metabolite (suggesting metabolite efflux transport). Transport of 5-ASA (only parent drug) was saturable (transepithelial carrier-mediated) at low doses, dominated by passive, paracellular process in higher doses which was confirmed by increased 5-ASA transport using Ca2+-free transport medium. The estimated low 5-ASA permeability and its low solubility enable to classify 5-ASA as BCS class IV.

  14. A magnetic organic inorganic composite: Synthesis and characterization of magnetic 5-aminosalicylic acid intercalated layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zou, Kang; Sun, Hui; Duan, Xue

    2005-11-01

    A core-shell structured magnetic layered organic-inorganic material involving 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and magnesium ferrite (MgFe 2O 4) is assembled by a coprecipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction results show the coexistence of the clear but weak diffractions of MgFe 2O 4 and ordered relatively stronger reflections of 5-ASA intercalated LDHs. The TEM image of magnetic 5-ASA intercalated LDHs reveals that the LDHs layer covers the MgFe 2O 4 particles or their aggregates with particle size of 50-80 nm. The vibration sample magnetization (VSM) measurements exhibit the increase in saturation magnetization of magnetic 5-ASA intercalated LDHs samples with increasing amount of magnetic core. The XPS analyses account for a majority of Zn, Al and O atoms on the surface of magnetic particles. It is suggested that the magnetic core MgFe 2O 4 was coated with LDHs layer probably through Zn-O-Mg and Al-O-Mg linkages, and a core-shell structured model is tentatively proposed.

  15. Experimental Goettingen minipig and beagle dog as two species used in bioequivalence studies for clinical pharmacology (5-aminosalicylic acid and atenolol as model drugs).

    PubMed

    Kvetina, J; Svoboda, Z; Nobilis, M; Pastera, J; Anzenbacher, P

    1999-10-01

    Due to proven similarities in biotransformation between man and minipig, minipig seems to be the experimental animal of choice for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies when an experiment with a drug exhibiting a great first pass bioelimination (like 5-aminosalicylic acid) is to be realised. On the other hand, both minipig and dog may be suitable species for a pharmacokinetic study with a drug characterized by a small extent of first pass biotransformation (like atenolol).

  16. Ulcerative Colitis Impairs the Acylethanolamide-Based Anti-Inflammatory System Reversal by 5-Aminosalicylic Acid and Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Juan; Romero-Zerbo, Yanina; Márquez, Lucia; Rivera, Patricia; Iglesias, Mar; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J.; Andreu, Montserrat; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Studies in animal models and humans suggest anti-inflammatory roles on the N-acylethanolamide (NAE)-peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARα) system in inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the presence and function of NAE-PPARα signaling system in the ulcerative colitis (UC) of humans remain unknown as well as its response to active anti-inflammatory therapies such as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and glucocorticoids. Expression of PPARα receptor and PPARα ligands-biosynthetic (NAPE-PLD) and -degrading (FAAH and NAAA) enzymes were analyzed in untreated active and 5-ASA/glucocorticoids/immunomodulators-treated quiescent UC patients compared to healthy human colonic tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. PPARα, NAAA, NAPE-PLD and FAAH showed differential distributions in the colonic epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscle and enteric plexus. Gene expression analysis indicated a decrease of PPARα, PPARγ and NAAA, and an increase of FAAH and iNOS in the active colitis mucosa. Immunohistochemical expression in active colitis epithelium confirmed a PPARα decrease, but showed a sharp NAAA increase and a NAPE-PLD decrease, which were partially restored to control levels after treatment. We also characterized the immune cells of the UC mucosa infiltrate. We detected a decreased number of NAAA-positive and an increased number of FAAH-positive immune cells in active UC, which were partially restored to control levels after treatment. NAE-PPARα signaling system is impaired during active UC and 5-ASA/glucocorticoids treatment restored its normal expression. Since 5-ASA actions may work through PPARα and glucocorticoids through NAE-producing/degrading enzymes, the use of PPARα agonists or FAAH/NAAA blockers that increases endogenous PPARα ligands may yield similar therapeutics advantages. PMID:22662201

  17. The effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 lipopolysaccharide on the 5-aminosalicylic acid transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Stětinová, Věra; Smetanová, Libuše; Kholová, Dagmar; Květina, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Zbyněk; Zídek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) (i) EcN lipopolysaccharide (EcN LPS) and (ii) bacteria-free supernatant of EcN suspension (EcN supernatant) on in vitro transepithelial transport of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA), the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Effect of co-administered EcN LPS (100 µg/ml) or EcN supernatant (50 µg/ml) on the 5-ASA transport (300 µmol/l) was studied using the Caco-2 monolayer (a human colon carcinoma cell line) as a model of human intestinal absorption. Permeability characteristics for absorptive and secretory transport of parent drug and its intracellularly-formed metabolite were determined. The quantification of 5-ASA and its main metabolite N-acetyl-5-amino-salicylic acid (N-Ac-5-ASA) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. Obtained results suggest that neither EcN LPS nor EcN supernatant had effect on the total 5-ASA transport (secretory flux greater than absorptive flux) and on the transport of intracellularly formed N-Ac-5-ASA (preferentially transported in the secretory direction). The percent cumulative transport of the total 5-ASA alone or in combination with EcN LPS or EcN supernatant did not exceed 1%.

  18. Co-delivery of zinc and 5-aminosalicylic acid from alginate/N-succinyl-chitosan blend microspheres for synergistic therapy of colitis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haogang; Lü, Shaoyu; Qin, Hongyan; Gao, Chunmei; Bai, Xiao; Wei, Yuhui; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Zhen

    2017-01-10

    The present study developed novel zinc ion cross-linked alginate/N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) blend microspheres (MS) for co-delivery of zinc and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for synergistic therapy of colitis. Physicochemical characterization of blend MS was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). In vitro release studies demonstrated that blend MS has a pH-dependent release property. Both 5-ASA and zinc have lower release in acid medium and higher release in colonic environment. The therapeutic efficacy of zinc cross-linked blend MS was evaluated using induced-colitis rat models, and showed a superior treatment effect in alleviating inflammation of colitis rats. No systemic toxicity was observed after oral administration of blend MS. Therefore, zinc ion cross-linked alginate/N-succinyl-chitosan blend MS appeared to be a good candidate for co-delivery of zinc and 5-ASA to colon, and had great potential application in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. N-Succinyl-chitosan systems for 5-aminosalicylic acid colon delivery: in vivo study with TNBS-induced colitis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Mura, C; Nácher, A; Merino, V; Merino-Sanjuan, M; Carda, C; Ruiz, A; Manconi, M; Loy, G; Fadda, A M; Diez-Sales, O

    2011-09-15

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) loaded N-Succinyl-chitosan (SucCH) microparticle and freeze-dried system were prepared as potential delivery systems to the colon. Physicochemical characterization and in vitro release and swelling studies were previously assessed and showed that the two formulations appeared to be good candidates to deliver the drug to the colon. In this work the effectiveness of these two systems in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease was evaluated. In vitro mucoadhesive studies showed excellent mucoadhesive properties of both the systems to the inflamed colonic mucosa. Experimental colitis was induced by rectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into male Wistar rats. Colon/body weight ratio, clinical activity score system, myeloperoxidase activity and histological evaluation were determined as inflammatory indices. The two formulations were compared with drug suspension and SucCH suspension. The results showed that the loading of 5-ASA into SucCH polymer markedly improved efficacy in the healing of induced colitis in rats.

  20. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy.

  1. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy. PMID:26642326

  2. Chemopreventive effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid on inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer and dysplasia: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been widely studied; however, the results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and update evidence concerning effects of 5-ASA on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia (Dys) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). Results 5-ASA showed a chemopreventive effect against CRC/Dys in IBD patients (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.45−0.75). However, this effect was significant only in clinical-based studies (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39−0.65), but not in population-based studies (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.46−1.09). Moreover, this effect was noticeable in patients with UC (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34−0.61), but not in CD (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.42−1.03), and on the outcome of CRC (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.39−0.74), but not Dys (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.20−1.10). In IBD patients, mesalazine dosage ≥ 1.2 g/day showed greater protective effects against CRC/Dys than dosages < 1.2 g/day. However, Sulphasalazine therapy did not show any noticeable protective function regardless of the dosage administered. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review with a meta-analysis of 26 observational studies involving 15,460 subjects to evaluate the risks of developing CRC and Dys in IBD patients receiving 5-ASA treatment. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each evaluation index. Conclusions 5-ASA has a chemopreventive effect on CRC (but not Dys) in IBD patients. Moreover, UC patients can benefit more from 5-ASA than CD patients. Mesalazine maintenance dosage ≥ 1.2 g/day is an effective treatment for reducing CRC risk in IBD patients. PMID:27906680

  3. Use of new once-daily 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: Is there anything new under the sun?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-04-21

    5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agents remain the mainstay treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC). A number of oral 5-ASA agents are commercially available, including azobond pro-drugs, as well as delayed- and controlled-release forms of mesalazine. However, poor adherence due to frequent daily dosing and a large number of tablets has been shown to be an important barrier to successful management of patients with UC. Recently, new, once-daily formulations of mesalazine, including the unique multi-matrix delivery system and mesalazine granules, were proven to be efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in mild-to-moderate UC, with a good safety profile comparable to that of other oral mesalazine formulations. In addition, they offer the advantage of a low pill burden and might contribute to increased long-term compliance and treatment success in clinical practice. This editorial summarizes the available literature on the short- and medium-term efficacy and safety of the new once-daily mesalazine formulations.

  4. Use of new once-daily 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: Is there anything new under the sun?

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agents remain the mainstay treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC). A number of oral 5-ASA agents are commercially available, including azobond pro-drugs, as well as delayed- and controlled-release forms of mesalazine. However, poor adherence due to frequent daily dosing and a large number of tablets has been shown to be an important barrier to successful management of patients with UC. Recently, new, once-daily formulations of mesalazine, including the unique multi-matrix delivery system and mesalazine granules, were proven to be efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in mild-to-moderate UC, with a good safety profile comparable to that of other oral mesalazine formulations. In addition, they offer the advantage of a low pill burden and might contribute to increased long-term compliance and treatment success in clinical practice. This editorial summarizes the available literature on the short- and medium-term efficacy and safety of the new once-daily mesalazine formulations. PMID:19370774

  5. Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) new complexes of 5-aminosalicylic acid: Spectroscopic, thermal characterization and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Madiha H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.

    2013-04-01

    The complexing behavior of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) towards the transition metal ions namely, Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been examined by elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, electronic, IR and 1H NMR. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analyses and evaluation of kinetic parameters of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equation. The free ligand and its metal complexes have been tested in vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillis subtilies and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in order to assess their antimicrobial potential. The results indicate that the metal complexes are also found to have more antimicrobial activity than the parent 5-ASA drug.

  6. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug releasing 5-aminosalicylic acid and benzocaine, ameliorates TNBS-induced rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joon; Kim, Wooseong; Lee, Sunyoung; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Yunjin

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics have beneficial effects on colitis. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester (Dex-5-ESA), designed as a polymeric colon-specific prodrug liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the large intestine, was prepared and its therapeutic activity against colitis was evaluated using a TNBS-induced rat colitis model. Dex-5-ESA liberated 5-ASA and benzocaine in the cecal contents while (bio)chemically stable in the small intestinal contents and mucosa. Oral administration of Dex-5-ESA (equivalent to 10 mg 5-ASA/kg, twice a day) alleviated colonic injury and reduced MPO activity in the inflamed colon. In parallel, pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2, iNOS and CINC-3, elevated by TNBS-induced colitis, were substantially diminished in the inflamed colon. Dex-5-ESA was much more effective for the treatment of colitis than 5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ESA) that may not deliver benzocaine to the large intestine. Our data suggest that Dex-5-ESA is a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the target site (large intestine), probably exerting anti-colitic effects by combined action of 5-ASA and benzocaine.

  7. Pharmacokinetics in Wistar Rats of 5-[(4-Carboxybutanoyl)Amino]-2-Hydroxybenzoic Acid: A Novel Synthetic Derivative of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA) with Possible Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Basurto, José; Rosales Hernández, Martha Cecilia; Padilla Martínez, Itzia Irene; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2016-01-01

    5-[(4-carboxybutanoyl)amino]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C2) is a novel synthetic derivative of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is currently being evaluated ex vivo as an anti-inflammatory agent and has shown satisfactory results. This study aimed to obtain the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of C2 in Wistar Rats. Additionally, an HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify C2 in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic profiles of intragastric, intravenous and intraperitoneal administration routes at singles doses of 100, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were studied in Wistar rats. The elimination half-life of intravenously administered C2 was approximately 33 min. The maximum plasma level of C2 was reached approximately 24 min after intragastric administration, with a Cmax value of 2.5 g/mL and an AUCtot value of 157 μg min-1/mL; the oral bioavailability was approximately 13%. Following a single intragastric or oral dose (100 mg/kg), C2 was distributed and detected in all examined tissues (including the brain and colon). The results showed that C2 accumulates over time. The plasma protein binding results indicated that the unbound fraction of C2 at concentrations of 1 to 20 μg/mL ranged from 89.8% to 92.5%, meaning that this fraction of C2 is available to cross tissues. Finally, the blood-plasma partitioning (BP ratio) of C2 in rat plasma was 0.71 and 0.6 at concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, which indicates that C2 is free in the plasmatic phase and not inside blood cells. The results of this study suggest that a fraction of the administered C2 dose is absorbed in the stomach, and the fraction that is not absorbed reaches the small intestine and colon. This distribution constitutes the main advantage of C2 compared with 5-ASA for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). PMID:27454774

  8. Pharmacokinetics in Wistar Rats of 5-[(4-Carboxybutanoyl)Amino]-2-Hydroxybenzoic Acid: A Novel Synthetic Derivative of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA) with Possible Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Romero-Castro, Aurelio; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Mara; Correa-Basurto, José; Rosales Hernández, Martha Cecilia; Padilla Martínez, Itzia Irene; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2016-01-01

    5-[(4-carboxybutanoyl)amino]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C2) is a novel synthetic derivative of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is currently being evaluated ex vivo as an anti-inflammatory agent and has shown satisfactory results. This study aimed to obtain the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of C2 in Wistar Rats. Additionally, an HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify C2 in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic profiles of intragastric, intravenous and intraperitoneal administration routes at singles doses of 100, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were studied in Wistar rats. The elimination half-life of intravenously administered C2 was approximately 33 min. The maximum plasma level of C2 was reached approximately 24 min after intragastric administration, with a Cmax value of 2.5 g/mL and an AUCtot value of 157 μg min-1/mL; the oral bioavailability was approximately 13%. Following a single intragastric or oral dose (100 mg/kg), C2 was distributed and detected in all examined tissues (including the brain and colon). The results showed that C2 accumulates over time. The plasma protein binding results indicated that the unbound fraction of C2 at concentrations of 1 to 20 μg/mL ranged from 89.8% to 92.5%, meaning that this fraction of C2 is available to cross tissues. Finally, the blood-plasma partitioning (BP ratio) of C2 in rat plasma was 0.71 and 0.6 at concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, which indicates that C2 is free in the plasmatic phase and not inside blood cells. The results of this study suggest that a fraction of the administered C2 dose is absorbed in the stomach, and the fraction that is not absorbed reaches the small intestine and colon. This distribution constitutes the main advantage of C2 compared with 5-ASA for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD).

  9. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich fraction from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and 5-aminosalicylic acid in a TNBS-induced colitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sónia R; Pereira, Rita; Figueiredo, Isabel; Freitas, Victor; Dinis, Teresa C P; Almeida, Leonor M

    2017-01-01

    Despite the actual therapeutic approaches for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), efficient and secure alternative options remain a research focus. In this context, anthocyanins seem promising natural anti-inflammatory agents, but their action mechanisms and efficacy as compared with established drugs still require more clarification. The main aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory action of a chemically characterized anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), obtained from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), with that of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a first-line drug in IBD, in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rat model. Such fraction showed a high content and great molecular diversity of anthocyanins, with malvidin-3-galactoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside in the highest concentrations. After daily administration by intragastric infusion for 8 days, ARF, at a molar anthocyanin concentration about 30 times lower than 5-ASA, showed a higher effectiveness in counteracting the intestinal inflammation, as assessed by i) body weight variation and colon damage score, ii) reduction in leukocyte infiltration, iii) increase in antioxidant defenses and iv) by downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon tissue homogenates. The strong inhibition of COX-2 expression seems to be a crucial anti-inflammatory mechanism common to both ARF and 5-ASA, but the additional higher abilities of anthocyanins to downregulate iNOS and to decrease leukocytes infiltration and to increase antioxidant defenses in colon may account for the much higher anti-inflammatory action of anthocyanins. These data may contribute to the development of a promising natural approach in IBD management.

  10. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich fraction from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and 5-aminosalicylic acid in a TNBS-induced colitis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sónia R.; Pereira, Rita; Figueiredo, Isabel; Freitas, Victor; Dinis, Teresa C. P.; Almeida, Leonor M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the actual therapeutic approaches for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), efficient and secure alternative options remain a research focus. In this context, anthocyanins seem promising natural anti-inflammatory agents, but their action mechanisms and efficacy as compared with established drugs still require more clarification. The main aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory action of a chemically characterized anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), obtained from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), with that of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a first-line drug in IBD, in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rat model. Such fraction showed a high content and great molecular diversity of anthocyanins, with malvidin-3-galactoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside in the highest concentrations. After daily administration by intragastric infusion for 8 days, ARF, at a molar anthocyanin concentration about 30 times lower than 5-ASA, showed a higher effectiveness in counteracting the intestinal inflammation, as assessed by i) body weight variation and colon damage score, ii) reduction in leukocyte infiltration, iii) increase in antioxidant defenses and iv) by downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon tissue homogenates. The strong inhibition of COX-2 expression seems to be a crucial anti-inflammatory mechanism common to both ARF and 5-ASA, but the additional higher abilities of anthocyanins to downregulate iNOS and to decrease leukocytes infiltration and to increase antioxidant defenses in colon may account for the much higher anti-inflammatory action of anthocyanins. These data may contribute to the development of a promising natural approach in IBD management. PMID:28329021

  11. Clinical Features and HLA Association of 5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA)-induced Nephrotoxicity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Heap, Graham A; So, Kenji; Weedon, Mike; Edney, Naomi; Bewshea, Claire; Singh, Abhey; Annese, Vito; Beckly, John; Buurman, Dorien; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Cole, Andrew T; Cooper, Sheldon C; Creed, Tom; Cummings, Fraser; de Boer, Nanne K; D'Inca, Renata; D'Souza, Richard; Daneshmend, Tawfique K; Delaney, Michael; Dhar, Anjan; Direkze, Natalie; Dunckley, Paul; Gaya, Daniel R; Gearry, Richard; Gore, Steve; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hart, Ailsa; Hawkey, Chris J; Hoentjen, Frank; Iqbal, Tariq; Irving, Peter; Lal, Simon; Lawrence, Ian; Lees, Charlie W; Lockett, Melanie; Mann, Stephen; Mansfield, John; Mowat, Craig; Mulgrew, Chris J; Muller, Frank; Murray, Charles; Oram, Richard; Orchard, Tim; Parkes, Miles; Phillips, Rosemary; Pollok, Richard; Radford-Smith, Graham; Sebastian, Shaji; Sen, Sandip; Shirazi, Tarek; Silverberg, Mark; Solomon, Laurie; Sturniolo, Giacomo C; Thomas, Mark; Tremelling, Mark; Tsianos, Epameinondas V; Watts, David; Weaver, Sean; Weersma, Rinse K; Wesley, Emma; Holden, Arthur; Ahmad, Tariq

    2016-02-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a rare idiosyncratic reaction to 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) therapies. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of this complication and identify clinically useful genetic markers so that these drugs can be avoided or so that monitoring can be intensified in high-risk patients. Inflammatory bowel disease patients were recruited from 89 sites around the world. Inclusion criteria included normal renal function prior to commencing 5-ASA, ≥50% rise in creatinine any time after starting 5-ASA, and physician opinion implicating 5-ASA strong enough to justify drug withdrawal. An adjudication panel identified definite and probable cases from structured case report forms. A genome-wide association study was then undertaken with these cases and 4109 disease controls. After adjudication, 151 cases of 5-ASA-induced nephrotoxicity were identified. Sixty-eight percent of cases were males, with nephrotoxicity occurring at a median age of 39.4 years (range 6-79 years). The median time for development of renal injury after commencing 5-ASA was 3.0 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-3.7). Only 30% of cases recovered completely after drug withdrawal, with 15 patients requiring permanent renal replacement therapy. A genome-wide association study identified a suggestive association in the HLA region (p = 1×10(-7)) with 5-ASA-induced nephrotoxicity. A sub-group analysis of patients who had a renal biopsy demonstrating interstitial nephritis (n = 55) significantly strengthened this association (p = 4×10(-9), odds ratio 3.1). This is the largest and most detailed study of 5-ASA-induced nephrotoxicity to date. It highlights the morbidity associated with this condition and identifies for the first time a significant genetic predisposition to drug-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oral 5-Aminosalicylate, Mesalamine Suppository, and Mesalamine Enema as Initial Therapy for Ulcerative Proctitis in Clinical Practice with Quality of Care Implications.

    PubMed

    Richter, James M; Arshi, Nabeela K; Oster, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ulcerative proctitis (UP) is typically treated initially with oral 5-aminosalicylate ("5-ASA"), mesalamine suppository, or mesalamine enema ("UP Rx"). Little is known about their effectiveness in practice. Methods. Using a US health insurance database, we identified new-onset UP patients between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, based on the following: (1) initiation of UP Rx; (2) endoscopy in prior 30 days resulting in diagnosis of UP; and (3) no prior encounters for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We examined the incidence of therapy escalation and total costs in relation to initial UP Rx. Results. We identified 548 patients: 327 received mesalamine suppository, 138 received oral 5-ASA, and 83 received mesalamine enema, as initial UP Rx. One-third receiving oral 5-ASA experienced therapy escalation over 12 months, 21% for both mesalamine suppository and enema. Mean cumulative total cost of UP Rx over 12 months was $1552, $996, and $986 for patients beginning therapy with oral 5-ASA, mesalamine enema, and mesalamine suppository, respectively. Contrary to expert recommendations the treatments were often not continued prophylactically. Conclusions. Treatment escalation was common, and total costs of therapy were higher, in patients who initiated treatment with oral 5-ASA. Further study is necessary to assess the significance of these observations.

  13. Producing xylan/Eudragit® S100-based microparticles by chemical and physico-mechanical approaches as carriers for 5-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Silva, Acarilia Eduardo; Oliveira, Elquio Eleamen; Gomes, Monique C Salgado; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Silva, Karen C Holanda; Souza, Bartolomeu Santos; Nagashima, Toshiyuki; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro; Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa

    2013-01-01

    Xylan is a biopolymer found in a variety of cell wall plants. Eudragit® S-100 (ES100), a pH-dependent polymer, is used as a coating material in gastroresistant delivery systems. In this study, microparticles based on both polymers were produced by interfacial cross-linking polymerisation and/or spray-drying technique in order to investigate feasibility and stability of the systems. Size and morphology of the microparticles were characterised by optical and SEM while FT-IR, thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) evaluated the drug-polymer interactions and the thermal behaviour of the systems. FT-IR confirmed the absence of chemical interaction between the polymers. TG/DTA analysis showed a higher stability for spray-dried microparticles and XRD data proved the amorphous feature of both carriers. The results reveal that xylan/ES100 microparticles can be produced by chemical or physico-mechanical ways, the latter being the best option due to the lack of toxic cross-linking agents and easy scale-up.

  14. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) can reduce levels of oxidative DNA damage in cells of colonic mucosa with and without fecal stream.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Caroline; Máximo, Felipe Rodrigues; Spadari, Ana Paula Pimentel; da Conceição Miranda, Daniel Duarte; Serra, Marcia Milena Pivatto; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-04-01

    No studies have evaluated the effectiveness of 5-ASA against oxidative DNA damage in experimental models of diversion colitis. To evaluate the effects of 5-ASA against oxidative DNA damage in an experimental model of diversion colitis. Twenty-six Wistar rats were divided into two groups corresponding to sacrifice at 2 or 4 weeks after fecal diversion of the left colon by means of proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to intervention in excluded colon performed with 0.9% saline solution or 5-ASA. Level of oxidative DNA damage was determined by comet assay in cells obtained from segments with and without fecal stream before and after H2O2 challenge. For statistical analysis, was used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), adopting a 5% significance level (P<0.05). Levels of DNA damage were always higher in colon segments without fecal stream, regardless of the intervention solution employed. DNA damage in colon segments with and without fecal stream in animals irrigated with 5-ASA was lower when compared with those treated with saline solution, regardless of time of irrigation. These levels remained lower after intervention with 5-ASA, even after H2O2 challenge. Enema with 5-ASA reduces oxidative DNA damage in epithelial cells of colon segments without fecal stream, even after H2O2 challenge, confirming the effects of 5-ASA against DNA damage by oxygen free radicals.

  15. Bacterial Lipoteichoic Acid Enhances Cryosurvival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1% w/v, LTA enables a 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present. PMID:25477208

  16. Bacterial lipoteichoic acid enhances cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Rice, Charles V; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2015-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1 % w/v, LTA enables a 50 % survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1 % w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances, our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present.

  17. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  18. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  19. Enhancement of Platelet Aggregation by Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    The pentacyclic triterpenoid ursolic acid (UA) and its isomer oleanolic acid (OA) are ubiquitous in food and plant medicine, and thus are easily exposed to the population through natural contact or intentional use. Although they have diverse health benefits, reported cardiovascular protective activity is contentious. In this study, the effect of UA and OA on platelet aggregation was examined on the basis that alteration of platelet activity is a potential process contributing to cardiovascular events. Treatment of UA enhanced platelet aggregation induced by thrombin or ADP, which was concentration-dependent in a range of 5–50 μM. Quite comparable results were obtained with OA, in which OA-treated platelets also exhibited an exaggerated response to either thrombin or ADP. UA treatment potentiated aggregation of whole blood, while OA failed to increase aggregation by thrombin. UA and OA did not affect plasma coagulation assessed by measuring prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. These results indicate that both UA and OA are capable of making platelets susceptible to aggregatory stimuli, and platelets rather than clotting factors are the primary target of them in proaggregatory activity. These compounds need to be used with caution, especially in the population with a predisposition to cardiovascular events. PMID:25009707

  20. Adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization process - an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.D.; Chang, J.C.S.

    1981-12-01

    Adipic acid, when used as an additive in a limestone FGD system, greatly increases both SO/sub 2/ removal and limestone utilization. Most existing limestone scrubbers would benefit from adipic acid addition without major process changes. No significant operating problems or adverse environmental impacts have been identified. The adipic acid enhanced system is economically attractive. Waste dibasic acids and glycolic acid appear to provide benefits similar to adipic acid at a lower cost.

  1. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  2. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    PubMed

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  3. Weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds enhanced by halogen substitution.

    PubMed

    Craig, Norman C; Matlin, Albert R

    2014-02-21

    As shown by the rates of proton-deuteron exchange in ethylenes with halogen substituents, the weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds is enhanced by halogen substitution. Relative rates of exchange in basic deuterium oxide reflect the relative acidities. Substitution in the α position has the strongest effect. Less electronegative halogens such as bromine increase the acidity more than does fluorine. The vinyl CH acid strengths correlate closely with the energies of deprotonation of isolated molecules into isolated anions, as computed with the MP2/cc-pVQZ model. The smaller deprotonation energies are associated with the stronger acids. Atomic charges from a natural bond order analysis done with the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ model show that the negative charge becomes more dispersed in the anions of the stronger acids. Results are given for 13 haloethylenes and for 6 halogen-substituted butadienes, cyclopropenes, and a cyclobutene.

  4. Metabolic engineering as a tool for enhanced lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bikram P; DeVeaux, Linda C; Christopher, Lew P

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful biotechnological tool that finds, among others, increased use in constructing microbial strains for higher lactic acid productivity, lower costs and reduced pollution. Engineering the metabolic pathways has concentrated on improving the lactic acid fermentation parameters, enhancing the acid tolerance of production organisms and their abilities to utilize a broad range of substrates, including fermentable biomass-derived sugars. Recent efforts have focused on metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria as they produce high yields and have a small genome size that facilitates their genetic manipulation. We summarize here the current trends in metabolic engineering techniques and strategies for manipulating lactic acid producing organisms developed to address and overcome major challenges in the lactic acid production process.

  5. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  6. Acid tolerance response (ATR) of microbial communities during the enhanced biohydrogen process via cascade acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqin; Xia, Yan; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Mingxing

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biohydrogen production via cascade acid stress on microbial communities, structure patterns of the microbial communities revealed by PLFAs, and the succession of biohydrogen related species against cascade acid stress were all investigated. It was found that hydrogen production could be improved from 48.7 to 79.4mL/gVS after cascade acid stress. In addition, the Gram negative (G(-)) bacteria were found to be more tolerant to organic acids than those of the Gram positive (G(+)) bacteria, regardless of the dominance of G(+) bacteria within the microbial communities. Moreover, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium aciditolerans and Azospira oryzae, were proved to be enriched, and then might play indispensable roles for the enhanced biohydrogen production after cascade acid stress, as which were responsible for the biohydrogen accumulation, acid tolerance and nitrogen removal, respectively.

  7. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  8. A prodrug approach to enhance azelaic acid percutaneous availability.

    PubMed

    Al-Marabeh, Sara; Khalil, Enam; Khanfar, Mohammad; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Alzweiri, Muhammed

    2017-06-01

    Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid compound used in treatment of acne vulgaris. However, high concentration (ca 20%) is needed to guarantee the drug availability in the skin. The latter increases the incidence of side effects such as local irritation. The prodrug strategy to enhance azelaic acid diffusion through skin was not reported before. Thus, a lipophilic prodrug of azelaic acid (diethyl azelate [DEA]) was synthesized and investigated to improve percutaneous availability of azelaic acid, with a subsequent full physical, chemical, and biological characterization. Expectedly, DEA exhibited a significant increase in diffusion compared to azelaic acid through silicone membrane. In contrast, the diffusion results through human stratum corneum (SC) displayed weaker permeation for DEA with expected retention in the SC. Therefore, a desorption study of DEA from SC was conducted to examine the reservoir behavior in SC. Results showed an evidence of sustained release behavior of DEA from SC. Consequently, enhancement of keratolytic effect is expected due to azelaic acid produced from enzymatic conversion of DEA released from SC.

  9. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2010-06-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Ascorbic Acid: a promising memory-enhancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. The occurrence of Alzheimer's disease is commonplace among the Asian population, particularly among senior citizens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of ascorbic acid as a memory-enhancer. Swiss mice of either sex were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-, scopolamine-, and aging-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Ascorbic acid (60, 120 mg/kg) injected for 3 and 8 consecutive days improved learning and memory of aged mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. Furthermore, ascorbic acid provided protection to the young animals from scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment of memory. Ascorbic acid was found to be more potent than piracetam as reflected by the smaller dose, more pronounced effect, and quicker onset of action. Ascorbic acid has shown promise as a powerful memory-improving agent particularly effective in aged animals. Hence, ascorbic acid might prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly individuals. The underlying mechanism of action of ascorbic acid may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  14. Enhanced formic acid oxidation on Cu-Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lin; Zou, Shouzhong

    Developing catalysts with high activity and high resistance to surface poisoning remains a challenge in direct formic acid fuel cell research. In this work, copper-palladium nanoparticles were formed through a galvanic replacement process. After electrochemically selective dissolution of surface Cu, Pd-enriched Cu-Pd nanoparticles were formed. These particles exhibit much higher formic acid oxidation activities than that on pure Pd nanoparticles, and they are much more resistant to the surface poisoning. Possible mechanisms of catalytic activity enhancement are briefly discussed.

  15. Oleic acid-enhanced transdermal delivery pathways of fluorescent nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen; Ghazaryan, Ara; Tso, Chien-Hsin; Hu, Po-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Shean-Jen; Chen, Chia-Chun; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2012-05-01

    Transdermal delivery of nanocarriers provides an alternative pathway to transport therapeutic agents, alleviating pain, improving compliance of patients, and increasing overall effectiveness of delivery. In this work, enhancement of transdermal delivery of fluorescent nanoparticles and sulforhodamine B with assistance of oleic acid was visualized utilizing multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and analyzed quantitatively using multi-photon excitation-induced fluorescent signals. Results of MPM imaging and MPM intensity-based spatial depth-dependent analysis showed that oleic acid is effective in facilitating transdermal delivery of nanoparticles.

  16. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  17. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  18. Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

  19. Folic acid-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Enhanced Oral Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Emilie; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Kirtane, Ameya; Guru, Bharath Raja; Grill, Alex E.; Whittum-Hudson, Judith; Panyam, Jayanth

    2012-01-01

    The oral absorption of drugs that have poor bioavailability can be enhanced by encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles. Transcellular transport of nanoparticle-encapsulated drug, possibly through transcytosis, is likely the major mechanism through which nanoparticles improve drug absorption. We hypothesized that the cellular uptake and transport of nanoparticles can be further increased by targeting the folate receptors expressed on the intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this research was to study the effect of folic acid functionalization on transcellular transport of nanoparticle-encapsulated paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic with poor oral bioavailability. Surface-functionalized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel were prepared by the interfacial activity assisted surface functionalization technique. Transport of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles was investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers as an in vitro model. Caco-2 cells were found to express folate receptor and the drug efflux protein, p-glycoprotein, to high levels. Encapsulation of paclitaxel in PLGA nanoparticles resulted in a 5-fold increase in apparent permeability (Papp) across Caco-2 cells. Functionalization of nanoparticles with folic acid further increased the transport (8-fold higher transport compared to free paclitaxel). Confocal microscopic studies showed that folic acid-functionalized nanoparticles were internalized by the cells and that nanoparticles did not have any gross effects on tight junction integrity. In conclusion, our studies indicate that folic acid functionalized nanoparticles have the potential to enhance the oral absorption of drugs with poor oral bioavailability. PMID:22670575

  20. Exploring unsaturated fatty acid cholesteryl esters as transdermal permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic protective barrier property of skin, one of the major challenges in the design of transdermal drug delivery systems, can be overcome through the use of chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs). Herein, we explore the potential of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) esters of cholesterol (Chol) viz., oleate, linoleate and linolenate, as transdermal CPEs using tenofovir (TNF) as a model drug. All Chol UFA esters at 1% w/w were found to be more effective enhancers when compared to their respective parent fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FA counterparts. Cholesteryl linolenate (Chol-LLA) showed the most superior performance (enhancement ratio (ER) = 3.71). The greatest ER for Chol-LLA (5.93) was achieved at a concentration of 2% w/w. The histomorphological and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) evaluations supported the results of the permeability studies. These findings showed no significant loss in the integrity of the epidermis, with drug and enhancer treatment having temporary effects on the barrier property of the epidermis. Chol UFA esters can therefore be considered as new CPEs for exploitation in topical formulations for various classes of drugs.

  1. Formic acid electrooxidation on Pd in acidic solutions studied by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiroto; Okada, Tatsuhiro; Samjeské, Gabor; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2008-07-07

    A mechanistic study of electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid on Pd in sulfuric and perchloric acids is reported. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-SEIRAS) shows the adsorption of CO, bridge-bonded formate, bicarbonate, and supporting anions on the electrode surface. Poisoning of the Pd surface by CO, formed by dehydration of formic acid, is very slow and scarcely affects formic acid oxidation. The anions are adsorbed more strongly in the order of (bi)sulfate > bicarbonate > perchlorate, among which the most strongly adsorbed (bi)sulfate considerably suppresses formic acid oxidation in the double layer region. The oxidation is suppressed also at higher potentials in both acids by the oxidation of the Pd surface. Adsorbed formate is detected only when formic acid oxidation is suppressed. The results show that formate is a short-lived reactive intermediate in formic acid oxidation and is hence detected when its decomposition yielding CO(2) is suppressed. The high electrocatalytic activity of Pd can be ascribed to the high tolerance to CO contamination and also high catalytic activity toward formate decomposition.

  2. Study of Valproic Acid-Enhanced Hepatocyte Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Renin; Chou, Mei-Chia; Hung, Li-Ying; Wang, Mu-En; Hsu, Meng-Chieh; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely used antiepilepsy drugs. However, several side effects, including weight gain and fatty liver, have been reported in patients following VPA treatment. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatic steatosis using FL83B cell line-based in vitro model. Using fluorescent lipid staining technique, we found that VPA enhanced oleic acid- (OLA-) induced lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes; this may be due to upregulated lipid uptake, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. Real-time PCR results showed that, following VPA treatment, the expression levels of genes encoding cluster of differentiation 36 (Cd36), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (Lrp1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), and perilipin 2 (Plin2) were increased, that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I a (Cpt1a) was not affected, and those of acetyl-Co A carboxylase α (Acca) and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) were decreased. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analyses, we found that VPA also induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) nuclear translocation and increased levels of cell-surface CD36. Based on these results, we propose that VPA may enhance OLA-induced hepatocyte steatosis through the upregulation of PPARγ- and CD36-dependent lipid uptake, TAG synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. PMID:27034954

  3. Fatty acid conjugation enhances the activities of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhining; Yuan, Penghui; Xing, Meng; He, Zhumei; Dong, Chuanfu; Cao, Yongchang; Liu, Qiuyun

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity in multi-cellular organisms, and usually expressed and secreted constantly at basal levels to prevent infection, but local production can be augmented upon an infection. The clock is ticking as rising antibiotic abuse has led to the emergence of many drug resistance bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal activities as well as anti-viral and anti-tumor activities, efforts are being made to develop antimicrobial peptides into future microbial agents. This article describes some of the recent patents on antimicrobial peptides with fatty acid conjugation. Potency and selectivity of antimicrobial peptide can be modulated with fatty acid tails of variable length. Interaction between membranes and antimicrobial peptides was affected by fatty acid conjugation. At concentrations above the critical miscelle concentration (CMC), propensity of solution selfassembly hampered binding of the peptide to cell membranes. Overall, fatty acid conjugation has enhanced the activities of antimicrobial peptides, and occasionally it rendered inactive antimicrobial peptides to be bioactive. Antimicrobial peptides can not only be used as medicine but also as food additives.

  4. Significant enhancement of formic acid oxidation using rhodium nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Balan, Beena K; Sathe, Bhaskar R

    2012-12-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of as-synthesized shape selective Rh nanostructures has been demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry, revealing unique shape-dependant performance towards HCOOH oxidation. Interestingly, the enhancement factor (R) for different shapes of Rh with respect to that of commercial Rh towards formic acid oxidation ranges up to 20,000% for cubes as compared to 17,500% for pyramids and 11,000% for hexagons respectively. Mechanistic pathway for comparatively better sensitivity of cubes as compared to other shapes has been correlated with the results of X-ray diffraction.

  5. Complications and management of breast enhancement using hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hidenori; Sakata, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors report on their experience with using hyaluronic acid of non-animal origin manufactured using commercially available technology (Macrolane, Q-Med AB, Sweden) for breast enhancement in 4000 women treated since 2004 and describe the most common complications and their successful treatment. On average, 30 mL to 40 mL of Macrolane was injected into each breast. Of 274 women who returned to the clinic during 2007, <10% experienced local adverse events (eg, gel dislocation, Macrolane nodules and rare cases of infection). There were no serious systemic events and treatment was well tolerated. To prevent local complications, such as infection, an aseptic injection technique was required and early treatment of adverse events is recommended. While only small volumes of Macrolane were injected, it is comparatively easy and safe to perform breast enhancement of up to one cup size to correct asymmetry between breasts and to create fullness in the upper portion of the breast.

  6. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

  7. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Juergen

    2013-11-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance.

  8. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  9. Enhanced detection of amino acids in hydrophilic interaction chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with carboxylic acids as mobile phase additives.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dengyang; Hu, Xunxiu; Liu, Dantong; Du, Wencheng; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Mengzhe; Tang, Daoquan

    2017-06-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technique has been widely used in the analysis of biological targets such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In this work, eight common single carboxylic acids or diacids, which contain different pKa have been investigated as the additives to the analysis of amino acids. As the results, carboxylic acid additive can improve the signal intensity of acidity amino acids such as Asp and Glu and the chromatographic separation of basic amino acids such as Arg, His, and Lys. In particular, the diacids have better performance than single acids. The proposed mechanism is that the diacid has hydrogen bond interaction with amino acids to reduce their polarity/amphiprotic characteristics. Besides, oxalic acid has been found having better enhancement than phthalic acid by overall consideration. Therefore, we successfully quantified the 15 amino acids in Sepia bulk pharmaceutical chemical by using oxalic acid as the additive.

  10. Surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using Candida rugosa lipase.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using Candida rugosa lipase. The most effective surfactant was Span 80. Employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees C and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas pH, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was applied and the optimal conditions were found to be pH 7.0, enzyme concentration 7.42 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 0.20 g/g oil and agitation 1400 rpm with the maximum response of 76% in 4 h. The most important variable was pH, whereas enzyme and buffer concentrations also showed pronounced effect on response. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology for optimizing surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using C. rugosa lipase.

  11. Oleic Acid enhances all-trans retinoic Acid loading in nano-lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Chinsriwongkul, Akhayachatra; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-On, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) loading in nano-lipid emulsions and stability by using oleic acid. The effect of formulation factors including initial ATRA concentration and the type of oil on the physicochemical properties, that is, percentage yield, percentage drug release, and photostability of formulations, was determined. The solubility of ATRA was increased in the order of oleic acid > MCT > soybean oil > water. The physicochemical properties of ATRA-loaded lipid emulsion, including mean particle diameter and zeta potential, were modulated by changing an initial ATRA concentration as well as the type and mixing ratio of oil and oleic acid as an oil phase. The particles of lipid emulsions had average sizes of less than 250 nm and negative zeta potential. The addition of oleic acid in lipid emulsions resulted in high loading capacity. The photodegradation rate was found to be dependent on the initial drug concentration but independent of the type of oily phase used in this study. The release rates were not affected by initial ATRA concentration but were affected by the type of oil, where oleic acid showed the highest release rate of ATRA from lipid emulsions.

  12. Use of adipic acid to enhance flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroff, N.; Laslo, D.

    1984-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, FGD is an acid-base neutralization reaction where the overall rate is balanced by the dissolution of (limestone) alkali, and the absorption of sulfur dioxide. The former occurs at a solid/liquid interface, and the latter occurs at a liquid/gas interface. The rate of each of these processes is determined by local conditions, notably, pH. The introduction of a buffering agent lowers the pH at the solid-liquid interface, thereby increasing the rate of limestone dissolution, and simultaneously, raises the pH at the liquid/gas interface, thereby increasing the rate of absorption. Studies performed during the past several years have established that adipic acid is the best available choice for application because of its unique combination of physical and chemical properties, and its price and availability. This paper discusses the theory of adipic acid enhancement and the mathematics used to describe these phenomena trace its history from the laboratory through full scale trials.

  13. Pretreatment and biodegradability enhancement of DSD acid manufacturing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Zhu, W; Yang, Z

    1998-08-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes, Fenton's reagent oxidation and ozonation, were used for pretreatment of a 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DSD-acid) manufacturing wastewater on a laboratory scale. The results showed that both methods are suitable for partial removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color as well as the enhancement of biodegradability of DSD-acid manufacturing wastewater before the conventional biological treatment. Fenton's reagent oxidation by 9.0 g/L H2O2 and 150 mg/L Fe2+ and ozonation by 7.5 g/L O3 led to an improved biodegradability (BOD5/COD = 0.3). Fenton's reagent oxidation in combination with Fe3+ coagulation has shown to effectively remove COD and color. About 90% of COD and 95% of color removals were obtained at the optimum condition, oxidation by 150 mg/L Fe2+ and 2 g/L H2O2, followed by two-stage coagulation with 5 g/L and 2 g/L FeCl3, respectively.

  14. Salicylic acid enhances Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adhesin protein expression.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2011-11-01

    One of the virulence factors required by Staphylococcus aureus at the early stages of infection is Eap, a secreted adhesin that binds many host proteins and is upregulated by the two-component regulatory system saeRS. The S. aureus Newman strain harbors a mutation in saeS that is thought to be responsible for the high level of Eap expression in this strain. This study was designed to ascertain whether salicylic acid (SAL) affects the expression of Eap and the internalization of S. aureus into epithelial cells. The strain Newman treated with SAL exhibited increased levels of eap transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, SAL treatment increased the eap promoter activity. SAL treatment enhanced Eap expression in the Newman and in other S. aureus strains that do not carry the mutation in saeS. Internalization of S. aureus eap and sae mutants into the MAC-T epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild-type counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a low concentration of SAL increased S. aureus Eap expression possibly due to enhancement of sae. SAL may create the conditions for S. aureus persistence in the host, not only by decreasing the capsular polysaccharide expression as shown before, but also by enhancing Eap expression.

  15. Enhanced accumulation of fatty acids and triacylglycerols in transgenic tobacco stems for enhanced bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Nookaraju, Akula; Pandey, Shashank K; Fujino, Takeshi; Kim, Ju Young; Suh, Mi Chung; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

    2014-07-01

    We report a novel approach for enhanced accumulation of fatty acids and triacylglycerols for utilization as biodiesel in transgenic tobacco stems through xylem-specific expression of Arabidopsis DGAT1 and LEC2 genes. The use of plant biomass for production of bioethanol and biodiesel has an enormous potential to revolutionize the global bioenergy outlook. Several studies have recently been initiated to genetically engineer oil production in seeds of crop plants to improve biodiesel production. However, the "food versus fuel" issues have also sparked some studies for enhanced accumulation of oils in vegetative tissues like leaves. But in the case of bioenergy crops, use of woody stems is more practical than leaves. Here, we report the enhanced accumulation of fatty acids (FAs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in stems of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) genes under a developing xylem-specific cellulose synthase promoter from aspen trees. The transgenic tobacco plants accumulated significantly higher amounts of FAs in their stems. On an average, DGAT1 and LEC2 overexpression showed a 63 and 80% increase in total FA production in mature stems of transgenic plants over that of controls, respectively. In addition, selected DGAT1 and LEC2 overexpression lines showed enhanced levels of TAGs in stems with higher accumulation of 16:0, 18:2 and 18:3 TAGs. In LEC2 lines, the relative mRNA levels of the downstream genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in FA synthesis and accumulation were also elevated. Thus, here, we provide a proof of concept for our approach of enhancing total energy yield per plant through accumulation of higher levels of FAs in transgenic stems for biodiesel production.

  16. Self-enhanced ozonation of benzoic acid at acidic pHs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianfeng; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Li, Hongchao; Zhang, Yanyang; Xie, Bihuang

    2015-04-15

    Ozonation of recalcitrant contaminants under acidic conditions is inefficient due to the lack of initiator (e.g., OH(-)) for ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals (HO). In this study, we reported that benzoic acid (BA), which is inert to ozone attack, underwent efficient degradation by ozone at acidic pH (2.3). The kinetics of BA degradation and ozone decomposition were both enhanced by increasing BA concentrations. Essentially, it is a HO-mediated reaction. Based on the exclusion of possible contributions of H2O2 and phenol-like intermediates for HO production, the reaction mechanism involved the formation of ozone ion ( [Formula: see text] ), which is an effective precursor of HO, was thus proposed. The hydroxycyclohexadienyl-type radicals generated during the attack of BA by HO may lead to the formation of [Formula: see text] . Meanwhile, [Formula: see text] could also be possibly formed from the reaction between ozone and organic (e.g., ROO∙) or inorganic peroxyl radicals (e.g., HO2). In addition, the hydroxylated products like phenol-like intermediates also played a positive role in HO production. Consequently, HO was produced efficiently under acidic conditions, resulting in rapid degradation of BA. This study provides a new approach for ozone activation even at acidic pHs, and broadens the knowledge of ozonation in removal of micropollutants from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils.

  18. Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier.

  19. Abscisic acid enhances resistance to Alternaria solani in tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    Song, Weiwei; Ma, Xinrong; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Jinyan

    2011-07-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous ABA application on the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and Alternaria solani (early blight). Foliar spraying of 7.58 μM ABA was effective in reducing disease severity in tomato plants. Previously, increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in exogenous ABA-treated tomato leaves. Moreover, these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels in ABA-pretreated and A. solani challenged tomato plants. Tomato defense genes, such as PR1, β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU), PPO, POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were rapidly and significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, a subsequent challenge of ABA-pretreated plants with the pathogen A. solani resulted in higher expression of defense genes, compared to water-treated or A. solani inoculated plants. Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous ABA could enhance disease resistance against A. solani infection in tomato through the activation of defense genes and via the enhancement of defense-related enzymatic activities.

  20. Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T.; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4 mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  1. Hyaluronic acid enhances gene delivery into the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji B; Cortez, Sarah R; Wiler, James A; Swiderski, Donald L; Raphael, Yehoash

    2012-03-01

    Cochlear gene therapy can be a new avenue for the treatment of severe hearing loss by inducing regeneration or phenotypic rescue. One necessary step to establish this therapy is the development of a safe and feasible inoculation surgery, ideally without drilling the bony cochlear wall. The round window membrane (RWM) is accessible in the middle-ear space, but viral vectors placed on this membrane do not readily cross the membrane to the cochlear tissues. In an attempt to enhance permeability of the RWM, we applied hyaluronic acid (HA), a nontoxic and biodegradable reagent, onto the RWM of guinea pigs, prior to delivering an adenovirus carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene (Ad-eGFP) at the same site. We examined distribution of eGFP in the cochlea 1 week after treatment, comparing delivery of the vector via the RWM, with or without HA, to delivery by a cochleostomy into the perilymph. We found that cochlear tissue treated with HA-assisted delivery of Ad-eGFP demonstrated wider expression of transgenes in cochlear cells than did tissue treated by cochleostomy injection. HA-assisted vector delivery facilitated expression in cells lining the scala media, which are less accessible and not transduced after perilymphatic injection. We assessed auditory function by measuring auditory brainstem responses and determined that thresholds were significantly better in the ears treated with HA-assisted Ad-eGFP placement on the RWM as compared with cochleostomy. Together, these data demonstrate that HA-assisted delivery of viral vectors provides an atraumatic and clinically feasible method to introduce transgenes into cochlear cells, thereby enhancing both research methods and future clinical application.

  2. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  3. Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from excess sludge by combined free nitrous acid and rhamnolipid treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Bao, Xian; Zheng, He-Shan; Yin, Ren-Li; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Luo, Hai-Chao; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-01-01

    VFA production from excess sludge (ES) was greatly enhanced by a low-cost and high-efficient treatment: 0.67mg/L free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment combined with 0.04g/g TSS rhamnolipid (RL) addition (FNA+RL), which significantly shortened fermentation time to 3days and increased VFA production to 352.26mgCOD/g VSS (5.42 times higher than raw ES). Propionic and acetic acids were the two leading components (71.86% of the total VFA). Mechanism investigation manifested FNA+RL improved the biodegradability of ES, achieved positive synergetic effect on solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification efficiencies, and inhibited methanation. Microbial community distribution further explained the above phenomena. The bacteria related to polysaccharides/protein utilization and VFA generation, including Clostridium, Megasphaera and Proteiniborus, were mainly observed in FNA+RL, whereas gas-forming bacteria Anaerolineae and acid-consuming bacteria Proteobacteria were assuredly suppressed. Besides, Propionibacterineae associated with propionic acid generation was exclusively enriched in sole RL and FNA+RL. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Enhanced solubility and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates due to the conjugation of chitosan with chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Rui, Liyun; Xie, Minhao; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Saeeduddin, Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-08-15

    Chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugate was synthesized by introducing of chlorogenic acid onto chitosan with the aid of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and hydroxybenzotriazole. The data of UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR for chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates demonstrated the successful conjugation of chlorogenic acid with chitosan. Compared to chitosan, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates exhibited increased solubility in distilled water, 1% acetic acid solution (v/v) or 50% ethanol solution (v/v) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Moreover, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates showed dramatic enhancements in metal ion chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, scavenging activities on 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and superoxide radicals, inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative injury of PC12 cells. Particularly, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugate exhibited higher inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching than chlorogenic acid. The results suggested that chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates could serve as food supplements to enhance the function of foods in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Michinao; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Okinaga, Toshinori; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and

  6. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA.

  8. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W; Wines, Pamela G; Cryan, Ellen V; Demarest, Keith T

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca(2+)-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca(2+)-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  9. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuting . E-mail: ytang@prdus.jnj.com; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W.; Wines, Pamela G.; Cryan, Ellen V.; Demarest, Keith T.

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2})/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  10. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars.

  11. Enhancing tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) to simulated acid rain by exogenous abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Liang, Chanjuan

    2017-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates much important plant physiological and biochemical processes and induces tolerance to different stresses. Here, we studied the regulation of exogenous ABA on adaptation of rice seedlings to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress by measuring biomass dry weight, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, nutrient elements, and endogenous hormones. The application of 10 μM ABA alleviated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and decreases in contents of nutrient (K, Mg, N, and P) and hormone (auxin, gibberellins, and zeatin). Moreover, 10 μM ABA could stimulate the Ca content as signaling molecules under SAR stress. Contrarily, the application of 100 μM ABA aggravated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and contents of nutrient and hormone. The results got after a 5-day recovery (without SAR) show that exogenous 10 μM ABA can promote self-restoration process in rice whereas 100 μM ABA hindered the restoration by increasing deficiency of nutrients and disturbing the balance of hormones. These results confirmed that exogenous ABA at proper concentration could enhance the tolerance of rice to SAR stress.

  12. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  13. Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  14. Enhanced functional properties of tannic acid after thermal hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal hydrolysis processing of fresh tannic acid was carried out in a closed reactor at four different temperatures (65, 100, 150 and 200°C). Pressures reached in the system were 1.3 and 4.8 MPa at 150 and 200°C, respectively. Hydrolysis products (gallic acid and pyrogallol) were separated and qua...

  15. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  16. Nucleic Acid Conjugated Nanomaterials for Enhanced Molecular Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Ronghua; Yang, Liu; Tan, Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Nucleic acids, whether designed or selected in vitro, play important roles in biosensing, medical diagnostics and therapy. Specifically, the conjugation of functional nucleic acid-based probe molecules and nanomaterials has resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the field of molecular recognition. With their unique physical and chemical properties, nanomaterials facilitate the sensing process and amplify the signal of recognition events. Thus, the coupling of nucleic acids with various nanomaterials opens up a promising future for molecular recognition. The literature offers a broad spectrum of recent advances in biosensing by employing different nano-platforms with designed nucleic acids, especially gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, silica nanoparticles and quantum dots. The advantages of these novel combinations are discussed from the perspective of molecular recognition in chemistry, biology and medicine, along with the problems confronting future applications. PMID:19658387

  17. Amino Acids in Nectar Enhance Longevity of Female Culex quinquefasciatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    and that some insects show a preference for carbohydrate sources containing amino acids (Alm et al., 1990; Mevi-Schutz and Erhardt, 2003b), has led...to an increased interest in the role that they play in insect life histories (Baker and Baker, 1973). Some insects rely on nectar as a primary source ...2003a; Hill and Pierce, 1989). Certain flowers contain high levels of amino acids, and have been studied as potentially important sources for amino

  18. Arachidonic Acid Enhances Turnover of the Dermal Skeleton: Studies on Zebrafish Scales

    PubMed Central

    de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R.; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation. PMID:24586706

  19. Arachidonic acid enhances turnover of the dermal skeleton: studies on zebrafish scales.

    PubMed

    de Vrieze, Erik; Moren, Mari; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Lie, Kai Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    In fish nutrition, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids influences skeletal development. Supplementation of fish oils with vegetable oils increases the content of omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid in the diet. Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases to prostaglandin E2, an eicosanoid with effects on bone formation and remodeling. To elucidate effects of poly-unsaturated fatty acids on developing and existing skeletal tissues, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed (micro-) diets low and high in arachidonic acid content. Elasmoid scales, dermal skeletal plates, are ideal to study skeletal metabolism in zebrafish and were exploited in the present study. The fatty acid profile resulting from a high arachidonic acid diet induced mild but significant increase in matrix resorption in ontogenetic scales of adult zebrafish. Arachidonic acid affected scale regeneration (following removal of ontogenetic scales): mineral deposition was altered and both gene expression and enzymatic matrix metalloproteinase activity changed towards enhanced osteoclastic activity. Arachidonic acid also clearly stimulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in vitro, which implies that resorptive effects of arachidonic acid are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases. The gene expression profile further suggests that arachidonic acid increases maturation rate of the regenerating scale; in other words, enhances turnover. The zebrafish scale is an excellent model to study how and which fatty acids affect skeletal formation.

  20. Microemulsion formulation of clonixic acid: solubility enhancement and pain reduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Mi; Park, Kyung-Mi; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Chong-Kook

    2002-01-01

    Clonixic acid is currently marketed as a salt form because of its poor water-solubility. However, the commercial dosage form causes severe pain after intramuscular or intravenous injection. To improve the solubility of clonixic acid and to reduce pain on injection, clonixic acid was incorporated into oil-in-water microemulsions prepared from pre-microemulsion concentrate composed of varying ratios of oil and surfactant mixture. As an oil phase for drug incorporation, up to 14% castor oil could be included in the pre-microemulsion concentrate without a significant increase in droplet size. Both drug contents and droplet size increased as the weight ratio of Tween 20 to Tween 85 decreased. Taken together, when microemulsions were prepared from pre-microemulsion concentrate composed of 5:12:18 weight ratio of castor oil:Tween 20:Tween 85, clonixic acid could be incorporated at 3.2 mg mL(-1) in the microemulsion with a droplet size of less than 120 nm. The osmotic pressure of this microemulsion was remarkably lower than the commercial formulation, irrespective of the dilution ratios. The rat paw-lick test was used to compare pain responses among formulations. The microemulsion formulation significantly reduced the number of rats licking their paws as well as the total licking time, suggesting less pain induction by the microemulsion formulation. The pharmacokinetic parameters of clonixic acid after intravenous administration of the clonixic acid microemulsion to rats were not significantly different from those of the commercial formulation, lysine clonixinate. The present study suggests that microemulsion is an alternative formulation for clonixic acid with improved characteristics.

  1. Human skin permeability enhancement by lauric acid under equilibrium aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, S W; Anderson, B D

    1995-05-01

    An in vitro method was developed to investigate the enhancement of hydrocortisone transport across human stratum corneum (SC) by a model enhancer, lauric acid, in aqueous solutions under equilibrium conditions with respect to the enhancer. In contrast to classical (i.e., nonequilibrium) loading techniques, in which the enhancer is applied only to the donor side of SC either in pure form or in an organic solvent while enhancer-free aqueous buffers are placed in the receptor phase, this method allowed the investigation of pH effects, concentration effects, and reversibility of both enhancer uptake and enhancement of drug transport under thermodynamically well-defined conditions. The SC-buffer partition coefficients for lauric acid were linear with concentration and sigmoidal with pH, suggesting that both the neutral species and laurate anion partition into SC. Comparisons of partition coefficients in delipidized and untreated SC as a function of pH indicated that the uptake of lauric acid in neutral form is governed primarily by the lipid domain, whereas the protein domain accounts for anion uptake. The effects of lauric acid on skin permeability were > 80% reversible upon extraction of the enhancer from the membrane. However, the degree of enhancement of hydrocortisone permeability was nonlinearly dependent on the equilibrium concentration of lauric acid in either the aqueous buffer or the membrane, exhibiting thresholds in the appearance of enhancement with concentration. The enhancer concentration necessary to achieve isoenhancement of about 6-fold varied from approximately 1 x 10(-5) M at pH < pKa to approximately 1 x 10(-2) M at high pH (pH > 8) demonstrating the higher influence of the free acid species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed.

  3. Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid coordination polymer nanowires: an effective sensing platform for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Qian; Sun, Xuping; Kong, Rongmei

    2017-02-01

    The determination of specific nucleic acid sequences is key in identifying disease-causing pathogens and genetic diseases. In this paper we report the utilization of Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid coordination polymer nanowires as an effective nanoquencher for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection. The detection is fast and the whole process can be completed within 15 min. This nanosensor shows a low detection limit of 0.2 nM with selectivity down to single-base mismatch. This work provides us with an attractive sensing platform for applications.

  4. Polyamino acid display on cell surfaces enhances salt and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Microbes employ cell membranes for reducing exogenous stresses. Polyamino acid display on microbial cell surfaces and their effects on microbial chemical stress tolerance were examined. Growth analysis revealed that displays of polyarginine, polyaspartate and polytryptophan substantially enhanced tolerance of Escherichia coli to NaCl. A titration assay indicated that polyarginine and polyaspartate altered cell surface charges, implying tolerance enhancement via ion atmosphere and/or ionic bond network formations for electrostatic ion repulsion. The enhancement by polytryptophan may have arisen from surface hydrophobicity increase for hydrophobic ion exclusion, because of a strong correlation between hydrophobic characters of amino acids and their effects on tolerance enhancement. The display also enhanced tolerance to other salts and/or alcohols in E. coli and to NaCl in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus polyamino acid display has the potential as an approach for conferring chemical stress tolerance on various microbes.

  5. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    PubMed Central

    King, A.R.; Martin, I.L.; Arabella Melville, K.

    1974-01-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 μg/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal. 2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 μg/kg). 3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 μg/kg. PMID:4458849

  6. Adipic acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization system commercial demonstration. [Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Colley, J.D.; Mobley, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration carried out at Springfield, Mo City Utilities Southwest Power Plant in 1980-1981 on adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization system is reported. The major process findings during the demonstration are discussed. It is found that adipic acid is a viable means for improving SO/sub 2/ removal in scrubbers which are limited from a dissolved alkalinity standpoint. Dibasic acid (a mixture of glutaric, adipic, and succinic acids) is a technically viable alternative to adipic acid. 6 refs.

  7. Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

  8. Boric acid-enhanced embedding medium for cryomicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-05-01

    A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based resin is commonly used as a cryoembedding medium for the histological analysis of frozen tissue sections. However, it is not easy to obtain sufficient numbers of satisfactory reproducible sections owing to the differences between the mechanical properties of the medium and embedded tissue and the low cohesive force of the medium. We describe a modified PVA-based cryoembedding medium, composed of PVA (10wt% and 15wt%) with the addition of boric acid (from 0 to 5wt%), that can improve the sectioning properties and efficiency of frozen tissue for histological analysis. The amount of load under the same compressive displacement as well as cohesive force increased with increasing boric acid and PVA contents. 15wt% PVA and 3wt% boric acid was determined as an optimal composition for cryoembedding material based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices and the amount of load under the same compressive displacement test. On the basis of the results of routine hematoxylin and eosin staining of cryosections of tissue embedded in a medium with 3wt% boric acid and PVA, it was concluded that the modified PVA cryoembedding medium can improve the efficiency of cryosectioning for subsequent histological or histochemical analysis of various tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripheral serotonin enhances lipid metabolism by accelerating bile acid turnover.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Akasaka, Daisuke; Ogasawara, Hideki; Sato, Kan; Miyake, Masato; Saito, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yu; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Hondo, Tetsuya; Chao, Guozheng; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Aso, Hisashi

    2010-10-01

    Serotonin is synthesized by two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases, one in the brain and one in the periphery. The latter is known to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. These two serotonin systems have apparently independent functions, although the functions of peripheral serotonin have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the physiological effect of peripheral serotonin on the concentrations of metabolites in the circulation and in the liver. After fasting, mice were ip injected with 1 mg serotonin. The plasma glucose concentration was significantly elevated between 60 and 270 min after the injection. In contrast, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were decreased. The hepatic glycogen synthesis and concentrations were significantly higher at 240 min. At the same time, the hepatic triglyceride content was significantly lower than the basal levels noted before the serotonin injection, whereas the hepatic cholesterol content was significantly higher by 60 min after the injection. Furthermore, serotonin stimulated the contraction of the gallbladder and the excretion of bile. After the serotonin injection, there was a significant induction of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter expression, resulting in a decrease in the concentration of bile acids in the feces. Additionally, data are presented to show that the functions of serotonin are mediated through diverse serotonin receptor subtypes. These data indicate that peripheral serotonin accelerates the metabolism of lipid by increasing the concentration of bile acids in circulation.

  10. KINETIC ASPECTS OF CATION-ENHANCED AGGREGATION IN AQUEOUS HUMIC ACIDS. (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cation-enhanced formation of hydrophobic domains in aqueous humic acids has been shown to be a slow process, consistent with the evolution and disintegration of humic acid configurations over periods lasting from days to weeks. After the addition of a magnesium salt to a humi...

  11. Enhanced transdermal lymphatic drug delivery of hyaluronic acid modified transfersomes for tumor metastasis therapy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ming; Hou, Lin; Wang, Juan; Feng, Chao; Liu, Ya; Cheng, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiguang

    2015-01-28

    A novel hyaluronic acid modified transfersome was prepared to deliver drugs to lymphatics through the transdermal route. Doxorubicin loaded HA-GMS-T was able to efficiently penetrate into the deep skin tissue, leading to enhanced absorption by lymphatics. Most importantly, hyaluronic acid effectively improved the uptake of drug loaded nanocarriers by tumor cells.

  12. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  13. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  14. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine.

    PubMed

    Edelsbrunner, Martin E; Nakano, Motoko; Holzer, Peter

    2009-06-02

    Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg) modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 - 30 mg/kg) or cimetidine (10 mg/kg), and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M). During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their

  15. Identification of a retinoic acid-responsive neural enhancer in the Ciona intestinalis Hox1 gene.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Miyuki; Ikeda, Taku; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2013-02-01

    The Hox1 gene in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (Ci-Hox1) is expressed in the nerve cord and epidermis. We identified a nerve cord enhancer in the second intron of Ci-Hox1, and demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) plays a major role in activating this enhancer. The enhancer contained a putative retinoic acid-response element (RARE). Mutation of the RARE in the Ci-Hox1 nerve cord enhancer only partially abolished the enhancer activity. Genes encoding RA synthase and the RA receptor were knocked down using specific antisense morpholino oligos (MOs), and injection of embryos with these MOs resulted in the complete disappearance of epidermal expression of Ci-Hox1 and reduction of neural expression. However, nerve cord expression was not completely repressed. These results suggest that the nerve cord enhancer is activated by two partially redundant pathways; one RA-dependent and one RA-independent.

  16. Adipic acid enhanced flue gas desulfurization process for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Technical assessment. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.; Hargrove, O.W.

    1983-03-01

    The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicate a slight reduction in both capital and operating expenses relative to a limestone-only system designed for 90% SO/sub 2/ control of 3.5% sulfur coal. The costs are competitive with the dual alkali system. The successful demonstration of the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone system increases the number of demonstrated technologies available to a potential user.

  17. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-10-24

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  19. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

  20. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The ever-surprising chemistry of boron: enhanced acidity of phosphine.boranes.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Marcela; Yánez, Manuel; Herrero, Rebeca; Guerrero, Andrés; Dávalos, Juan Z; Abboud, José-Luis M; Khater, Brahim; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The acidity-enhancing effect of BH(3) in gas-phase phosphineboranes compared to the corresponding free phosphines is enormous, between 13 and 18 orders of magnitude in terms of ionization constants. Thus, the enhancement of the acidity of protic acids by Lewis acids usually observed in solution is also observed in the gas phase. For example, the gas-phase acidities (GA) of MePH(2) and MePH(2)BH(3) differ by about 118 kJ mol(-1) (see picture).The gas-phase acidity of a series of phosphines and their corresponding phosphineborane derivatives was measured by FT-ICR techniques. BH(3) attachment leads to a substantial increase of the intrinsic acidity of the system (from 80 to 110 kJ mol(-1)). This acidity-enhancing effect of BH(3) is enormous, between 13 and 18 orders of magnitude in terms of ionization constants. This indicates that the enhancement of the acidity of protic acids by Lewis acids usually observed in solution also occurs in the gas phase. High-level DFT calculations reveal that this acidity enhancement is essentially due to stronger stabilization of the anion with respect to the neutral species on BH(3) association, due to a stronger electron donor ability of P in the anion and better dispersion of the negative charge in the system when the BH(3) group is present. Our study also shows that deprotonation of ClCH(2)PH(2) and ClCH(2)PH(2)BH(3) is followed by chloride departure. For the latter compound deprotonation at the BH(3) group is found to be more favorable than PH(2) deprotonation, and the subsequent loss of Cl(-) is kinetically favored with respect to loss of Cl(-) in a typical S(N)2 process. Hence, ClCH(2)PH(2)BH(3) is the only phosphineborane adduct included in this study which behaves as a boron acid rather than as a phosphorus acid.

  2. Stearidonic acid as a supplemental source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance status for improved human health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    There is substantial evidence to show that consumption and increased blood levels of the very long-chain (VLC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The consumption of oily fish is an effective way of increasing EPA and DHA intake and status, but intake in most Western countries remains below the levels recommended for optimal health. The reasons for this include not liking the taste, a concern about sustainability of fish supplies, or potential chemical and heavy metal contamination. Alternative dietary sources of ω-3 fatty acids to enhance EPA and DHA status in the body would therefore be beneficial. There are many non-fish food sources of the essential plant-derived ω-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, but conversion from this to longer-chain EPA and especially to DHA is poor. Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an intermediate fatty acid in the biosynthetic pathway from α-linolenic acid to VLC ω-3 PUFAs and the conversion from SDA is more efficient than from α-linolenic acid. However, there are few food sources rich in SDA. Oil crops naturally rich in SDA or enriched through genetic modification may offer an alternative supplemental oil to boost the population status of VLC ω-3 PUFAs. This review discusses the currently available evidence that increased SDA consumption can increase red blood cell EPA content, although this is less than the effect of supplementation directly with EPA. There is now a need for trials specifically designed to assess whether an increased SDA consumption would translate into improved human health outcomes.

  3. Valproic acid enhances bosutinib cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mologni, Luca; Cleris, Loredana; Magistroni, Vera; Piazza, Rocco; Boschelli, Frank; Formelli, Franca; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2009-04-15

    Unbalanced histone deacetylase (HDAC) hyperactivity is a common feature of tumor cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity is often associated with cancer cell growth impairment and death. Valproic acid (VPA) is a HDAC inhibitor used for the treatment of epilepsy. It has recently been recognized as a promising anticancer drug. We investigated the effects of VPA on growth and survival of colon cancer cells. VPA caused growth inhibition and programmed cell death that correlated with histone hyperacetylation. VPA modulated the expression of various factors involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis and induced caspase activation. Interestingly, VPA induced downregulation of c-Src and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the c-Src inhibitor bosutinib, both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of sublethal doses of VPA and bosutinib led to massive apoptosis of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their genetic background. These results suggest that VPA may be employed as a positive modulator of bosutinib antitumor activity in colorectal cancer.

  4. Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2015-03-01

    Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 µM and 4.0 µM by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Speert, D.P.; Quie, P.G.; Wannamaker, L.W.

    1981-04-01

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis.

  7. Fish oil prevents essential fatty acid deficiency and enhances growth: clinical and biochemical implications.

    PubMed

    Strijbosch, Robert A M; Lee, Sang; Arsenault, Danielle A; Andersson, Charlotte; Gura, Kathleen M; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, has never been used as the sole source of lipid in clinical practice for fear of development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as it lacks the believed requisite levels of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. The objectives of this study were to establish biochemical standards for fish oil as the sole fat and to test the hypothesis that fish oil contains adequate amounts of omega-6 fatty acids to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. Forty mice were divided into 2 groups that were either pair fed or allowed to eat ad libitum. In each group, 4 subgroups of 5 mice were fed 1%, 5%, and 10% fish oil diets by weight or a control soybean diet for 9 weeks. Blood was collected at 4 time points, and fatty acid analysis was performed. Food intake and weight status were monitored. All groups but the pair-fed 1% fish oil group gained weight, and the 5% fish oil group showed the highest caloric efficiency in both pair-fed and ad libitum groups. Fatty acid profiles for the 1% fish oil group displayed clear essential fatty acid deficiency, 5% fish oil appeared marginal, and 10% and soybean oil diets were found to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. Fish oil enhances growth through higher caloric efficiency. We established a total omega-6 fatty acid requirement of between 0.30% and 0.56% of dietary energy, approximately half of the conventionally believed 1% as linoleic acid. This can presumably be attributed to the fact that fish oil contains not only a small amount of linoleic acid, but also arachidonic acid, which has greater efficiency to meet omega-6 fatty acid requirements.

  8. Enhanced crystallization of poly (lactic acid) through reactive aliphatic bisamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthananon, P.; Seadan, M.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The poor crystallization rate of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a major drawback in terms of controlling the properties of final products. To overcome this, a nucleating agent is normally applied. In this work, the aliphatic bisamide, N, N'-(1,3-propylene) bis(10-undecenamide) (PBU), having reactive functional groups is used as a crystallization promoter for PLA by adding PBU in various concentration (0.1-0.7 wt%) into PLA together with peroxide via reactive melt blending. The conventional ethylene bis-stearamide(EBS) is used for a comparison. The extruded samples are characterized for gel content and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystallization behaviour and rate, and spherulites morphology are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. It is found that the addition of PBU into PLA results in the dramatic increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate of PLA compared with neat PLA and PLA added EBS. The crystallinity increases to 24.9-28.3% higher than neat PLA under even cooling rate of 7°C/min. The addition of 0.7 wt% PBU shows the fastest crystallization rate with t1/2 value isothermally crystallized at 130°C of only 6 min. POM images indicate the increase in the nucleation density and very fine spherulitesof PLA added PBU, promoting the fast crystallization.

  9. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Applications of ultrasound to enhance mycophenolic acid production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yupeng; Ang, Woon T; Xing, James; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Reducing production costs for fermentation-based drugs (e.g., antibiotics) is crucial for the long-term sustainability of healthcare. In this study, we propose a novel low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation scheme using a nominal frequency of 1.5 MHz with a 20% duty cycle (200 μs ultrasound on and 800 μs ultrasound off) to increase production of fermentation-based drugs. We chose Penicillium brevicompactum as a model system to demonstrate the performance of our LIPUS system. Penicillium brevicompactum can produce mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressive agent commonly used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation. We have stimulated Penicillium brevicompactum in 50 mL shake flasks using LIPUS during its fermentation. After a series of screening experiments to optimize ultrasound parameters (e.g., ultrasound intensities, treatment duration and treatment frequency per day), it was concluded that ultrasound stimulation can increase MPA production by as much as 60% when treated eight times a day for 10-min durations at an intensity (spatial peak temporal average) of 200 mW/cm(2). These findings elucidate a new approach to reduce the cost of producing fermentation-based drugs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Capacity of lactic acid bacteria in immunity enhancement and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Riaz Rajoka, Muhammad Shahid; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Shao, Dongyan; Huang, Qingsheng; Yang, Hui; Jin, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are associated with the human gastrointestinal tract. They are important for maintaining the balance of microflora in the human gut. An increasing number of published research reports in recent years have denoted the importance of producing interferon-gamma and IgA for treatment of disease. These agents can enhance the specific and nonspecific immune systems that are dependent on specific bacterial strains. The mechanisms of these effects were revealed in this investigation, where the cell walls of these bacteria were modulated by the cytokine pathways, while the whole bacterial cell mediated the host cell immune system and regulated the production of tumor necrosis factors and interleukins. A supplement of highly active lactic acid bacteria strains provided significant potential to enhance host's immunity, offering prevention from many diseases including some cancers. This review summarizes the current understanding of the function of lactic acid bacteria immunity enhancement and cancer prevention.

  12. Fluorescence enhancement of yttrium(III)-rutin by nucleic acids in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Guo, Changying; Wang, Fei; Yang, Jinghe; Ran, Dehuan; Zheng, Jinhua; Wu, Jinbo

    2006-11-01

    It is found that nucleic acids can enhance the fluorescence intensity of yttrium(III) (Y 3+)-rutin in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) system. In hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer, the maximum enhanced fluorescence is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths at 452 and 520 nm, respectively. Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of nucleic acids is proposed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is proportion to the concentration of nucleic acids in the range of 1.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 g/ml for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA), 1.0 × 10 -7 to 4.6 × 10 -6 g/ml for yeast RNA (yRNA), their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 7.5 × 10 -8, 8.0 × 10 -8 g/ml, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  13. Preparation of Hollow Biopolymer Nanospheres Employing Starch Nanoparticle Templates for Enhancement of Phenolic Acid Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Li, Man; Liu, Jing; Ji, Na; Liang, Caifeng; Sun, Qingjie; Xiong, Liu

    2017-05-17

    Phenolic acids have been extensively studied because of their bioactive properties and disease prevention and control capacities. However, undesired odors and taste, low aqueous solubility, and thermal and ultraviolet (UV) light instability severely restrict their application. The aim of this work was to evaluate the enhancement in antioxidative activities of phenolic acids in hollow nanospheres and their stability in terms of their antioxidative activities under harsh conditions. For the first time, we have successfully fabricated hollow short linear glucan (SLG)@gum arabic (GA) nanospheres and hollow in situ SLG/GA hybrid nanospheres by removing the sacrificial starch nanoparticle templates through α-amylase treatment and Ostwald ripening. These two hollow nanospheres had a huge cavity area for the encapsulation of phenolic acids, and their loading capacities were >20%. Furthermore, they can be used as nanoreactors to immobilize phenolic acids, enhance their antioxidative activities, and improve their stability when exposed to high salt concentrations, UV light, or heat treatments.

  14. Elucidating the Role of Ferrous Ion Cocatalyst in Enhancing Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Donohoe, B. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Ciesielski, P. N.; Wang, W.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Zeng, Y.; Johnson, D. K.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Tucker, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe{sup 2+} ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  15. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

    2014-10-03

    Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50μM) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release.

  16. DSSR-enhanced visualization of nucleic acid structures in Jmol.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert M; Lu, Xiang-Jun

    2017-05-03

    Sophisticated and interactive visualizations are essential for making sense of the intricate 3D structures of macromolecules. For proteins, secondary structural components are routinely featured in molecular graphics visualizations. However, the field of RNA structural bioinformatics is still lagging behind; for example, current molecular graphics tools lack built-in support even for base pairs, double helices, or hairpin loops. DSSR (Dissecting the Spatial Structure of RNA) is an integrated and automated command-line tool for the analysis and annotation of RNA tertiary structures. It calculates a comprehensive and unique set of features for characterizing RNA, as well as DNA structures. Jmol is a widely used, open-source Java viewer for 3D structures, with a powerful scripting language. JSmol, its reincarnation based on native JavaScript, has a predominant position in the post Java-applet era for web-based visualization of molecular structures. The DSSR-Jmol integration presented here makes salient features of DSSR readily accessible, either via the Java-based Jmol application itself, or its HTML5-based equivalent, JSmol. The DSSR web service accepts 3D coordinate files (in mmCIF or PDB format) initiated from a Jmol or JSmol session and returns DSSR-derived structural features in JSON format. This seamless combination of DSSR and Jmol/JSmol brings the molecular graphics of 3D RNA structures to a similar level as that for proteins, and enables a much deeper analysis of structural characteristics. It fills a gap in RNA structural bioinformatics, and is freely accessible (via the Jmol application or the JSmol-based website http://jmol.x3dna.org). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. The enhancement mechanism of glycolic acid on the formation of atmospheric sulfuric acid-ammonia molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijie; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Zhang, Xiuhui; Molinero, Valeria; Zhang, Yunhong; Li, Zesheng

    2017-05-01

    Highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules, which span a wide range of low volatilities, are capable of driving particle formation as well as the initial growth of particles in the atmosphere. However, their participant mechanism in new particle formation still remains largely ambiguous. Here we present an investigation of the potentially participant mechanism of the simplest hydroxyl acid, glycolic acid (GA) on clusters formation by sulfuric acid (SA) and ammonia (A). Density functional theory calculations at the M062X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory combining with atmospheric cluster dynamics code simulations of (𝐒𝐀)xṡ𝐀yṡ(𝐆𝐀)z cluster (y≤x + z ≤ 3) systems at different temperatures (298, 278, 258, 238, and 218 K) give direct evidence of the enhancement effect of GA on the formation rates of SA-A-based clusters at high concentration of GA and T = 238 K and 218 K. Moreover, within GA's enhancement concentrations, the enhancement strength R of GA presents a positive dependence on its atmospheric concentrations and a negative dependence on temperature. A competitive relationship between SA and GA has been identified through the negative dependence of R on the concentrations of SA. The influence of A on R is more complex that R first increases, reaching a maximum value, and then decreases with the increasing concentration of A. Finally, the combination of the traced growth paths of the system with the enhancement strength of GA suggests a "catalytic" enhancement mechanism of GA where GA acts as a mediate bridge for the formation of pure SA-A-based clusters.

  18. Enhanced Nitrogen Availability in Karst Ecosystems by Oxalic Acid Release in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fujing; Liang, Yueming; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Kelin

    2016-01-01

    In karst ecosystems, a high level of CaCO3 enhances the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and causes nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) limitation in plants. Oxalic acid has been suggested to be involved in the nutrient-acquisition strategy of plants because its addition can temporarily relieve nutrient limitation. Therefore, understanding how oxalic acid drives N availability may help support successful vegetation restoration in the karst ecosystems of southwest China. We tested a model suggested by Clarholm et al. (2015) where oxalate reacts with Ca bridges in SOM, thus exposing previously protected areas to enzymatic attacks in a way that releases N for local uptake. We studied the effects of oxalic acid, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) on potential N mineralization rates in rhizosphere soils of four plant species (two shrubs and two trees) in karst areas. The results showed that rhizosphere soils of shrubs grown on formerly deforested land had significantly lower oxalic acid concentrations and NAG activity than that of trees in a 200-year-old forest. The levels of MBC in rhizosphere soils of shrubs were significantly lower than those of trees in the growing season, but the measure of shrubs and trees were similar in the non-growing season; the potential N mineralization rates showed a reverse pattern. Positive relationships were found among oxalic acid, MBC, NAG activity, and potential N mineralization rates for both shrubs and trees. This indicated that oxalic acid, microbes, and NAG may enhance N availability for acquisition by plants. Path analysis showed that oxalic acid enhanced potential N mineralization rates indirectly through inducing microbes and NAG activities. We found that the exudation of oxalic acid clearly provides an important mechanism that allows plants to enhance nutrient acquisition in karst ecosystems. PMID:27252713

  19. Enhanced Nitrogen Availability in Karst Ecosystems by Oxalic Acid Release in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fujing; Liang, Yueming; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Kelin

    2016-01-01

    In karst ecosystems, a high level of CaCO3 enhances the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and causes nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) limitation in plants. Oxalic acid has been suggested to be involved in the nutrient-acquisition strategy of plants because its addition can temporarily relieve nutrient limitation. Therefore, understanding how oxalic acid drives N availability may help support successful vegetation restoration in the karst ecosystems of southwest China. We tested a model suggested by Clarholm et al. (2015) where oxalate reacts with Ca bridges in SOM, thus exposing previously protected areas to enzymatic attacks in a way that releases N for local uptake. We studied the effects of oxalic acid, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) on potential N mineralization rates in rhizosphere soils of four plant species (two shrubs and two trees) in karst areas. The results showed that rhizosphere soils of shrubs grown on formerly deforested land had significantly lower oxalic acid concentrations and NAG activity than that of trees in a 200-year-old forest. The levels of MBC in rhizosphere soils of shrubs were significantly lower than those of trees in the growing season, but the measure of shrubs and trees were similar in the non-growing season; the potential N mineralization rates showed a reverse pattern. Positive relationships were found among oxalic acid, MBC, NAG activity, and potential N mineralization rates for both shrubs and trees. This indicated that oxalic acid, microbes, and NAG may enhance N availability for acquisition by plants. Path analysis showed that oxalic acid enhanced potential N mineralization rates indirectly through inducing microbes and NAG activities. We found that the exudation of oxalic acid clearly provides an important mechanism that allows plants to enhance nutrient acquisition in karst ecosystems.

  20. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p'-DDT,2,4,5,2',5'-PCB, 2,4,4'-PCB, 1,2,3,-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. The K/sub dom/ values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment. 41 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

  2. Unsaturated fatty acids lactose esters: cytotoxicity, permeability enhancement and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, Simone; Fagioli, Laura; Campana, Raffaella; Cole, Hannah; Duranti, Andrea; Baffone, Wally; Vllasaliu, Driton; Casettari, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies. The synthesized compounds, namely lactose palmitoleate (URB1076) and lactose nervonate (URB1077), were shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity versus eight pathogenic species belonging to Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms and fungi.

  3. Synthesis and assembly of Pd nanoparticles on graphene for enhanced electrooxidation of formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tao; Guo, Shaojun; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2012-12-01

    Monodisperse 4.5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solution phase reduction of palladium acetylacetonate with morpholine borane in a mixture of oleylamine and 1-octadecene. These NPs were assembled on graphene uniformly in the form of a monolayer, and showed much enhanced catalysis for electrooxidation of formic acid. The work demonstrates the great potential of graphene as a support to enhance NP catalysis and stability for important chemical oxidation reactions.Monodisperse 4.5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solution phase reduction of palladium acetylacetonate with morpholine borane in a mixture of oleylamine and 1-octadecene. These NPs were assembled on graphene uniformly in the form of a monolayer, and showed much enhanced catalysis for electrooxidation of formic acid. The work demonstrates the great potential of graphene as a support to enhance NP catalysis and stability for important chemical oxidation reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33060a

  4. Suppression of Progesterone-enhanced Hyperactivation in Hamster Spermatozoa by γ-aminobutyric Acid

    PubMed Central

    KON, Hiroe; TAKEI, Gen L.; FUJINOKI, Masakatsu; SHINODA, Motoo

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently shown that mammalian spermatozoa were hyperactivated by steroids, amines and amino acids. In the present study, we investigated whether hyperactivation of hamster sperm is regulated by progesterone (P) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although sperm hyperactivation was enhanced by P, GABA significantly suppressed P-enhanced hyperactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression of P-enhanced hyperactivation by GABA was significantly inhibited by an antagonist of the GABAA receptor (bicuculline). Moreover, P bound to the sperm head, and this binding was decreased by GABA. Because the concentrations of GABA and P change in association with the estrous cycle, these results suggest that GABA and P competitively regulate the enhancement of hyperactivation through the GABAA receptor. PMID:24614320

  5. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  6. Ellagic acid enhances morphine analgesia and attenuates the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2014-10-15

    According to our previous study, ellagic acid has both dose-related central and peripheral antinociceptive effect through the opioidergic and l-arginine-NO-cGMP-ATP sensitive K(+) channel pathways. In the present study, the systemic antinociceptive effects of ellagic acid in animal models of pain, and functional interactions between ellagic acid and morphine in terms of analgesia, tolerance and dependence were investigated. Ellagic acid (1-30mg/kg; i.p.) showed significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Intraperitoneal ellagic acid acutely interacted with morphine analgesia in a synergistic manner in this assay. Ellagic acid (1-10mg/kg; i.p.) also exerted analgesic activity in the hot-plate test. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1mg/kg; i.p.) significantly reversed ellagic acid, morphine as well as ellagic acid-morphine combination-induced antinociceptin in these two tests. More importantly, when co-administered with morphine, ellagic acid (1-10mg/kg) effectively blocked the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test. Likewise, ellagic acid dose-dependently prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs including jumping and weight loss. Ellagic acid treatment (1-30mg/kg; i.p.) had no significant effect on the locomotion activity of animals using open-field task. Therefore, these results showed that ellagic acid has notable systemic antinociceptive activity for both tonic and phasic pain models. Altogether, ellagic acid might be used in pain relief alone or in combination with opioid drugs because of enhancing morphine analgesia and preventing morphine-induced tolerance to analgesia and dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deglacial diatom production in the tropical North Atlantic driven by enhanced silicic acid supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Gong, Xun; Knorr, Gregor; Pike, Jennifer; Hall, Ian R.

    2016-03-01

    Major shifts in ocean circulation are thought to be responsible for abrupt changes in temperature and atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation, linked to variability in meridional heat transport and deep ocean carbon storage. There is also widespread evidence for shifts in biological production during these times of deglacial CO2 rise, including enhanced diatom production in regions such as the tropical Atlantic. However, it remains unclear as to whether this diatom production was driven by enhanced wind-driven upwelling or density-driven vertical mixing, or by elevated thermocline concentrations of silicic acid supplied to the surface at a constant rate. Here, we demonstrate that silicic acid supply at depth in the NE Atlantic was enhanced during the abrupt climate events of the deglaciation. We use marine sediment archives to show that an increase in diatom production during abrupt climate shifts could only occur in regions of the NE Atlantic where the deep supply of silicic acid could reach the surface. The associated changes are indicative of enhanced regional wind-driven upwelling and/or weakened stratification due to circulation changes during phases of weakened Atlantic meridional overturning. Globally near-synchronous pulses of diatom production and enhanced thermocline concentrations of silicic acid suggest that widespread deglacial surface-driven breakdown of stratification, linked to changes in atmospheric circulation, had major consequences for biological productivity and carbon cycling.

  8. Synthesis and assembly of Pd nanoparticles on graphene for enhanced electrooxidation of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Guo, Shaojun; Zuo, Jing-lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2013-01-07

    Monodisperse 4.5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solution phase reduction of palladium acetylacetonate with morpholine borane in a mixture of oleylamine and 1-octadecene. These NPs were assembled on graphene uniformly in the form of a monolayer, and showed much enhanced catalysis for electrooxidation of formic acid. The work demonstrates the great potential of graphene as a support to enhance NP catalysis and stability for important chemical oxidation reactions.

  9. A new fluorogenic sensing platform for salicylic acid derivatives based on π-π and NH-π interactions between electron-deficient and electron-rich aromatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandith, Anup; Hazra, Giridhari; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2017-05-01

    A novel simple fluorescent probe was designed for the recognition of electron-rich salicylic acid derivatives (SAs). The imidazole-appended aminomethyl perylene probe 1 selectively differentiated between electron-rich amino-SAs and electron-deficient nitro-SAs in EtOH, exhibiting the highest selectivity and sensitivity toward 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and showing strong 1:1 binding (Ka = 1.37 × 107 M- 1). This high selectivity and sensitivity resulted from the synergistic multiple hydrogen bonding interactions of secondary amine and imidazole units and π-π interactions between electron-rich and electron-deficient rings, along with the unusual NH-π interactions between 5-ASA and the perylene moiety of 1. The limit of detection (LOD) for 5-ASA in EtOH was 0.012 ppb.

  10. A new fluorogenic sensing platform for salicylic acid derivatives based on π-π and NH-π interactions between electron-deficient and electron-rich aromatics.

    PubMed

    Pandith, Anup; Hazra, Giridhari; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2017-02-03

    A novel simple fluorescent probe was designed for the recognition of electron-rich salicylic acid derivatives (SAs). The imidazole-appended aminomethyl perylene probe 1 selectively differentiated between electron-rich amino-SAs and electron-deficient nitro-SAs in EtOH, exhibiting the highest selectivity and sensitivity toward 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and showing strong 1:1 binding (Ka=1.37×10(7)M(-1)). This high selectivity and sensitivity resulted from the synergistic multiple hydrogen bonding interactions of secondary amine and imidazole units and π-π interactions between electron-rich and electron-deficient rings, along with the unusual NH-π interactions between 5-ASA and the perylene moiety of 1. The limit of detection (LOD) for 5-ASA in EtOH was 0.012ppb.

  11. The suppression of enhanced bitterness intensity of macrolide dry syrup mixed with an acidic powder.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Takemoto, Eri; Tokuyama, Emi; Tsuji, Eriko; Mukai, Junji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a medicine which strongly enhanced the bitterness of clarithromycin dry syrup (CAMD) when administered concomitantly and to develop a method to suppress this enhanced bitterness. The bitterness enhancement was evaluated not only by gustatory sensation tests but also using pH and taste sensor measurements of the mixed sample. A remarkable bitterness enhancement was found when CAMD was mixed with the acidic powder L-carbocysteine. The acidic pH (pH 3.40) of the suspension made from these two preparations, seemed to be due to enhanced release of clarithromycin caused by the dissolution of the alkaline polymer film-coating. Several methods for preventing this bitterness enhancement were investigated. Neither increasing the volume of water taken with the mixture, nor changing the ratio of CAMD:L-carbocysteine in the mixture, were effective in reducing the bitterness intensity of the CAMD/L-carbocysteine mixture. The best way to achieve taste masking was to first administer CAMD mixed with chocolate jelly, which has a neutral pH, followed by the L-carbocysteine suspension. Similar results were obtained for the bitterness suppression of azithromycin fine granules with L-carbocysteine. The chocolate jelly will be useful for taste masking of bitter macrolide drug formulations, when they need to be administered together with acidic drug formulations.

  12. Bulky Dehydroamino Acids Enhance Proteolytic Stability and Folding in β-Hairpin Peptides.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Ankur; Kastner, David W; Webber, Kei G I; Smith, Mason S; Price, Joshua L; Castle, Steven L

    2017-10-06

    The bulky dehydroamino acids dehydrovaline (ΔVal) and dehydroethylnorvaline (ΔEnv) can be inserted into the turn regions of β-hairpin peptides without altering their secondary structures. These residues increase proteolytic stability, with ΔVal at the (i + 1) position having the most substantial impact. Additionally, a bulky dehydroamino acid can be paired with a d-amino acid (i.e., d-Pro) to synergistically enhance resistance to proteolysis. A link between proteolytic stability and peptide structure is established by the finding that a stabilized ΔVal-containing β-hairpin is more highly folded than its Asn-containing congener.

  13. Enhanced oral delivery of alendronate by sucrose fatty acids esters in rats and their absorption-enhancing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alama, Tammam; Katayama, Hiroko; Hirai, Sachiko; Ono, Shizuka; Kajiyama, Ayumi; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-12-30

    Oral delivery is the most fascinating route for interminable drug remedy. However, the intestinal absorption of alendronate (ALN), a bisphosphonate drug after oral administration is very poor. Absorption enhancers, which help to achieve the efficiency-safety balance, are considered one of the most promising agents for the improvement the intestinal absorption of drugs. In the current study, we focused on using sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs) as promising absorption enhancers to enhance the intestinal absorption of alendronate using an in situ closed-loop method in rats. The intestinal absorption of alendronate was significantly enhanced in the presence of SEs, especially L-1695. In addition, no considerable increase was observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or in protein release from the intestinal epithelium in the presence of sugar esters at concentrations equivalent to or lower than 1.0% (w/v), suggesting that these compounds are safe. Furthermore, mechanistic studies revealed increased membrane fluidity and loosening of the tight junctions (TJs) might be the underlying mechanism by which SEs improve the intestinal intake of alendronate, via transcellular and paracellular routes, respectively. These findings suggest that SEs are effective absorption enhancers for improving the intestinal absorption of alendronate, without causing serious damage to the enteric epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing essential amino acids and health benefit components in grain crops for improved nutritional values.

    PubMed

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Blanche, Sterling B; Linscombe, S D

    2009-01-01

    Improving essential amino acids or protein content, along with other phytonutrients in the food crops, will affect a great portion of the world population, especially in developing countries where rice grain is the main source of protein. Malnutrition, including deficiencies in protein/energy, iron/zinc, vitamin A, and iodine, causes a total 24,000 deaths per day worldwide. The problem is severe where rice is the major staple food. Protein deficiency involves both the quantity (amount) and quality (the content in essential amino acids) of the dietary protein. Various interventions, such as distribution, fortification, dietary diversification, and measures against infectious diseases, have been applied to reduce deficiency disorders. The problem, however, remains unsolved. Developing genetically novel lines with elevated content of essential amino acids together with other health benefit components becomes more feasible for the enhancement of breeding techniques, genomics, molecular manipulations, and genetic engineering. Advancement in basic genetic and genetic engineering has resulted in successful enrichment of some essential amino acids, such as lysine (Lys), tryptophan (Trp), and methionine (Met). Successful genetic enhancement has been largely restricted to the maize crop through enrichment of grain Lys and to some extends Trp. Since rice is the main source of calories and protein intake for billions of people, enhancing essential amino acids in rice represents a tremendous challenge. This paper will discuss and review the current status in basic genetics, molecular genetics, and genetic engineering associated with the enhancement of amino acids and other health benefit components in major grain crop improvement. Patents and future efforts associated with enhancing nutritional quality of the grain will also be reviewed as a concerted effort to solve the malnutrition problem and improve the quality of life worldwide.

  15. Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation.

  16. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  17. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  18. Serum Fatty Acids Are Correlated with Inflammatory Cytokines in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Dawn M.; Horst, Sara N.; Brown, Caroline T.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Hodges, Mallary E.; Slaughter, James C.; Druce, Jennifer P.; Beaulieu, Dawn B.; Schwartz, David A.; Wilson, Keith T.; Coburn, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with increased dietary intake of fat and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Modification of fat metabolism may alter inflammation and disease severity. Our aim was to assess differences in dietary and serum fatty acid levels between control and UC subjects and associations with disease activity and inflammatory cytokines. Methods Dietary histories, serum, and colonic tissue samples were prospectively collected from 137 UC subjects and 38 controls. Both histologic injury and the Mayo Disease Activity Index were assessed. Serum and tissue cytokines were measured by Luminex assay. Serum fatty acids were obtained by gas chromatography. Results UC subjects had increased total fat and oleic acid (OA) intake, but decreased arachidonic acid (AA) intake vs controls. In serum, there was less percent saturated fatty acid (SFA) and AA, with higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), linoleic acid, OA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in UC. Tissue cytokine levels were directly correlated with SFA and inversely correlated with PUFA, EPA, and DPA in UC subjects, but not controls. 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy blunted these associations. Conclusions In summary, we found differences in serum fatty acids in UC subjects that correlated with pro-inflammatory tissue cytokines. We propose that fatty acids may affect cytokine production and thus be immunomodulatory in UC. PMID:27227540

  19. Serum Fatty Acids Are Correlated with Inflammatory Cytokines in Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Dawn M; Horst, Sara N; Brown, Caroline T; Allaman, Margaret M; Hodges, Mallary E; Slaughter, James C; Druce, Jennifer P; Beaulieu, Dawn B; Schwartz, David A; Wilson, Keith T; Coburn, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with increased dietary intake of fat and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Modification of fat metabolism may alter inflammation and disease severity. Our aim was to assess differences in dietary and serum fatty acid levels between control and UC subjects and associations with disease activity and inflammatory cytokines. Dietary histories, serum, and colonic tissue samples were prospectively collected from 137 UC subjects and 38 controls. Both histologic injury and the Mayo Disease Activity Index were assessed. Serum and tissue cytokines were measured by Luminex assay. Serum fatty acids were obtained by gas chromatography. UC subjects had increased total fat and oleic acid (OA) intake, but decreased arachidonic acid (AA) intake vs controls. In serum, there was less percent saturated fatty acid (SFA) and AA, with higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), linoleic acid, OA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in UC. Tissue cytokine levels were directly correlated with SFA and inversely correlated with PUFA, EPA, and DPA in UC subjects, but not controls. 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy blunted these associations. In summary, we found differences in serum fatty acids in UC subjects that correlated with pro-inflammatory tissue cytokines. We propose that fatty acids may affect cytokine production and thus be immunomodulatory in UC.

  20. Antimicrobial and enhancement of the antibiotic activity by phenolic compounds: Gallic acid, caffeic acid and pyrogallol.

    PubMed

    Lima, Valéria N; Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera D M; Santos, Enaide S; Morais, Luís P; Tintino, Saulo R; Freitas, Thiago S; Geraldo, Yuri S; Pereira, Raimundo L S; Cruz, Rafael P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-10-01

    The indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs has increased the spectrum of exposure of these organisms. In our studies, these phenolic compounds were evaluated: gallic acid, caffeic acid and pyrogallol. The antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory of antibiotic activities of these compounds were assayed using microdilution method of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to bacteria and Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) to fungi. The modulation was made by comparisons of the MIC and MFC of the compounds alone and combined with drugs against bacteria and fungi respectively, using a sub-inhibitory concentration of 128 μg/mL of substances (MIC/8). All substances not demonstrated clinically relevant antibacterial activity with a MIC above ≥1024 μg/mL. As a result, we observed that the caffeic acid presented a potentiating antibacterial effect over the 3 groups of bacteria studied. Pyrogallol showed a synergistic effect with two of the antibiotics tested, but only against Staphylococcus aureus. In general, caffeic acid was the substance that presented with the greatest number of antibiotics and with the greatest number of bacteria. In relation to the antifungal activity of all the compounds, the verified results were ≥1024 μg/mL, not demonstrating significant activity. Regarding potentiation of the effect of fluconazole, was observed synergistic effect only when assayed against Candida tropicalis, with all substances. Therefore, as can be seen, the compounds presented as substances that can be promising potentiating agents of antimicrobial drugs, even though they do not have direct antibacterial and antifungal action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

  2. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

  3. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    DOEpatents

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-03-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  5. ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and SALICYLIC ACID act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance (R) protein–associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non–race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), ...

  6. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  7. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  8. EPA's industry briefing on the organic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD process (July 1984): proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The proceedings document presentations made during an EPA-sponsored industry briefing which was held on July 19, 1984, in San Antonio, Texas. The briefing dealt with the status of EPA's research activities on the organic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization process. Subjects covered included: (1) technical and economic evaluation of organic acid addition to the San Miguel FGD system - results of parametric tests, (2) technical and economic evaluation of organic acid addition to the San Miguel FGD system - the utility's perspective, (3) results of the first two years of commercial operation of an organic-acid-enhanced FGD system, (4) economics of retrofitting Big Rivers Electric Corporation's lime based FGD system to organic-acid-enhanced limestone operations, and (5) an economic evaluation of limestone and lime flue gas desulfurization processes for new systems. The briefing provided users, architects and engineers, vendors, consultants, and government personnel with a comprehensive assessment of this innovative technology for controlling sulfur dioxide emissions. All five papers in this proceddings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. 5-Aminosalicylate use and colorectal cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease: a large epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    van Staa, T P; Card, T; Logan, R F; Leufkens, H G M

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients taking aminosalicylates (5-ASA) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) which contains the primary care records of five million people in the UK was used to identify users of mesalazine, balsalazide, olsalazine, or sulfasalazine with a history of IBD. In a nested case control analysis, each incident CRC case with any use of a 5-ASA in the six months before the CRC diagnosis was matched by age, sex, and calendar time to six control patients who were also currently using a 5-ASA. Patients were then classified according to regularity of use. The analysis was controlled for body mass index, IBD duration, history of colorectal polyps, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, aspirin, immunosuppressants, oral and rectal glucocorticoids, prior gastrointestinal hospitalisation, recorded colonoscopy, and number of visits to the general practitioner for IBD symptoms in the 6–24 months before diagnosis. Results: The study population included 18 969 patients, of whom 100 had developed CRC during 5-ASA exposure. Most of these cases had a history of ulcerative colitis (76 patients). In the case control analysis, regular users, defined as having six or more 5-ASA prescriptions in the previous 12 months, were found to have a decreased risk of CRC compared with irregular users (crude odds ratio (OR) 0.7 (0.44–1.03); adjusted OR 0.60 (0.38–0.96)). Regular users of sulfasalazine with 6–12 prescriptions before had an adjusted OR of 0.95 (0.22–4.11); with 13–30 prior prescriptions this was 0.41 (0.14–1.20) and with >30 prior prescriptions this was 0.77 (0.37–1.60). For mesalazine users, these values were 1.13 (0.49–2.59), 0.30 (0.11–0.83), and 0.31 (0.11–0.84), respectively. Conclusion: These results show that regular 5-ASA use is associated with some reduction in the risk of CRC developing in ulcerative colitis. PMID:15994215

  10. Persistence to oral 5-aminosalicylate therapy for inflammatory bowel disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Christian P; Kemp, Andrew; Leong, Rupert Wl

    2014-03-01

    Aminosalicylate (5-ASA) is effective treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) but requires continuous maintenance therapy. This study determines persistence of 5-ASA in IBD using national population-based data for Australia from 2002 to 2011 with follow up for 36 months. Non-persistence was defined as failing to fill a prescription for 3 months. Of 12,592 patients those initiated on non-sulphasalazine 5-ASA (2917) had significantly higher persistence (P < 0.001) than those on sulphasalazine (9675). Persistence for sulphasalazine and non-sulphasalazine 5-ASA initiation was 22.3% and 28.5% at 12-months, and 11.9% and 16.2% at 24-months. Sulphasalazine poor persistence continued despite intra-class switch to another 5-ASA. Patients receiving immunomodulator co-therapy had higher persistence (P < 0.001). National population-based data identified persistence to 5-ASA to be low but significantly lower when sulphasalazine is the initial drug. Physicians should stress the importance of long-term 5-ASA therapy as overall drug efficacy especially the 5-ASA chemo-prophylactic benefits may be reduced by non-persistence.

  11. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, enhances energy metabolism by activation of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minji; Furuzono, Tomoya; Yamakuni, Kanae; Li, Yongjia; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Haruya; Ohue-Kitano, Ryuji; Jheng, Huei-Fen; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kano, Yuriko; Yu, Rina; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Yamazaki, Jun; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawada, Teruo; Goto, Tsuyoshi

    2017-07-28

    Gut microbiota can regulate the host energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms that could involve gut microbiota-derived compounds remain to be understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of KetoA [10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid]-a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria-on whole-body energy metabolism and found that dietary intake of KetoA could enhance energy expenditure in mice, thereby protecting mice from diet-induced obesity. By using Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, KetoA was noted to potently activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and enhance noradrenalin turnover in adipose tissues. In addition, KetoA up-regulated genes that are related to brown adipocyte functions, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in white adipose tissue (WAT), which was later diminished in the presence of a β-adrenoreceptor blocker. By using obese and diabetic model KK-Ay mice, we further show that KetoA intake ameliorated obesity-associated metabolic disorders. In the absence of any observed KetoA-induced antiobesity effect or UCP1 up-regulation in TRPV1-deficient mice, we prove that the antiobesity effect of KetoA was caused by TRPV1 activation-mediated browning in WAT. KetoA produced in the gut could therefore be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism.-Kim, M., Furuzono, T., Yamakuni, K., Li, Y., Kim, Y.-I., Takahashi, H., Ohue-Kitano, R., Jheng, H.-F., Takahashi, N., Kano, Y., Yu, R., Kishino, S., Ogawa, J., Uchida, K., Yamazaki, J., Tominaga, M., Kawada, T., Goto, T. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, enhances energy metabolism by activation of TRPV1. © FASEB.

  12. Enhancement of enzyme activity in supercritical carbon dioxide via changes in acid-base conditions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Neil; Barreiros, Susana

    2002-01-01

    Enzyme performance is often impaired in supercritical carbon dioxide. We were able to enhance enzyme activity in this medium via changes in acid-base conditions by using ion-exchange materials (solid H(+)/Na(+) buffer pairs and a zeolite), which were selected on the basis of the response of an organosoluble acid-base indicator. The concentration of ion-exchange materials had an important effect on the catalytic activity of subtilisin Carlsberg cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs), and this was related to the protonation and hydration states of the enzyme. The buffer Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) gave the highest enhancement in enzyme activity (by a factor of 54), probably as a result of its high basicity and capacity to counteract the deleterious effect of carbonic acid to a greater extent than the other materials tested.

  13. Enhancement of acidic gases in biomass burning impacted air masses over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefer, B. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Olson, J. O.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Shipham, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass-burning impacted air masses sampled over central and eastern Canada during the summer of 1990 as part of ABLE 3B contained enhanced mixing ratios of gaseous HNO3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, and what appears to be (COOH)2. These aircraft-based samples were collected from a variety of fresh burning plumes and more aged haze layers from different source regions. Values of the enhancement factor, delta X/delta CO, where X represents an acidic gas, for combustion-impacted air masses sampled both near and farther away from the fires, were relatively uniform. However, comparison of carboxylic acid emission ratios measured in laboratory fires to field plume enhancement factors indicates significant in-plume production of HCOOH. Biomass-burning appears to be an important source of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH to the troposphere over subarctic Canada.

  14. Bacterial production of organic acids enhances H2O2-dependent iodide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris M; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Zhang, Saijin; Ho, Yi-Fang; Xu, Chen; Jones, Whitney L; Schwehr, Kathleen A; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Roberts, Kimberly A; Kaplan, Daniel I; Santschi, Peter H

    2012-05-01

    To develop an understanding of the role that microorganisms play in the transport of (129)I in soil-water systems, bacteria isolated from subsurface sediments were assessed for iodide oxidizing activity. Spent liquid medium from 27/84 bacterial cultures enhanced iodide oxidation 2-10 fold in the presence of H(2)O(2). Organic acids secreted by the bacteria were found to enhance iodide oxidation by (1) lowering the pH of the spent medium, and (2) reacting with H(2)O(2) to form peroxy carboxylic acids, which are extremely strong oxidizing agents. H(2)O(2)-dependent iodide oxidation increased exponentially from 8.4 to 825.9 μM with decreasing pH from 9 to 4. Organic acids with ≥2 carboxy groups enhanced H(2)O(2)-dependent iodide oxidation (1.5-15-fold) as a function of increasing pH above pH 6.0, but had no effect at pH ≤ 5.0. The results indicate that as pH decreases (≤5.0), increasing H(2)O(2) hydrolysis is the driving force behind iodide oxidation. However, at pH ≥ 6.0, spontaneous decomposition of peroxy carboxylic acids, generated from H(2)O(2) and organic acids, contributes significantly to iodide oxidation. The results reveal an indirect microbial mechanism, organic acid secretion coupled to H(2)O(2) production, that could enhance iodide oxidation and organo-iodine formation in soils and sediments. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  16. Iontophoretic enhancement of leuprolide acetate by fatty acids, limonene, and depilatory lotions through porcine epidermis.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Sumeet K; Singh, Jagdish

    2004-11-01

    The effect of chemical enhancers (e.g., fatty acids, limonene, depilatory lotions) and iontophoresis was investigated on the in vitro permeability of leuprolide acetate through porcine epidermis. Franz diffusion cells and Scepter iontophoretic power source were used for the percutaneous absorption studies. Anodal iontophoresis was performed at 0.2 mA/cm2 current density. Fatty acids used were palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3) acids. The passive and iontophoretic flux were significantly (p < 0.05) greater through fatty acids-treated porcine epidermis in comparison to the control (untreated epidermis) for leuprolide acetate. The passive and iontophoretic permeability of leuprolide acetate increased with increasing number of cis double bonds. Among the fatty acids tested, linolenic acid (C18:3) exhibited the maximum permeability of leuprolide acetate during passive (51.42 x 10(-4) cm/hr) and iontophoretic (318.98 x 10(-4) cm/hr) transport. The passive and iontophoretic flux of leuprolide acetate were significantly (p < 0.05) greater through the limonene and depilatory lotion treated epidermis in comparison to their respective control. In conclusion, iontophoresis in combination with chemical enhancers synergistically increased (p < 0.05) the in vitro permeability of leuprolide acetate through porcine epidermis.

  17. Enhancing offspring quality or quantity? Different ways for using nectar amino acids in female butterflies.

    PubMed

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Butterfly-pollinated flowers offer nectar with higher amino acid concentrations than most flowers pollinated by other animals, and female butterflies of some species prefer to consume amino acid-rich nectar. However, for over 30 years, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether nectar amino acids benefit butterfly fitness. A clear positive effect was only shown for the nectar-feeding Araschnia levana, and females of the fruit-feeding Bicyclus anynana also increased offspring quality when they were fed amino acids as adults. Thus, severe doubts remain about the general significance of these single positive results. We therefore tested a further species from a phylogenetically different butterfly subfamily, the small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus L., Satyrinae), taking into account feeding conditions over the whole life cycle of this species. C. pamphilus females receiving nectar amino acids as adults, irrespective of larval food quality, produced heavier larvae and also increased the hatching success of their eggs over the oviposition period. Furthermore, females raised under nitrogen-poor larval conditions tended to use nectar amino acids to increase the number of eggs laid. Thus, C. pamphilus females used nectar amino acids primarily to increase their offspring quality, and secondly tended to increase offspring quantity, if larval resources were scarce, showing a resource allocation pattern differing from both B. anynana and A. levana. Our study supports the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  18. Coexpressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase with Sterculia foetida Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase enhances cyclopropane fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Prakash, Richa Rawat; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2014-01-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPAs) are desirable as renewable chemical feedstocks for the production of paints, plastics, and lubricants. Toward our goal of creating a CPA-accumulating crop, we expressed nine higher plant cyclopropane synthase (CPS) enzymes in the seeds of fad2fae1 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and observed accumulation of less than 1% CPA. Surprisingly, expression of the Escherichia coli CPS gene resulted in the accumulation of up to 9.1% CPA in the seed. Coexpression of a Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT) increases CPA accumulation up to 35% in individual T1 seeds. However, seeds with more than 9% CPA exhibit wrinkled seed morphology and reduced size and oil accumulation. Seeds with more than 11% CPA exhibit strongly decreased seed germination and establishment, and no seeds with CPA more than 15% germinated. That previous reports suggest that plant CPS prefers the stereospecific numbering (sn)-1 position whereas E. coli CPS acts on sn-2 of phospholipids prompted us to investigate the preferred positions of CPS on phosphatidylcholine (PC) and triacylglycerol. Unexpectedly, in planta, E. coli CPS acts primarily on the sn-1 position of PC; coexpression of SfLPAT results in the incorporation of CPA at the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid. This enables a cycle that enriches CPA at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of PC and results in increased accumulation of CPA. These data provide proof of principle that CPA can accumulate to high levels in transgenic seeds and sets the stage for the identification of factors that will facilitate the movement of CPA from PC into triacylglycerol to produce viable seeds with additional CPA accumulation.

  19. Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    and HA by groundwater leaching are non-detectable over a long period of time (200 days and > 100 PV without further addition of HA). As a natural reactive agent for in-situ remediation, HAs are cost-effective (enormous reservoir in nature), nontoxic, resistant to biodegradation, soluble, and easily introducible to the subsurface. This method has high potential to efficiently and sustainably enhance natural attenuation of U within acidic waste plumes.

  20. pH dependence of methyl phosphonic acid, dipicolinic acid, and cyanide by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.

    2004-03-01

    U.S. and Coalition forces fighting terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq must consider a wide range of attack scenarios in addition to car bombings. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of methyl phosphonic acid and cyanide as a function of pH, an important factor affecting quantitation measurements, which to our knowledge has not been examined. In addition, dipicolinic acid, a chemical signature associated with anthrax-causing spores, is also presented.

  1. Humic acids enhance the microbially mediated release of sedimentary ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Han; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Li-Hung; Tu, Tzu-Hsuan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for many organisms, but high concentrations of iron can be toxic. The complex relation between iron, arsenic (As), bacteria, and organic matter in sediments and groundwater is still an issue of environmental concern. The present study addresses the effects of humic acids and microorganisms on the mobilization of iron in sediments from an arsenic-affected area, and the microbial diversity was analyzed. The results showed that the addition of 50, 100, and 500 mg/L humic acids enhanced ferrous iron (Fe(II)) release in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion under anaerobic conditions. A significant increase in the soluble Fe(II) concentrations occurred in the aqueous phases of the samples during the first 2 weeks, and aqueous Fe(II) reached its maximum concentrations after 8 weeks at the following Fe(II) concentrations: 28.95 ± 1.16 mg/L (original non-sterilized sediments), 32.50 ± 0.71 mg/L (50 mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments), 37.50 ± 1.85 mg/L (100 mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments), and 39.00 ± 0.43 mg/L (500 mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments). These results suggest that humic acids can further enhance the microbially mediated release of sedimentary iron under anaerobic conditions. By contrast, very insignificant amounts of iron release were observed from sterilized sediments (the abiotic controls), even with the supplementation of humic acids under anaerobic incubation. In addition, the As(III) release was increased from 50 ± 10 μg/L (original non-sterilized sediments) to 110 ± 45 μg/L (100 mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments) after 8 weeks of anaerobic incubation. Furthermore, a microbial community analysis indicated that the predominant class was changed from Alphaproteobacteria to Deltaproteobacteria, and clearly increased populations of Geobacter sp., Paludibacter sp., and Methylophaga sp. were found after adding humic acids

  2. Studies on the preparation of Caro’s acid by ultrasonic enhanced electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linbo; Yu, Zeli; Hong, Tao; Fang, Zhao; Peng, Jishi; Yang, Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasonic cavitation effects can generate hydroxyl radicals and high energy, which is widely applied in the field of oxidation currently. Ultrasound-enhanced electrochemical is used to prepare Caro’s acid, which improves the generate rate of Caro’s acid. In this article, the influences of ultrasonic frequency and ultrasonic power on the electrolysis voltage, electrolyte temperature, electrolyte concentration and the concentration of additive in the process of electrochemical preparation of Caro’s acid was studied. And the optimal production conditions were determined. The research results showed that ultrasonic can significantly improve the production of Caro’s acid and the product can increase by about 20 g/L under the best condition.

  3. Biological agent identification by nucleic acid base-pair analysis using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne W.; Elliott, Susan; Sperry, Jay F.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a number of analytical methods have been successfully developed which use nucleic acid sequencing to identify biological warfare agents. However, the effectiveness of these methods, towards the safety and protection of US Armed Forces and their allies are limited by the period required to enumerate the nucleic acid through polymerase chain reactions or culture growth to produce sufficient quantities for analysis. To overcome this limitation, we have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect nucleic acids with sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to eliminate the need for enumeration. The design of a small volume electrolytic sample cell will be presented along with analysis of the nucleic acid bases and preliminary analysis of model bacteria.

  4. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids.

  5. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  6. Nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence emission for non-separation assays of carbohydrates using a boronic acid-alizarin complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2016-03-04

    Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.

  7. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Kerec, M; Svigelj, V; Bogataj, M; Mrhar, A

    2002-06-20

    The influence of interactions between polycarbophil and calcium on a model drug permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall was investigated. Pipemidic acid was used as a model drug. One percent w/v polycarbophil dispersion significantly increases the permeation of pipemidic acid into the urinary bladder wall. The enhanced absorption of pipemidic acid caused by polycarbophil is significantly less pronounced in polycarbophil dispersions containing calcium. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the urinary bladder wall could be due to the opening of tight junctions, which causes higher paracellular permeability. In the case of polycarbophil dispersion with calcium some carboxylic groups of polymer are already occupied with calcium, present in the dispersions. As a consequence extracellular calcium binds to polycarbophil in lower extent if compared with polycarbophil dispersion without calcium and transport is increased to a lesser degree. We concluded that the mechanism of drug absorption enhancement caused by polycarbophil could be similar for urinary bladder as described in the literature for intestinal mucosa.

  8. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, J.D.; Castle, A.M.; Ma, A.K.; Stukenbrok, H.

    1984-01-01

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by (3H)choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulat

  9. Mechanism for the Enhanced Excited-State Lewis Acidity of Methyl Viologen.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Edward G

    2016-02-17

    Aqueous solutions of methyl viologen (MV(2+)) exhibit anomalous fluorescence behavior. Although it has long fluorescence lifetimes in polar solvents such as acetonitrile, MV(2+) has a short fluorescence lifetime in water. Recent experiments by Kohler and co-workers (Henrich et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2015, 119, 2737-2748) have implicated an excited-state acid/base reaction as the source of the nonradiative decay pathway. While many chemical species exhibit enhanced Brønsted acidity in their excited state, MV(2+) is the first example of a species with enhanced Lewis acidity. Using a complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) approach, excited-state molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous MV(2+) are performed in order to test the hypothesis that MV(2+) acts as a Lewis photoacid and to elucidate a mechanism for this behavior. These simulations show that the Lewis acidity of MV(2+) is indeed enhanced by photoexcitation. On its S1 excited state, MV(2+) reacts with water to generate a hydronium ion approximately 1.5 ps after excitation. After the hydronium ion is produced, the corresponding hydroxide ion adds to MV(2+) to form a covalently bound photoproduct and, subsequently, evolves toward a conical intersection.

  10. On the suppression of plasma nonesterified fatty acids by insulin during enhanced intravascular lipolysis in humans.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, André C; Frisch, Frédérique; Cyr, Denis; Généreux, Philippe; Patterson, Bruce W; Giguère, Robert; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2005-11-01

    During the fasting state, insulin reduces nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance in the systemic circulation mostly by suppressing intracellular lipolysis in the adipose tissue. In the postprandial state, insulin may also control NEFA appearance through enhanced trapping into the adipose tissue of NEFA derived from intravascular triglyceride lipolysis. To determine the contribution of suppression of intracellular lipolysis in the modulation of plasma NEFA metabolism by insulin during enhanced intravascular triglyceride lipolysis, 10 healthy nonobese subjects underwent pancreatic clamps at fasting vs. high physiological insulin level with intravenous infusion of heparin plus Intralipid. Nicotinic acid was administered orally during the last 2 h of each 4-h clamp to inhibit intracellular lipolysis and assess insulin's effect on plasma NEFA metabolism independently of its effect on intracellular lipolysis. Stable isotope tracers of palmitate, acetate, and glycerol were used to assess plasma NEFA metabolism and total triglyceride lipolysis in each participant. The glycerol appearance rate was similar during fasting vs. high insulin level, but plasma NEFA levels were significantly lowered by insulin. Nicotinic acid significantly blunted the insulin-mediated suppression of plasma palmitate appearance and oxidation rates by approximately 60 and approximately 70%, respectively. In contrast, nicotinic acid did not affect the marked stimulation of palmitate clearance by insulin. Thus most of the insulin-mediated reduction of plasma NEFA appearance and oxidation can be explained by suppression of intracellular lipolysis during enhanced intravascular triglyceride lipolysis in healthy humans. Our results also suggest that insulin may affect plasma NEFA clearance independently of the suppression of intracellular lipolysis.

  11. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  12. Maximizing the electromagnetic and chemical resonances of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2014-08-26

    Although surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has previously been performed with nucleic acids, the measured intensities for each nucleic acid have varied significantly depending on the SERS substrate and excitation wavelength. We have demonstrated that the charge-transfer (CT) mechanism, also known as the chemical enhancement of SERS, is responsible for the discrepancies previously reported in literature. The electronic states of cytosine and guanine attached to silver atoms are computationally calculated and experimentally measured to be in the visible range, which leads to a resonance Raman effect at the corresponding maximum wavelengths. The resulting SERS measurements are in good agreement with the simulated values, in which cytosine-silver shows stronger enhancement at 532 nm and guanine-silver shows stronger enhancement at 785 nm. An atomic layer of aluminum oxide is deposited on substrates to prevent charge-transfer, and corresponding measurements show weaker Raman signals caused by the suppression of the chemical resonance. These findings suggest the optimal SERS signal can be achieved by tuning the excitation wavelength to match both the electromagnetic and chemical resonances, paving the way for future single molecule detection of nucleic acids other than adenine.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment enhances endothelial cell-induced low-density-lipoprotein peroxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Mazière, C; Dantin, F; Conte, M A; Degonville, J; Ali, D; Dubois, F; Mazière, J C

    1998-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an important feature in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. LDL modification by endothelial cells was studied after supplementation of the cells with oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-6 and n-3 series. In terms of the lipid peroxidation product [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] content and diene level of the LDL particle, oleic acid had no significant effect, and linoleic acid was poorly effective. Gamma linolenic acid (C18:3,n-6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4,n-6) increased by about 1.6-1.9-fold the cell-mediated LDL modification. PUFA from the n-3 series, alpha linolenic acid (C18:3,n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5,n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6,n-3), induced a less marked effect (1. 3-1.6-fold increase). The relative electrophoretic mobility of the LDL particle and its degradation by macrophages were enhanced in parallel. Concomitantly, PUFA stimulated superoxide anion secretion by endothelial cells. The intracellular TBARS content was also increased by PUFA. Comparison of PUFA from the two series indicates a good correlation between LDL oxidative modification, superoxide anion secretion and intracellular lipid peroxidation. The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E decreased the basal as well as the PUFA-stimulated LDL peroxidation. These results indicate that PUFAs with a high degree of unsaturation of the n-6 and n-3 series could accelerate cell-mediated LDL peroxidation and thus aggravate the atherosclerotic process. PMID:9806884

  14. Enhancing perception of contaminated food through acid-mediated modulation of taste neuron responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Amrein, Hubert

    2014-09-08

    Natural foods contain not only nutrients, but also nonnutritious and potentially harmful chemicals. Thus, animals need to evaluate food content in order to make adequate feeding decisions. Here, we investigate the effects of acids on the taste neuron responses and on taste behavior of desirable, nutritious sugars and sugar/bitter compound mixtures in Drosophila melanogaster. Using Ca2+ imaging, we show that acids activate neither sweet nor bitter taste neurons in tarsal taste sensilla. However, they suppress responses to bitter compounds in bitter-sensing neurons. Moreover, acids reverse suppression of bitter compounds exerted on sweet-sensing neurons. Consistent with these observations, behavioral analyses show that bitter-compound-mediated inhibition on feeding behavior is alleviated by acids. To investigate the cellular mechanism by which acids modulate these effects, we silenced bitter-sensing gustatory neurons. Surprisingly, this intervention had little effect on acid-mediated derepression of sweet neuron or feeding responses to either sugar/bitter compound mixtures or sugar/bitter compound/acid mixtures, suggesting that there are two independent pathways by which bitter compounds are sensed. Our investigations reveal that acids, when presented in dietary relevant concentrations, enhance the perception of sugar/bitter compound mixtures. Drosophila's natural food sources-fruits and cohabitating yeast-are rich in sugars and acids but are rapidly colonized by microorganisms, such as fungi, protozoan parasites, and bacteria, many of which produce bitter compounds. We propose that the acids present in most fruits counteract the inhibitory effects of these bitter compounds during feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Perception of Contaminated Food through Acid-Mediated Modulation of Taste Neuron Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Amrein, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Natural foods not only contain nutrients, but also non-nutritious and potentially harmful chemicals. Thus, animals need to evaluate food content in order to make adequate feeding decisions. Results Here, we investigate the effects of acids on the taste neuron responses and on taste behavior of desirable, nutritious sugars and sugar/bitter compound mixtures in Drosophila melanogaster. Using Ca2+ imaging, we show that acids neither activate sweet nor bitter taste neurons in tarsal taste sensilla. However, they suppress responses to bitter compounds in bitter-sensing neurons. Moreover, acids reverse suppression of bitter compounds exerted on sweet-sensing neurons. Consistent with these observations, behavioral analyses show that bitter compound-mediated inhibition on feeding behavior is alleviated by acids. To investigate the cellular mechanism by which acids modulate these effects, we silenced bitter sensing gustatory neurons. Surprisingly, this intervention had little effect on acid-mediated de-repression of sweet neuron or feeding responses to either sugar/bitter compound mixtures, or sugar/bitter compound/acid mixtures, suggesting two independent pathways by which bitter compounds are sensed. Conclusions Our investigations reveal that acids, when presented in dietary relevant concentrations, enhance the perception of sugar/bitter compound mixtures. Drosophila’s natural food sources - fruits and cohabitating yeast - are rich in sugars and acids, but are rapidly colonized by microorganisms, such as fungi, protozoan parasites and bacteria, many of which produce bitter compounds. We propose that acids present in most fruits counteract the inhibitory effects of these bitter compounds during feeding. PMID:25131671

  16. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  17. Carnosic acid and fisetin combination therapy enhances inhibition of lung cancer through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Wang, Li-Fang; Meng, Wen-Shu; Chen, Liang; Meng, Zi-Li

    2017-06-01

    Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene with anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, as well as neuroprotective properties, which is generated by many species from Lamiaceae family. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally flavonoid is abundantly produced in different vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been reported to have various positive biological effects, including anti-proliferative, anticancer, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Lung cancer is reported as the most common neoplasm in human world-wide. In the present study, the possible benefits of carnosic acid combined with fisetin on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo was explored. Carnosic acid and fisetin combination led to apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Caspase-3 signaling pathway was promoted in carnosic acid and fisetin co-treatment, which was accompanied by anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl decreasing and pro-apoptotic signals of Bax and Bad increasing. The death receptor (DR) of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was enhanced in carnosic acid and fisetin combined treatment. Furthermore, the mouse xenograft model in vivo suggested that carnosic acid and fisetin combined treatment inhibited lung cancer growth in comparison to the carnosic acid or fisetin monotherapy. This study supplies a novel therapy to induce apoptosis to inhibit lung cancer through caspase-3 activation.

  18. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-12-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the α-, β-, and γ-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspartic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  19. Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Butorina, N N; Lazarev Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2017-08-01

    Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell-cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell-cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.

  20. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  1. Mechanism of ascorbic acid enhancement of the bioavailability and diuretic effect of furosemide.

    PubMed

    Lee, M G; Chiou, W L

    1998-05-01

    The following possible explanations for the significant increases in the oral bioavailability and the diuretic and natriuretic effects of orally administered furosemide observed when ascorbic acid was coadministered to dogs were investigated: ascorbic acid might enhance the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of furosemide, might inhibit GI wall metabolism of furosemide, might enhance the reabsorption of furosemide from the renal tubules, and might increase the unionized fraction of furosemide at the receptor sites. The significant increase in the oral bioavailability with coadministration of ascorbic acid seemed to result from reduced gastric first-pass metabolism of furosemide and not enhanced GI absorption of furosemide. This might be supported by rat studies; the percentages of the oral doses of furosemide recovered from the GI tract at 8 hr after oral administration were similar (p < 0.583) without (39.5%) and with (44.7%) coadministration of ascorbic acid, and the amounts of furosemide remaining per gram of stomach after 30-min incubations of 50 micrograms of furosemide with 9000g supernatant fractions of stomach homogenates were increased significantly (48.5 vs. 42.4 micrograms) by the addition of 100 micrograms of ascorbic acid. The significant increases in the diuretic and natriuretic effects of furosemide with ascorbic acid could be the result of increases in the reabsorption of furosemide from renal tubules and increases in the unionized fraction of furosemide at the renal tubular receptor sites. This was supported by 1.5-4.2-fold increases in urine output and approximately 20% decreases in the time-averaged renal clearance of furosemide when the urine pH was decreased by 1.5-2.5 units by oral administration of ammonium chloride.

  2. Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas

    2008-06-15

    In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme.

  3. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C(14)H(6)O(8)), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0×10(-10) to 4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1); and the detection limits are 3.2×10(-10) mol L(-1) and 5.9×10(-10) mol L(-1) excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  5. In vivo blood lactic acid monitoring using microdialysis and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Po-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2008-08-01

    Blood lactic acid concentration is an important indicator for physiological functions. To develop a rapid and sensitive measurement technique for monitoring blood lactic acid may provide a useful tool in clinical diagnosis. We proposed to develop a microdialysis surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (microdialysis-SERS) approach to filter/reduce interference from other large metabolites in blood and enhance the detection sensitivity for blood lactic acid. In this study, a microdialysis probe was constructed using 13 kDa cut-off dialysis membrane. The dialysate was mixed with 50 nm Ag colloidal nanoparticles automatically in a micro-fluid chamber for SERS detection under blood microdialysis of Sprague-Dawley rat. The linear range of SERS-lactic acid measurement is 10-5~3x10-4 M with R2 value of 0.99. The optimal mixing flow rate of nanoparticles is 18 μl/min under microdialysis at constant flow rate (2 μl/min). Real time lactic acid monitoring in vivo also has been demonstrated using microdialysis-SERS system.

  6. Enhancing the functionality of biobased polyester coating resins through modification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Noordover, Bart A J; Duchateau, Robbert; van Benthem, Rolf A T M; Ming, Weihua; Koning, Cor E

    2007-12-01

    Citric acid (CA) was evaluated as a functionality-enhancing monomer in biobased polyesters suitable for coating applications. Model reactions of CA with several primary and secondary alcohols and diols, including the 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols, revealed that titanium(IV) n-butoxide catalyzed esterification reactions involving these compounds proceed at relatively low temperatures, often via anhydride intermediates. Interestingly, the facile anhydride formation from CA at temperatures around CA's melting temperature ( T m = 153 degrees C) proved to be crucial in modifying sterically hindered secondary hydroxyl end groups. OH-functional polyesters were reacted with CA in the melt between 150 and 165 degrees C, yielding slightly branched carboxylic acid functional materials with strongly enhanced functionality. The acid/epoxy curing reaction of the acid-functional polymers was simulated with a monofunctional glycidyl ether. Finally, the CA-modified polyesters were applied as coatings, using conventional cross-linking agents. The formulations showed rapid curing, resulting in chemically and mechanically stable coatings. These results demonstrate that citric acid can be applied in a new way, making use of its anhydride formation to functionalize OH-functional polyesters, which is an important new step toward fully biobased coating systems.

  7. Valproic Acid Enhances the Anti-tumor Effect of (-)-gossypol to Burkitt Lymphoma Namalwa Cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Ni, Zhen Hong; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xing Hua; Zou, Zhong Min

    2015-10-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell neoplasm. New therapeutic methods are needed to overcome the adverse effect of intensive chemotherapy regimens. Valproic acid and (-)-gossypol are two kinds of chemical compounds used as new anti-tumor drugs in recent years. To investigate the anti-tumor effect of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol, Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells were cultured and treated with valproic acid and (-)-gossypol at different concentrations. The proliferation of Namalwa cells was dramatically suppressed after the combination treatment with 2 mmol/L valproic acid and 5 μmol/L (-)-gossypol. The combined treatment also enhanced intrinsic apoptosis by down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Moreover, the autophagy flux significantly increased in Namalwa cells after combined treatment. However, the enhanced autophagy showed little effect on cell survival with present regimen. The results confirmed that combination of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol had synergistic anti-tumor effect to Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells. The related mechanisms might include the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and avianized pro-survival role of autophagy. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E.; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A. Corina

    2014-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation. PMID:25114016

  9. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-11-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation.

  10. Morphology-dependent Electrochemical Enhancements of Porous Carbon as Sensitive Determination Platform for Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qin; Ji, Liudi; Wu, Kangbing; Zhang, Weikang

    2016-02-01

    Using starch as the carbon precursor and different-sized ZnO naoparticles as the hard template, a series of porous carbon materials for electrochemical sensing were prepared. Experiments of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms reveal that the particle size of ZnO has big impacts on the porous morphology and surface area of the resulting carbon materials. Through ultrasonic dispersion of porous carbon and subsequent solvent evaporation, different sensing interfaces were constructed on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) were studied. On the surface of porous carbon materials, the accumulation efficiency and electron transfer ability of AA, DA and UA are improved, and consequently their oxidation signals enhance greatly. Moreover, the interface enhancement effects of porous carbon are also controlled by the particle size of hard template. The constructed porous carbon interface displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a sensitive platform for the simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA.

  11. Morphology-dependent Electrochemical Enhancements of Porous Carbon as Sensitive Determination Platform for Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qin; Ji, Liudi; Wu, Kangbing; Zhang, Weikang

    2016-01-01

    Using starch as the carbon precursor and different-sized ZnO naoparticles as the hard template, a series of porous carbon materials for electrochemical sensing were prepared. Experiments of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms reveal that the particle size of ZnO has big impacts on the porous morphology and surface area of the resulting carbon materials. Through ultrasonic dispersion of porous carbon and subsequent solvent evaporation, different sensing interfaces were constructed on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) were studied. On the surface of porous carbon materials, the accumulation efficiency and electron transfer ability of AA, DA and UA are improved, and consequently their oxidation signals enhance greatly. Moreover, the interface enhancement effects of porous carbon are also controlled by the particle size of hard template. The constructed porous carbon interface displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a sensitive platform for the simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA. PMID:26924080

  12. Diffraction enhanced imaging of a rat model of gastric acid aspiration pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Connor, Dean M; Zhong, Zhong; Foda, Hussein D; Wiebe, Sheldon; Parham, Christopher A; Dilmanian, F Avraham; Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D

    2011-12-01

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) is a type of phase contrast x-ray imaging that has improved image contrast at a lower dose than conventional radiography for many imaging applications, but no studies have been done to determine if DEI might be useful for diagnosing lung injury. The goals of this study were to determine if DEI could differentiate between healthy and injured lungs for a rat model of gastric aspiration and to compare diffraction-enhanced images with chest radiographs. Radiographs and diffraction-enhanced chest images of adult Sprague Dawley rats were obtained before and 4 hours after the aspiration of 0.4 mL/kg of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid. Lung damage was confirmed with histopathology. The radiographs and diffraction-enhanced peak images revealed regions of atelectasis in the injured rat lung. The diffraction-enhanced peak images revealed the full extent of the lung with improved clarity relative to the chest radiographs, especially in the portion of the lower lobe that extended behind the diaphragm on the anteroposterior projection. For a rat model of gastric acid aspiration, DEI is capable of distinguishing between a healthy and an injured lung and more clearly than radiography reveals the full extent of the lung and the lung damage. Copyright © 2011 AUR. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a two-stage hydrothermal process for enhancing acetic acid production using municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Aggrey, Anderson; Dare, Peter; Lei, Robert; Gapes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A two-stage hydrothermal process aimed at improving acetic acid production using municipal biosolids was evaluated against thermal hydrolysis and conventional wet oxidation process in a 600 ml Parr batch reactor. Thermal hydrolysis was conducted at 140 °C, wet oxidation at 220 °C and the two-stage process, which acted as a series combination of thermal hydrolysis and wet oxidation, at 220 °C. Initial pressure of 1 MPa was maintained in all the three processes. The results indicated that the highest acetic acid production of up to 58 mg/g dry solids feed was achieved in the wet oxidation process followed by the two-stage process with 36 mg/g dry solids feed and 1.8 mg/g dry solids feed for thermal hydrolysis. The acetic acid yield obtained by the thermal processes increased from 0.4% in the thermal hydrolysis process to 12% during the single stage wet oxidation, with the two-stage process achieving 8%. The purity of the acetic acid improved from 1% in thermal hydrolysis to 38% in the wet oxidation process. The two-stage process achieved acetic acid purity of 25%. This work demonstrated no enhancement of acetic acid production by the two-stage concept compared with the single stage wet oxidation process. This is in contrast to similar work by other researchers, investigated on carbohydrate biomass and vegetable wastes using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. However, the data obtained revealed that substrate specificity, reaction severity or oxidant type is clearly important in promoting reaction mechanisms which support enhanced acetic acid production using municipal biosolids.

  14. Role of Lipoxygenase Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Enhanced Pulmonary Artery Contractions of Female Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. In women the incidence is 4 fold greater than that in men. Studies suggest sustained vasoconstriction is a factor in increased vascular resistance. Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase metabolites. Our studies in rabbits showed enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions to arachidonic acid in pulmonary arteries from females compared to males. Because treatment with a non-specific lipoxygenase inhibitor reduced contractions in females but not males, the present study identified which lipoxygenase isoform contributes to sex-specific pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. 15- and 5- but not 12-lipoxygenase protein expression was greater in females. Basal and A23187-stimulated release of 15-, 5- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from females and males was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis was greater in females compared to males under both basal and stimulated conditions. Vascular contractions to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were enhanced in females compared to males (maximal contraction; 44 ± 6% vs 25 ± 3%). The specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 (12 μmol/L) decreased arachidonic acid-induced contractions in females (maximal contraction; 93 ± 4% vs 57 ± 10%). If male pulmonary arteries were incubated with estrogen (1 μmol/L, 18 hrs), protein expression of 15-lipoxygenase, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production increased. Mechanisms to explain the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in women are not known. Results suggest the 15-lipoxygenase pathway is different between females and males and is regulated by estrogen. Understanding this novel sex-specific mechanism may provide insight into the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in females. PMID:21300669

  15. Selective enhancement and suppression of frog gustatory responses to amino acids

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Properties of the receptor sites for L-amino acids in taste cells of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were examined by measuring the neural activities of the glossopharyngeal nerve under various conditions. (a) The frogs responded to 12 amino acids, but the responses to the amino acids varied with individual frogs under natural conditions. The frog tongues, however, exhibited similar responses after an alkaline treatment that removes Ca2+ from the tissue. The variation in the responses under natural conditions was apparently due to the variation in the amount of Ca2+ bound to the receptor membrane. (b) The responses to hydrophilic L-amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-serine, L- threonine, L-cysteine, and L-proline) were of a tonic type, but those to hydrophobic L-amino acids (L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L- methionine, L-phenylalanine, and L-tyrptophan) were usually composed of both phasic and tonic components. (c) The properties of the tonic component were quite different from those of the phasic component: the tonic component was largely enhanced by the alkaline treatment and suppressed by the acidic treatment that increases binding of Ca2+ to the tissue. Also, the tonic component was suppressed by the presence of low concentrations of salts, or the action of pronase E, whereas the phasic component was unchanged under these conditions. These properties of the phasic component were quite similar to those of the response to hydrophobic substances such as quinine. These results suggest that the hydrophilic L-amino acids stimulate receptor protein(s) and that the hydrophobic L-amino acids stimulate both the receptor protein and a receptor site similar to that for quinine. (d) On the basis of the suppression of the responses to amino acids by salts, the mechanism of generation of the receptor potential is discussed. PMID:6972437

  16. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil by electrodialytic remediation enhanced with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Merdoud, Ouarda; Cameselle, Claudio; Boulakradeche, Mohamed Oualid; Akretche, Djamal Eddine

    2016-11-09

    The soil from an industrial area in Algeria was contaminated with Cr (8370 mg kg(-1)), Ni (1135 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (1200 mg kg(-1)). The electrodialytic remediation of this soil was studied using citric acid and EDTA as facilitating agents. 0.1 M citric acid or EDTA was added directly to the soil before it was introduced in an electrodialytic cell in an attempt to enhance the heavy metal solubility in the interstitial fluid. The more acidic pH in the soil when citric acid was used as the facilitating agent was not enough to mobilize and remove the metals from the soil. Only 7.2% of Ni and 6.7% of Zn were removed from the soil in the test with citric acid. The best results were found with EDTA, which was able to solubilize and complex Zn and Ni forming negatively charged complexes that were transported and accumulated in the anolyte. Complete removal was observed for Ni and Zn in the electrodialytic treatment with EDTA. Minor amounts of Cr were removed with both EDTA and citric acid.

  17. A statistical method for enhancing the production of succinic acid from Escherichia coli under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Isar, Jasmine; Agarwal, Lata; Saran, Saurabh; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2006-09-01

    The most influential parameters for succinic acid production obtained through one at a time method were sucrose, tryptone, magnesium carbonate, inoculum size and incubation period. These resulted in the production of 7.0 g L(-1) of succinic acid in 60 h from Escherichia coli W3110 under anaerobic conditions. Based on these results, a statistical method, face centered central composite design (FCCCD) falling under response surface method (RSM) was employed for further enhancing the succinic acid production and to monitor the interactive effect of these parameters, which resulted in a twofold increase in yield (14.3 g L(-1) in 48 h). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the adequacy of the model and the verification experiments confirmed its validity. On subsequent scale-up in a 10-L bioreactor using conditions optimized through RSM, 24.2 g L(-1) of succinic acid was obtained in 30 h. This clearly indicated that the model stood valid even on large-scale. Thus, the statistical optimization strategy led to a 3.5-fold increase in the yield of succinic acid. This is the first report on the use of FCCCD to improve succinic acid production from E. coli.

  18. Adrenic acid as an inflammation enhancer in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Horas H Nababan, Saut; Nishiumi, Shin; Kawano, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to identify novel links between lipid species and disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed lipid species in the liver and plasma of db/db mice fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). An in vitro experiment was performed using HepG2 cells stimulated with recombinant human TNFα or IL1β. The expression of steatosis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed. Plasma samples from NAFLD patients were also analyzed by LC/MS. The CDAHFD-fed db/db mice with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, mild fibrosis, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia displayed significantly higher hepatic and plasma levels of free adrenic acid (p < 0.05). The accumulated adrenic acid in the CDAHFD-fed db/db mice was associated with increased expression of ELOVL2 and 5, and the suppression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 gene during peroxisomal β-oxidation. The pretreatment of HepG2 cells with adrenic acid enhanced their cytokine-induced cytokines and chemokines mRNA expression. In NAFLD patients, the group with the highest ALT levels exhibited higher plasma adrenic acid concentrations than the other ALT groups (p-value for trend <0.001). Data obtained demonstrated that adrenic acid accumulation contributes to disease progression in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of taxol-induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-κB with ursorlic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunlong; Xing, Da

    2007-05-01

    Taxol is known to inhibit cell growth and triggers significant apoptosis in various cancer cells, and activation of proliferation factor NF-κB during Taxol-induced apoptosis is regarded as a main reason resulting in tumor cells resistance to Taxol. It has been found that ursorlic acid can inhibit the activation of NF-κB. In order to study whether ursorlic acid can enhance the Taxol-induced apoptosis, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to compare the difference of caspase-3 activation between Taxol alone and Taxol combined ursorlic acid. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that ursorlic acid, a nontoxic food component, sensitizes ASTC-a-1 cells more efficiently to Taxol-induced apoptosis by advanced activation of caspase 3. The result also suggests that there would be a synergistic effect between Taxol and ursorlic acid, and the more detailed mechanism of synergistic effect needs to be clarified further, such as the correlations among NF-κB, Akt, caspase 8, which leads to the advanced activation of caspase 3 during combined treatment of Taxol and ursorlic acid. Moreover, this may be a new way to improve Taxol-dependent tumor therapy.

  20. Enhanced succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate by microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Bowen; Chen, Kequan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113 microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to enhance the reducing power responsible for succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate. During corncob hydrolysate fermentation, electric MECs resulted in a 1.31-fold increase in succinic acid production and a 1.33-fold increase in the reducing power compared with those in non-electric MECs. When the hydrolysate was detoxified by combining Ca(OH)2, NaOH, and activated carbon, succinic acid production increased from 3.47 to 6.95 g/l. Using a constant potential of -1.8 V further increased succinic acid production to 7.18 g/l. A total of 18.09 g/l of succinic acid and a yield of 0.60 g/g total sugar were obtained after a 60-h fermentation when NaOH was used as a pH regulator. The improved succinic acid yield from corncob hydrolysate fermentation using A. succinogenes NJ113 in electric MECs demonstrates the great potential of using biomass as a feedstock to cost-effectively produce succinate.

  1. Fluorescence enhancement of glutaraldehyde functionalized polyaniline nanofibers in the presence of aromatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Borah, Rajiv; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-04-01

    Polyaniline nanofibers (PNFs) synthesized by dilute polymerization method have been surface functionalized with glutaraldehyde at their N-terminals in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) at P(H)=7.4 in order to achieve improved interaction of surface functionalized polyaniline nanofibers (SF-PNFs) with aromatic amino acids-Tyrosine, Tryptophan and Phenylalanine through incorporation of aldehyde (-CHO) and hydroxyl (-OH) functionalities. HRTEM reveals nanofibers of average diameter of 35.66 nm. FESEM depicts interconnected networks of nanofibers of polyaniline (PAni). UV-visible absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the PNFs and SF-PNFs are in emeraldine base (EB) form. FT-IR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy suggests covalent interactions of SF-PNFs with aromatic amino acids and possible reaction mechanisms have been proposed based on these results. Remarkable enhancement in fluorescence signals of SF-PNFs in the presence of aromatic amino acids has been observed and the apparent binding constant (KA) and the number of binding sites (n) have been calculated using fluorescence enhancement equation. The KA value is found to be highest for SF-PNFs+Tyrosine and n is two for all the polymer amino acid complexes, which are in agreement with the FT-IR and (1)H NMR results. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency has been found to be highest for SF-PNFs+Tyrosine giving maximum fluorescence enhancement. The study of interaction mechanisms by means of an extremely sensitive technique like fluorescence using SF-PNFs as a substrate may provide a promising analytical tool for detection and monitoring any biochemical reactions involving these three aromatic amino acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of water solubility enhancements of organic solutes by aquatic humic materials and commercial humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Brinton, T.I.; Malcolm, R.L.; Leenheer, J.A.; MacCarthy, P.

    1987-12-01

    Water solubility enhancements of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5,2',5'-PCB), and 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4,4'-PCB) by dissolved organic matter have been studied with the following samples: (1) acidic water samples from the Suwannee River, Georgia, and the Sopchoppy River, Florida; (2) a humic extract of a nearly neutral pH water from the Calcasieu River, Louisiana; (3) commercial humic acids from the Aldrich Chemical Co. and Fluka-Tridom Chemical Corp. The calculated partition coefficients on a dissolved organic carbon basis (K/sub doc/) for organic solutes with water samples and aquatic humic extracts from this and earlier studies indicate that the enhancement effect varies with the molecular composition of the aquatic humic materials, The K/sub doc/ values with water and aquatic humic samples are, however, far less than the observed K/sub doc/ values obtained with the two commercial samples, by factors of about 4-20. In view of this finding, one should be cautious in interpreting the effects of the dissolved organic matter on solubility enhancement of organic solutes on the basis of the use of commercial humic acids. 14 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H.; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia. PMID:27379039

  4. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia.

  5. Linoleic acid enhances angiogenesis through suppression of angiostatin induced by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, N; Matsuoka, T; Yashiro, M; Hirakawa, K; Olden, K; Roberts, J D

    2011-01-01

    Background: The intake of dietary fatty acids is highly correlated with the risk of various cancers. Linoleic acid (LA) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fat in the western diet, but the mechanism(s) by fatty acids such as LA modulate cancer cells is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of LA in various steps in gastric cancer progression. Methods: The difference in gene expression between LA-treated and untreated OCUM-2MD3 gastric carcinoma cells was examined by mRNA differential display. The involvement of candidate genes was examined by oligo- and plasmid-mediated RNA interference. Biological functions of several of these genes were examined using in vitro assays for invasion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell viability, and matrix digestion. Angiogenesis in vivo was measured by CD-31 immunohistochemistry and microvessel density scoring. Results: LA enhanced the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA and protein expression, which are controlled by PAI-1 mRNA-binding protein. LA-stimulated invasion depended on PAI-1. LA also enhanced angiogenesis by suppression of angiostatin, also through PAI-1. LA did not alter cell growth in culture, but increased dietary LA-enhanced tumour growth in an animal model. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that dietary LA impacts multiple steps in cancer invasion and angiogenesis, and that reducing LA in the diet may help slow cancer progression. PMID:22015554

  6. Enhanced charge transport in highly conducting PEDOT-PSS films after acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, V. Akshaya; Bhatia, Ravi; Menon, Reghu

    The high electrical conductivity, good stability, high strength, flexibility and good transparency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), make it useful for many applications including polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, flexible electrodes, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, field-effect transistors and antistatic-coatings. However, the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS has to be increased significantly for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. The as prepared (pristine) PEDOT-PSS film prepared from the PEDOT-PSS aqueous solution usually has conductivity below 1Scm-1, remarkably lower than ITO. Significant conductivity enhancement has been observed on transparent and conductive PEDOT-PSS films after a treatment with inorganic acids. Our study investigates the charge transport in pristine and H2SO4, HNO3, HCl treated PEDOT-PSS films. We have treated the films with various concentrations of acids to probe the effect of the acid treatment on the conduction mechanism. The study includes the measurement of dc and electric field dependent conductivity of films in the temperature range of 4.2K-300K. We have also performed magneto-resistance measurements in the range of 0-5T. An enhancement by a factor of~103 has been observed in the room temperature conductivity. The detailed magneto-transport studies explain the various mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement observed.

  7. IL-23-dependent and -independent enhancement pathways of IL-17A production by lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Masahiko; Shime, Hiroaki; Hara, Hiromitsu; Saito, Takashi; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa; Akazawa, Takashi; Inoue, Norimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a cytokine produced by T(h)17 cells that plays an important role in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer. Stimulation with IL-6, transforming growth factor-β , IL-21, IL-1β and IL-23 is required for differentiation of T(h)17 cells and the production of IL-17A. Recently, we reported that tumor-derived lactic acid enhances the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-mediated expression of IL-23, leading to increased IL-17A production. Tumor cells secrete large amounts of lactic acid due to the up-regulation of glycolysis, which is known as the Warburg effect. Even without TLR ligand stimulation, lactic acid enhanced antigen-dependent IL-17A production from splenocytes in an IL-23-dependent manner. Here, we show that macrophages and effector/memory CD4(+) T cells are the primary cell types involved in the ability of lactic acid to boost IL-17A production. Although lactic acid suppressed the proliferation of T(h)1 and T(h)17 cells, T(h)17 cells still secreted large amounts of IL-17A. CD40 ligand-CD40 interactions were involved in the up-regulation of IL-17A by lactic acid through IL-12/23p40 production. A new cytokine containing the IL-12/23p40 subunit, but not IL-23, IL-12 or the IL-12p40 homodimer, is a candidate for involvement in the up-regulation of IL-17A. IL-1β also increased IL-17A expression; however, IL-1β, CARD9 and MyD88 signaling pathways activated by known intrinsic inflammatory mediators were hardly required for the enhanced activity induced by lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid functions as an intrinsic inflammatory mediator that activates IL-23-dependent and -independent pathways, resulting in the promotion of chronic inflammation in tumor microenvironments.

  8. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified EUV resists by adding acid-generating promoters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Itani, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    The trade-off relationship between sensitivity, resolution, and roughness is a serious problem in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist materials. Increasing the acid-generation efficiency is an effective solution to this trade-off problem. Chemically amplified resists (CARs) remain important for EUV lithography because of their longstanding use in photolithography. In this study, the feasibility and mechanism of improving CAR performance by adding acid-generating promoters were investigated. It was confirmed that di-p-tolyl sulfone acts as both a deprotonation promoter and a recombination inhibitor, which enhances the acid-generation efficiency and improves the performance of CARs in lithographies using ionizing radiation such as EUV and electron beams.

  9. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia; Reghellin, Veronica; Khoomrung, Sakda; Capusoni, Claudia; Compagno, Concetta; Airoldi, Cristina; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-07-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation. The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  10. ENHANCED MOBILITY OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPLs) USING DISSOLVED HUMIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect

    EDWIN S. OLSON; JOHN R. GALLAGHER; MARC D. KURZ

    1998-10-01

    The specific objectives of this subtask are as follows: � Evaluate the suitability of using humic acids to enhance the solubility and mobility of DNAPL contaminants sorbed to soils. � Evaluate the toxicity and bioavailablity of the DNAPLs to biodegrading microorganisms. To meet the first objective, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated a set of humic acids (two) with different chemical compositions and polarities for the following: � Ability of the humates to mobilize/solubilize selected (three) DNAPLs � Mobilization/solubilization in batch soil�water experiments (one soil) � Removal rate via biotreatment with a well-established active microbial culture. The second objective was met by evaluating the inhibiting effects of a leonardite-derived humic acid on active microbial populations.

  11. Interactive enhancements of ascorbic acid and iron in hydroxyl radical generation in quinone redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Tong; Zhao, Jincai; Xu, Bingye

    2012-09-18

    Quinones are toxicological substances in inhalable particulate matter (PM). The mechanisms by which quinones cause hazardous effects can be complex. Quinones are highly active redox molecules that can go through a redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species. Electron spin resonance spectra have been reported for semiquinone radicals in PM, indicating the importance of ascorbic acid and iron in quinone redox cycling. However, these findings are insufficient for understanding the toxicity associated with quinone exposure. Herein, we investigated the interactions among anthraquinone (AQ), ascorbic acid, and iron in hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation through the AQ redox cycling process in a physiological buffer. We measured ·OH concentration and analyzed the free radical process. Our results showed that AQ, ascorbic acid, and iron have synergistic effects on ·OH generation in quinone redox cycling; i.e., ascorbyl radical oxidized AQ to semiquinone radical and started the redox cycling, iron accelerated this oxidation and enhanced ·OH generation through Fenton reactions, while ascorbic acid and AQ could help iron to release from quartz surface and enhance its bioavailability. Our findings provide direct evidence for the redox cycling hypothesis about airborne particle surface quinone in lung fluid.

  12. Corn starch granules with enhanced load-carrying capacity via citric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2013-01-02

    This research investigated conditions by which maize starch granule porosity and load-carrying capacity (LCC) might be enhanced via treatment with varying citric acid concentrations (0.5-1.5 M), temperatures (40-60 °C), and lengths of treatment (1-8 h). At the lowest temperatures (40 and 50 °C), citric acid treatment induced minimal physicochemical changes to granules. In contrast, both aqueous and oil LCCs of starches treated at 60 °C (0.5 M citric acid, 2 h) were almost doubled (15.69 and 14.48 mL/10 g starch, respectively), recovering 92% of the granular starch after treatment. Such treatment increased starch hydration capacity (0.97-1.91) and reduced gelatinization enthalpy (10.6-7.4 J/g). More severe treatment conditions adversely impacted aqueous LCC (due to excessive granule swelling), but improved oil absorption. The basis for LCC enhancement by citric acid treatment was ascribed to leaching of starch material from granules and partial disruption of the granule crystalline structure, as opposed to starch hydrolysis or chemical substitution.

  13. The iron-chelating agent picolinic acid enhances transferrin receptors expression in human erythroleukaemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Testa, U; Louache, F; Titeux, M; Thomopoulos, P; Rochant, H

    1985-07-01

    Picolinic acid, a metal chelating molecule, was administered to human erythroleukaemic cell lines (K 562 and HEL) that were grown in serum-containing media. Picolinic acid inhibited both iron uptake and cell growth. Furthermore, picolinic acid was shown to markedly decrease the level of ferritin in the cells. In spite of the inhibition of cell growth, picolinic acid induced a marked increase in the transferrin-binding capacity of the cells. This phenomenon was due to a two-five-fold enhancement of the rate of transferrin receptor biosynthesis. Other iron-chelating compounds, capable of reducing the level of intracellular iron, also elicited a marked enhancement of the transferrin-binding capacity of the cells. However, the addition of iron, as ferric ammonium citrate, in the culture medium elicited a marked increase in the level of ferritin and a strong decrease in the transferrin-binding capacity of the cells. On the basis of these data we propose that a feed-back mechanism is involved in the regulation of transferrin receptors: when the cells accumulate iron they decrease the number of transferrin receptors in order to prevent further accumulation of iron; when no or low iron is available to the cells, the number of transferrin receptors markedly increases as a compensatory mechanism.

  14. Unexpected acidity enhancement triggered by AlH3 association to phosphines.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2012-06-28

    The complexes formed by the interaction between a series of phosphines R-PH(2) (R = H, CH(3), c-C(3)H(5), C(6)H(5)) and AlH(3) have been investigated through the use of high-level G4 ab initio calculations. These very stable complexes behave as much stronger acids than the isolated phosphines. This dramatic acidity enhancement, which can be as high as 174 kJ mol(-1), results from a much greater stabilization of the anionic deprotonated species with respect to the neutral one, upon AlH(3) association. This effect depends quantitatively on the nature of the substituent R and is smaller for R = C(6)H(5) because of the conjugation of the P lone pair with the aromatic system. More unexpectedly, however, the phosphine-alane complexes, RPH(2):AlH(3), are more acidic than the corresponding phosphine-borane RPH(2):BH(3) analogues. This unexpected result is due to the enhanced stability of the anionic deprotonated species for complexes involving AlH(3), because the delocalization of the newly created P lone pair with the P-Al bonding density is more favorable when the Lewis acid is aluminum trihydride than when it is borane.

  15. Maslinic Acid Enhances Signals for the Recruitment of Macrophages and Their Differentiation to M1 State

    PubMed Central

    Gaforio, José J.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory process is involved in the genesis and evolution of different diseases like obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Macrophages play a central role in inflammation. In addition, they can regulate some stages of cancer development. Macrophages can polarize into M1 or M2 functional phenotype depending on the cytokines present in the tissue microenvironment. On the other hand, triterpenes found in virgin olive oil are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study was designed to elucidate if the four major triterpenes found in virgin olive oil (oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol) are able to enhance M1 macrophage response which represents an important defense mechanism against cancer. Our results indicated that maslinic acid modulated the inflammatory response by enhancing the production of IL-8, IL-1α, and IL-1β; it promoted M1 response through the synthesis of IFN-γ; and finally it did not modify significantly the levels of NFκβ or NO. Overall, our results showed that maslinic acid could prevent chronic inflammation, which represents a crucial step in the development of some cancers. PMID:25821495

  16. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Bredy, Timothy W; Barad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its function as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC). Here we report that VPA enhances long-term memory for both acquisition and extinction of cued-fear. Interestingly, VPA enhances extinction, but also enhances renewal of the original conditioned fear when tested in a within-subjects design. This effect appears to be related to a reconsolidation-like process since a single CS reminder in the presence of VPA can enhance long-term memory for the original fear in the context in which fear conditioning takes place. We also show that by modifying the intertrial interval during extinction training, VPA can strengthen reconsolidation of the original fear memory or enhance long-term memory for extinction such that it becomes independent of context. These findings have important implications for the use of HDAC inhibitors as adjuncts to behavior therapy in the treatment of phobia and related anxiety disorders.

  17. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA.

  18. Acetate induced enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide production from oxalic acid and dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Nomura, Akifumi; Miyahigashi, Takamitsu; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-09

    The addition of acetate ion to an O2-saturated mixed solution of acetonitrile and water containing oxalic acid as a reductant and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion (QuPh(+)-NA) as a photocatalyst dramatically enhanced the turnover number of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. In this photocatalytic H2O2 production, a base is required to facilitate deprotonation of oxalic acid forming oxalate dianion, which acts as an actual electron donor, whereas a Brønsted acid is also necessary to protonate O2(•-) for production of H2O2 by disproportionation. The addition of acetate ion to a reaction solution facilitates both the deprotonation of oxalic acid and the protonation of O2(•-) owing to a pH buffer effect. The quantum yield of the photocatalytic H2O2 production under photoirradiation (λ = 334 nm) of an O2-saturated acetonitrile-water mixed solution containing acetate ion, oxalic acid and QuPh(+)-NA was determined to be as high as 0.34, which is more than double the quantum yield obtained by using oxalate salt as an electron donor without acetate ion (0.14). In addition, the turnover number of QuPh(+)-NA reached more than 340. The reaction mechanism and the effect of solvent composition on the photocatalytic H2O2 production were scrutinized by using nanosecond laser flash photolysis.

  19. Gold nanoparticles - enhanced capillary electrophoresis- chemiluminescence assay of trace uric acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shulin; Lan, Xuehua; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive method based on gold nanoparticle-enhanced capillary electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection was developed for quantifying uric acid in serum. In this work, gold nanoparticles were added into the running buffer of capillary electrophoresis to catalyze the post-column chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide, achieving highly efficient chemiluminescence emission. Negative peaks were produced due to the inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence emission from uric acid eluted from the electrophoretic capillary. The decrease in chemiluminescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of uric acid in the range of 2.5 × 10−7 ~ 1.0 × 10−5 M. Detection limit was 4.6 × 10−8 M uric acid. Ten human serum samples were analyzed by the presented method. Serum level of uric acid was found to be in the range from 204 to 324 μM for healthy subjects (n=5), and from 464 to 497 μM for diabetic patients (n=5). The two groups were significantly different (p < 0.05). The results suggested a potential application of the proposed assay in rapid primary diagnosis of diseases such as diabetes. PMID:19650050

  20. Enhancement of microalgae growth and fatty acid content under the influence of phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kabra, Akhil N; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jung Rae; Min, Booki; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-11-01

    The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus improved with increase in phytohormones concentrations (10(-8)-10(-)(5)M). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) supported the maximum growth at 10(-5)M with 17.7×10(6)cells/mL and total fatty acid of 97.9mg/g-DCW, enhancing the growth by 1.9-fold compared to control (9.5×10(6)cells/mL). While 10(-5)M of a newly discovered phytohormone Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DAH) demonstrated a 2.5-fold higher growth with 23.5×10(6)cells/mL and a total fatty acid content of 100mg/g-DCW. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid content increased up to 56% and 59% at 10(-)(5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The highest carbohydrate content (33% and 34%) achieved at 10(-8)M and 10(-5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. While, the highest protein content (34% and 35%) obtained at 10(-8)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The current investigation demonstrates that phytohormones accelerate microalgal growth and induce the quality and quantity of fatty acid content for biodiesel production.

  1. Enhanced degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon in wheat rhizosphere by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Meng Tian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined the microbial population (e.g., biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure, and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase, and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.

  2. Bacterial isolates degrading ritalinic acid-human metabolite of neuro enhancer methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Woźniak-Karczewska, Marta; Čvančarová, Monika; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Cichocka, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    The consumption of nootropic drugs has increased tremendously in the last decade, though the studies on their environmental fate are still scarce. Nootropics are bioactive compounds designed to alter human's physiology therefore the adverse effects towards wildlife can be expected. In order to understand their environmental impact, the knowledge on their transformation pathways is necessary. Methylphenidate belongs to the most prescribed neuro-enhancers and is among the most favored smart drugs used in non-medical situations. It is metabolized in human liver and excreted as ritalinic acid. Here, we showed for the first time that ritalinic acid can be biodegraded and used as a sole carbon and nitrogen source by various microbial strains originating from different environmental samples. Five axenic strains were isolated and identified as: Arthrobacter sp. strain MW1, MW2 and MW3, Phycicoccus sp. strain MW4 and Nocardioides sp. strain MW5. Our research provides the first insight into the metabolism of ritalinic acid and suggests that it may differ depending on the strain and growth conditions, especially on availability of nitrogen. The isolates obtained in this study can serve as model organisms in further studies on the catabolism of ritalinic acid and methylphenidate but potentially also other compounds with similar structures. Our findings have important implication for the sewage epidemiology. We demonstrated that ritalinic acid is subject to quick and efficient biodegradation thus its use as a stable biomarker should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preharvest salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid treatments preserve quality and enhance antioxidant systems during postharvest storage of sweet cherry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Giménez, M José; Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián

    2017-03-01

    Sweet cherries are much appreciated by consumers as a result of their organoleptic quality attributes and antioxidant properties, although they deteriorate rapidly after harvest. Different preharvest strategies have been carried out to increase their quality at the time of harvest. We present data regarding the effect of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) treatments on sweet cherry quality during postharvest storage. At harvest and during postharvest storage, sweet cherry fruits ('Sweet Heart', 'Sweet Late' and 'Lapins') from SA (0.5 mmol L(-1) ) and ASA (1 mmol L(-1) ) treated trees had a higher colour (lower chroma index), firmness, total soluble solids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and hydrophilic total antioxidant activity. In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase was also enhanced in SA- and ASA-treated cherries. Both SA and ASA preharvest treatments could be promising tools for improving sweet cherry quality at harvest and after storage, with an additional effect on delaying the postharvest ripening process by increasing the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Enhanced undecylprodigiosin production from Serratia marcescens SS-1 by medium formulation and amino-acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wan-Ju; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-10-01

    Serratia marcescens Simon Swift-1 (SS-1) was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment, undecylprodigiosin (UP), known to have antitumor activities and potential as an anticancer drug. Modified media containing components of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and selected amino acids were used to improve UP production from S. marcescens SS-1. Optimal culture conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, agitation rate) for UP production were also identified. It was found that S. marcescens SS-1 was able to produce 690 mg l-1 of UP when it was grown with 5 g l-1 yeast extract alone (YE medium) under the optimal culture conditions of 30 degrees C, 200 rpm, and pH 8. The UP production of 690 mg l-1 is nearly 23-fold of that obtained from original LB medium. Addition of amino acids containing pyrrole-like structures further enhanced UP production. Nearly 2 and 1.4 g l-1 of UP was produced when the SS-1 strain was cultivated with YE medium supplemented with proline and histidine (5 g l-1), respectively. Moreover, the addition of aspartic acid (5 g l-1) also resulted in a high UP production of 1.4 g l-1. Optimal dosages of the three amino acids were subsequently determined and the highest UP production (2.5 g l-1) was achieved with the addition of 10 g l-1 of proline. This suggests that the supplementation of amino acids related to the formation of a UP precursor (e.g., pyrrolylpyrromethene) could enhance UP production by the SS-1 strain.

  5. γ-Aminobutyric acid suppresses enhancement of hamster sperm hyperactivation by 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    FUJINOKI, Masakatsu; TAKEI, Gen L.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm hyperactivation is regulated by hormones present in the oviduct. In hamsters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) enhances hyperactivation associated with the 5HT2 receptor and 5HT4 receptor, while 17β-estradiol (E2) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) suppress the association of the estrogen receptor and GABAA receptor, respectively. In the present study, we examined the regulatory interactions among 5HT, GABA, and E2 in the regulation of hamster sperm hyperactivation. When sperm were exposed to E2 prior to 5HT exposure, E2 did not affect 5HT-enhanced hyperactivation. In contrast, GABA partially suppressed 5HT-enhanced hyperactivation when sperm were exposed to GABA prior to 5HT. GABA suppressed 5HT-enhanced hyperactivation associated with the 5HT2 receptor although it did not suppress 5HT-enhanced hyperactivation associated with the 5HT4 receptor. These results demonstrate that hamster sperm hyperactivation is regulated by an interaction between the 5HT2 receptor-mediated action of 5HT and GABA. PMID:27773888

  6. Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Enhanced by Lactic Acid Infusion in Spontaneously Breathing Conscious Sheep.

    PubMed

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Belenkiy, Slava; Linden, Katharina; Zanella, Alberto; Li, Yansong; Dubick, Michael A; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pesenti, Antonio; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2016-03-01

    The authors studied the effects on membrane lung carbon dioxide extraction (VCO2ML), spontaneous ventilation, and energy expenditure (EE) of an innovative extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) technique enhanced by acidification (acid load carbon dioxide removal [ALCO2R]) via lactic acid. Six spontaneously breathing healthy ewes were connected to an extracorporeal circuit with blood flow 250 ml/min and gas flow 10 l/min. Sheep underwent two randomly ordered experimental sequences, each consisting of two 12-h alternating phases of ALCO2R and ECCO2R. During ALCO2R, lactic acid (1.5 mEq/min) was infused before the membrane lung. Caloric intake was not controlled, and animals were freely fed. VCO2ML, natural lung carbon dioxide extraction, total carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation were recorded. Oxygen consumption and EE were calculated. ALCO2R enhanced VCO2ML by 48% relative to ECCO2R (55.3 ± 3.1 vs. 37.2 ± 3.2 ml/min; P less than 0.001). During ALCO2R, minute ventilation and natural lung carbon dioxide extraction were not affected (7.88 ± 2.00 vs. 7.51 ± 1.89 l/min, P = 0.146; 167.9 ± 41.6 vs. 159.6 ± 51.8 ml/min, P = 0.063), whereas total carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, and EE rose by 12% each (223.53 ± 42.68 vs. 196.64 ± 50.92 ml/min, 215.3 ± 96.9 vs. 189.1 ± 89.0 ml/min, 67.5 ± 24.0 vs. 60.3 ± 20.1 kcal/h; P less than 0.001). ALCO2R was effective in enhancing VCO2ML. However, lactic acid caused a rise in EE that made ALCO2R no different from standard ECCO2R with respect to ventilation. The authors suggest coupling lactic acid-enhanced ALCO2R with active measures to control metabolism.

  7. Intragastric capsaicin enhances rat gastric acid elimination and mucosal blood flow by afferent nerve stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Lippe, I. T.; Pabst, M. A.; Holzer, P.

    1989-01-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of intragastric capsaicin on acid output, clearance of aniline, potential difference, and morphology of the mucosa in the rat stomach. The experiments were carried out on rats anaesthetized with urethane in which the stomachs were continuously perfused with saline. 2. When the stomach was perfused with normal saline (pH approximately 6), intragastric capsaicin (32-640 microM) had no effect on the output of titratable acid. In contrast, when acid output was stimulated by pentagastrin or when the stomach was perfused with acid saline (pH 3), capsaicin reduced acid output. Acid loss which occurred during perfusion with saline of pH 2 was not significantly increased by capsaicin. This suggests that capsaicin does not enhance acid back-diffusion but facilitates acid elimination by other means. 3. The gastric clearance of [14C]-aniline, which is an indirect index of gastric mucosal blood flow, was estimated while the stomach was perfused with saline of pH 3. The clearance of aniline rose by 50-60% following intragastric administration of capsaicin (160 microM) whereas the mean arterial blood pressure was increased by about 2.5 mmHg only. Combined pretreatment of the rats with atropine, phentolamine, and propranolol did not alter the effect of capsaicin on the gastric clearance of aniline. 4. The gastric potential difference was not altered by capsaicin (160 microM) administered together with saline of pH 3. This and the finding that there were no signs of mucosal damage by light and scanning electron microscopy indicate that intragastric capsaicin does not irritate the gastric mucosa. 5. The effects of intragastric capsaicin on gastric acid output and aniline clearance and on blood pressure were absent in rats in which capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurones had been ablated by neonatal treatment with a neurotoxic dose of capsaicin, which indicates that they result from stimulation of afferent nerve endings in the stomach. It is

  8. Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qian; Feng Yongjun; Feng Junting; Li Dianqing

    2011-06-15

    2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: > Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. > The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. > The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

  9. Myristic acid-modified thymopentin for enhanced plasma stability and immune-modulating activity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuanyan; Wang, Wei; Wu, Chunlei; Pan, Zhengyin; Yao, Guiyang; Fang, Lijing; Su, Wu

    2017-03-30

    Natural albumin ligand (fatty acids)-conjugated peptides can rapidly bind to circulating albumin and form complexes to control the release of peptides. The purpose of this study was to prolong the half-life and immune-modulating effects of thymopentin (TP5) by using the albumin binding strategy. We synthesized myristic acid-modified TP5 (TP5-MA) by conjugating a myristic acid-acylated lysine to a permissive site of TP5, which improved the albumin binding affinity of TP5-MA and dramatically enhanced its stability in human plasma. We observed well-preserved bioactivities of TP5-MA in RAW264.7 macrophages using a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation assay. Moreover, the prolonged immune-modulating effect of TP5-MA was confirmed by the normalized CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in immune-depressed rat models, which resulted in a reduced administration frequency (twice per week). In general, the enhanced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TP5-MA make it a promising product for the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases.

  10. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  11. Arachidonic Acid Enhances Reproduction in Daphnia magna and Mitigates Changes in Sex Ratios Induced by Pyriproxyfen

    PubMed Central

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Baldwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of only two unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans, and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. We hypothesized that as a key fatty acid, AA may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with AA indicate that it alters female/male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted P. subcapitata diet. Next, we tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (C. vulgaris) with AA enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. AA enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 and 4.0μM by 30–40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that AA is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, our data indicates that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of AA needed for reproduction. Diet switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some but not all of AA’s effects when compared to a C. vulgaris only diet, suggesting that some AA provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, AA supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in AA may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist, pyriproxyfen. PMID:25393616

  12. Mechanism for enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja Eun; Cho, Hye Rim; Xu, Wen Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Kwon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Se-Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sunghyouk; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-08-21

    Fluorescence-guided surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has become the main treatment modality in malignant gliomas. However unlike glioblastomas, there are inconsistent result about fluorescence status in WHO grade III gliomas. Here, we show that mutational status of IDH1 is linked to 5-ALA fluorescence. Using genetically engineered malignant glioma cells harboring wild type (U87MG-IDH1WT) or mutant (U87MG-IDH1R132H) IDH1, we demonstrated a lag in 5-ALA metabolism and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in U87MG-IDH1R132Hcells. Next, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to screen for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolite changes caused by 5-ALA exposure. We observed low baseline levels of NADPH, an essential cofactor for the rate-limiting step of heme degradation, in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. High levels of NADPH are required to metabolize excessive 5-ALA, giving a plausible reason for the temporarily enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence in mutant IDH1 cells. This hypothesis was supported by the results of metabolic screening in human malignant glioma samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a relationship between enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence and IDH1 mutations in WHO grade III gliomas. Low levels of NADPH in tumors with mutated IDH1 is responsible for the enhanced fluorescence.

  13. Mechanism for enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Kwon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Se-Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sunghyouk; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has become the main treatment modality in malignant gliomas. However unlike glioblastomas, there are inconsistent result about fluorescence status in WHO grade III gliomas. Here, we show that mutational status of IDH1 is linked to 5-ALA fluorescence. Using genetically engineered malignant glioma cells harboring wild type (U87MG-IDH1WT) or mutant (U87MG-IDH1R132H) IDH1, we demonstrated a lag in 5-ALA metabolism and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. Next, we used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to screen for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolite changes caused by 5-ALA exposure. We observed low baseline levels of NADPH, an essential cofactor for the rate-limiting step of heme degradation, in U87MG-IDH1R132H cells. High levels of NADPH are required to metabolize excessive 5-ALA, giving a plausible reason for the temporarily enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence in mutant IDH1 cells. This hypothesis was supported by the results of metabolic screening in human malignant glioma samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a relationship between enhanced 5-ALA fluorescence and IDH1 mutations in WHO grade III gliomas. Low levels of NADPH in tumors with mutated IDH1 is responsible for the enhanced fluorescence. PMID:26008980

  14. The Efficacy of Probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and 5-ASA (Aminosalicylic Acid) in the Treatment of Experimental Radiation Proctitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dandin, Özgür; Akin, Mehmet Levhi; Balta, Ahmet Ziya; Yücel, Ergün; Karakaş, Dursun Özgür; Demirbaş, Sezai; Özdemir, Sevim; Haholu, Apdullah

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study are to demonstrate the effect of probiotic use on the healing of radiation proctitis (RP) and evaluate the efficiency of fecal biomarkers at follow-up of the treatment. Thirty-two male/female rats were randomly separated into four groups of eight rats. The first group (control) was not radiated. RP was created by 17.5 Gy single dose rectal irradiation. The second group (RP) was subjected to RP, but not treated. The third group (RP+ASA) was treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) 250 mg/kg daily by gastric lavage for 14 days after the irradiation, and the forth group (RP+LGG) was treated with Lactobacillus GG (LGG) 25 × 100 million CFU daily. Feces samples were taken at the 7th and 14th day of the treatment for fecal biomarkers. Rectums of the rats were resected at the 14th day by laparotomy. Samples were evaluated both macroscopically and microscopically. RP was achieved both macroscopically and microscopically. Weight loss of RP group is statistically significant (p < 0.005) than other groups. The healing ratio of RP+ASA and RP+LGG groups was significantly better than the RP group (p < 0.005) both macroscopically and microscopically. But there was no significant difference between ASA and LGG groups. Biochemically, fecal calprotectin was found to be more effective than fecal myeloperoxidase and fecal lactoferrin to show the efficacy of treatment of radiation proctitis. The results of our study demonstrate that probiotic is as effective as 5-aminosalicylic in the treatment of radiation proctitis, and fecal calprotectin is a useful biomarker in determining the response to the treatment.

  15. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. PMID:26450705

  16. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  17. Folic acid enhances early functional recovery in a piglet model of pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Naim, Maryam Y; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 μg/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 μg/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by β-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment

  18. Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 μg/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 μg/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by β-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment

  19. Enhancement and modeling of microparticle-added Rhizopus oryzae lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan Bugra; Demirci, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid has a wide industrial application area and can be produced by fungal strains. However, excessive bulk growth form of fungi during the fermentations is a major problem, which limits the fermentation performance. Microparticles are excellent tools to prevent bulk fungal growth and provide homogenized fermentation broth to increase uniformity and the prediction performance of the models. Therefore, in this study, addition of aluminum oxide and talcum microparticles into fermentations was evaluated to enhance the production of lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. The results showed that the bulk fungal growth was prevented and the lactic acid concentration increased from 6.02 to 13.88 and 24.01 g/L, when 15 g/L of aluminum oxide or 10 g/L of talcum was used, respectively, in the shake-flask fermentations. Additionally, substrate concentration, pH, and agitation were optimized in the bioreactors using response surface methodology, and optimum values were determined as 126 g/L of glucose, 6.22 pH, and 387 rpm, respectively. Under these conditions, lactic acid production further increased to 75.1 ± 1.5 g/L with 10 g/L of talcum addition. Also, lactic acid production and glucose consumption in the batch fermentation were successfully modeled with modified Gompertz model and modified logistic model. RMSE and MAE values for lactic acid production were calculated as 2.279 and 1.498 for the modified Gompertz model; 3.6 and 4.056 for the modified logistic model. Additionally, modified logistic model predicted glucose consumption with -2.088 MAE and 2.868 RMSE, whereas these values were calculated as 2.035 and 3.946 for the modified Gompertz model.

  20. Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

    2014-11-15

    Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation

  1. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation for enhancing citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jianhua; Cao, Zhanglei; Wang, Yajun; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Depei

    2015-01-16

    intracellular ATP can accelerate glycolysis and the TCA cycle to enhance citric acid yield.

  2. Enhancement of 5-aminolevulinic acid phototoxicity by encapsulation in polysaccharides based nanocomplexes for photodynamic therapy application.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Antonio; Pavelkova, Alena; Postnikov, Pavel S; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides based nanocomplexes have been developed for encapsulation, controlled delivery and to enhance the phototoxicity of the photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid for application in photodynamic therapy. The nanocomplexes were prepared by coacervation in a solvent free environment using chitosan as polycation while alginic and polygalacturonic acid as polyanions. The complexes showed average dimension in the range 90-120nm, good stability in simulated physiological media and high drug encapsulation efficiency, up to 800μg per mg of carrier. Release studies demonstrate the possibility to tune the overall release rate and the intensity of the initial burst by changing the external pH. Cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity tests confirmed the not toxicity of the used polysaccharides. Cell viability results confirmed the improvement of 5-aminolevulinic acid phototoxicity when loaded into the carrier compared to the free form. No effect of the irradiation on the nanocomplexes structure and on the release kinetics of the drug was observed. The results demonstrate that the prepared formulations have suitable properties for future application in photodynamic therapy and to ameliorate the therapeutic efficacy and overcome the side-effects related to the use of the photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Enhancing the Acylation Activity of Acetic Acid by Formation of an Intermediate Aromatic Ester.

    PubMed

    Duong, Nhung N; Wang, Bin; Sooknoi, Tawan; Crossley, Steven P; Resasco, Daniel E

    2017-07-10

    Acylation is an effective C-C bond-forming reaction to condense acetic acid and lignin-derived aromatic compounds into acetophenones, valuable precursors to fuels and chemicals. However, acetic acid is intrinsically an ineffective acylating agent. Here, we report that its acylation activity can be greatly enhanced by forming intermediate aromatic esters directly derived from acetic acid and phenolic compounds. Additionally, the acylation reaction was studied in the liquid phase over acid zeolites and was found to happen in two steps: 1) formation of an acylium ion and 2) C-C bond formation between the acylium ion and the aromatic substrate. Each of these steps may be rate-limiting, depending on the type of acylating agent and the aromatic substrate. Oxygen-containing substituents, such as -OH and -OCH3 , can activate aromatic substrates for step 2, with -OH> -OCH3 , whereas alkyl substituent -R cannot. At the same time, aromatic esters can rearrange to acetophenones by both an intramolecular pathway and, preferentially, an intermolecular one. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Evaluation of hyper thermal acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii for enhanced bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    Hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a red seaweed, was optimized to 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content, 180mM H2SO4 at 140°C for 5min. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 38.3g/L and 66.7% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 57.6g/L with 120gdw/L K. alvarezii slurry were obtained from HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. HT acid hydrolysis at a severity factor of 0.78 efficiently converted the carbohydrates of seaweed to monosaccharides and produced a low concentration of inhibitory compounds. The levels of ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with non-adapted and adapted Kluyveromyces marxianus to high concentration of galactose were 6.1g/L with ethanol yield (YEtOH) of 0.19 at 84h and 16.0g/L with YEtOH of 0.42 at 72h, respectively. Development of the HT acid hydrolysis process and adapted yeast could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields of K. alvarezii seaweed.

  5. A novel honeycomb matrix for cell immobilization to enhance lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yuanliang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Runguang; Ren, Huiqing

    2010-07-01

    A new support matrix inspired by honeycomb was developed for cell immobilization to control fungal morphology and enhance mass transfer in bioreactor for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae. The immobilization matrix composed of asterisk-shaped fibrous matrices in a honeycomb configuration provided high surface areas for cell attachment and biofilm growth. More than 90% of inoculated spores were adsorbed onto the matrices within 6-8h and after 10h there was no suspended cell in the fermentation broth, indicating a 100% immobilization efficiency. Compared to free-cell fermentation, lactic acid production increased approximately 70% (49.5 g/L vs. 29.3g/L) and fermentation time reduced 33% (48 h vs. 72 h) in shake-flasks with 80 g/L initial glucose. The immobilized-cell fermentation was evaluated for its long-term performance in a bubble-column bioreactor operated in a repeated batch mode for nine cycles in 36 days. The highest lactic acid production was 68.8 g/L, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 0.72 g/Lh and 93.4% (w/w) lactic acid yield from consumed glucose. The overall yield and productivity were 77.6% and 0.57 g/Lh, respectively. The fermentation can be improved by increasing aeration and mixing in the bubble-column bioreactor.

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of anthracene in acidic soil by inoculated Burkholderia sp. VUN10013.

    PubMed

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Suanjit, Sudarat; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Lee, Hung; Upatham, Suchart

    2008-08-01

    The ability of Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 to degrade anthracene in microcosms of two acidic Thai soils was studied. The addition of Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 (initial concentration of 10(5) cells g(-1) dry soil) to autoclaved soil collected from the Plew District, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, supplemented with anthracene (50 mg kg(-1) dry soil) resulted in complete degradation of the added anthracene within 20 days. In contrast, under the same test conditions but using autoclaved soil collected from the Kitchagude District, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, only approximately 46.3% of the added anthracene was degraded after 60 days of incubation. In nonautoclaved soils, without adding the VUN10013 inocula, 22.8 and 19.1% of the anthracene in Plew and Kitchagude soils, respectively, were degraded by indigenous bacteria after 60 days. In nonautoclaved soil inoculated with Burkholderia sp. VUN10013, the rate and extent of anthracene degradation were considerably better than those seen in autoclaved soils or in uninoculated nonautoclaved soils in that only 8.2 and 9.1% of anthracene remained in nonautoclaved Plew and Kitchagude soils, respectively, after 10 days of incubation. The results showed that the indigenous microorganisms in the pristine acidic soils have limited ability to degrade anthracene. Inoculation with the anthracene-degrading Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 significantly enhanced anthracene degradation in such acidic soils. The indigenous microorganisms greatly assisted the VUN10013 inoculum in anthracene degradation, especially in the more acidic Kitchagude soil.

  7. Photoassisted enhancement of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid on platinized TiO₂ nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mojumder, Nazrul; Sarker, Swagotom; Abbas, Syed Arslan; Tian, Zong; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan Ravi

    2014-04-23

    A solvothermal method is used to deposit Pt nanoparticles on anodized TiO2 nanotubes (T_NT). Surface characterization using SEM, EDX, and XRD indicates the formation of polycrystalline TiO2 nanotubes of 110 ± 10 nm diameter with Pt nanoparticle islands. The application of the T_NT/Pt photoanode has been examined toward simultaneous electrooxidation and photo(electro)oxidation of formic acid (HCOOH). Upon UV-vis photoillumination, the T_NT/Pt photoelectrode generates a current density of 72 mA/cm(2), which is significantly higher (∼39-fold) than that of the T_NT electrode (1.85 mA/cm(2)). This boosting in the overall current is attributable to the enhanced oxidation of formic acid at the T_NT/Pt-electrolyte interface. Further, a series of cyclic voltammetric (CV) responses, of which each anodic scan is switched to photoillumination at a certain applied bias (i.e., 0.2 V, 0.4 V, etc.), is used to identify the role of T_NT/Pt as a promoter for the photoelectrooxidation of formic acid and understand a carbon monoxide (CO)-free pathway. Chronoamperometric (j/t) measurements demonstrate the evidence of an external bias dependent variation in the time lag during the current stabilization. An analysis of the CV plots and j/t profiles suggests the existence of both the charge-transfer controlled process and the diffusion-controlled process during formic acid photoelectrooxidation.

  8. Ascorbic acid enhances differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Lord, Bernadette; Schulze, P Christian; Fryer, Ryan M; Sarang, Satinder S; Gullans, Steven R; Lee, Richard T

    2003-04-15

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into cellular derivatives of all 3 germ layers. In appropriate culture conditions, ES cells can differentiate into specialized cells, including cardiac myocytes, but the efficiency is typically low and the process is incompletely understood. We evaluated a chemical library for its potential to induce cardiac differentiation of ES cells in the absence of embryoid body formation. Using ES cells stably transfected with cardiac-specific alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), 880 compounds approved for human use were screened for their ability to induce cardiac differentiation. Treatment with ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, markedly increased the number of EGFP-positive cells, which displayed spontaneous and rhythmic contractile activity and stained positively for sarcomeric myosin and alpha-actinin. Furthermore, ascorbic acid induced the expression of cardiac genes, including GATA4, alpha-MHC, and beta-MHC in untransfected ES cells in a developmentally controlled manner. This effect of ascorbic acid on cardiac differentiation was not mimicked by the other antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine, Tiron, or vitamin E. Ascorbic acid induces cardiac differentiation in ES cells. This study demonstrates the potential for chemically modifying the cardiac differentiation program of ES cells.

  9. Capsule report: Adipic acid-enhanced lime/limestone test results at the EPA alkali scrubbing test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.; Wang, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, the report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. A primary objective of the program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal and improve the reliability and economics of lime and limestone wet scrubbing systems by use of adipic acid as a chemical additive.

  10. Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

  11. Enhancing proton conduction via doping of supramolecular liquid crystals (4-alkoxybenzoic acids) with imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ting; Wu, Yong; Tan, Shuai; Yang, Xiaohui; Wei, Bingzhuo

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing proton conduction via doping was first achieved in hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals consisting of benzoic acids. Supramolecular liquid crystals formed by pure 4-alkoxybenzoic acids (nAOBA, n = 8, 10, 12) exhibited the maximum proton conductivity of 5.0 × 10-8 S cm-1. Doping of nAOBA with 25 mol% imidazole (Im0.25) had little impact on mesomorphism but increased proton conductivities by at least 3 orders of magnitude. The liquid crystals formed by nAOBA-Im0.25 exhibited the maximum proton conductivity of 1.9 × 10-4 S cm-1. It was proposed that structure diffusion of imidazole bridged interdimer proton transfer to form continuous conducting pathways in mesomorphic nAOBA-Im0.25.

  12. [Determination of protein concentration by the enhancement of Rayleigh light scattering of fuchsine acid].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-yi; Liu, Bao-sheng; Zhang, Hong-lei; Zhao, Yong

    2002-12-01

    A new Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) assay is presented in this paper. At the optimum pH = 2.72, the weak RLS of fuchsine acid can be greatly enhanced by the addition of proteins due to the interaction between protein and fuchsine acid. A new quantitative determination method for proteins has been developed. The linear range for human serum albumin is 0-4.0 mg.L-1 with detection limit of 23 micrograms.L-1. Besides high sensitivity, the method is characterized by good reproducibility, rapidity of reaction, good stability and few interfering substances. The determination results of the proteins in human serum and urine samples are very close those obtained using Biuret method, with relative stand deviation of 0.94%-4.93%.

  13. Salicylic acid enhances Jaceosidin and Syringin production in cell cultures of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen-Zhen; Fu, Chun-Xiang; Han, Ying-Shan; Li, Yong-Xing; Zhao, De-Xiu

    2006-07-01

    Addition of 20 muM salicylic acid to Saussurea medusa cell cultures at day 6 resulted in jaceosidin and syringin productions up to 95 mg l(-1 )and 631 mg l(-1) which were, respectively, about 2.5- and 2.7-fold higher than in the control. The biomass was increased from 8 to 12 g l(-1). Expression of chalcone synthase gene (chs) increased sharply after 12 h treatment and was sustained up to 48 h; chalcone isomerase gene (chi) expression reached a peak at 24 h and decreased after 48 h; and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity increased by 7.5-fold (96 U mg(-1) protein) higher than in the control after 24 h. These results indicate that salicylic acid enhances the production of jaceosidin and syringin which is accompanied by induction of the related phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes.

  14. Phospholipids that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance neuronal cell mechanics and touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Valeria; Krieg, Michael; Lockhead, Dean; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mechano-electrical transduction (MeT) channels embedded in neuronal cell membranes are essential for touch and proprioception. Little is understood about the interplay between native MeT channels and membrane phospholipids, in part because few techniques are available for altering plasma membrane composition in vivo. Here, we leverage genetic dissection, chemical complementation, and optogenetics to establish that arachidonic acid (AA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, enhances touch sensation and mechanoelectrical transduction activity while incorporated into membrane phospholipids in C. elegans touch receptor neurons (TRNs). Because dynamic force spectroscopy reveals that AA modulates the mechanical properties of TRN plasma membranes, we propose that this PUFA is needed for MeT channel activity. These findings establish that polyunsaturated phospholipids are crucial determinants of both the biochemistry and mechanics of mechanoreceptor neurons and reinforce the idea that sensory mechanotransduction in animals relies on a cellular machine composed of both proteins and membrane lipids. PMID:24388754

  15. Histogram Analysis of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI for Quantitative Hepatic Fibrosis Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Honsoul; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Park, Young Nyun; Park, Hae-Jeong; Choi, Jin-Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The diagnosis and monitoring of liver fibrosis is an important clinical issue; however, this is usually achieved by invasive methods such as biopsy. We aimed to determine whether histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide non-invasive quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis. Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and a waiver of informed consent was obtained. Hepatobiliary phase images of preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI studies of 105 patients (69 males, 36 females; age 56.1±12.2) with pathologically documented liver fibrosis grades were analyzed. Fibrosis staging was F0/F1/F2/F3/F4 (METAVIR system) for 11/20/13/15/46 patients, respectively. Four regions-of-interest (ROI, each about 2 cm2) were placed on predetermined locations of representative images. The measured signal intensity of pixels in each ROI was used to calculate corrected coefficient of variation (cCV), skewness, and kurtosis. An average value of each parameter was calculated for comparison. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and linear regression. Results The cCV showed statistically significant differences among pathological fibrosis grades (P<0.001) whereas skewness and kurtosis did not. Univariable linear regression analysis suggested cCV to be a meaningful parameter in predicting the fibrosis grade (P<0.001, β = 0.40 and standard error  = 0.06). For discriminating F0-3 from F4, the area under ROC score was 0.857, standard deviation 0.036, 95% confidence interval 0.785–0.928. Conclusion Histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI can provide non-invasive quantitative measurements of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25460180

  16. Scale-up cultivation enhanced arachidonic acid accumulation by red microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jingyu; Le, Kai; Song, Xiaoqiang; Jiao, Kailin; Zeng, Xianhai; Ling, Xueping; Shi, Tuo; Tang, Xing; Sun, Yong; Lin, Lu

    2017-08-23

    The present study attempts to cultivate Porphyridium purpureum under different scale-up conditions for further development and commercialization of microalgae-derived PUFAs such as ARA and EPA. Different temperatures (25, 30, and 35 °C) and light intensities (70, 165, and 280 μmol/m(2)s) were applied to the 50 L pilot-scale cultivation of P. purpureum in ASW. The cultivation under the light intensity of 280 μmol/m(2)s at 35 °C obtained biomass concentration up to 9.52 g/L, total fatty acid content to 56.82 mg/g, and ARA content to 22.29 mg/g. While the maximum EPA content of 7.00 mg/g was achieved under the light intensity of 280 μmol/m(2)s at 25 °C and the highest ratio of UFAs to TFAs of 74.66% was also obtained in this trial. Both biomass concentration and TFAs content were improved by increasing light intensity and temperature. Moreover, the ratio of ARA to EPA was enhanced by increasing cultivation temperature under the light intensity of 280 μmol/m(2)s. In contrast with flask culture, the conversion of linoleic acid (C18:2) to ARA was enhanced in scale-up culture, leading to more ARA content. Phosphate limitation enhanced the synthesis of lipid and LPUFAs. Moreover, the biomass concentration and biosynthesis of palmitic acid were preferred by sufficient C (NaHCO3).

  17. Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine – Oleic acid self nanoemulsifying ionic complex for enhanced dissolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs) of lumefantrine (LF) to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media. Methods Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Results LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA). Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm), shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%), no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release. Conclusion Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:23531442

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibres enhanced with poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-02-01

    Genetically modified flax fibres, derived from transgenic flax with expression of three bacterial genes necessary for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have been analysed. These transgenic flaxes, enhanced with different amount of the PHB, have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes as well as the differences between the natural and genetically modified flax fibres. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibres.

  19. SnO2 nanospheres supported Pd catalyst with enhanced performance for formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiting; Fan, Yang; Huang, Ping; Xu, Dongli

    2012-10-01

    SnO2 nanospheres were employed as the support material for Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd/SnO2 catalyst exhibited remarkably improved electrocatalytic activity and stability towards formic acid oxidation, in comparison with that of the Vulcan XC-72 carbon black and the commercial SnO2 nanopowder supported Pd catalyst. The enhanced catalytic performance may arise from the unique structure and surface properties of the SnO2 nanospheres, which process extraordinary promotional effect on Pd catalyst.

  20. Immunological properties of Tg carbohydrates: enhancement of Tg immunoreaction by removal of sialic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salabè, H; Dominici, R; Salabè, G B

    1976-01-01

    Immunoreaction of desialylated and native thyroglobulin was compared in sera of patients with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies by radioimmunoassay with 125I-labelled thyroglobulin. Two human thyroglobulins were iodinated both in vivo and by lactoperoxidase. After desialylation enhancement of immunoreaction was observed in several sera ranging from marginal to more than 100%. The effect was not due to iodination since it was reproducible with desialylated thyroglobulin labelled in vivo. In one serum (B.P.) a marked enhancement was only seen with one thyroglobulin suggesting that desialylation may unmask isoantigens of thyroglobulin. Glycopeptides prepared from human thyroglobulin inhibited the immunoreaction between native thyroglobulin and autoantisera. The results indicate that sialic acid masks antigenic determinants in human thyroglobulin and that carbohydrates might be the determinants involved in the process of autoimmunization. PMID:60186

  1. Topical retinoic acid enhances the repair of ultraviolet damaged dermal connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Duo, C H; Kligman, A M

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces excessive accumulations of elastic fibers in animal and human skin. Collagen is damaged and glycosaminoglycans are vastly increased. Formerly considered an irreversible change, we recently showed, post-irradiation, that a band of normal connective tissue was laid down subepidermally . Because of its ability to stimulate fibroblasts and enhance healing of wounds, we thought it likely that retinoic acid (RA) would promote the formation of this subepidermal zone of reconstruction. Hairless mice were irradiated for 10 weeks with Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps for a total UV dose of 7 J/cm2. Then, 0.05% RA was applied for 5 and 10 weeks. Observations were made by light and electron microscopy. In contrast to controls treated with vehicle, the reconstruction zone was significantly wider in RA-treated mice. The enhanced repair was dose related. Histochemically and ultrastructurally, collagen was normal, fibroblasts were numerous and in a configuration of high metabolic activity.

  2. Pd Nanoparticles Coupled to WO2.72 Nanorods for Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation of Formic Acid.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zheng; Erdosy, Daniel P; Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana; Duchesne, Paul N; Li, Junrui; Muzzio, Michelle; Li, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Shouheng

    2017-04-12

    We synthesize a new type of hybrid Pd/WO2.72 structure with 5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on 50 × 5 nm WO2.72 nanorods. The strong Pd/WO2.72 coupling results in the lattice expansion of Pd from 0.23 to 0.27 nm and the decrease of Pd surface electron density. As a result, the Pd/WO2.72 shows much enhanced catalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of formic acid in 0.1 M HClO4; it has a mass activity of ∼1600 mA/mgPd in a broad potential range of 0.4-0.85 V (vs RHE) and shows no obvious activity loss after a 12 h chronoamperometry test at 0.4 V. Our work demonstrates an important strategy to enhance Pd NP catalyst efficiency for energy conversion reactions.

  3. Peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Uju; Abe, Kojiro; Uemura, Nobuyuki; Oshima, Toyoji; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-06-01

    To enhance enzymatic saccharification of pine biomass, the pretreatment reagents peracetic acid (PAA) and ionic liquid (IL) were validated in single reagent pretreatments or combination pretreatments with different sequences. In a 1h saccharification, 5-25% cellulose conversion was obtained from the single pretreatment of PAA or IL. In contrast, a marked enhancement in conversion rates was achieved by PAA-IL combination pretreatments (45-70%). The PAA followed by IL (PAA+IL) pretreatment sequence was the most effective for preparing an enzymatic digestible regenerated biomass with 250-fold higher glucose formation rates than untreated biomass and 2- to 12-fold higher than single pretreatments with PAA or IL alone. Structural analysis confirmed that this pretreatment resulted in biomass with highly porous structural fibers associated with the reduction of lignin content and acetyl groups. Using the PAA+IL sequence, biomass loading in the pretreatment step can be increased from 5% to 15% without significant decrease in cellulose conversion.

  4. Enhanced absorption of anthocyanins after oral administration of phytic acid in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ito, Kyoko; Yonekura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Takanori; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; Hirayama, Masao; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2007-03-21

    Many studies on the bioavailability of polyphenols have been reported. However, the relative urinary excretions of AC are also low, ranging from 0.004% to 0.1%. By contrast, other polyphenols show higher urinary excretion levels. Here, we studied the enhancing effects of phytic acid (IP6) on absorption of blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCAs) in rats and humans. In rats after oral administration of BCAs (as 241 mg of AC/kg body weight) in IP6 (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%) solution, the ACs recovery in urine was increased dependent on IP6 dose. These results suggest that the IP6 enhances gastrointestinal absorption of ACs. At the further analysis of IP6 enhancement effect in rat, whereas BCAs were normally passed through the stomach and duodenum within 2 h, in IP6 group, after 2-6 h post-administration, stomach and jejunum content's weights were specifically heavy, and large amounts of ACs were also detected in stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. These results suggested that the mixture of BCAs and IP6 reduced the gastrointestinal motility. Prolongation of ACs residue in gastrointestinal tract then caused the enhancing effects of IP6 on absorption of AC. In the human study, each subject was orally administrated a BCA beverage containing BCA concentrate (AC 4 mg/kg body weight), 1% of IP6, and 1% of sodium citrate as a pH stabilizer. Both the plasma level and the urinary excretion of AC were increased as compared to BCA administration without IP6. AC intake with IP6 may increase the bioavailability of AC to the comparative level as other polyphenols. Yet, phytic acid, being a strong chelator of important minerals, contributes to mineral deficiencies. An interference with iron uptake has been reported. Safety tests are therefore necessary before high dose IP6 can be used in foods.

  5. Optical clearing of skin enhanced with hyaluronic acid for increased contrast of optoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liopo, Anton; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced delivery of optical clearing agents (OCA) through skin may improve sensitivity of optical and optoacoustic (OA) methods of imaging, sensing, and monitoring. This report describes a two-step method for enhancement of light penetration through skin. Here, we demonstrate that topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) improves skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic OCA and thus enhances their performance. We examined the OC effect of 100% polyethylene and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and their mixture after pretreatment by HA, and demonstrated significant increase in efficiency of light penetration through skin. Increased light transmission resulted in a significant increase of OA image contrast in vitro. Topical pretreatment of skin for about 30 min with 0.5% HA in aqueous solution offers effective delivery of low molecular weight OCA such as a mixture of PPG-425 and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400. The developed approach of pretreatment by HA prior to application of clearing agents (PEG and PPG) resulted in a ˜47-fold increase in transmission of red and near-infrared light and significantly enhanced contrast of OA images.

  6. Thiolated Carboxymethyl-Hyaluronic-Acid-Based Biomaterials Enhance Wound Healing in Rats, Dogs, and Horses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guanghui; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2011-01-01

    The progression of wound healing is a complicated but well-known process involving many factors, yet there are few products on the market that enhance and accelerate wound healing. This is particularly problematic in veterinary medicine where multiple species must be treated and large animals heal slower, oftentimes with complicating factors such as the development of exuberant granulation tissue. In this study a crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid (HA-) based biomaterial was used to treat wounds on multiple species: rats, dogs, and horses. The base molecule, thiolated carboxymethyl HA, was first found to increase keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. Crosslinked gels and films were then both found to enhance the rate of wound healing in rats and resulted in thicker epidermis than untreated controls. Crosslinked films were used to treat wounds on forelimbs of dogs and horses. Although wounds healed slower compared to rats, the films again enhanced wound healing compared to untreated controls, both in terms of wound closure and quality of tissue. This study indicates that these crosslinked HA-based biomaterials enhance wound healing across multiple species and therefore may prove particularly useful in veterinary medicine. Reduced wound closure times and better quality of healed tissue would decrease risk of infection and pain associated with open wounds. PMID:23738117

  7. Enhancement of the reductive transformation of pentachlorophenol by polycarboxylic acids at the iron oxide-water interface.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangbai; Wang, Xugang; Li, Yongtao; Liu, Chengshuai; Zeng, Fang; Zhang, Lijia; Hao, Mingde; Ruan, Huada

    2008-05-15

    The enhancement effect of polycarboxylic acids on reductive dechlorination transformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) reacting with iron oxides was studied in anoxic suspension. Batch experiments were performed with three species of iron oxides (goethite, lepidocrocite and hematite) and four species of polycarboxylic acids (oxalate, citrate, succinate, and tartrate) through anoxic abiotic reactors. The chemical analyses and morphological observation from scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that different combinations between polycarboxylic acids and iron oxides produced distinct contents of Fe(II)-polycarboxylic ligand complexes, which significantly enhanced PCP transformation. Generation of the surface-bound Fe(II) depended on concentration of polycarboxylic acids. The optimal concentration for the enhancement was 2.0 mM oxalic acid. The dechlorination mechanism was further demonstrated by generation of chloride ions. The results suggest that surface-bound Fe(II) formed on the iron oxides surface appears to be a key factor in enhancing PCP transformation, and the mole ratio of oxalate to surface-bound Fe(II) (oxalate/Fe(II)) acted as an indicator of the enhancement effect. The enhancement mechanism attributes to strong nucleophilic ability and low reductive potential of the equivalent Fe(II)-polycarboxylate complexes. Therefore, the enhancement effects might be helpful for understanding the natural attenuation of reducible organic pollutants at the interface of contaminated soil in anoxic condition.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Woo, Hee Moon; Im, Jung Ae; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and CoA-transferase were knocked out, was assessed for its potential as a butyric acid producer in fermentations with four controlled pH values at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.4. Butyric acid could be best produced by fermentation of the CEKW at pH 6.0, resulting in the highest titer of 26.6 g/l, which is 6.4 times higher than that obtained with the wild type. However, due to the remaining solventogenic ability of the CEKW, 3.6 g/l solvents were also produced. Thus, the CEKW was further engineered by knocking out the adhE1-encoding aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent solvent production. Batch fermentation of the resulting C. acetobutylicum HCEKW at pH 6.0 showed increased butyric acid production to 30.8 g/l with a ratio of butyric-to-acetic acid (BA/AA) of 6.6 g/g and a productivity of 0.72 g/l/h from 86.9 g/l glucose, while negligible solvent (0.8 g/l ethanol only) was produced. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. These results suggested that the simultaneous deletion of the pta-ctfB-adhE1 in C. acetobutylicum resulted in metabolic switch from biphasic to acidogenic fermentation, which enhanced butyric acid production.

  9. EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID ENHANCES HEATSTROKE-IMPAIRED INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL BARRIER FUNCTION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guizhen; Yuan, Fangfang; Geng, Yan; Qiu, Xiaowen; Liu, Zhifeng; Lu, Jiefu; Tang, Liqun; Zhang, Yali; Su, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier plays an important role in the pathological process of heatstroke. Omega-3 (or n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), help protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study assessed if pretreating rats with EPA or DHA could alleviate heat stress-induced damage to the intestinal barrier caused by experimental heatstroke. Male Wistar rats were pregavaged with either EPA, DHA, corn oil, or normal saline (all 1 g/kg) for 21 days before the heatstroke experiment (control rats were not exposed to heat). Experimental rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 37°C and 60% humidity to induce heatstroke, and then they were allowed to recover at room temperature after rapid cooling. Survival time of rats was monitored after heatstroke. Horseradish peroxidase flux from the gut lumen and the level of plasma D-lactate were measured to analyze intestinal permeability at 6 h after heatstroke. Plasma endotoxin levels were determined using a limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Expressions of the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 were analyzed by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Tight junction protein morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Fatty acids of ileal mucosa were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass selective detector. Eicosapentaenoic acid significantly increased survival time after heatstroke. Eicosapentaenoic acid significantly decreased intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels. Eicosapentaenoic acid effectively attenuated the heatstroke-induced disruption of the intestinal structure and improved the histology score, whereas DHA was less effective, and corn oil was ineffective. Pretreatment with EPA also increased expression of occludin and ZO-1 to effectively prevent TJ disruption. Eicosapentaenoic acid pretreatment enriched itself in the membrane of intestinal cells. Our results

  10. Medium-chain fatty acids enhanced the excretion of fecal cholesterol and cholic acid in C57BL/6J mice fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Xue, Changyong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jin; Yu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xinsheng; Zhang, Rongxin; Yang, Xueyan; Guo, Changjiang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the cholesterol-reducing effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) completed by elevated excretion of fecal neutral steroids and/or bile acids. Blood and liver lipid profiles, fecal neutral steroids, bile acids, and mRNA and protein expression of the genes relevant to cholesterol homeostasis were measured and analyzed in C57BL/6J mice fed a cholesterol-rich diet with 2% caprylic acid or capric acid for 12 weeks. Blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels were reduced significantly as compared to diet with palmitic acid or stearic acid. Caprylic acid promoted the excretion of fecal neutral steroids, especially cholesterol. The excretion of fecal bile acids, mainly in the form of cholic acid was enhanced and accompanied by elevated expression of mRNA and the protein of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). These results indicate that MCFAs can reduce blood cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal cholesterol and cholic acid.

  11. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

  12. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

  13. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  14. Valproate induced hepatic steatosis by enhanced fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xupeng; Hong, Weipeng; Cai, Peiheng; Chen, Yibei; Xu, Chuncao; Cao, Di; Yu, Weibang; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Huang, Min; Jin, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays. Specifically, we found that the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), an important fatty acid transport, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) were significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and livers of C57B/6J mice after treatment with VPA. Furthermore, VPA treatment remarkably enhanced the efficiency of fatty acid uptake mediated by CD36, while this effect was abolished by the interference with CD36-specific siRNA. Also, VPA treatment significantly increased DGAT2 expression as a result of the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) - extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway; however, DGAT2 knockdown significantly alleviated VPA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. Additionally, we also found that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)-mediated fatty acid synthesis may be not involved in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis. Overall, VPA-triggered over-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 could be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced hepatic steatosis and may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  16. Ultrasonic enhance acid hydrolysis selectivity of cellulose with HCl-FeCl3 as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinbao; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Meiyun; Xiu, Huijuan; He, Hang

    2015-03-06

    The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment coupled with HCl-FeCl3 catalyst was evaluated to hydrolyze cellulose amorphous regions. The ultrasonic pretreatment leads to cavitation that affects the morphology and microstructure of fibers, enhancing the accessibility of chemical reagent to the loosened amorphous regions of cellulose. In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify characteristic absorption bands of the constituents and the crystallinity was evaluated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results indicated that appropriate ultrasonic pretreatment assisted with FeCl3 can enhance the acid hydrolysis of amorphous regions of cellulose, thus improving the crystallinity of the remaining hydrocellulose. It was observed that sonication samples that were pretreated for 300 W and 20 min followed by acid hydrolysis had maximum of 78.9% crystallinity. The crystallinity was 9.2% higher than samples that were not subjected to ultrasound. In addition, the average fines length decreased from 49 μm to 37 μm.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Ah; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells’ molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies. PMID:27527148

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2008-08-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.

  19. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse.

  20. Hollow palladium nanospheres with porous shells supported on graphene as enhanced electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ruihong; Tian, Chungui; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Mei; Fu, Honggang

    2013-11-28

    The hollow palladium nanospheres with the porous shell comprised of uniform 5 nm Pd nanoparticles (Pd NS-HP) have been synthesized successfully by employing a simple replacement process between PdCl4(2-) ions and Co with the assistance of a structure-directing agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Then, the obtained Pd NS-HP is supported on graphene nanosheets (GN) to prepare Pd NS-HP/GN composites by a wet-impregnation method. As the catalyst towards formic acid electrooxidation, the Pd NS-HP/GN composite exhibits a larger electrochemically active surface area, better electrocatalytic activity and better stability compared with Pd nanoparticles/graphene (Pd NP/GN) and commercial Pd/C catalysts. The enhancement in electrocatalytic performance of Pd NS-HP/GN is attributed to the abundant connected pore channels in the inner and exterior surfaces of Pd nanospheres, which could provide a large contact surface for adsorption and transmission of reactants, facilitating the oxidation of formic acid molecules on its surface and also improving the utilization of Pd metal. Moreover, the support of graphene could enhance the stability of the catalyst.

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Ah; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-08-03

    The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells' molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies.

  2. Amino acid conjugated self assembling molecules for enhancing surface wettability of fiber laser treated titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkan, Cagri K.; Hür, Deniz; Uzun, Lokman; Garipcan, Bora

    2016-03-01

    Surface wetting properties of implants are one of the most critical parameter, which determine the interaction of proteins and cells with the implant surface. In this regards, acid etching and sand blasting are the mostly used methods at surface modification of Titanium (Ti) for enhanced surface wettability. Besides, these kinds of modifications may cause a conflict whether the surface wettability is influenced by the process related surface contaminations or by the surface roughness. In contrast, lasers might be an option for the alteration of surface wetting properties via supporting micro and/or nano surface topographies while preventing surface chemical contaminations. In this work, we focused on two steps of surface processing approaches of Ti surface: physical and chemical modifications. Herein, we hierarchically structured Ti surfaces by using microsecond modulated pulsed fiber laser. Subsequently, laser structured and non-structured Ti surfaces were further modified with novel histidine and leucine Amino Acid conjugated Self-Assembled Molecules (His1-SAMs2 and Leu3-SAMs) to alter the surface wettability by introducing biologically hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Modification of Ti surfaces with His-SAMs and Leu-SAMs ended up with stable wetting properties when compared to non-modified surfaces after 7 days which may enhances the cell-surface interaction.

  3. Enhanced Sampling and Overfitting Analyses in Structural Refinement of Nucleic Acids into Electron Microscopy Maps

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Harish; Skiniotis, Georgios; Brooks, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Flexible-fitting computational algorithms are often useful to interpret low resolution maps of many macromolecular complexes generated by electron microscopy (EM) imaging. One such atomistic simulation technique is molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF), which has been widely applied to generate structural models of large ribonucleoprotein assemblies such as the ribosome. We have previously shown that MDFF simulations of globular proteins are sensitive to the resolution of the target EM map, and the strength of restraints used to preserve the secondary structure elements during fitting (Vashisth et al. Structure 2012, 20, 1453–1462). In this work, we aim to systematically examine the quality of structural models of various nucleic acids obtained via MDFF by varying the map resolution and the strength of structural restraints. We also demonstrate how an enhanced conformational sampling technique for proteins, temperatureaccelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD), can be combined with MDFF for the structural refinement of nucleic acids in EMmaps. Finally, we also demonstrate application of TAMD-assisted MDFF (TAMDFF) on a RNA/protein complex and suggest that TAMDFF is a viable strategy for enhanced conformational fitting in target maps of ribonucleoprotein complexes. PMID:23506287

  4. Jasmonic acid enhances plant cyanogenesis and resistance to herbivory in lima bean.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Stefanie; Trisel, Julie A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a natural plant hormone ubiquitously distributed in plants and centrally involved in the induction of direct and indirect plant defenses. Defenses up-regulated by this hormone include trichomes--a direct, mechanical defense--and alkaloids--a direct chemical defense--as well as two indirect chemical defenses: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). Plant cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from preformed cyanogenic precursors in fruits, leaves, and seeds of many plants--is recognized as a direct, constitutive plant defensive trait, and is among the most widely distributed of all direct chemical plant defenses. The cyanogenic system in plants is composed of three parameters: The cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic precursors), β-glucosidase activity, and cyanogenic capacity (HCNc; release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide). Here, we demonstrated that experimental application of aqueous solutions of JA ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 mmol L(-1), as well as insect herbivory significantly enhanced HCNc via the induction of β-glucosidase activity in wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). In choice feeding trials with JA induced and damaged leaves, adult Mexican bean beetles--natural herbivores of lima bean--rejected leaves with enhanced β-glucosidase activity and HCNc. Our findings suggest that jasmonic acid plays a critical role in regulating activity of β-glucosidases, which determines the rate of cyanogenesis, and thus mediates direct plant defense against herbivores.

  5. Aminosulfhydryl and Aminodisulfide Compounds Enhance Binding of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Complex to Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Coated Cellulose and to Chromatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    glucocorticoid receptor [21]. Diaminosulfhydryl chloroacetic acid was obtained from the Fisher compounds are more active at enhancing GRC Scientific...phase consisting of 0. I M BASE containing 25mM KCI and 3 mM chloroacetic acid and 5mM d/-10-camphorsul- MgCI2, pH 7.6 at 0 0C) was added to each tube...Enhance Binding of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Complex to Deoxy- ribonucleic Acid -Coated Cellulose and to Chromatin 4. AUThOR(S)’ J.M. Karle, R. Olmeda and

  6. Desire for Penile Girth Enhancement and the Effects of the Self-Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Gel

    PubMed Central

    Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Canter, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation. PMID:23112518

  7. Desire for penile girth enhancement and the effects of the self-injection of hyaluronic Acid gel.

    PubMed

    Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Canter, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

  8. Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-21

    The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the π-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids.

  9. Mechanisms of enhanced total organic carbon elimination from oxalic acid solutions by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Yuan, Shi; Zhan, Juhong; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) is a novel electrocatalytic ozonation process that combines ozonation and electrolysis process to enhance pollutant degradation during water and wastewater treatment. This enhancement has been mainly attributed to several mechanisms that increase O3 transformation to ·OH in the E-peroxone system, e.g., electro-generation of H2O2 from O2 at a carbon-based cathode and its subsequent peroxone reaction with O3 to ·OH, electro-reduction of O3 to ·OH at the cathode, and O3 decomposition to ·OH at high local pH near the cathode. To get more insight how these mechanisms contribute respectively to the enhancement, this study investigated total organic carbon (TOC) elimination from oxalic acid (OA) solutions by the E-peroxone process. Results show that the E-peroxone process significantly increased TOC elimination rate by 10.2-12.5 times compared with the linear addition of the individual rates of corresponding ozonation and electrolysis process. Kinetic analyses reveal that the electrochemically-driven peroxone reaction is the most important mechanism for the enhanced TOC elimination rate, while the other mechanisms contribute minor to the enhancement by a factor of 1.6-2.5. The results indicate that proper selection of electrodes that can effectively produce H2O2 at the cathode is critical to maximize TOC elimination in the E-peroxone process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cariporide Enhances the DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Acid-tolerable Malignant Mesothelioma H-2452 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Soo-A; Kim, Sung-Ho; Woo, Kee-Min; Nam, Hae-Seon; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-08-01

    The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger is responsible for maintaining the acidic tumor microenvironment through its promotion of the reabsorption of extracellular Na(+) and the extrusion of intracellular H(+). The resultant increase in the extracellular acidity contributes to the chemoresistance of malignant tumors. In this study, the chemosensitizing effects of cariporide, a potent Na(+)/H(+)-exchange inhibitor, were evaluated in human malignant mesothelioma H-2452 cells preadapted with lactic acid. A higher basal level of phosphorylated (p)-AKT protein was found in the acid-tolerable H-2452AcT cells compared with their parental acid-sensitive H-2452 cells. When introduced in H-2452AcT cells with a concentration that shows only a slight toxicity in H-2452 cells, cariporide exhibited growth-suppressive and apoptosis-promoting activities, as demonstrated by an increase in the cells with pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, annexin V-PE(+) staining, a sub-G0/G1 peak, and a G2/M phase-transition delay in the cell cycle. Preceding these changes, a cariporide-induced p-AKT down-regulation, a p53 up-regulation, an ROS accumulation, and the depolarization of the mitochondrial-membrane potential were observed. A pretreatment with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 markedly augmented the DNA damage caused by the cariporide, as indicated by a much greater extent of comet tails and a tail moment with increased levels of the p-histone H2A.X, p-ATM(Ser1981), p-ATR(Ser428), p-CHK1(Ser345), and p-CHK2(Thr68), as well as a series of pro-apoptotic events. The data suggest that an inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling is necessary to enhance the cytotoxicity toward the acid-tolerable H-2452AcT cells, and it underlines the significance of proton-pump targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome the acidic-microenvironment-associated chemotherapeutic resistance.

  11. Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2014-01-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F−) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F− adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F− released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F− while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F− measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F− per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter−1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F− sink during RP solubilization and led to an F− concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F− and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F−, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  12. Mechanism of enhanced fibroblast arachidonic acid metabolism by mononuclear cell factor.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, P J; Needleman, P

    1984-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with an infiltration of mononuclear cells, fibroblast proliferation, and elevated levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2. Mononuclear cell conditioned factor (MNCF) medium (5%) stimulated a 100-fold increase in basal human dermal fibroblast PGE2 release over 48 h as compared with fibroblasts that were incubated with control medium (conditioned medium prepared without cells). The MNCF-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Fibroblasts pretreated with control medium released PGE2 only modestly in response to 1 nM bradykinin for 1 h (basal, 50 +/- 7 pg PGE2/micrograms protein; stimulated, 104 +/- 12 pg PGE2/micrograms protein), whereas cells that had been pretreated with MNCF showed a greatly facilitated bradykinin-induced release of PGE2. (basal, 297 +/- 59 pg PGE2/micrograms protein; stimulated, 866 +/- 85 pg PGE2/micrograms protein). The exaggerated agonist response is not specific for bradykinin because platelet-derived growth factor elicits a similar response. Exogenous arachidonic acid conversion to PGE2 was also facilitated (two- to threefold) by MNCF pretreatment as compared with control. Both the enhanced agonist-stimulated and exogenous arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 release from the MNCF pretreated cells were inhibited by actinomyin D or cycloheximide. A kinetic study of microsomal cyclooxygenase prepared from fibroblasts pretreated with MNCF showed a threefold increase in the maximum velocity (Vmax) but the same Michaelis constant (Km) as control-treated cells. This augmented arachidonic acid metabolism and subsequent enhanced PGE2 production may play an important role in macrophage-fibroblast interactions at sites of inflammation. PMID:6439745

  13. Ursolic Acid Mediates Hepatic Protection through Enhancing of anti-aging Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shadi; Bakhtiari, Nuredin; Jalalvand, Elham-Moslemee

    2017-05-30

    Age-associated loss of liver function has been recognized for decades. But, the mechanism driving liver regeneration and its decline with age remains elusive. Hence, to support of our previous studies about anti-aging effects of Ursolic Acid (UA), a compound which extensively present in apple peels. The aim of this study is to address whether UA might alter sensors of the cell metabolic state such as SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and Klotho proteins. To evaluate the effect of UA on hepatic indicated proteins, mice were administrated with UA twice daily for 7 days. The involvements of these proteins in the UA-mediated effect harmony hepatic protection were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy technique. Our findings clearly illustrated that UA enhanced SIRT1 (~ 5 ± 0.2 folds) and SIRT6 (~ 8 ± 0.5 folds) proteins levels in hepatic, p<0.001. In addition, the data showed that UA increased PGC-1β (~ 7 ± 0.4 folds) protein overexpression, p<0.001. Moreover, we showed that UA up-regulated Klotho (~ 3.5 ± 0.2 folds) protein in order to improve hepatic performance, p<0.01. Our results suggest that UA through increasing of SIRT1 up-regulation ameliorate reverse cholesterol transport, fatty acid use and oxidative stress defense. In addition, it seems that UA by enhancing of SIRT6 expression promotes cholesterol homeostasis through repressing of SREBP1 and SREBP2. Reciprocally, UA might be involved in VLDL synthesis and exportation through PGC-1β up-regulation. Finally, UA might be as key regulators of mineral homeostasis and bile acid/cholesterol metabolism, by inducing of Klotho overexpression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. A novel approach to enhancing ganoderic acid production by Ganoderma lucidum using apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    You, Bang-Jau; Lee, Miin-Huey; Tien, Ni; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Hsieh, Hui-Chuan; Tseng, Lin-Hsien; Chung, Yu-Lin; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of most widely used herbal medicine and functional food in Asia, and ganoderic acids (GAs) are its active ingredients. Regulation of GA biosynthesis and enhancing GA production are critical to using G. lucidum as a medicine. However, regulation of GA biosynthesis by various signaling remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of apoptosis signaling on GA biosynthesis and presented a novel approach, namely apoptosis induction, to increasing GA production. Aspirin was able to induce cell apoptosis in G. lucidum, which was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUPT nick end labeling assay positive staining and a condensed nuclear morphology. The maximum induction of lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-3α-01-26-oic acid (ganoderic acid 24, GA24) production and total GA production by aspirin were 2.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, after 1 day. Significantly lower levels of GA 24 and total GAs were obtained after regular fungal culture for 1.5 months. ROS accumulation and phosphorylation of Hog-1 kinase, a putative homolog of MAPK p38 in mammals, occurred after aspirin treatment indicating that both factors may be involved in GA biosynthetic regulation. However, aspirin also reduced expression of the squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase coding genes, suggesting that these genes are not critical for GA induction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that GA biosynthesis is linked to fungal apoptosis and provides a new approach to enhancing secondary metabolite production in fungi.

  15. Genetic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for enhanced production of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been extensively studied for decades because of its health benefits including cancer prevention, anti-atherogenic and anti-obesity effects, and modulation of the immune system. We previously described the production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in Yarrowia lipolytica by expressing the gene coding for linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (pai). However the stable strain produced CLA at about 0.08% of dry cell weight (DCW), a level of production which was not high enough for practical applications. The goal of the present study was to enhance production of CLA by genetic engineering of Y. lipolytica strains. Results We have now co-expressed the delta 12-desaturase gene (FADS12, d12) from Mortierella alpina together with the codon-optimized linoleic acid isomerase (opai) gene in Y. lipolytica, expressed under the control of promoter hp16d modified by fusing 12 copies of UAS1B to the original promoter hp4d. A multi-copy integration plasmid was used to further enhance the expression of both genes. Using glucose as the sole carbon source, the genetically-modified Y. lipolytica produced trans-10, cis-12-CLA at a level of up to 10% of total fatty acids and 0.4% of DCW. Furthermore, when the recombinant yeast was grown with soybean oil, trans-10, cis-12-CLA now accumulated at a level of up to 44% of total fatty acids, which represented 30% of DCW after 38.5 h of cultivation. In addition, trans-10, cis-12-CLA was also detected in the growth medium up to 0.9 g/l. Conclusions We have successfully produced trans-10, cis-12-CLA with a titre of 4 g/l of culture (3.1 g/l in cells and 0.9 g/l in culture medium). Our results demonstrate the potential use of Y. lipolytica as a promising microbial cell factory for trans-10, cis-12-CLA production. PMID:23866108

  16. Freezing-Enhanced Dissolution of Iron Oxides: Effects of Inorganic Acid Anions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Daun; Kim, Kitae; Min, Dae Wi; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-11-03

    Dissolution of iron from mineral dust particles greatly depends upon the type and amount of copresent inorganic anions. In this study, we investigated the roles of sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and perchlorate on the dissolution of maghemite and lepidocrocite in ice under both dark and UV irradiation and compared the results with those of their aqueous counterparts. After 96 h of reaction, the total dissolved iron in ice (pH 3 before freezing) was higher than that in the aqueous phase (pH 3) by 6-28 times and 10-20 times under dark and UV irradiation, respectively. Sulfuric acid was the most efficient in producing labile iron under dark condition, whereas hydrochloric acid induced the most dissolution of the total and ferrous iron in the presence of light. This ice-induced dissolution result was also confirmed with Arizona Test Dust (AZTD). In the freeze-thaw cycling test, the iron oxide samples containing chloride, nitrate, or perchlorate showed a similar extent of total dissolved iron after each cycling while the sulfate-containing sample rapidly lost its dissolution activity with repeating the cycle. This unique phenomenon observed in ice might be related to the freeze concentration of protons, iron oxides, and inorganic anions in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region. These results suggest that the ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides can be a potential source of bioavailable iron, and the acid anions critically influence this process.

  17. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  18. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  19. Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b

    SciTech Connect

    Ugawa, Shinya Ishida, Yusuke; Ueda, Takashi; Yu, Yong; Shimada, Shoichi

    2008-03-14

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K{sup +} (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC{sub 50} (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 {mu}M) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction.

  20. Growth suppression by ursodeoxycholic acid involves caveolin-1 enhanced degradation of EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Rebecca; Martinez, Jesse D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to prevent colon tumorigenesis in animal models and in humans. In vitro work indicates that this bile acid can suppress cell growth and mitogenic signaling suggesting that UDCA may be an anti-proliferative agent. However, the mechanism by which UDCA functions is unclear. Previously we showed that bile acids may alter cellular signaling by acting at the plasma membrane. Here we utilized EGFR as a model membrane receptor and examined the effects that UDCA has on its functioning. We found that UDCA promoted an interaction between EGFR and caveolin-1 and this interaction enhanced UDCA-mediated suppression of MAP kinase activity and cell growth . Importantly, UDCA treatment led to recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase, c-Cbl, to the membrane, ubiquitination of EGFR, and increased receptor degradation. Moreover, suppression of c-Cbl activity abrogated UDCA's growth suppression activities suggesting that receptor ubiquitination plays an important role in UDCA's biological activities. Taken together these results suggest that UDCA may act to suppress cell growth by inhibiting the mitogenic activity of receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR through increased receptor degradation. PMID:19446582

  1. Expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin enhances production of arachidonic acid and lipids in Mortierella alpina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huidan; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu; Song, Xiaojin

    2017-08-30

    Arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4, n-6), which belongs to the omega-6 series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and has a variety of biological activities, is commercially produced in Mortierella alpina. Dissolved oxygen or oxygen utilization efficiency is a critical factor for Mortierella alpina growth and arachidonic acid production in large-scale fermentation. Overexpression of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene is thought to significantly increase the oxygen utilization efficiency of the cells. An optimized Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene was introduced into Mortierella alpina via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Compared with the parent strain, the VHb-expressing strain, termed VHb-20, grew faster under both limiting and non-limiting oxygen conditions and exhibited dramatic changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, VHb-20 produced 4- and 8-fold higher total lipid and ARA yields than those of the wild-type strain under a microaerobic environment. Furthermore, ARA production of VHb-20 was also 1.6-fold higher than that of the wild type under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that DO utilization was significantly increased by expressing the VHb gene in Mortierella alpina. The expression of VHb enhances ARA and lipid production under both lower and normal dissolved oxygen conditions. This study provides a novel strategy and an engineered strain for the cost-efficient production of ARA.

  2. Enhanced copper surface protection in aqueous solutions containing short-chain alkanoic acid potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Abelev, Esta; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2007-10-23

    The ability of dissolved potassium monocarboxylate salts to produce surface passivation and to inhibit aqueous corrosion of copper was studied. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the inhibiting efficiency of these compounds, with a general formula Cn-1H2n-1COOK or CnK (n=3...12), is dependent on the hydrocarbon chain length. The inhibiting efficiency was higher for a longer hydrocarbon chain of n-alkanoic acid. The degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in n-alkanoic acid potassium salt concentration; the optimum concentration of potassium dodecanoate (C12K) in sulfate solutions was found to be 0.07 M. The protective layers formed at the copper surface subsequent to exposure in various n-alkanoic acid potassium salt solutions were characterized by contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy. Pronounced copper protection was attributed to the growth of a protective film on the copper surface, containing both copper oxides and copper carboxylate compounds. It is suggested that the organic molecules enhance copper protection by covering copper oxides with a thin and dense organic layer, which prevents water molecules or aggressive anions from interacting with the copper surface.

  3. [Enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soil by chelating agents and auxin indole-3-acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-min; Dang, Zhi; Chen, Neng-chang; Xu, Sheng-guang; Xie, Zhi-yi

    2007-09-01

    The environmental risk of chelating agents such as EDTA application to the heavy metals polluted soils and the stress on plant roots due to the abrupt increase metals concentration limit the wide commercial use of chelate-induced phytoextraction. Chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used for enhancing heavy metals uptake from soils by Zea mays L. (corn) in pot experiments. The metals content in plant tissues was quantified using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results showed that the combination of IAA and EDTA increased the biomass by about 40.0% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 27.0%, 26.8%, 27.5% and 32.8% respectively, as compared to those in EDTA treatment. While NTA&IAA treatment increased the biomass by about 29.9% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 31.8%, 27.6%, 17.0% and 26.9% respectively, as compared to those in NTA treatment. These results indicated that corn growth was promoted, and the biomass and the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoots were increased significantly with the addition of IAA, which probably helps to change the cell membrane properties and the biomass distribution, resulting in the alleviation of the phytotoxicity of metals and the chelating agents.

  4. Enhancement of the oral bioavailability of cinnarizine in oleic acid in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, T; Tsushima, Y; Tatsuishi, K; Kayano, M; Machida, Y; Nagai, T

    1987-04-01

    The present study was an attempt to develop a new dosage form of cinnarizine, which is slightly soluble in water, using lipid as a vehicle. The solubility of cinnarizine in several organic solvents was determined. It was found that cinnarizine dissolved well in oleic and linoleic acids. The bioavailability of cinnarizine from the oral administration of an oleic acid solution in a hard capsule was investigated and compared with that of a cinnarizine tablet, using beagle dogs. When cinnarizine was administered in a capsule, the bioavailability was greatly enhanced [i.e., the maximum concentration (Cmax) and AUC values were 2.9 and 4.0 times larger than those of a cinnarizine tablet, respectively]. Meanwhile, the tmax value (the time to reach Cmax) was unchanged. The absorption of cinnarizine from an oleic acid solution was considered to depend on the action of bile salts. This was supported by the results of a dissolution test using a bile salts solution as the dissolution test medium.

  5. Meat quality of Argentinean "Camperos" chicken enhanced in omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Cossu, M E; Iglesias, B F; Picallo, A; Perez, C; Gallinger, C I; Schang, M J; Canet, Z E

    2008-07-01

    Five diets were assessed with the aim of increasing oleic fatty acid and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in 'campero' poultry meat and evaluating their influence on sensory attributes. Animals from treatment 1 (T1) were confined and fed with corn/soybean diet; in T2, animals were fed with a corn/soybean mix with free access to pasture; T3 diet had high oleic sunflower seeds (HOSS) and linseeds with access to pasture; T4 diet was similar to T2 with free access to chicory instead of pasture and T5 diet was similar to T3 with free access to chicory instead of pasture. Linseeds and HOSS supplementation significantly increased the fatty acids profile, regardless of forage supply. T3 MUFA content was significantly higher than in the other treatments. Due to the high presence of omega-3 PUFA in linseeds and HOSS treatments (T3 and T5), meat omega-6/omega-3 ratio decreased from 9 to 4. The presence of off-flavours was not influenced by diets but there was an interaction between portion and storage conditions. 'Poultry meat' aroma was only influenced by the storage conditions, being slight after 4 months of freezing, while presence of off-aromas was affected by diets. We conclude that it is possible to produce 'campero' poultry meat with enhanced omega-3 and omega-9 content and a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio using diets based on linseed and HOSS, without any important change in sensory properties.

  6. Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Anticancer Activity of Gallic Acid against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Daduang, Sakda; Wongwattanakul, Molin; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Sandee, Alisa; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Daduang, Jureerut

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with gallic acid (GA) at various concentrations between 30 and 150 μM and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The anticancer activities of the gallic acid-stabilized gold nanoparticles against well-differentiated (M213) and moderately differentiated (M214) adenocarcinomas were then determined using a neutral red assay. The GA mechanism of action was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Distinctive features of the FTIR spectra between the control and GA-treated cells were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). The surface plasmon resonance spectra of the GNPs had a maximum absorption at 520 nm, whereas GNPs-GA shifted the maximum absorption values. In an in vitro study, the complexed GNPs-GA had an increased ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that was statistically significant (P<0.0001) in both M213 and M214 cells compared to GA alone, indicating that the anticancer activity of GA can be improved by conjugation with GNPs. Moreover, PCA revealed that exposure of the tested cells to GA resulted in significant changes in their cell membrane lipids and fatty acids, which may enhance the efficacy of this anticancer activity regarding apoptosis pathways.

  7. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

  8. Acid-etched microtexture for enhancement of bone growth into porous-coated implants.

    PubMed

    Hacking, S A; Harvey, E J; Tanzer, M; Krygier, J J; Bobyn, J D

    2003-11-01

    We designed an in vivo study to determine if the superimposition of a microtexture on the surface of sintered titanium beads affected the extent of bone ingrowth. Cylindrical titanium intramedullary implants were coated with titanium beads to form a porous finish using commercial sintering techniques. A control group of implants was left in the as-sintered condition. The test group was etched in a boiling acidic solution to create an irregular surface over the entire porous coating. Six experimental dogs underwent simultaneous bilateral femoral intramedullary implantation of a control implant and an acid etched implant. At 12 weeks, the implants were harvested in situ and the femora processed for undecalcified, histological examination. Eight transverse serial sections for each implant were analysed by backscattered electron microscopy and the extent of bone ingrowth was quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The extent of bone ingrowth into the control implants was 15.8% while the extent of bone ingrowth into the etched implants was 25.3%, a difference of 60% that was statistically significant. These results are consistent with other research that documents the positive effect of microtextured surfaces on bone formation at an implant surface. The acid etching process developed for this study represents a simple method for enhancing the potential of commonly available porous coatings for biological fixation.

  9. Folic acid-polydopamine nanofibers show enhanced ordered-stacking via π-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hailong; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Huihui; Nie, Zongxiu; Wu, Decheng; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2015-06-21

    Recent research has indicated that polydopamine and synthetic eumelanins are optoelectronic biomaterials in which one-dimensional aggregates composed of ordered-stacking oligomers have been proposed as unique organic semiconductors. However, improving the ordered-stacking of oligomers in polydopamine nanostructures is a big challenge. Herein, we first demonstrate how folic acid molecules influence the morphology and nanostructure of polydopamine via tuning the π-π interactions of oligomers. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry reveals that porphyrin-like tetramers are characteristic of folic acid-polydopamine (FA-PDA) nanofibers. X-ray diffraction combined with simulation studies indicate that these oligomers favour aggregation into graphite-like ordered nanostructures via strong π-π interactions. High-resolution TEM characterization of carbonized FA-PDA hybrids show that in FA-PDA nanofibers the size of the graphite-like domains is over 100 nm. The addition of folic acid in polydopamine enhances the ordered stacking of oligomers in its nanostructure. Our study steps forward to discover the mystery of the structure-property relationship of FA-PDA hybrids. It paves a way to optimize the properties of PDA through the design and selection of oligomer structures.

  10. Facile plasma-enhanced deposition of ultrathin crosslinked amino acid films for conformal biometallization.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle D; Slocik, Joseph M; McConney, Michael E; Enlow, Jesse O; Jakubiak, Rachel; Bunning, Timothy J; Naik, Rajesh R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2009-03-01

    A novel method for the facile fabrication of conformal, ultrathin, and uniform synthetic amino acid coatings on a variety of practical surfaces by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced. Tyrosine, which is utilized as an agent to reduce gold nanoparticles from solution, is sublimed into the plasma field and directly deposited on a variety of substrates to form a homogeneous, conformal, and robust polyamino acid coating in a one-step, solvent-free process. This approach is applicable to many practical surfaces and allows surface-induced biometallization while avoiding multiple wet-chemistry treatments that can damage many soft materials. Moreover, by placing a mask over the substrate during deposition, the tyrosine coating can be micropatterned. Upon its exposure to a solution of gold chloride, a network of gold nanoparticles forms on the surface, replicating the initial micropattern. This method of templated biometallization is adaptable to a variety of practical inorganic and organic substrates, such as silicon, glass, nitrocellulose, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, and woven silk fibers. No special pretreatment is necessary, and the technique results in a rapid, conformal amino acid coating that can be utilized for further biometallization.

  11. Phospholipids that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance neuronal cell mechanics and touch sensation.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Valeria; Krieg, Michael; Lockhead, Dean; Goodman, Miriam B

    2014-01-16

    Mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT) channels embedded in neuronal cell membranes are essential for touch and proprioception. Little is understood about the interplay between native MeT channels and membrane phospholipids, in part because few techniques are available for altering plasma membrane composition in vivo. Here, we leverage genetic dissection, chemical complementation, and optogenetics to establish that arachidonic acid (AA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, enhances touch sensation and mechanoelectrical transduction activity while incorporated into membrane phospholipids in C. elegans touch receptor neurons (TRNs). Because dynamic force spectroscopy reveals that AA modulates the mechanical properties of TRN plasma membranes, we propose that this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is needed for MeT channel activity. These findings establish that polyunsaturated phospholipids are crucial determinants of both the biochemistry and mechanics of mechanoreceptor neurons and reinforce the idea that sensory mechanotransduction in animals relies on a cellular machine composed of both proteins and membrane lipids. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced histamine release from lung mast cells of guinea pigs exposed to sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, Hidekazu ); Katayama, Noboru; Wakamori, Kazuo )

    1992-06-01

    To clarify the relationship between air pollution and mast cell response, the effects of sulfuric acid aerosols on histamine release from lung mast cells of guinea pigs were investigated. Guinea pigs were exposed to 0.3, 1.0 and 3.2 mg/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) aerosols or 4 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) for 2 and 4 weeks. After the exposure, lung mast cell suspensions were isolated by collagenase treatment and antigen- or A23187-induced histamine release was measured. Antigen-induced histamine release from mast cells was significantly enhanced by the exposure to 1.0 and 3.2 mg/m{sup 3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 2 weeks, but exposure to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 4 weeks did not show the enhancement of antigen-induced histamine release. A23187-induced histamine release was significantly enhanced by the exposure to 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or 4 ppm NO{sub 2} for 2 weeks, but suppression of histamine release from lung mast cells stimulated with A23187 was observed by the exposure to 3.2 mg/m{sup 3} H{sub 2}So{sub 4} for 4 weeks. The exposure to 0.3 mg/m{sup 3} H{sub 2}So{sub 4} showed no changes in antigen- and A23187-induced histamine release. The combination of 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} H{sub 2}So{sub 4} with 4 ppm NO{sub 2} for 2 weeks resulted in no changes in antigen- and A23187-induced histamine release. These results suggested that functional properties of lung mast cells may be altered by a low concentration of H{sub 2}So{sub 4} aerosol exposure.

  13. Enhanced baroreceptor control of the cardiovascular system by polyunsaturated Fatty acids in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, Alberto; Cazzaniga, Maria; Viola, Andrea; Balestri, Giulia; Janetti, Maria Bianchi; Signorini, Maria G; Castiglioni, Paolo; Azzellino, Arianna; Mancia, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Alberto U

    2006-10-17

    The intention of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in heart failure patients, dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enhances arterial baroreceptor control of the cardiovascular system. Administration of PUFA reduces the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias in patients surviving myocardial infarction. This might result from potentiation of arterial baroreflexes, but whether or not PUFA enhance baroreflex function has never been studied in humans. Patients with post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction underwent beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) (Finapres, Ohmeda Inc., Englewood, Colorado) and R-R interval (electrocardiogram) recording; baroreceptor reflexes were assessed from the bradycardic and depressor responses to graded neck suction (NS) as well as by computation of the alpha "spontaneous" baroreflex sensitivity index. Assessments were repeated after prolonged treatment with PUFA (2 g/die, n = 15) or placebo (n = 10). Baseline BP and R-R interval were unaffected by PUFA. Both reflex depressor and bradycardic responses to NS increased after PUFA (respectively from -0.09 +/- 0.01 to -0.16 +/- 0.01 mm Hg x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.01, and from 1.25 +/- 0.9 to 1.76 +/- 1.1 ms x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.04) but not after placebo. The spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity increased in the PUFA (from 8.99 +/- 1.4 to 12.2 +/- 1.2 ms x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.02) but not in the placebo group. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (but not placebo) treatment also significantly increased R-R interval total variance and low-frequency and high-frequency spectral powers. Dietary PUFA supplementation markedly potentiates baroreflex function and enhances heart rate variability in patients with stable congestive heart failure.

  14. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of acetylsalicylic acid based on its enhancing effect on the lucigenin–hydrogen peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Wabaidur, S M; Alam, S M; Alothmana, Z A; Eldesokya, Gaber

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid is described. It is based on the enhanced chemiluminescent emission of the alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 system by acetylsalicylic acid. The difference in chemiluminescent intensity of alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid from that in the absence of acetylsalicylic acid was linear at acetylsalicylic acid concentrations in the range of 0.0029–47.37 μg/mL, with detection and quantification limits of 0.0011 and 0.0029 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the working curve was 0.9983. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) for 25 μg/mL acetylsalicylic acid is 1.95%. All experimental parameters were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The recovery results obtained by the method were satisfactory.

  15. 5-Aminolevulinic acid enhances cell death under thermal stress in certain cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chibazakura, Taku; Toriyabe, Yui; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Kawakami, Mariko; Kuwamura, Haruna; Haga, Hazuki; Ogura, Shun-ichiro; Abe, Fuminori; Nakajima, Motowo; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is contained in all organisms and a starting substrate for heme biosynthesis. Since administration of 5-ALA specifically leads cancer cells to accumulate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a potent photosensitizer, we tested if 5-ALA also serves as a thermosensitizer. 5-ALA enhanced heat-induced cell death of cancer cell lines such as HepG2, Caco-2, and Kato III, but not other cancer cell lines including U2-OS and normal cell lines including WI-38. Those 5-ALA-sensitive cancer cells, but neither U2-OS nor WI-38, accumulated intracellular PpIX and exhibited an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation under thermal stress with 5-ALA treatment. In addition, blocking the PpIX-exporting transporter ABCG2 in U2-OS and WI-38 cells enhanced their cell death under thermal stress with 5-ALA. Finally, a ROS scavenger compromised the cell death enhancement by 5-ALA. These suggest that 5-ALA can sensitize certain cancer cells, but not normal cells, to thermal stress via accumulation of PpIX and increase of ROS generation.

  16. Uric acid enhances the antitumor immunity of dendritic cell-based vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihan; Ma, Xuelei; Su, Chao; Peng, Bin; Du, Jing; Jia, Hongyuan; Luo, Min; Fang, Chunju; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) released from dying cells has been recognized by the immune system as a danger signal. In response to UA, dendritic cells (DC) in the immune system mature and enhance the T cell response to foreign antigens. It is conceivable that the antitumor immunity of a tumor vaccine could be promoted by the administration of UA. To test this concept, we applied UA as an adjuvant to a DC-based vaccine, and discovered that the administration of UA as an adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of the tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine in delaying the tumor growth. The antitumor activity was achieved with adoptively transferred lymphocytes, and both CD8+ T cells and NK cells were required to achieve effective immunity. This resulted in an increased accumulation of activated CD8+ T cells and an elevated production of IFN-γ. Collectively, our study shows that the administration of UA enhances the antitumor activity of tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine, thus providing the preclinical rationale for the application of UA in DC-based vaccine strategies. PMID:26553557

  17. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Costello, L. R.; Bassham, James A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. Images PMID:16662189

  18. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  19. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, L.R.; Bassham, J.A., Calvin, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of /sup 14/C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H/sub 2/O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants.

  20. Rapid and reversible enhancement of blood–brain barrier permeability using lysophosphatidic acid

    PubMed Central

    On, Ngoc H; Savant, Sanjot; Toews, Myron; Miller, Donald W

    2013-01-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability focusing specifically on the time of onset, duration, and magnitude of LPA-induced changes in cerebrovascular permeability in the mouse using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIFR). Furthermore, potential application of LPA for enhanced drug delivery to the brain was also examined by measuring the brain accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate. Exposure of primary cultured brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) to LPA produced concentration-dependent increases in permeability that were completely abolished by clostridium toxin B. Administration of LPA disrupted BBB integrity and enhanced the permeability of small molecular weight marker gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent, the large molecular weight permeability marker, IRdye800cwPEG, and the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter probe, Rhodamine 800 (R800). The increase in BBB permeability occurred within 3 minutes after LPA injection and barrier integrity was restored within 20 minutes. A decreased response to LPA on large macromolecule BBB permeability was observed after repeated administration. The administration of LPA also resulted in 20-fold enhancement of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain. These studies indicate that administration of LPA in combination with therapeutic agents may increase drug delivery to the brain. PMID:24045401

  1. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-05

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HPβCD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one.

  2. Retinoic acid enhances lactoferrin-induced IgA responses by increasing betaglycan expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Jang, Young-Saeng; Jin, Bo-Ra; Kim, Sun-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Yoon, Sung-Il; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kim, Woan-Sub; Seo, Goo-Young; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun

    2016-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) and retinoic acid (RA) are enriched in colostrum, milk, and mucosal tissues. We recently showed that LF-induced IgA class switching through binding to betaglycan (transforming growth factor-beta receptor III, TβRIII) and activation of canonical TGF-β signaling. We investigated the combined effect of LF and RA on the overall IgA response. An increase in IgA production by LF was further augmented by RA. This combination effect was also evident in Ig germ-line α (GLα) transcription and GLα promoter activity, indicating that LF in cooperation with RA increased IgA isotype switching. We subsequently found that RA enhanced TβRIII expression and that this increase contributed to LF-stimulated IgA production. In addition to the IgA response, LF and RA in combination also enhanced the expression of the gut-homing molecules C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and α4β7 on B cells. Finally, peroral administration of LF and RA enhanced the frequency of CCR9(+)IgA(+) plasma cells in the lamina propria. Taken together, these results suggest that LF in cooperation with RA can contribute to the establishment of gut IgA responses.

  3. Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO₂ photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Shen, Jyun-Hong; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2014-06-15

    When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis.

  4. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 − were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  5. Lysophosphatidic acid enhances survival of human CD34+ cells in ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kostic, Ivana; Fidalgo-Carvalho, Isabel; Aday, Sezin; Vazão, Helena; Carvalheiro, Tiago; Grãos, Mário; Duarte, António; Cardoso, Carla; Gonçalves, Lino; Carvalho, Lina; Paiva, Artur; Ferreira, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical trials are exploring therapeutic effect of human CD34+ cells in ischemic diseases, including myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, most of the cells die few days after delivery. Herein we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-treated human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells cultured under hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions present 2.2-fold and 1.3-fold higher survival relatively to non-treated cells and prostaglandin E2-treated cells, respectively. The pro-survival effect of LPA is concentration- and time-dependent and it is mediated by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ (PPARγ) and downstream, by the activation of pro-survival ERK and Akt signaling pathways and the inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In hypoxia and serum-deprived culture conditions, LPA induces CD34+ cell proliferation without maintaining the their undifferentiating state, and enhances IL-8, IL-6 and G-CSF secretion during the first 12 h compared to non-treated cells. LPA-treated CD34+ cells delivered in fibrin gels have enhanced survival and improved cardiac fractional shortening at 2 weeks on rat infarcted hearts as compared to hearts treated with placebo. We have developed a new platform to enhance the survival of CD34+ cells using a natural and cost-effective ligand and demonstrated its utility in the preservation of the functionality of the heart after infarction. PMID:26553339

  6. Dietary phytic acid and wheat bran enhance mucosal phytase activity in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Vallery, F; Levrat-Verny, M A; Coudray, C; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of dietary phytic acid (PA) on intestinal phytase activity in growing rats by in vitro determination of phytase activity in the three segments of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum), and by in vivo intestinal perfusion of a solution rich in PA (diluted soymilk). Using the in vitro method, duodenal and jejunal activities were enhanced significantly by adaptation to purified PA (+44 and +145% respectively, compared with control rats). For the rats adapted to the wheat bran (WB) diet, the induction of intestinal phytase by the substrate compared with the control values (P < 0.001) was observed only in ileum. Using soymilk in perfusions, rats consuming PA or WB diets hydrolyzed more phytate (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) than controls. Further, Mg absorption from diluted soymilk was not affected by food adaptation, whereas Ca absorption was greater in the PA and WB groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) than in the control group. Thus, intake of pure PA by rats enhances phytase in the upper parts of the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum), whereas the WB diet activates ileal phytase. Furthermore, the induction of phytase activity is greater in magnitude in rats fed synthetic PA than that observed in rats fed the WB diet. The enhancement of phytase improves intestinal Ca absorption, thus showing the capacity of the small intestine to adapt to diets rich in PA and poor in Ca.

  7. [Enhancing 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production under hyperosmotic stress by adding sucrose].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejie; Zhou, Jingwen; Liu, Liming; Liu, Jie; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to further enhance 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG) production efficiency. A strategy for enhancing Ketogulonigenium vulgare growth and 2-KLG production by improving B. megaterium growth with sucrose was developed based on the time course of osmolality during 2-KLG industrial scale fermentation and effects of osmolality on cells growth and 2-KLG production. Results showed that the accumulation of 2-KLG and the feeding of alkaline matter led to an osmolality rise of 832 mOsmol/kg in the culture broth. High osmotic stress (1 250 mOsmol/kg) made the growth ofB. megaterium and K. vulgare decreased 15.4% and 31.7%, respectively, and consequently the titer and productivity of 2-KLG reduced 67.5% and 69.3%, respectively. When supplement sucrose under high osmotic condition (1 250 mOsmol/kg), B. megaterium growth was significantly improved, with the result that 2-KLG production was increased 87%. Furthermore, by applying this sucrose addition strategy further to batch fermentation in 3 L fermentor, the productivity of 2-KLG increased 10.4%, and the duration of fermentation declined 10.8%. The results presented here provide a potential strategy for enhancing the target metabolites produced by mixed strains at environmental stress.

  8. Ethylene-Enhanced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Ripening Apples 1

    PubMed Central

    Bufler, Gebhard

    1984-01-01

    Apples (Malus sylvestris Mill, cv Golden Delicious) were treated before harvest with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). AVG is presumed to reversibly inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) activity, but not the formation of ACC synthase. AVG treatment effectively blocked initiation of autocatalytic ethylene production and ripening of harvested apples. Exogenous ethylene induced extractable ACC synthase activity and ripening in AVG-treated apples. Removal of exogenous ethylene caused a rapid decline in ACC synthase activity and in CO2 production. The results with ripened, AVG-treated apples indicate (a) a dose-response relationship between ethylene and enhancement of ACC synthase activity with a half-maximal response at approximately 0.8 μl/l ethylene; (b) reversal of ethylene-enhanced ACC synthase activity by CO2; (c) enhancement of ACC synthase activity by the ethylene-activity analog propylene. Induction of ACC synthase activity, autocatalytic ethylene production, and ripening of preclimacteric apples not treated with AVG were delayed by 6 and 10% CO2, but not by 1.25% CO2. However, each of these CO2 concentrations reduced the rate of increase of ACC synthase activity. PMID:16663569

  9. Analysis of acidity production during enhanced reductive dechlorination using a simplified reactive transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, A.; Barry, D. A.; Robinson, C.; Gerhard, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    Build-up of fermentation products and hydrochloric acid at a contaminated site undergoing enhanced reductive dechlorination can result in groundwater acidification. Sub-optimal pH conditions can inhibit microbial activity and lead to reduced dechlorination rates. The extent of acidification likely to occur is site-specific and depends primarily on the extent of fermentation and dechlorination, the geochemical composition of soil and groundwater, and the pH-sensitivity of the active microbial populations. Here, the key chemical and physical mechanisms that control the extent of groundwater acidification in a contaminated site were examined, and the extent to which the remediation efficiency was affected by variations in groundwater pH was evaluated using a simplified process-based reactive-transport model. This model was applied successfully to a well-documented field site and was then employed in a sensitivity analysis to identify the processes likely to significantly influence acidity production and subsequent microbial inhibition. The accumulation of organic acids produced from the fermentation of the injected substrate was the main cause of the pH change. The concentration of dissolved sulphates controlled substrate utilisation efficiency because sulphate-reducing biomass competed with halo-respiring biomass for the fermentation products. It was shown further that increased groundwater velocity increases dilution and reduces the accumulation of acidic products. As a consequence, the flow rate corresponding to the highest remediation efficiency depends on the fermentation and dechlorination rates. The model enables investigation and forecasting of the extent and areal distribution of pH change, providing a means to optimise the application of reductive dechlorination for site remediation.

  10. Disperse distribution of cationic amino acids on hydrophilic surface of helical wheel enhances antimicrobial peptide activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-10-01

    The antimicrobial action of amphipathic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) generally depends on perturbation of the bacterial membrane via electrostatic interactions promoting initial binding to the surface and hydrophobic interactions for pore formation into the membrane. Several studies have focused on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of AMPs by modulation of structural parameters. However, modulation of one parameter commonly induces simultaneous changes in other parameters, making it difficult to investigate the specific influence of a single variable. In the present work, we investigated the distribution effect of cationic amino acids on the hydrophilic surface of the helical wheel using model AMPs composed of only lysine (K) and leucine (L) as representative cationic and hydrophobic residues, respectively, under conditions in which other parameters are fixed. Based on SAR analyses of alpha-helical KL model AMPs displaying different cationic distributions, we propose that the dispersity of cationic amino acids on the hydrophilic surface is a factor that contributes to the antimicrobial activity of AMP. Moreover, antimicrobial activity is enhanced by rearrangement of cationic amino acids to promote dispersed distribution. We confirmed the cationic distribution effect using natural AMP-derived alpha-helical CRAMP18 and its analogs. Our data show that accumulation of lysine shifts in the CRAMP18 analog leads to higher dispersion, and subsequently to improved antimicrobial activity. Therefore, we propose that the cationic distribution effect can be applied for the rational redesign of amino acid sequences to improve the antimicrobial activities of natural alpha-helical AMPs, in combination with regulation of other known structural parameters.

  11. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Function in Models of Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Sasmita; Chapman, John D; Han, Chang Y; Hogarth, Cathryn A; Arnold, Samuel L M; Onken, Jennifer; Kent, Travis; Goodlett, David R; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-05-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. The liver is the main storage organ of vitamin A, but activation of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in mouse liver and in human liver cell lines has also been shown. AlthoughatRA treatment improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle in rodents, its role in modulating mitochondrial function in the liver is controversial, and little data are available regarding the human liver. The aim of this study was to determine whetheratRA regulates hepatic mitochondrial activity.atRA treatment increased the mRNA and protein expression of multiple components of mitochondrialβ-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and respiratory chain. Additionally,atRA increased mitochondrial biogenesis in human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells with and without lipid loading based on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1αand 1βand nuclear respiratory factor 1 mRNA and mitochondrial DNA quantification.atRA also increasedβ-oxidation and ATP production in HepG2 cells and in human hepatocytes. Knockdown studies of RARα, RARβ, and PPARδrevealed that the enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis andβ-oxidation byatRA requires peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta. In vivo in mice,atRA treatment increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers after an overnight fast. Inhibition ofatRA metabolism by talarozole, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 26 specific inhibitor, increased the effects ofatRA on mitochondrial biogenesis markers in HepG2 cells and in vivo in mice. These studies show thatatRA regulates mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism and that increasingatRA concentrations in human liver via CYP26 inhibition may increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acidβ-oxidation and provide therapeutic benefit in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and nucleotide bases for target bacterial vibrational mode identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Argue, Leanne; Hyre, Aaron; Jacobson, Michele; Christesen, Steven D.

    2006-05-01

    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies of bacteria have reported a wide range of vibrational mode assignments associated with biological material. We present Raman and SER spectra of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, cysteine, alanine, proline, methionine, asparagine, threonine, valine, glycine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and the nucleic acid bases adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and uridine to better characterize biological vibrational mode assignments for bacterial target identification. We also report spectra of the bacteria Bacillus globigii, Pantoea agglomerans, and Yersinia rhodei along with band assignments determined from the reference spectra obtained.

  13. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salicylic Acid-Regulated Antioxidant Mechanisms and Gene Expression Enhance Rosemary Performance under Saline Conditions.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Elansary, Hosam O; El-Shanhorey, Nader A; Abdel-Hamid, Amal M E; Ali, Hayssam M; Elshikh, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress as a major agricultural limiting factor may influence the chemical composition and bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinallis L. essential oils and leaf extracts. The application of salicylic acid (SA) hormone may alleviate salinity stress by modifying the chemical composition, gene expression and bioactivity of plant secondary metabolites. In this study, SA was applied to enhance salinity tolerance in R. officinallis. R. officinallis plants were subjected to saline water every 2 days (640, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm NaCl) and 4 biweekly sprays of SA at 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm for 8 weeks. Simulated salinity reduced all vegetative growth parameters such as plant height, plant branches and fresh and dry weights. However, SA treatments significantly enhanced these plant growth and morphological traits under salinity stress. Salinity affected specific major essential oils components causing reductions in α-pinene, β-pinene, and cineole along with sharp increases in linalool, camphor, borneol, and verbenone. SA applications at 100-300 ppm largely reversed the effects of salinity. Interestingly, SA treatments mitigated salinity stress effects by increasing the total phenolic, chlorophyll, carbohydrates, and proline contents of leaves along with decline in sodium and chloride. Importantly, this study also proved that SA may stimulate the antioxidant enzymatic mechanism pathway including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as increasing the non-enzymatic antioxidants such as free and total ascorbate in plants subjected to salinity. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that APX and 3 SOD genes showed higher levels in SA-treated rosemary under salinity stress, when compared to non-sprayed plants. Moreover, the expression level of selected genes conferring tolerance to salinity (bZIP62, DREB2, ERF3, and OLPb) were enhanced in SA-treated rosemary under salt stress, indicating that SA treatment resulted in the

  15. Enhancement of α-linolenic acid content in transgenic tobacco seeds by targeting a plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (fad7) gene of Sesamum indicum to ER.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Expression of sesame plastidial FAD7 desaturase modified with the endoplasmic reticulum targeting and retention signals, enhances the α-linolenic acid accumulation in seeds of Nicotiana tabacum. In plants, plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase-7 (FAD7) catalyzes the formation of C16 and C18 trienoic fatty acids using organellar glycerolipids and participate in the membrane lipid formation. The plastidial ω-3 desaturases (FAD7) share high sequence homology with the microsomal ω-3 desaturases (FAD3) at the amino acid level except the N-terminal organelle transit peptide. In the present study, the predicted N-terminal plastidial signal peptide of fad7 gene was replaced by the endoplasmic reticulum signal peptide and an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was placed at the C-terminal. The expression of the modified sesame ω-3 desaturase increases the α-linolenic acid content in the range of 4.78-6.77 % in the seeds of transgenic tobacco plants with concomitant decrease in linoleic acid content. The results suggested the potential of the engineered plastidial ω-3 desaturase from sesame to influence the profile of α-linolenic acid in tobacco plant by shifting the carbon flux from linoleic acid, and thus it can be used in suitable genetic engineering strategy to increase the α-linolenic acid content in sesame and other vegetable oils.

  16. Lewis Acids as Activators in CBS-Catalysed Diels-Alder Reactions: Distortion Induced Lewis Acidity Enhancement of SnCl4.

    PubMed

    Nödling, Alexander R; Möckel, Robert; Tonner, Ralf; Hilt, Gerhard

    2016-09-05

    The effect of several Lewis acids on the CBS catalyst (named after Corey, Bakshi and Shibata) was investigated in this study. While (2) H NMR spectroscopic measurements served as gauge for the activation capability of the Lewis acids, in situ FT-IR spectroscopy was employed to assess the catalytic activity of the Lewis acid oxazaborolidine complexes. A correlation was found between the Δδ((2) H) values and rate constants kDA , which indicates a direct translation of Lewis acidity into reactivity of the Lewis acid-CBS complexes. Unexpectedly, a significant deviation was found for SnCl4 as Lewis acid. The SnCl4 -CBS adduct was much more reactive than the Δδ((2) H) values predicted and gave similar reaction rates to those observed for the prominent AlBr3 -CBS adduct. To rationalize these results, quantum mechanical calculations were performed. The frontier molecular orbital approach was applied and a good correlation between the LUMO energies of the Lewis acid-CBS-naphthoquinone adducts and kDA could be found. For the SnCl4 -CBS-naphthoquinone adduct an unusual distortion was observed leading to an enhanced Lewis acidity. Energy decomposition analysis with natural orbitals for chemical valence (EDA-NOCV) calculations revealed the relevant interactions and activation mode of SnCl4 as Lewis acid in Diels-Alder reactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Current evidence for the diagnostic value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sofue, Keitaro; Murakami, Takamichi

    2016-08-01

    A variety of imaging techniques, including ultrasonography (US), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography combined with CT scan (PET/CT), are available for diagnosis and treatment planning in liver metastasis. Contrast-enhanced MDCT is a relatively non-invasive, widely available and standardized method for hepatic work-up. Gadoxetic acid (gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; EOB Primovist®]) is a recently developed liver-specific hepatobiliary MR contrast agent that offers both dynamic imaging as well as liver-specific static hepatocyte imaging, referred to as the hepatobiliary phase. Following contrast injection, this technique reveals dynamic vascular phases (arterial, portal venous and delayed phases), in addition to the hepatobiliary phase upon uptake by functional hepatocytes. The overall sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was significantly higher than that of contrast-enhanced CT. Specifically, the higher sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was observed in lesions smaller than 1 cm in diameter. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is considered an extremely useful tool for the diagnosis of liver metastases. Future studies will focus on diagnostic algorithms involving combinations of modalities such as MRI, MDCT and/or (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT, which may impact the treatment plan for these patients.

  18. Structure-selective hot-spot Raman enhancement for direct identification and detection of trace penicilloic acid allergen in penicillin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Jin, Yang; Mao, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Jiawei; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2014-08-15

    Trace penicilloic acid allergen frequently leads to various fatal immune responses to many patients, but it is still a challenge to directly discriminate and detect its residue in penicillin by a chemosensing way. Here, we report that silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) exhibit a structure-selective hot-spot Raman enhancement capability for direct identification and detection of trace penicilloic acid in penicillin. It has been demonstrated that penicilloic acid can very easily link Au@Ag NPs together by its two carboxyl groups, locating itself spontaneously at the interparticle of Au@Ag NPs to form strong Raman hot-spot. At the critical concentration inducing the nanoparticle aggregation, Raman-enhanced effect of penicilloic acid is ~60,000 folds higher than that of penicillin. In particular, the selective Raman enhancement to the two carboxyl groups makes the peak of carboxyl group at C6 of penicilloic acid appear as a new Raman signal due to the opening of β-lactam ring of penicillin. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticle sensor reaches a sensitive limit lower than the prescribed 1.0‰ penicilloic acid residue in penicillin. The novel strategy to examine allergen is more rapid, convenient and inexpensive than the conventional separation-based assay methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacologic enhancement of rat skin flap survival with topical oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Oscar K; Gabr, Essam; Steward, Earl; Chen, Heidi; Kobayashi, Mark R; Calvert, Jay W; Sundine, Michael J; Kotchounian, Taline; Dhar, Sanjay; Evans, Gregory R D

    2004-06-01

    This study was instituted to investigate in a rat model the effect of topical coadministration of the penetration enhancer oleic acid (10% by volume) and RIMSO-50 (medical grade dimethyl sulfoxide, 50% by volume) on rat skin flap survival. A rectangular abdominal skin flap (2.5 x 3 cm) was surgically elevated over the left abdomen in 40 nude rats. The vein of the flap's neurovascular pedicle was occluded by placement of a microvascular clip, and the flap was resutured with 4-0 Prolene to its adjacent skin. At the end of 8 hours, the distal edge of the flap was reincised to gain access to the clips and the clips were removed. After resuturing of the flap's distal edge to its adjacent skin, the 40 flaps were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) flaps were treated with 5 g of saline, group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide) flaps were treated with 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume), group 3 flaps (oleic acid) were topically treated with 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume), and group 4 (dimethyl sulfoxide plus oleic acid) flaps were treated with a mixture of 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume) and 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume) diluted in saline. Each flap was topically treated with 5 ml of drug-soaked gauze for 1 hour immediately after clip removal to attenuate reperfusion injury. Thereafter, drug was applied topically once daily for 4 more days. Digital photographs of each flap were then taken on day 6 and the flaps were then harvested. The percentage of skin survival in each flap was determined by computerized morphometry and planimetry. The mean surviving area of group 3 (oleic acid-treated flaps) was 23.60 +/- 4.19 percent and was statistically higher than that in group 1 (control, saline-treated flaps) at 7.20 +/- 2.56 percent. The mean surviving area of group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 18.00 +/- 5.23 percent and group 4 (oleic acid- and dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 9.90 +/- 3.44 percent did not achieve

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; ...

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 backmore » into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.« less

  2. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I−, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead. PMID:26615763

  3. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.

  4. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K; Noel, Nakita K; Haghighirad, Amir A; Burlakov, Victor M; deQuilettes, Dane W; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S; Friend, Richard H; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I(-), and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.

  5. Enhanced removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid in an activated carbon cloth by electroadsorption in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    López-Bernabeu, S; Ruiz-Rosas, R; Quijada, C; Montilla, F; Morallón, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the electrochemical treatment (potentiostatic treatment in a filter-press electrochemical cell) on the adsorption capacity of an activated carbon cloth (ACC) was analyzed in relation with the removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid pollutant from water. The adsorption capacity of an ACC is quantitatively improved in the presence of an electric field (electroadsorption process) reaching values of 96% in comparison to 55% in absence of applied potential. In addition, the cathodic treatment results in higher removal efficiencies than the anodic treatment. The enhanced adsorption capacity has been proved to be irreversible, since the removed compound remains adsorbed after switching the applied potential. The kinetics of the adsorption processes is also improved by the presence of an applied potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Miniature tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer with enhanced sensitivity by acid microdroplets etching.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Sun-jie; Chen, Ye; Kou, Jun-long; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2011-08-01

    We fabricate a miniature tapered photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer with enhanced sensitivity by acid microdroplets etching. This method is very simple and cost effective, avoiding elongating the PCF, moving and refixing the device during etching, and measuring. The refractive index sensing properties with different PCF diameters are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The tapering velocity can be controlled by the microdroplet size and position. The sensitivity greatly increases (five times, 750 nm/RIU) and the size decreases after slightly tapering the PCF. The device keeps low temperature dependence before and after tapering. More uniformly and thinly tapered PCFs can be realized with higher sensitivity (∼100 times) by optimizing the etching process.

  7. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs.

  8. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Dequilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-11-01

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.

  9. Free nitrous acid pretreatment of wasted activated sludge to exploit internal carbon source for enhanced denitrification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Peng, Yongzhen; Wei, Yan; Li, Baikun; Bao, Peng; Wang, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    Using internal carbon source contained in waste activated sludge (WAS) is beneficial for nitrogen removal from wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio, but it is usually limited by sludge disintegration. This study presented a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment to intensify the release of organic matters from WAS for enhanced denitrification. During FNA pretreatment, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) production kept increasing when FNA increased from 0 to 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. Compared with untreated WAS, the internal carbon source production increased by 50% in a simultaneous fermentation and denitrification reactor fed with WAS pretreated by FNA for 24 h at 2.04 mg HNO2-N/L. This also increased denitrification efficiency by 76% and sludge reduction by 87.5%. More importantly, greenhouse gas nitrous oxide production in denitrification was alleviated since more electrons could be provided by FNA pretreated WAS.

  10. Aqueous solutions of acidic ionic liquids for enhanced stability of polyoxometalate-carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chenchen; Zhao, Enbo; Nitta, Naoki; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyoxometalates (POMs) nanoconfined in microporous carbons have been synthesized and used as electrodes for supercapacitors. The addition of the pseudocapacitance from highly reversible redox reaction of POMs to the electric double-layer capacitance of carbon lead to an increase in specific capacitance of ∼90% at 1 mV s-1. However, high solubility of POM in traditional aqueous electrolytes leads to rapid capacity fading. Here we demonstrate that the use of aqueous solutions of protic ionic liquids (P-IL) as electrolyte instead of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions offers an opportunity to significantly improve POM cycling stability. Virtually no degradation in capacitance was observed in POM-based positive electrode after 10,000 cycles in an asymmetric capacitor with P-IL aqueous electrolyte. As such, POM-based carbon composites may now present a viable solution for enhancing energy density of electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC) based on pure carbon electrodes.

  11. Locked Nucleic Acid Probes (LNA) for Enhanced Detection of Low-Level, Clinically Significant Mutations.

    PubMed

    Nafa, Khedoudja; Hameed, Meera; Arcila, Marie E

    2016-01-01

    The detection of clinically significant somatic mutations present at low level in a tissue sample represents a challenge in any laboratory. While several high sensitivity methods are described, the incorporation of these new techniques in a clinical lab may be difficult if the technology is not readily available or requires major changes in the workflow of the laboratory. Techniques that are robust and easily adapted to existing laboratory protocols are highly advantageous. In this chapter we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes to modify existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based protocols which can then be sequenced by Sanger sequencing. LNA probes are used to enhance the sensitivity of Sanger sequencing to mutation frequencies below 1 %. The method is robust and is easily incorporated for assessment of any sample with low tumor content or low mutant allele burden.

  12. Stability of silver colloids as substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of dipicolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Guingab, J D; Lauly, B; Smith, B W; Omenetto, N; Winefordner, J D

    2007-11-30

    Silver colloids have been commonly used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). It has been shown that SERS requires partial aggregation of the silver colloids. This study evaluates factors affecting the aggregative state of the silver colloids such as the age of the silver colloids and the aggregation as a result of addition of the analyte. The silver colloids are obtained from the chemical reduction of silver nitrate by sodium borohydride. Further oxidation of the sodium borohydride solution at room temperature results in concentration changes of the resulting silver colloids. Methods of controlling the sodium borohydride depletion are presented in this paper. The analyte used is dipicolinic acid, a molecular signature of Bacillus spores.

  13. Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Feng, Yongjun; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2011-06-01

    2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test.

  14. Hyaluronic acid grafted PLGA copolymer nanoparticles enhance the targeted delivery of Bromelain in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly increasing malignant neoplastic disease demands immediate attention. Several dietary compounds have recently emerged as strong anti-cancerous agents. Among, Bromelain (BL), a protease from pineapple plant, was used to enhance its anti-cancerous efficacy using nanotechnology. In lieu of this, hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted PLGA copolymer, having tumor targeting ability, was developed. BL was encapsulated in copolymer to obtain BL-copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) that ranged between 140 to 281nm in size. NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in cells with high CD44 expression as compared with non-targeted NPs. In vivo results on tumor bearing mice showed that NPs were efficient in suppressing the tumor growth. Hence, the formulation could be used as a self-targeting drug delivery cargo for the remission of cancer.

  15. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Qu, Shujie; Wang, Qiang; Bian, Fei; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Haitao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping; He, Qingfang

    2014-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs.

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayin; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wengting; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of angiogenesis and the resulting improvement of cerebral microcirculation are key restorative mechanisms and represent an important therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that post-stroke angiogenesis would be enhanced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), a major component of dietary fish oil. To this end, we found that transgenic fat-1 mice that overproduce n-3 PUFAs exhibited long-term behavioral and histological protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Importantly, fat-1 transgenic mice also exhibited robust improvements in revascularization and angiogenesis compared to wild type littermates, suggesting a potential role for n-3 fatty acids in post-stroke cerebrovascular remodeling. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs induced upregulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang 2) in astrocytes after tFCI and stimulated extracellular Ang 2 release from cultured astrocytes after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Ang 2 facilitated endothelial proliferation and barrier formation in vitro by potentiating the effects of VEGF on phospholipase Cγ1 and Src signaling. Consistent with these findings, blockade of Src activity in post-stroke fat-1 mice impaired n-3 PUFA-induced angiogenesis and exacerbated long-term neurological outcomes. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential angiogenic treatment capable of augmenting brain repair and improving long-term functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:24794156

  17. Response surface optimization of culture medium for enhanced docosahexaenoic acid production by a Malaysian thraustochytrid

    PubMed Central

    Manikan, Vidyah; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium contained 60 g/L glucose, 2 g/L yeast extract, 24 g/L sodium glutamate and 6 g/L sea salt. This combination produced 17.8 g/L biomass containing 53.9% lipid (9.6 g/L) which contained 44.07% DHA (4.23 g/L). The optimized medium was used in a scale-up run, where a 5 L bench-top bioreactor was employed to verify the applicability of the medium at larger scale. This produced 24.46 g/L biomass containing 38.43% lipid (9.4 g/L), of which 47.87% was DHA (4.5 g/L). The total amount of DHA produced was 25% higher than that produced in the original medium prior to optimization. This result suggests that Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 could be developed for industrial application as a commercial DHA-producing microorganism. PMID:25721623

  18. High saturated fatty acids proportion in Escherichia coli enhances the activity of ice-nucleation protein from Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feifei; Liu, Xiping; Tao, Yong; Zhu, Kun

    2013-08-01

    The ice-nucleation protein (INP) from Pantoea ananatis was expressed in Escherichia coli. INP expression increased the freezing point of the E. coli culture by a few degrees. Deletion of FabH, an important enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, significantly inhibited the ice-nucleation activity. Increased unsaturated fatty acids in the fabH mutant cells decreased the ice-nucleation activity. Adding exogenous saturated fatty acids increased both E. coli fatty acid saturation and the ice-nucleation activity. In contrast, adding unsaturated fatty acids exhibited the opposite effects. Furthermore, an E. coli MG1655-fadR strain with high saturated fatty acids content was constructed, in which the INP activity was enhanced by about 17% compared with its activity in the wild-type MG1655 strain.

  19. NIR surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and bands assignment by DFT calculations of non-natural β-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, T.; Maniu, D.; Chis, V.; Irimie, F. D.; Paizs, Cs.; Tosa, M.

    2005-04-01

    FT-Raman and NIR surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopies have been applied to the vibrational characterization of non-natural β-amino acids, 3-amino-3-(furan-2yl)-propionic acid and 3-amino-3-[(5-benzothiazole-2yl)-furan-2yl]-propionic acid. Semiempirical and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations on both amino acids in their zwitterionic forms have been performed in order to find the optimized structure and to compute the vibrational spectra. The NIR SER spectra in silver hydrosol and Ag-coated filter paper have been recorded, compared and analyzed. Good SER spectra were obtained at the pH values where dipolar ion structures are present proving the chemisorption of β-amino acid molecules on the silver surface via positively charged NH3+ group. The carboxylate anion of both β-amino acids are parallel oriented, whereas the plane of rings is oriented perpendicular to the silver surface.

  20. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence imaging with silicon-based silver chips for protein and nucleic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Jiang, Xiangxu; Yao, Chu; Bao, Meimei; Liu, Jiaojiao; Dou, Yujiang; Xu, Yinze; He, Yao; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yuqiang

    2017-02-22

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence shows great potential for improving the sensitivity of fluoroscopy, which has been widely used in protein and nucleic acid detection for biosensor and bioassay applications. In comparison with the traditional glass-supported metal nanoparticles (MNPs), the introduction of a silicon substrate has been shown to provide an increased surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect due to the coupling between the MNPs and the semiconducting silicon substrate. In this work, we further study the fluorescence-enhanced effect of the silicon-supported silver-island (Ag@Si) plasmonic chips. In particular, we investigate their practical application of improving the traditional immunoassay such as the biotin-streptavidin-based protein assay and the protein-/nucleic acid-labeled cell and tissue samples. The protein assay shows a wavelength-dependent enhancement effect of the Ag@Si chip, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2 (at 532 nm) to 57.3 (at 800 nm). Moreover, for the protein- and nucleic acid-labeled cell and tissue samples, the Ag@Si chip provides a fluorescence enhancement factor of 3.0-4.1 (at 800 nm) and a significant improvement in the signal/background ratio for the microscopy images. Such a ready accommodation of the fluorescence-enhanced effect for the immunoassay samples with simple manipulations indicates broad potential for applications of the Ag@Si chip not only in biological studies but also in the clinical field.

  1. Studies on the enhancement of allergic lung sensitization by inhalation of ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Osebold, J.W.; Gershwin, L.J.; Zee, Y.C.

    1980-06-01

    Air pollutants were found to enhance the allergic sensitization of mice to an inhaled antigen. Aerosolized ovalbumin was used to minic the inhalation of an environmental allergen. In three experiments the antigenic contact was repeated at 4 to 7 times over a period of approximately a month. Groups of mice were intermittently exposed to ozone at 0.5 and 0.8 ppM, sulfuric acid aerosol (1 mg/m3), and a combination of the two air pollutants. Antigenically sensitized mice showed some evidence of atopic reactivity to the inhaled antigen, but the interpretation of these responses was difficult to evaluate by observation alone. Clear evidence of allergic sensitization was obtained by injecting the antigen intravenously and recording the instances of systemic anaphylaxis. Allergic mice demonstrated anaphylactic shock within a few minutes of the injection, and fatally shocked animals died within 20 to 40 min. Signficant increases in the levels of sensitization were obtained in animals exposed to ozone and the combination of ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol.

  2. Enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system: proof of principle and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxing; Carballa, Marta; Van De Caveye, Pieter; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-07-01

    Full-scale anaerobic single-phase digesters can be confronted with process instabilities, which often result in the accumulation of propionic acid (HPr). As a solution, an enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system has been conceptually designed and experimentally tested at lab-scale. The system consisted of two components: a liquid/solid separator containing a microfiltration membrane and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor specialized in HPr degradation. Two lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were used, i.e. the CSTR(control) and the CSTR(treatment). Firstly, the CSTRs were stressed by organic overloading to obtain high HPr levels. During the recovery period, besides stop feeding, no actions were taken to decrease the residual HPr concentration in the CSTR(control), while the CSTR(treatment) was connected to EPAD system in order to accelerate its recovery. By the end of the experiment, the CSTR(treatment) completely recovered from HPr accumulation, while no significant decrease of the HPr level in the CSTR(control) was observed. Based on the experimental results, the up-scaling of EPAD system was evaluated and it would only account for about 2% of the volume of the full-scale digester, thus suggesting that the implementation of a mobile EPAD system in full-scale practice should be feasible.

  3. Combined Supplementation of Choline and Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy Enhances Neurodevelopment of Fetal Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Megur Ramakrishna Bhat, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans which plays an important role in structural integrity and signaling functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, highly enriched in cell membranes of the brain. Dietary intake of choline or DHA alone by pregnant mothers directly affects fetal brain development and function. But no studies show the efficacy of combined supplementation of choline and DHA on fetal neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to analyze fetal neurodevelopment on combined supplementation of pregnant dams with choline and DHA. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: normal control [NC], saline control [SC], choline [C], DHA, and C + DHA. Saline, choline, and DHA were given as supplements to appropriate groups of dams. NC dams were undisturbed during entire gestation. On postnatal day (PND) 40, brains were processed for Cresyl staining. Pups from choline or DHA supplemented group showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in number of neurons in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Moreover, pups from C + DHA supplemented group showed significantly higher number of neurons (p < 0.001) in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Thus combined supplementation of choline and DHA during normal pregnancy enhances fetal hippocampal neurodevelopment better than supplementation of choline or DHA alone. PMID:28210506

  4. Phenylboronic acid-decorated gelatin nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting and penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Bing; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Jun; Tang, Rupei

    2016-09-01

    Phenylboronic acid-decorated nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared for tumor-targeted drug delivery. 3-carboxyphenylboronic acid (3-CPBA) was modified on the surface of conventional gelatin NPs (designated as NP1) to give tumor-targeting NPs (designated as NP2). The morphology and stability of NP1 and NP2 were then investigated using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The results show that both NP1 and NP2 are spherical-like and kinetically stable under various conditions. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was used as a model anticancer drug and was loaded into NP1 (NP1-DOX) and NP2 (NP2-DOX). The i n vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of NP1-DOX and NP2-DOX were measured using SH-SY5Y cells, H22 cells, and HepG2 cells. Tumor penetration, accumulation, and antitumor activity were investigated using SH-SY5Y tumor-like spheroids and H22 tumor-bearing mice. All results demonstrated that the conjugation of 3-CPBA can efficiently enhance non-targeted NPs’ tumor-homing activity, thus improving their tumor accumulation and antitumor effect.

  5. Sensitive detection of nucleic acids with rolling circle amplification and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juan; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2010-11-01

    Detection of specific DNA sequences is important to molecular biology research and clinical diagnostics. To improve the sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS), a variety of signal amplification methods has been developed, including Raman-active-dye, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, molecular beacon, SERS-active substrates, and SERS-tag. However, the combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA) with SERS for nucleic acid detection has not been reported. Herein, we describe a new approach for nucleic acid detection by the combination of RCA reaction with SERS. Because of the binding of abundance repeated sequences of RCA products with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and Rox-modified detection probes, SERS signal is significantly amplified and the detection limit of 10.0 pM might be achieved. The sensitivity of RCA-based SERS has increased by as much as 3 orders of magnitude as compared to PCR-based SERS and is also comparable with or even exceeds that of both RCA-based electrochemical and RCA-based fluorescent methods. This RCA-based SERS might discriminate perfect matched target DNA from 1-base mismatched DNA with high selectivity. The high sensitivity and selectivity of RCA-based SERS makes it a potential tool for early diagnosis of gene-related disease and also offers a great promise for multiplexed assays with DNA microarrays.

  6. Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Gonai, Takeru; Kawahara, Shusuke; Tougou, Makoto; Satoh, Shigeru; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yoshioka, Toshihito

    2004-01-01

    Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high temperatures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 degrees C was prevented by the application of fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. At 33 degrees C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluridone and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogenous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabolism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 degrees C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endogenous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.

  7. A rapid method for detecting protein-nucleic acid interactions by protein induced fluorescence enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Valuchova, Sona; Fulnecek, Jaroslav; Petrov, Alexander P.; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Riha, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Many fundamental biological processes depend on intricate networks of interactions between proteins and nucleic acids and a quantitative description of these interactions is important for understanding cellular mechanisms governing DNA replication, transcription, or translation. Here we present a versatile method for rapid and quantitative assessment of protein/nucleic acid (NA) interactions. This method is based on protein induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), a phenomenon whereby protein binding increases the fluorescence of Cy3-like dyes. PIFE has mainly been used in single molecule studies to detect protein association with DNA or RNA. Here we applied PIFE for steady state quantification of protein/NA interactions by using microwell plate fluorescence readers (mwPIFE). We demonstrate the general applicability of mwPIFE for examining various aspects of protein/DNA interactions with examples from the restriction enzyme BamHI, and the DNA repair complexes Ku and XPF/ERCC1. These include determination of sequence and structure binding specificities, dissociation constants, detection of weak interactions, and the ability of a protein to translocate along DNA. mwPIFE represents an easy and high throughput method that does not require protein labeling and can be applied to a wide range of applications involving protein/NA interactions. PMID:28008962

  8. Acidic phospholipids govern the enhanced activation of IgG-B cell receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiangjun; Pan, Weiling; Sui, Yinqiang; Li, Hua; Shi, Xiaoshan; Guo, Xingdong; Qi, Hai; Xu, Chenqi; Liu, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    B cells that express the isotype-switched IgG-B cell receptor (IgG-BCR) are one of the driving forces for antibody memory. To allow for a rapid memory IgG antibody response, IgG-BCR evolved into a highly effective signalling machine. Here, we report that the positively charged cytoplasmic domain of mIgG (mIgG-tail) specifically interacts with negatively charged acidic phospholipids. The key immunoglobulin tail tyrosine (ITT) in mIgG-tail is thus sequestered in the membrane hydrophobic core in quiescent B cells. Pre-disruption of such interaction leads to excessive recruitment of BCRs and inflated BCR signalling upon antigen stimulation, resulting in hyperproliferation of primary B cells. Physiologically, membrane-sequestered mIgG-tail can be released by antigen engagement or Ca2+ mobilization in the initiation of B cell activation. Our studies suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for how dynamic association of mIgG-tail with acidic phospholipids governs the enhanced activation of IgG-BCR. PMID:26440273

  9. Citric Acid Enhanced Copper Removal by a Novel Multi-amines Decorated Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Chen; Liu, Fuqiang; Pei, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wei, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanhong; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-05-01

    Cu removal by a novel multi-amines decorated resin (PAMD) from wastewater in the absence or presence of citric acid (CA) was examined. Adsorption capacity of Cu onto PAMD markedly increased by 186% to 5.07 mmol/g in the presence of CA, up to 7 times of that onto four commercial resins under the same conditions. Preloaded and kinetic studies demonstrated adsorption of [Cu-CA] complex instead of CA site-bridging and variations of adsorbate species were qualitatively illustrated. The interaction configuration was further studied with ESI-MS, FTIR, XPS and XANES characterizations. The large enhancement of Cu adsorption in Cu-CA bi-solutes systems was attributed to mechanism change from single-site to dual-sites interaction in which cationic or neutral Cu species (Cu2+ and CuHL0) coordinated with neutral amine sites and anionic complex species (CuL- and Cu2L22-) directly interacted with protonated amine sites via electrostatic attraction, and the ratio of the two interactions was approximately 0.5 for the equimolar bi-solutes system. Moreover, commonly coexisting ions in wastewaters had no obvious effect on the superior performance of PAMD. Also, Cu and CA could be recovered completely with HCl. Therefore, PAMD has a great potential to efficiently remove heavy metal ions from wastewaters in the presence of organic acids.

  10. Enhanced D-amino acid incorporation into protein by modified ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Dedkova, Larisa M; Fahmi, Nour Eddine; Golovine, Serguei Y; Hecht, Sidney M

    2003-06-04

    By overexpression of modified Escherichia coli 23S rRNAs from multicopy plasmids, ribosomes were prepared that contained mutations in two regions (2447-2450 and 2457-2462) of 23S rRNA. Following mutagenesis and selection, two clones with mutations in the 2447-2450 region (peptidyltransferase center) and six with mutations in the 2457-2462 region (helix 89) were characterized. The mutations were shown to exhibit a high level of homology. Cell-free protein synthesizing systems prepared from these clones were found to exhibit significantly enhanced incorporation of d-methionine and d-phenylalanine into protein. The incorporations involved positions 10, 22, and 54 of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase and positions 247 and 250 of Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase. Interestingly, some of the derived proteins containing the d-amino acids (notably DHFR analogues altered at position 10) functioned as well as those containing the respective l-amino acids, while substitution at other positions resulted in proteins having greatly diminished activity.

  11. P4 radiology of hepatobiliary diseases with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Qayyum, Aliya; Bastati, Nina; Fakhrai, Negar; Herold, Christian J; Caseiro Alves, Filipe

    2014-02-01

    A recent paradigm shift in radiology has focused on the globalization of so-called P4 radiology. P4 radiology represents delivery of imaging results that are predictive, personalized, pre-emptive and participatory. The combination of the P4 approach and biomarkers is particularly pertinent to MRI, especially with technological advances such as diffusion-weighted imaging. The development of new liver-specific MRI contrast media, particularly gadoxetic acid, demonstrate specific pharmacokinetic properties, which provide combined morphologic and functional information in the same setting. The evaluation of hepatobiliary pathology beyond morphology gives rise to the possibilty of using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as an imaging biomarker of hepatobiliary diseases. The integration of functional imaging with an understanding of complex disease mechanisms forms the basis for P4 radiology, which may ultimately lead to individualized, cost-effective, targeted therapy for patients. This will enable radiologists to determine the prognosis of the disease and estimate early response to treatment, with the participation of all the required medical disciplines.

  12. Citric Acid Enhanced Copper Removal by a Novel Multi-amines Decorated Resin.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Liu, Fuqiang; Pei, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wei, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanhong; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-05-12

    Cu removal by a novel multi-amines decorated resin (PAMD) from wastewater in the absence or presence of citric acid (CA) was examined. Adsorption capacity of Cu onto PAMD markedly increased by 186% to 5.07 mmol/g in the presence of CA, up to 7 times of that onto four commercial resins under the same conditions. Preloaded and kinetic studies demonstrated adsorption of [Cu-CA] complex instead of CA site-bridging and variations of adsorbate species were qualitatively illustrated. The interaction configuration was further studied with ESI-MS, FTIR, XPS and XANES characterizations. The large enhancement of Cu adsorption in Cu-CA bi-solutes systems was attributed to mechanism change from single-site to dual-sites interaction in which cationic or neutral Cu species (Cu(2+) and CuHL(0)) coordinated with neutral amine sites and anionic complex species (CuL(-) and Cu2L2(2-)) directly interacted with protonated amine sites via electrostatic attraction, and the ratio of the two interactions was approximately 0.5 for the equimolar bi-solutes system. Moreover, commonly coexisting ions in wastewaters had no obvious effect on the superior performance of PAMD. Also, Cu and CA could be recovered completely with HCl. Therefore, PAMD has a great potential to efficiently remove heavy metal ions from wastewaters in the presence of organic acids.

  13. Enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugate-based photodynamic therapy using pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Yao, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Chang, Zhennan; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2016-02-01

    The low bioavailability is a crucial limitation for the application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in theranostics. In this research, 5-aminolevulinic acid and gold nanoparticle conjugates (ALA-GNPs) were synthesized to improve the bioavailability of ALA and to investigate the impact of ALA photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in Hela cells. A 532 nm pulse laser and light-emitting diode (central wavelengths 502 nm) were jointly used as light sources in PDT research. The results show a 532 nm pulse laser can control ALA release from ALA-GNPs by adjusting the pulse laser dose. This laser control release may be attributed to the heat generation from GNPs under pulse laser irradiation, which indicates accurately adjusting the pulse laser dose to control the drug release in the cell interior can be considered as a new cellular surgery modality. Furthermore, the PDT results in Hela cells indicate the enhancement of ALA release by pulse laser before PDT can promote the efficacy of cell eradication in the light-emitting diode PDT (LED-PDT). This laser mediated drug release system can provide a new online therapy approach in PDT and it can be utilized in the optical monitor technologies based individual theranostics.

  14. Citric Acid Enhanced Copper Removal by a Novel Multi-amines Decorated Resin

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chen; Liu, Fuqiang; Pei, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wei, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanhong; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Cu removal by a novel multi-amines decorated resin (PAMD) from wastewater in the absence or presence of citric acid (CA) was examined. Adsorption capacity of Cu onto PAMD markedly increased by 186% to 5.07 mmol/g in the presence of CA, up to 7 times of that onto four commercial resins under the same conditions. Preloaded and kinetic studies demonstrated adsorption of [Cu-CA] complex instead of CA site-bridging and variations of adsorbate species were qualitatively illustrated. The interaction configuration was further studied with ESI-MS, FTIR, XPS and XANES characterizations. The large enhancement of Cu adsorption in Cu-CA bi-solutes systems was attributed to mechanism change from single-site to dual-sites interaction in which cationic or neutral Cu species (Cu2+ and CuHL0) coordinated with neutral amine sites and anionic complex species (CuL− and Cu2L22−) directly interacted with protonated amine sites via electrostatic attraction, and the ratio of the two interactions was approximately 0.5 for the equimolar bi-solutes system. Moreover, commonly coexisting ions in wastewaters had no obvious effect on the superior performance of PAMD. Also, Cu and CA could be recovered completely with HCl. Therefore, PAMD has a great potential to efficiently remove heavy metal ions from wastewaters in the presence of organic acids. PMID:25962970

  15. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of kenaf core using irradiation and dilute acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Min; Jeun, Joon-Pyo; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of electron beam dose and enzymatic hydrolysis time for production of sugar such as glucose and xylose. After kenaf core was exposed to an irradiation dose that ranged from 0 to 500 kGy, the irradiated kenaf core was treated with a 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid solution using an autoclave for 5 h at 120 °C. The pretreated kenaf core was subsequently subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C in a shaking water bath at 150 rpm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. The determined enzyme activity rates were 70 FPU (Celluclast 1.5 L) and 40 CBU (Novozyme-188). The crystallinity index decreased from 50.6% in a non-pretreated kenaf core to 27.7% in kenaf core that was subjected to the two-stage pretreatment at dose of 500 kGy. The sugar yield of the two-stage pretreated kenaf core increased with an increase in irradiation dose. The sugar yield after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis was 73.6% at its highest with an irradiation dose of 500 kGy. The enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis by two-stage pretreatment was more effective than non- and single pretreatment (36.9%, 40.6% and 44.0% in non-pretreatment, electron beam and dilute acid, respectively).

  16. Enhancing the natural removal of As in a reactive fluvial confluence receiving acid drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, M. I.; Arce, G.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial confluences are natural reactors that can determine the fate of contaminants in watersheds receiving acid drainage. Hydrological, hydrodynamic and chemical factors determine distinct conditions for the formation of suspended particles of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides. The chemical and physical properties of these particle assemblages (e.g. particle size, chemical composition) can vary according to inflow mixing ratios, hydrodynamic velocity profiles, and chemical composition of the flows mixing at the confluence. Due to their capacity to sorb metals, it is important to identify the optimal conditions for removing metals from the aqueous phase, particularly arsenic, a contaminant frequently found in acid drainage. We studied a river confluence in the Lluta watershed, located in the arid Chilean Altiplano. We performed field measurements and laboratory studies to find optimal mixing ratio for arsenic sorption onto oxyhydroxide particles at the confluence between the Azufre (pH=2, As=2 mg/L) and the Caracarani river (pH=8, As<0.1 mg/L). As the contribution of the acidic stream increased, the concentration of Fe and Al in the solid phase reached a peak at different pHs. Although the optimal pH for As sorption was ~3, the overall maximum removal of As at the confluence, ocurred for pH~4. This is produced because optimal As sorption does not occur necessarily for the highest concentrations of particles being formed. We propose that fluvial confluences could be engineered to enhance the natural attenuation of contaminants. An analogy between confluences and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation drinking water plants could be used to engineer such intervention.Acknowledgements: Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936 and Proyecto CONICYT FONDAP 15110020

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enhances stroke volume and cardiac output during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Walser, Buddy; Stebbins, Charles L

    2008-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. We tested the hypotheses that dietary supplementation with DHA (2 g/day) + EPA (3 g/day) enhances increases in stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) and decreases in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) during dynamic exercise. Healthy subjects received DHA + EPA (eight men, four women) or safflower oil (six men, three women) for 6 weeks. Both groups performed 20 min of bicycle exercise (10 min each at a low and moderate work intensity) before and after DHA + EPA or safflower oil treatment. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), SV, CO, and SVR were assessed before exercise and during both workloads. HR was unaffected by DHA + EPA and MAP was reduced, but only at rest (88 +/- 5 vs. 83 +/- 4 mm Hg). DHA + EPA augmented increases in SV (14.1 +/- 6.3 vs. 32.3 +/- 8.7 ml) and CO (8.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 10.3 +/- 1.2 L/min) and tended to attenuate decreases in SVR (-7.0 +/- 0.6 vs. -10.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg L(-1) min(-1)) during the moderate workload. Safflower oil treatment had no effects on MAP, HR, SV, CO or SVR at rest or during exercise. DHA + EPA-induced increases in SV and CO imply that dietary supplementation with these fatty acids can increase oxygen delivery during exercise, which may have beneficial clinical implications for individuals with cardiovascular disease and reduced exercise tolerance.

  18. D-amino acid substitution enhances the stability of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fengjing; Wang, Jiayi; Peng, Jinxiu; Zhao, Ping; Kong, Ziqing; Wang, Kairong; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing emergence of resistant microbes toward conventional antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need for the development of antimicrobial agents with novel action mode. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are believed to be one kind of ideal alternatives. However, AMPs can be easily degraded by protease, which limited their therapeutic use. In the present study, D-amino acid substitution strategy was employed to enhance the stability of polybia-CP. We investigated the stability of peptides against the degradation of trypsin and chymotrypsin by determining the antimicrobial activity or determining the HPLC profile of peptides after incubation with proteases. Our results showed that both the all D-amino acid derivative (D-CP) and partial D-lysine substitution derivative (D-lys-CP) have an improved stability against trypsin and chymotrypsin. Although D-CP takes left-hand α-helical conformation and D-lys-CP loses some α-helical content, both of the D-amino acid-substituted derivatives maintain their parental peptides' membrane active action mode. In addition, D-lys-CP showed a slight weaker antimicrobial activity than polybia-CP, but the hemolytic activity decreased greatly. These results suggest that D-CP and D-lys-CP can offer strategy to improve the property of AMPs and may be leading compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chang; Zheng, Zuhong; Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-05-01

    In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where phosphate pollution is notorious but urgent.

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using chlorogenic acid and their enhanced performance for inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Su Jung; Jun, Sang Hui; Park, Yohan; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Minho; Cho, Seonho; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Park, Youmie

    2015-10-01

    Here we developed a novel green synthesis method for gold nanoparticles (CGA-AuNPs) using chlorogenic acid (CGA) as reductants without the use of other chemicals and validated the anti-inflammatory efficacy of CGA-AuNPs in vitro and in vivo. The resulting CGA-AuNPs appeared predominantly spherical in shape with an average diameter of 22.25±4.78nm. The crystalline nature of the CGA-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and by selected-area electron diffraction analyses. High-resolution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that the caffeic acid moiety of CGA forms quinone structure through a two-electron oxidation causing the reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). When compared to CGA, CGA-AuNPs exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory effects on NF-κB-mediated inflammatory network, as well as cell adhesion. Collectively, green synthesis of CGA-AuNPs using bioactive reductants and mechanistic studies based on mass spectrometry may open up new directions in nanomedicine and CGA-AuNPs can be an anti-inflammatory nanomedicine for future applications. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been shown to be very useful in many applications due to their easy functionalization capability. In this article, the authors demonstrated a novel method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using chlorogenic acid (CGA) as reductants. In-vitro experiments also confirmed biological activity of the resultant gold nanoparticles. Further in-vivo studies are awaited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  3. Aminolevulinic Acid-Based Tumor Detection and Therapy: Molecular Mechanisms and Strategies for Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Palasuberniam, Pratheeba; Kraus, Daniel; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the first metabolite in the heme biosynthesis pathway in humans. In addition to the end product heme, this pathway also produces other porphyrin metabolites. Protoporphyrin (PpIX) is one heme precursor porphyrin with good fluorescence and photosensitizing activity. Because tumors and other proliferating cells tend to exhibit a higher level of PpIX than normal cells after ALA incubation, ALA has been used as a prodrug to enable PpIX fluorescence detection and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of lesion tissues. Extensive studies have been carried out in the past twenty years to explore why some tumors exhibit elevated ALA-mediated PpIX and how to enhance PpIX levels to achieve better tumor detection and treatment. Here we would like to summarize previous research in order to stimulate future studies on these important topics. In this review, we focus on summarizing tumor-associated alterations in heme biosynthesis enzymes, mitochondrial functions and porphyrin transporters that contribute to ALA-PpIX increase in tumors. Mechanism-based therapeutic strategies for enhancing ALA-based modalities including iron chelators, differentiation agents and PpIX transporter inhibitors are also discussed. PMID:26516850

  4. Aminolevulinic Acid-Based Tumor Detection and Therapy: Molecular Mechanisms and Strategies for Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Palasuberniam, Pratheeba; Kraus, Daniel; Chen, Bin

    2015-10-28

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the first metabolite in the heme biosynthesis pathway in humans. In addition to the end product heme, this pathway also produces other porphyrin metabolites. Protoporphyrin (PpIX) is one heme precursor porphyrin with good fluorescence and photosensitizing activity. Because tumors and other proliferating cells tend to exhibit a higher level of PpIX than normal cells after ALA incubation, ALA has been used as a prodrug to enable PpIX fluorescence detection and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of lesion tissues. Extensive studies have been carried out in the past twenty years to explore why some tumors exhibit elevated ALA-mediated PpIX and how to enhance PpIX levels to achieve better tumor detection and treatment. Here we would like to summarize previous research in order to stimulate future studies on these important topics. In this review, we focus on summarizing tumor-associated alterations in heme biosynthesis enzymes, mitochondrial functions and porphyrin transporters that contribute to ALA-PpIX increase in tumors. Mechanism-based therapeutic strategies for enhancing ALA-based modalities including iron chelators, differentiation agents and PpIX transporter inhibitors are also discussed.

  5. Sonodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid enhances the efficacy of bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Tomohiro; Ono, Misato; Uto, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Yamanaka, Nobuyasu; Kurahashi, Tsukasa; Azuma, Kazuo; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) kills tumor cells through the synergistic effects of ultrasound and a sonosensitizer agent. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based SDT at 1 or 3 MHz could enhance the cytotoxicity of bleomycin (BLM) toward mouse mammary tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. At 1 MHz, cell viability in the 5-ALA-based SDT group at 1, 2, and 3 W/cm(2) was 34.30%, 50.90%, and 60.16%, respectively. Cell viability in the 5-ALA-based SDT+BLM group at 1, 2, and 3 W/cm(2) was 0.09%, 0.32%, and 0.17%, respectively. In contrast, at 3 MHz, 5-ALA-based SDT+BLM did not show pronounced cytotoxicity. In the in vivo study, 5-ALA-based SDT+BLM was significantly more cytotoxic than 5-ALA-based SDT at 1 MHz and 3 MHz. These findings suggest that the mechanism of tumor shrinkage induced by 5-ALA-based SDT+BLM might involve not only direct cell killing, but also vascular shutdown. Thus, we show here that 5-ALA-based SDT enhances the efficacy of BLM both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatty-Acid Binding Proteins Modulate Sleep and Enhance Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Shaw, Paul J.; Landry, Charles F.; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) on sleep and long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Transgenic flies carrying the murine Fabp7 or the Drosophila homologue dFabp had reduced baseline sleep but normal LTM, while Fabp induction produced increases in both net sleep and LTM. We also define a post-training consolidation “window” that is sufficient for the observed Fabp-mediated memory enhancement. Since Fabp overexpression increases consolidated daytime sleep bouts, these data support a role for longer naps in improving memory and provide a novel role for lipid-binding proteins in regulating memory consolidation concurrently with changes in behavioral state. PMID:21298037

  7. Enhanced topical delivery of hyaluronic acid encapsulated in liposomes: A surface-dependent phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-González, Martha L; Calpena, Ana C; Domènech, Òscar; Montero, M Teresa; Borrell, Jordi H

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the release and permeation of hyaluronic acid (HA) encapsulated in liposomes when deposited onto two surfaces: cellulose, a model widely used for investigating transport of drugs; and human skin, a natural biointerface used for transdermal drug delivery. We prepared and characterised liposomes loaded with HA and liposomes incorporating two penetration enhancers (PEs): the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80, and Transcutol P, a solubilising agent able to mix with polar and non-polar solvents. In vitro and ex vivo permeation assays showed that PEs indeed enhance HA-release from liposomes. Since one of the possible mechanisms postulated for the action of liposomes on skin is related to its adsorption onto the stratum corneum (SC), we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography and force volume (FV) analysis to investigate the structures formed after deposition of liposome formulations onto the investigated surfaces. We explored the possible relationship between the formation of planar lipid structures on the surfaces and the permeation of HA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Valproic Acid Induces Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo and Enhances Keratinocyte Motility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Zahoor, Muhammad; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving several signaling pathways such as the Wnt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used antiepileptic drug that acts on these signaling pathways; however, the effect of VPA on cutaneous wound healing is unknown. Methods and Findings We created full-thickness wounds on the backs of C3H mice and then applied VPA. After 7 d, we observed marked healing and reduced wound size in VPA-treated mice. In the neo-epidermis of the wounds, β-catenin and markers for keratinocyte terminal differentiation were increased after VPA treatment. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I and collagen III in the wounds were significantly increased. VPA induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of cells in the wounds, as determined by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining analyses, respectively. In vitro, VPA enhanced the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes by activating Wnt/β-catenin, ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/Akt signaling pathways. Conclusions VPA enhances cutaneous wound healing in a murine model and induces migration of HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:23144972

  9. Chemical modification with orthophosphoric acid enhances surface-charge stability on polypropylene electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingwen; Rychkov, Dmitry; Gerhard, Reimund

    2017-05-01

    The low surface-charge stability of polypropylene (PP) frequently limits its application as an electret material. In this paper, we demonstrate how the treatment of PP-film surfaces with orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) enhances their charge stability. To discriminate between the effects of chemical modification and thermal treatment, as-received and annealed PP films are used as reference samples. The electret properties of treated and non-treated PP films are characterized with thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) and isothermal surface-potential decay (ISPD) experiments, from which considerable improvement in thermal and temporal charge stability is observed for samples modified with H3PO4. The half-value temperature (T1/2) observed on TSD curves of chemically treated PP increases to 131 and 145 °C for positive and negative charges, respectively. The enhancement might be attributed to the phosphoric compounds detected on the H3PO4-modified surfaces via attenuated-total-reflection infrared spectroscopy. Deeper surface traps formed at the "foreign" phosphorus-containing structures are able to capture the charges over longer time periods and at higher temperatures, thus leading to significant improvements in the temporal and thermal surface-charge stabilities of PP electrets.

  10. Ferulic acid inhibits gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and enhances the survival of mice.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2013-02-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a monophenolic phenylpropanoid occurring in plant products such as rice bran, green tea, and coffee beans. It has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in many studies. In the present study, we show that intraperitoneal administration of FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight 1 hour prior to or immediately after whole-body γ-irradiation of mice with 4 Gy results in considerable reduction in the micronuclei formation in peripheral blood reticulocytes. Administration of the same amount of FA immediately after 4 Gy γ-irradiation showed significant decrease in the amount of DNA strand breaks in murine peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells as examined by comet assay. Further, immunostaining of mouse splenic lymphocytes for phspho-γH2AX was carried out, and it was observed that FA inhibits the γH2AX foci formation. Finally, the survival of mice upon 6, 8, and 10 Gy γ-ray exposure was monitored. FA enhances the survival of mice by a factor of 2.5 at a dose of 6 Gy γ-radiation but not at higher doses. In conclusion, FA has protective potential in both pre- and postirradiation exposure scenarios and enhances the survival of mice possibly by decreasing DNA damage as examined by γH2AX foci, micronuclei formation, and comet assay.

  11. Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-α-induced IL-1α in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-α, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement.

  12. Enhancement of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin antimicrobial activities by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Branen, Jill K; Davidson, P Michael

    2004-01-01

    A microtiter plate assay was employed to systematically assess the interaction between ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or lactoferrin and nisin, lysozyme, or monolaurin against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Low levels of EDTA acted synergistically with nisin and lysozyme against L. monocytogenes but EDTA and monolaurin interacted additively against this microorganism. EDTA synergistically enhanced the activity of nisin, monolaurin, and lysozyme in tryptic soy broth (TSB) against two enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. In addition, various combinations of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin with EDTA were bactericidal to some gram-negative bacteria whereas none of the antimicrobials alone were bactericidal. Lactoferrin alone (2000 microg ml(-1)) did not inhibit any of the bacterial strains, but did enhance nisin activity against both L. monocytogenes strains. Lactoferrin in combination with monolaurin inhibited growth of E. coli O157:H7 but not E. coli O104:H21. While lactoferrin combined with nisin or monolaurin did not completely inhibit growth of the gram-negative bacteria, there was some growth inhibition. All combinations of EDTA or lactoferrin with antimicrobials were less effective in 2% fat UHT milk than in TSB. S. enteritidis and P. fluorescens strains were consistently more resistant to antimicrobial combinations. Resistance may be due to differences in the outer membrane and/or LPS structure.

  13. Quantitative surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid--towards rapid anthrax endospore detection.

    PubMed

    Bell, Steven E J; Mackle, Joseph N; Sirimuthu, Narayana M S

    2005-04-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is an excellent marker compound for bacterial spores, including those of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) potentially has the sensitivity and discrimination needed for trace DPA analysis, but mixing DPA solutions with citrate-reduced silver colloid only yielded measurable SERS spectra at much higher (>80 ppm) concentrations than would be desirable for anthrax detection. Aggregation of the colloid with halide salts eliminated even these small DPA bands but aggregation with Na2SO4(aq) resulted in a remarkable increase in the DPA signals. With sulfate aggregation even 1 ppm solutions gave detectable signals with 10 s accumulation times, which is in the sensitivity range required. Addition of CNS- as an internal standard allowed quantitative DPA analysis, plotting the intensity of the strong DPA 1010 cm(-1) band (normalised to the ca. 2120 cm(-1) CNS- band) against DPA concentration gave a linear calibration (R2 = 0.986) over the range 0-50 ppm DPA. The inclusion of thiocyanate also allows false negatives due to accidental deactivation of the enhancing medium to be detected.

  14. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation.

  15. Retinoic Acid Enhances the Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Keratocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Amy P.; Ahearne, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (RA) supplementation was investigated as a method of enhancing the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to corneal keratocytes in vitro, in combination with a chemically defined serum-free medium. Methods Adipose-derived stem cells were cultured in monolayer and supplemented with 0.1, 1, or 10 μM RA for 14 days. The effects of RA on cell proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation were evaluated. In addition, the expression of phenotypic keratocyte markers was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting. Results Adipose-derived stem cells cultured with RA showed improved cell proliferation and ECM production. In addition, RA enhanced the expression of keratocyte-specific markers, keratocan, aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1, lumican, and decorin, when compared to serum-free media alone. Furthermore, the presence of RA increased the amount of collagen type I while reducing the expression of fibrotic marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Conclusions These findings indicate that RA is a useful supplement for promoting a keratocyte phenotype in ASC. Translational Relevance This study is particularly important for the generation of biological corneal substitutes and next generation cell based therapies for corneal conditions. PMID:28138416

  16. Enhanced Production of Itaconic Acid through Development of Transformed Fungal Strains of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Shik; Park, Boonyoung; Lee, Dohoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Chun, Gie-Taek; Kim, Sangyong

    2017-02-28

    Metabolic engineering with a high-yielding mutant, A. terreus AN37, was performed to enhance the production of itaconic acid (IA). Reportedly, the gene cluster for IA biosynthesis is composed of four genes: reg (regulator), mtt (mitochondrial transporter), cad (cis-aconitate decarboxylase), and mfs (membrane transporter). By overexpressing each gene of the IA gene cluster in A. terreus AN37 transformed by the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method, several transformants showing high productivity of IA were successfully obtained. One of the AN37/cad transformants could produce a very high amount of IA (75 g/l) in shake-flask cultivations, showing an average of 5% higher IA titer compared with the high-yielding control strain. Notably, in the case of the mfs transformants, a maximal increase of 18.3% in IA production was observed relative to the control strain under the identical fermentation conditions. Meanwhile, the overexpression of reg and mtt genes showed no significant improvements in IA production. In summary, the overexpressed cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) and putative membrane transporter (MFS) appeared to have positive influences on the enhanced IA productivity of the respective transformant. The maximal increases of 13.6~18.3% in IA productivity of the transformed strains should be noted, since the parallel mother strain used in this study is indeed a very high-performance mutant that has been obtained through intensive rational screening programs in our laboratory.

  17. Arachidonic acid with taurine enhances pulmonary absorption of macromolecules without any serious histopathological damages.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Minami, Takanori; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2017-05-01

    Therapeutic peptides and protein are being used in several indications; however, their poor permeability still remains to be solved. This study focused on the pulmonary route of macromolecules. First, the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) as an absorption enhancer on drug serum concentration, after intratracheal administration, were investigated in rats. Second, the safety of AA was assessed in rats in an acute toxicity study for 7days. AA enhanced the exposure of both interferon-α (IFN-α) and fluorescein isothiocyanate 4000 (FD-4). In addition, the histopathological analysis indicated that AA caused alveolitis and bronchitis in rats. In combination with Taurine (Tau), these lung injuries were prevented through the histopathological analysis. The combined use of Tau with AA did not show any changes in the pharmacokinetics of FD-4. From these results, we suggest the combined use of AA with Tau as a novel formulation on the pulmonary route of macromolecule drugs. This formulation could improve the bioavailability of macromolecule drugs without any serious local damage to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuated Total Reflection Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption (ATR SEIRA) Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Fatty Acids on Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuichi; Kikugawa, Masashi; Sudo, Eiichi

    2017-09-01

    The application of attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR SEIRA) to the analysis of fatty acids on silver nanoparticles was investigated. Attenuated total reflection measurements using four types of internal reflection elements (IREs)-zinc selenide, diamond, silicon, and germanium-were performed for silver nanoparticles modified with fatty acids, and germanium IRE was shown to be suitable for the analysis of silver nanoparticles, even when the sample had a high refractive index. Fatty acids coating the silver nanoparticles could be directly identified by SEIRA enhancement, because both symmetric carboxylate stretching vibration and methylene wagging vibration were strongly detected. Furthermore, the peak positions for methylene wagging vibration differed depending on the carbon number of the fatty acid, so that information from the ATR SEIRA spectra makes it possible to identify substances coating silver nanoparticles. Therefore, ATR SEIRA would appear to have significant potential as a technique for the identification of substances coated on metal nanoparticle surfaces.

  19. Elongation of very long-chain fatty acids is enhanced in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Stephan; Valianpour, Fredoen; Denis, Simone; Ofman, Rob; Sanders, Robert-Jan; Mooyer, Petra; Barth, Peter G; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2005-02-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated and mono-unsaturated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and reduced peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation activity. In this study, we investigated the role of VLCFA biosynthesis in X-ALD fibroblasts. Our data demonstrate that elongation of both saturated and mono-unsaturated VLCFAs is enhanced in fibroblasts from patients with peroxisomal beta-oxidation defects including X-ALD, and peroxisome biogenesis disorders. These data indicate that enhanced VLCFA elongation is a general phenomenon associated with an impairment in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, and not specific for X-ALD alone. Analysis of plasma samples from patients with X-ALD and different peroxisomal beta-oxidation deficiencies revealed increased concentrations of VLCFAs up to 32 carbons. We infer that enhanced elongation does not result from impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation alone, but is due to the additional effect of unchecked chain elongation. We demonstrate that elongated VLCFAs are incorporated into complex lipids. The role of chain elongation was also studied retrospectively in samples from patients with X-ALD previously treated with "Lorenzo's oil." We found that the decrease in plasma C26:0 previously found is offset by the increase of mono-unsaturated VLCFAs, not measured previously during the trial. We conclude that evaluation of treatment protocols for disorders of peroxisomal beta-oxidation making use of plasma samples should include the measurement of saturated and unsaturated VLCFAs of chain lengths above 26 carbon atoms. We also conclude that chain elongation offers an interesting target to be studied as a possible mode of treatment for X-ALD and other peroxisomal beta-oxidation disorders.

  20. Gintonin enhances performance of mice in rotarod test: Involvement of lysophosphatidic acid receptors and catecholamine release.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jisu; Lee, Ra Mi; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Myung Koo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewon; Lim, Kiwon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-26

    Ginseng has a long history of use as a tonic for restoration of vigor. One example of ginseng-derived tonic effect is that it can improve physical stamina under conditions of stress. However, the active ingredient and the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the ergogenic effect are unknown. Recent studies show that ginseng contains a novel ingredient, gintonin, which consists of a unique class of herbal-medicine lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). Gintonin activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to produce a transient [Ca(2+)]i signal, which is coupled to diverse intra- and inter-cellular signal transduction pathways that stimulate hormone or neurotransmitter release. However, relatively little is known about how gintonin-mediated cellular modulation is linked to physical endurance. In the present study, systemic administration of gintonin, but not ginsenosides, in fasted mice increased blood glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Gintonin treatment elevated blood glucose to a maximum level after 30min. This elevation in blood glucose level could be abrogated by the LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, Ki16425, or the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Furthermore, gintonin-dependent enhanced performance of fasted mice in rotarod test was likewise abrogated by Ki16425. Gintonin also elevated plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. The present study shows that gintonin mediates catecholamine release through activation of the LPA receptor and that activation of the β-adrenergic receptor is coupled to liver glycogenolysis, thereby increasing the supply of glucose and enhancing performance in the rotarod test. Thus, gintonin acts via the LPA-catecholamine-glycogenolysis axis, representing a candidate mechanism that can explain how ginseng treatment enhances physical stamina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 (-) were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Methylseleninic acid enhances the effect of etoposide to inhibit prostate cancer growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Moreno, Oscar; Segura, Victor; Serrano, Diego; Nguewa, Paul; de las Rivas, Javier; Calvo, Alfonso

    2007-09-15

    New therapeutic agents are needed for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PrCa). We have investigated the effect of methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumor stage-specific prostate cells derived from the C3 (1)/Tag model for PrCa: Pr111, a slow-growing and nontumorigenic cell line isolated from a prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesion; Pr14, a tumorigenic line derived from a primary tumor; and Pr14C1, a sub-clone of Pr14 explanted from a lung metastasis. We demonstrate that MSA strongly inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in C3 (1)/Tag tumor cells, in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in phosphorylated ERK1/2 and AKT was also found in tumor cells, but not in Pr111. Microarray analysis using affymetrix showed that the number of genes with an altered expression in tumor cells is significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in nontumoral cells. Pathways analyses revealed a decrease in the expression of genes involved in metabolism (Fabp5, Cyba), signal transduction (ERK, AKT), angiogenesis (neuropilin-1, Flt-4) and transcription (cAMP response element-binding protein) in tumor cells. The expression of neuropilin-1, a protein involved in VEGF signaling and tumor angiogenesis, was 97-fold repressed in Pr14 cells treated with MSA. Combination treatments using low doses of etoposide or taxotere (docetaxel), plus low doses of MSA revealed a strong enhancement of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in tumor cells. Our in vivo studies using Pr14 cells xenografted into nude mice demonstrated that MSA significantly enhances the chemotherapeutical effect of etoposide, resulting in 78.3% tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest that MSA could be used against PrCa to enhance the effect of etoposide. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Enhanced skin regeneration by nanoegg formulation of all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Y; Nakamura, N; Nagasawa, T; Kitagawa, A; Matsumoto, K; Soma, Y; Matsuda, T; Mizoguchi, M; Igarashi, R

    2006-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) which could smooth wrinkles and produce less pigmented skin after a few months of treatment has been studied in research into topical treatments for a potent inhibitor of new melanin production. However, the clinical responses of commercial atRA cream predominantly comprise severe inflammation. We report a novel nanotechnology "nanoegg" system giving improved effects of atRA self-assembly which were coated by CaCO3. Dorsal areas of hairless mouse and porcine skin were employed for administration of nanoegg ointment and commercial products. The mRNA for heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) from tissues was measured by a real-time PCR method. All tissues were stained for detection of hyaluronate and the thickness of the epidermis. A clinical trial in humans was carried out at St. Marianna University in Japan. As a result, the irritation and inflammation associated with atRA molecules were substantially reduced. The physicochemical instability of atRA was also dramatically improved. Furthermore, nanoegg enhanced marked expression of mRNA for HB-EGF from keratinocytes, which is known as one of the markers of keratinocyte turnover. Also, production of hyaluronate was surprisingly in the intercellular spaces of the basal and spinous cell layers 2 days after treatment. Even at the low concentration of atRA in the nanoegg system, the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocyte was somewhat enhanced. A nanoegg may thus not only prevent adverse effects, but also markedly enhance the main effect.

  4. Spray-On Polyaniline/Poly(acrylic acid) Electrodes with Enhanced Electrochemical Stability.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Won; Kwon, Se Ra; Li, Fei; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2015-11-04

    Polyaniline (PANI)-based electrodes are promising candidates for energy storage, but their cycle life remains poor. Recent work suggests that secondary interactions may enhance polyaniline's electrochemical stability and cycle life, but evidence to date is not conclusive. Here, we investigate spray-assisted layer-by-layer assemblies containing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI NFs) or conventional PANI and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), which provides hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. This spray-on approach may be suitable for the deposition of PANI onto a variety of surfaces. The effects of PANI type, PAA pH, and PAA molecular weight on the growth behavior, conductivity, and electrochemical performance are examined. It is shown that LbL films with PANI NFs, higher molecular weight PAA, and lower PAA pH yield the thickest films, whereas the thinnest films come from conventional PANI assembled under similar conditions. Electron microscopy imaging and density measurements show that LbL films containing PANI NFs are very porous, whereas those containing conventional PANI are very dense (0.28 vs 1.33 g/cm(3), respectively). The difference in density dramatically affects the electrochemical properties in terms of capacity and long-term cycling behavior. Upon extended cycling, PANI NFs alone rapidly lose their electrochemical activity. On the other hand, PANI NF-based LbL films exhibited somewhat enhanced stability, and PANI-based LbL films were exceptionally stable, maintaining 94.7% of their capacity after 1000 cycles when cycled up to 4.2 V vs Li/Li(+). These results show that secondary interactions from PAA enhance stability, as does the selection of PANI type and the electrode's density.

  5. Increased hippocampal cell density and enhanced spatial memory in the valproic acid rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Nikfarjam, Haniyeh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Moghadas, Marzieh

    2013-08-14

    Autism is characterized by behavioral impairments in three main domains: social interaction; language, communication and imaginative play; and the range of interests and activities. However, neuronal processing studies have suggested that hyper-perception, hyper-attention, and enhanced memory, which may lie at the heart of most autistic symptoms. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered by either Valproic Acid (VPA, 500mg/kg) or Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) during fetal neural tube development on embryonic day 12.5. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The present study examined social interaction, repetitive behaviors, nociception and tactile threshold, anxiety as well as spatial memory. Histological analyses of cells in five regions of the hippocampus were done to determine neuronal density in both groups. A single intra-peritoneal injection of VPA to pregnant rats produced severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. The results showed significant behavioral impairments such as a lower tendency to initiate social interactions, enhanced stereotyped, repetitive behaviors, increased nociception threshold and anxiety at postnatal day (PND) 30 and PND 60. The Morris water maze learning paradigm revealed enhanced spatial memory at PND 60. Furthermore, histological analysis showed that the neuronal density in five separate regions of hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, Dentate gyrus and Subiculum) were increased at PND 67. This work suggests that early embryonic exposure to VPA in rats provides a good model for several specific aspects of autism and should help to continue to explore pathophysiological and neuroanatomical hypotheses. This study provides further evidence to support the notion that spatial memory and hippocampal cell density are increased in this animal model of autism. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Study of metabolic profile of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance fumaric acid production under low pH condition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Qing; Lv, Chunwei; Yan, Caixia; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH is a major problem in industrial organic acid fermentation. To circumvent this problem, we used a metabolic profiling approach to analyze metabolite changes in Rhizopus oryzae under different pH conditions. A correlation between fumaric acid production and intracellular metabolic characteristics of R. oryzae was revealed by principal component analysis. The results showed that to help cell survival in the presence of low pH, R. oryzae altered amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and promoted sugar or sugar alcohol synthesis, corresponding with a suppressing of energy metabolism, phenylalanine, and tyrosine synthesis and finally resulting in the low performance of fumaric acid production. Based on this observation, 1 % linoleic acid was added to the culture medium in pH 3.0 to decrease the carbon demand for cell survival, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 39.7 % compared with the control (pH 3.0 without linoleic acid addition), reaching 18.3 g/L after 84 h of fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which R. oryzae responds to acidic stress and would be helpful for the development of efficient strategies for fumaric acid production at low pH.

  7. Enhancement of heterologous production of eicosapentaenoic acid in Escherichia coli by substitution of promoter sequences within the biosynthesis gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Jin; Kim, Chul Ho; Seo, Pil-Soo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Hur, Byung-Ki; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2008-12-01

    To enhance the heterologous production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in Escherichia coli, the EPA biosynthesis gene cluster from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was cloned under the lacZ promoter on a high-copy number plasmid, pBluescript SK+. The production of EPA was remarkably enhanced yielding levels of up to 7.5% of the total fatty acid content in the recombinant E. coli strain by induction with IPTG, whereas the stimulation of EPA production was abolished by adding glucose into the culture medium, probably due to glucose repression acting on the promoter activity.

  8. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  9. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  10. Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Results Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano

  11. Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Coda, Rossana; Macías, Davinia Sánchez; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Filannino, Pasquale; Giuliani, Giammaria; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-05-04

    Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of

  12. Hot topic: Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Santos, G; O'Donnell, A M; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Bauman, D E

    2010-01-01

    Very long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are important in human cardiac health and the prevention of chronic diseases, but food sources are limited. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is an n-3 fatty acid that humans are able to convert to EPA. In utilizing SDA-enhanced soybean oil (SBO) derived from genetically modified soybeans, our objectives were to examine the potential to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of milk fat and to determine the efficiency of SDA uptake from the digestive tract and transfer to milk fat. Three multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned randomly in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) control (no oil infusion); 2) abomasal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-abo); and 3) ruminal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-rum). The SDA-enhanced SBO contained 27.1% SDA, 10.4% alpha-linolenic acid, and 7.2% gamma-linolenic acid. Oil infusions provided 57 g/d of SDA with equal amounts of oil infused into either the rumen or abomasum at 6-h intervals over a 7-d infusion period. Cow numbers were limited and no treatment differences were detected for DMI or milk production (22.9+/-0.5 kg/d and 32.3+/-0.9 kg/d, respectively; least squares means +/- SE), milk protein percentage and yield (3.24+/-0.04% and 1.03+/-0.02 kg/d), or lactose percentage and yield (4.88+/-0.05% and 1.55+/-0.05 kg/d). Treatment also had no effect on milk fat yield (1.36+/-0.03 kg/d), but milk fat percentage was lower for the SDA-rum treatment (4.04+/-0.04% vs. 4.30+/-0.04% for control and 4.41+/-0.05% for SDA-abo). The SDA-abo treatment increased n-3 fatty acids to 3.9% of total milk fatty acids, a value more than 5-fold greater than that for the control. Expressed as a percentage of total milk fatty acids, values (least squares means +/- SE) for the SDA-abo treatment were 1.55+/-0.03% for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), 1.86+/-0.02 for SDA, 0.23 +/- <0.01 for eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and 0

  13. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  14. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced succinic acid production under acidic conditions by introduction of glutamate decarboxylase system in E. coli AFP111.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingke; Li, Xiaozhan; Guo, Shunfeng; Lemma, Wubliker Dessie; Zhang, Wenming; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jia, Honghua; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-04-01

    Biological synthesis of succinic acid at low pH values was favored since it not only decreased investment cost but also simplified downstream purification process. In this study, the feasibility of using glutamate decarboxylase system to improve succinic acid production of Escherichia coli AFP111, a succinate-producing candidate with mutations in pfl, ldhA, and ptsG, under acidic conditions was investigated. By overexpressing gadBC operon in AFP111, a recombinant named as BA201 (AFP111/pMD19T-gadBC) was constructed. Fermentation at pH 5.6 showed that 30 g L(-1) glucose was consumed and 26.58 g L(-1) succinic acid was produced by BA201, which was 1.22- and 1.32-fold higher than that by the control BA200 (AFP111/pMD19T) containing the empty vector. Analysis of intracellular enzymes activities and ATP concentrations revealed that the activities of key enzymes involved in glucose uptake and products synthesis and intracellular ATP levels were all increased after overexpression of gadBC which were benefit for cell metabolism under weak acidic conditions. To further improve the succinic acid titer by recombinant BA201 at pH 5.6, the extracellular glutamate concentration was optimized and the final succinic acid titer increased 20.4% to 32.01 g L(-1). Besides, the fermentation time was prolonged by repetitive fermentation and additional 15.78 g L(-1) succinic acid was produced by recovering cells into fresh medium. The results here demonstrated a potential strategy of overexpressing gadBC for increased succinic acid production of E. coli AFP111 under weak acidic conditions.

  16. Deletion of a Vibrio cholerae ClC Channel Results in Acid Sensitivity and Enhanced Intestinal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanpeng; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2003-01-01

    ClC chloride channels are found in all three kingdoms of life though little is known about their functions in prokaryotes. Here we investigated the role of a Vibrio cholerae ClC channel in acid resistance and intestinal colonization. The putative V. cholerae ClC channel was found to confer mild resistance to acid when pH was adjusted with HCl, but not with other acids. Surprisingly, a ClC channel deletion mutant exhibited enhanced intestinal colonization in infant mice. PMID:12819118

  17. Modification of ascorbic acid using transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase to enhance its oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, Cheon-Seok; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Myo-Jeong; Baek, Jin-Sook; Roh, Hoe-Jin; Choi, Jin-Hwan; Choe, Eun-Ok; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2002-05-22

    Ascorbic acid (1), a natural antioxidant, was modified by employing transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with maltotriose and acarbose as donor molecules to enhance its oxidative stability. The transglycosylation reaction with maltotriose as donor created mono- and di-glycosyl transfer products with an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. In addition, two acarviosine-glucosyl transfer products were generated when transglycosylation was performed with acarbose as a donor. All transfer products were observed by TLC and HPLC, and purified by Q-sepharose anion exchange and Biogel P-2 gel permeation chromatographies. LC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses revealed that the structures of the transfer products were 6-O-alpha-D-glucosyl- (2) and 6-O-alpha-D-maltosyl-ascorbic acids (3) in the reaction of maltotriose, and 6-O-alpha-acarviosine-D-glucosyl- (4) and 2-O-alpha-acarviosine-D-glucosyl ascorbic acids (5) in the reaction of acarbose. The stability of the transglycosylated ascorbic acid derivatives was greatly enhanced against oxidation by Cu(2+) ion and ascorbate oxidase. Among them, compound 3 proved to be the most stable against in vitro oxidation. The antioxidant effects of glycosyl-derivatives of ascorbic acid on the lipid oxidation in cooked chicken breast meat patties indicated that they had antioxidant activities similar to that of ascorbic acid. It is suggested that the transglycosylated ascorbic acids can possibly be applied as effective antioxidants with improved stability in food, cosmetic, and other applications.

  18. Enhancement of power production with tartaric acid doped polyaniline nanowire network modified anode in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Sun, De-Zhen; Si, Rong-Wei; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility to use tartaric acid doped PANI for MFC anode modification was determined. Uniform PANI nanowires doped with tartaric acid were synthesized and formed mesoporous networks on the carbon cloth surface. By using this tartaric acid doped PANI modified carbon cloth (PANI-TA) as the anode, the voltage output (435 ± 15 mV) and power output (490 ± 12 mW/m(2)) of MFC were enhanced by 1.6 times and 4.1 times compared to that of MFC with plain carbon cloth anode, respectively. Strikingly, the performance of PANI-TA MFC was superior to that of the MFCs with inorganic acids doped PNAI modified anode. These results substantiated that tartaric acid is a promising PANI dopant for MFC anode modification, and provided new opportunity for MFC performance improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging Predicts Simeprevir-Induced Hyperbilirubinemia During Hepatitis C Virus Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hironao; Kitamura, Tsuneo; Ando, Hitoshi; Fukada, Hiroo; Igusa, Yuki; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Miyazaki, Akihisa; Fujimura, Akio; Shiina, Shuichiro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-03-01

    Simeprevir is a substrate for organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that transport bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is an adverse event reported during treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Because gadoxetic acid is also a substrate of OATPs, pretreatment gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may predict hyperbilirubinemia during treatment. This prospective study therefore evaluated 11 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI prior to treatment with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks, followed by pegylated interferon and ribavirin for an additional 12 weeks. Their contrast enhancement index (CEI), an index of liver parenchymal enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, was assessed before treatment. Plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough ) of simeprevir were determined 7 days after its administration, and serum bilirubin concentrations were measured throughout the course of treatment. Six patients (55%) developed hyperbilirubinemia (≥1.6 mg/dL) during treatment. Ctrough was significantly higher in patients with than without hyperbilirubinemia (P = .009), with a strong inverse relationship between CEI and Ctrough (r = -0.911, P < .001). CEI was significantly lower in patients with than without hyperbilirubinemia (P = .009), but there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in pretreatment serum albumin concentrations and FIB-4 index, an index of liver fibrosis. Hepatic enhancement with gadoxetic acid was related to Ctrough of simeprevir. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may predict the development of hyperbilirubinemia during treatment of hepatitis C patients with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

  20. Abietic acid isolated from pine resin (Resina Pini) enhances angiogenesis in HUVECs and accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Yeon; Lee, Yun Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Roh, Seok Sun; Kang, Ki Sung

    2017-05-05

    Resin known as Resina Pini is listed in the Korean and Japanese pharmacopoeias and has been used for treating skin wounds and inflammation. Resin is composed of more than 50% abietic acid and 10% neutral substances. In the present study, the wound-healing effects of abietic acid and the possible underlying mechanism of action were investigated in various in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of abietic acid on tube formation and migration were measured in human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was evaluated via Western blotting analysis. The wound-healing effects of abietic acid were assessed using a mouse model of cutaneous wounds. The results showed that abietic acid enhanced cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs. Abietic acid induced significant angiogenic potential, which is associated with upregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 expression. Additionally, 0.8μM abietic acid-treated groups showed accelerated wound closure compared to the controls in a mouse model of cutaneous wounds. The current data indicate that abietic acid treatment elevated cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs by the activation of ERK and p38 MAPKs. We suggest that abietic acid can be developed as a wound-healing agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dentin matrix components extracted with phosphoric acid enhance cell proliferation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Satin; Cooper, Paul; Smith, Anthony; Ferracane, Jack

    2016-03-01

    Acids, such as those used in adhesive dentistry, have been shown to solubilize bioactive molecules from dentin. These dentin matrix components (DMC) may promote cell proliferation and differentiation, and ultimately contribute to dentin regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for varying concentrations of DMC extracted from human dentin by phosphoric acid of a range of pHs to stimulate proliferation and mineralization of two different cultured pulp cell populations. DMC were solubilized from powdered human dentin (7 days - 4°C) by phosphoric acid of pH 1, 3, and 5 and also, EDTA. Extracts were dialyzed for 7 days against distilled water and lyophilized. Undifferentiated mouse dental pulp cells (OD-21) and cells of the odontoblast-like cell line (MDPC-23) were seeded in six-well plates (1×10(5)) and cultured for 24h in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) containing 10% (v/v) FBS (fetal bovine serum). The cells were washed with serum-free medium and then treated with different concentrations of DMC (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0μg/ml) daily in serum free medium for 7 days. After 3, 5 (MDPC-23 only), and 7 days of treatment, cell proliferation was measured using 10vol% Alamar blue solution, which was added to each well for 1h. Cell numbers were first measured by cell counting (Trypan blue; n=5) and Alamar blue fluorescence to validate the assay, which was then used for the subsequent assessments of proliferation. Mineralization was assessed by Alizarin Red S assay after 12 days exposure to DMC (n=5). Controls were media-only (DMEM) and dexamethasone (DEX; positive control). Results were analysed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p≤0.05). There was a linear correlation between cell counts and Alamar blue fluorescence (R(2)>0.96 for both cell types) , verifying the validity of the Alamar blue assay for these cell types. In general, there was a dose-dependent trend for enhanced cell proliferation with higher concentration of DMC for both cell lines

  2. Zoledronic acid enhances Vδ2 T-lymphocyte antitumor response to human glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cimini, E; Piacentini, P; Sacchi, A; Gioia, C; Leone, S; Lauro, G M; Martini, F; Agrati, C

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans, responds modestly to treatment: most patients survive less than one year after diagnosis, despite both classical and innovative treatment approaches. A recent paper focused on γδ T-cell response in GBM patients, suggesting the application of an immunomodulating strategy based on γδ T-cells which is already in clinical trials for other tumors. Human Vγ2 T-cells recognize changes in the mevalonate metabolic pathway of transformed cells by activating cytotoxic response, and by cytokine and chemokine release. Interestingly, this activation may also be induced in vivo by drugs, such as zoledronic acid, that induce the accumulation of Vγ2 T-cell ligand Isopentenyl-pyrophosphate by blocking the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme. The aim of our work is to confirm whether bisphosphonate treatment would make glioma cell lines more susceptible to lysis by in vitro expanded γδ T-cells, improving their antitumor activity. We expanded in vitro human Vγ2 T-cells by phosphoantigen stimulation and tested their activity against glioma cell lines. Co-culture with glioma cells induced Vγ2 T-cell differentiation in effector/memory cells, killing glioma cells by the release of perforin. Interestingly, glioma cells were directly affected by zoledronic acid; moreover, treatment increased their activating ability on Vγ2 T-cells, inducing an effective antitumor cytotoxic response. Taken together, our results show that aminobisphosphonate drugs may play a dual role against GBM, by directly affecting tumor cells, and by enhancing the antitumor response of Vγ2 T-cells. Our results confirm the practicability of this approach as a new immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.

  3. Growth Hormone Enhances Arachidonic Acid Metabolites in a Growth Hormone Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Oberbauer, A. M.; German, J. B.; Murray, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    In a transgenic growth hormone (GH) mouse model, highly elevated GH increases overall growth and decreases adipose depots while low or moderate circulating GH enhances adipose deposition with differential effects on body growth. Using this model, the effects of low, moderate, and high chronic GH on fatty acid composition were determined for adipose and hepatic tissue and the metabolites of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid) were characterized to identify metabolic targets of action of elevated GH. The products of Δ-9 desaturase in hepatic, but not adipose, tissue were reduced in response to elevated GH. Proportional to the level of circulating GH, the products of Δ-5 and Δ-6 were increased in both adipose and hepatic tissue for the omega-6 lipids (e.g., 20:4n-6), while only the hepatic tissues showed an increase for omega-3 lipids (e.g., 22:6n-3). The eicosanoids, PGE2 and 12-HETE, were elevated with high GH but circulating thromboxane was not. Hepatic PTGS1 and 2 (COX1 and COX 2), SOD1, and FADS2 (Δ-6 desaturase) mRNAs were increased with elevated GH while FAS mRNA was reduced; SCD1 (ste-aroyl-coenzyme A desaturase) and SCD2 mRNA did not significantly differ. The present study showed that GH influences the net flux through various aspects of lipid metabolism and especially the desaturase metabolic processes. The combination of altered metabolism and tissue specificity suggest that the regulation of membrane composition and its effects on signaling pathways, including the production and actions of eicosanoids, can be mediated by the GH regulatory axis. PMID:21442273

  4. Acid ceramidase treatment enhances the outcome of autologous chondrocyte implantation in a rat osteochondral defect model.

    PubMed

    Frohbergh, M E; Guevara, J M; Grelsamer, R P; Barbe, M F; He, X; Simonaro, C M; Schuchman, E H

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate how supplementation of chondrocyte media with recombinant acid ceramidase (rhAC) influenced cartilage repair in a rat osteochondral defect model. Primary chondrocytes were grown as monolayers in polystyrene culture dishes with and without rhAC (added once at the time of cell plating) for 7 days, and then seeded onto Bio-Gide® collagen scaffolds and grown for an additional 3 days. The scaffolds were then introduced into osteochondral defects created in Sprague-Dawley rat trochlea by a microdrilling procedure. Analysis was performed 6 weeks post-surgery macroscopically, by micro-CT, histologically, and by immunohistochemistry. Treatment with rhAC led to increased cell numbers and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production (∼2 and 3-fold, respectively) following 7 days of expansion in vitro. Gene expression of collagen 2, aggrecan and Sox-9 also was significantly elevated. After seeding onto Bio-Gide®, more rhAC treated cells were evident within 4 h. At 6 weeks post-surgery, defects containing rhAC-treated cells exhibited more soft tissue formation at the articular surface, as evidenced by microCT, as well as histological evidence of enhanced cartilage repair. Notably, collagen 2 immunostaining revealed greater surface expression in animals receiving rhAC treated cells as well. Collagen 10 staining was not enhanced. The results further demonstrate