#### Sample records for 5-axis milling machine

1. Computer Aided Simulation Machining Programming In 5-Axis Nc Milling Of Impeller Leaf

Huran, Liu

At present, cad/cam (computer-aided design and manufacture) have fine wider and wider application in mechanical industry. For the complex surfaces, the traditional machine tool can no longer satisfy the requirement of such complex task. Only by the help of cad/cam can fulfill the requirement. The machining of the vane surface of the impeller leaf has been considered as the hardest challenge. Because of their complex shape, the 5-axis cnc machine tool is needed for the machining of such parts. The material is hard to cut, the requirement for the surface finish and clearance is very high, so that the manufacture quality of impeller leaf represent the level of 5-axis machining. This paper opened a new field in machining the complicated surface, based on a relatively more rigid mathematical basis. The theory presented here is relatively more systematical. Since the lack of theoretical guidance, in the former research, people have to try in machining many times. Such case will be changed. The movement of the cutter determined by this method is definite, and the residual is the smallest while the times of travel is the fewest. The criterion is simple and the calculation is easy.

2. Establishing a Novel Model for 5-Axis Milling with a Filleted End Mill

Sekine, Tsutomu; Obikawa, Toshiyuki; Hoshino, Michihiko

This paper focuses on the mathematical modeling for 5-axis milling with a filleted end mill. Several coordinate systems are introduced to describe the relationship between a cutter orientation and a machined surface. Then, a cutting point on a cutting edge is geometrically formulated as an integrated form of some expressions. The fundamental simulations based on the modeling were implemented to investigate the characteristics of path-interval and feed-interval scallops on a machined surface; moreover, path interval determination is proposed for suitable estimation in filleted end milling. As a result, it was found that the proposed approach could provide the characteristics of microscopic topography in detail.

3. The design of the control algorithm for corrective manufacturing of 5 axis machining centre

Beneš, J.; Procháska, F.; Matoušek, O.

2016-11-01

The work deals with the creation of correction data when generating spherical and aspherical surfaces. Generation is performed on the converted 5-axis milling machine, for which it is necessary to generate control programs. In the process of generating surfaces may be formed random errors. Hence the need to measure workpieces, and errors corrected. There is thus solved a measurement of generated surface on coordinate measuring machine Mitutoyo LEGEX 744 and draft methods of data processing by using polynomial of nth order. The measured data are processed by Matlab, specifically CFTool module. This method is further tested and subsequently the experiment evaluated.

4. Compound taper milling machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Campbell, N. R.

1969-01-01

Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

5. Simulation and experimental research on modal analysis for a new 5-axis superalloy blade machine tool

Zhao, H. P.; Tang, X. Q.; Chen, X.; Wang, L. P.

2011-05-01

This paper considers a new type of 5-axis machine tool which is used to cut superalloy blades specially. Referring to this new structure system, this study presents modal simulation in detail to calculate the structure vibration resistance. The modal simulation include building suitable finite element models, considering boundary constraints and interpreting results. The physical impact test of prototype is conducted to validate the simulation results. The modal simulation also reveals that some important partial characteristics that affects the structure performance are ignored in the physical test data. The validated model can be used to complement the experimental test.

6. Accurate identification and compensation of geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machine tools using double ball bar

Lasemi, Ali; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

2016-05-01

Five-axis CNC machine tools are widely used in manufacturing of parts with free-form surfaces. Geometric errors of machine tools have significant effects on the quality of manufactured parts. This research focuses on development of a new method to accurately identify geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machines, especially the errors due to rotary axes, using the magnetic double ball bar. A theoretical model for identification of geometric errors is provided. In this model, both position-independent errors and position-dependent errors are considered as the error sources. This model is simplified by identification and removal of the correlated and insignificant error sources of the machine. Insignificant error sources are identified using the sensitivity analysis technique. Simulation results reveal that the simplified error identification model can result in more accurate estimations of the error parameters. Experiments on a 5-axis CNC machine tool also demonstrate significant reduction in the volumetric error after error compensation.

7. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies

Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.

2014-11-01

The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

8. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

PubMed

Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

2011-10-01

China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system.

9. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

10. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walden, Charles H.

This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

11. 21. Credit WS. Ground floor, Midget Marvel milling machine, a ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Credit WS. Ground floor, Midget Marvel milling machine, a 25 barrel day machine by the Anglo American Mill Co. (Owensboro, KY), without covers, exposing rollers and sifters. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

12. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rauschl, J. A.

1966-01-01

Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

13. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ray, R. B.

1992-01-01

OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

14. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

15. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

16. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit II--Horizontal Milling Machines.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a horizontal mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting style "A" or "B" arbors and adjusting arbor…

17. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit III--Vertical Milling Machines.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a vertical mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting and removing cutters and cutter holders for vertical…

18. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

PubMed

Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

2016-01-01

The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

19. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

2016-02-01

Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

20. 26. OVERALL SHOT OF BASEMENT, MILL NO. 1. ORIGINALLY MACHINE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. OVERALL SHOT OF BASEMENT, MILL NO. 1. ORIGINALLY MACHINE SHOP. PALLETS ON FLOOR ADDED IN LATE 20th C. FOR CLOTH STORAGE. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

1. VIEW OF TURNTABLE, WITH CAR MACHINE SHOP AND PLANING MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TURNTABLE, WITH CAR MACHINE SHOP AND PLANING MILL IN THE BACKGROUND AND ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST. ATSF 5021 2-10-4 STEAM LOCOMOTIVE IS ON TURNTABLE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

2. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

3. Milling Machine Operator: Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

The instructor's guide is for a course expected to help meet the need for trained operators in metalworking. Students successfully completing the course will be qualified for an entry-level job as a milling machine operator. The course is suitable for use in adult education programs of school districts, or in manpower development and training…

4. Computer used to program numerically controlled milling machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harris, T. C.

1967-01-01

Computer program automatically directs a numerically controlled milling machine through a series of cutting and trimming actions. It accepts engineering data points, passes smooth curve segments through the points, breaks the resulting curves into a series of closely spaced points, and transforms these points into the form required by the mechanism.

5. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dunn, James

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

6. Machine Shop Operations--2. Milling Machine, Heat Treatment of Metals, and Grinders.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currao, Joseph; Usarzewicz, Louis

This manual was prepared for the student who plans to enter the machine shop field. The 20 selected jobs provide the student with knowledge and step-by-step procedures for the operation of milling machines. The text is organized so that each job has an objective, tools needed, step-by-step instructions, a progress quiz, and space for reference,…

7. Machining graphite composites with polycrystalline diamond end mills

Kohkonen, Kent E.; Anderson, Scott; Strong, A. B.

One area of focus in developing light-strong materials has been the development of graphite/epoxy composites. The graphite/epoxy materials have created challenges in the area of fabrication and machining. The research objective was to determine if cutting tool material and style of cutting edge showed any significant differences in tool life. The cutting tool materials and cutter styles included helical carbide-end mills and straight and helical polycrystalline diamond-end mill cutters. The experimental design was developed using a fractional factorial design running twelve tests. Results were taken from cutting tool flank edge wear, composite part surface finish, and visual delamination of the part.

8. Shaper and Milling Machine Operation, Machine Shop Work 2: 9555.04.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

The course outline has been prepared to assist the student in learning the basic skills and safety for shaper and milling operations. The course presents the various types of machines, work holding devices, cutting tools and feeds and speeds, and instruction designed to enable the student to obtain the manipulative skills and related knowledge…

9. Fast method for obtaining scale dimensions on tape-controlled milling machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thompson, L. J.

1968-01-01

Calculator obtains the Rail and Z Scale dimensions on the tape-controlled Sundstrand milling machine. It provides computer with depth information required to process numerical control programs which, in turn, provide the tapes for operation of N/C milling machines.

10. Milling Machine Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dean, James W.

This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a milling machine. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as milling machine operators. Contents include a…

11. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part B: labside milling machines.

PubMed

Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

2016-01-01

Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental laboratories (labside solution) and dental production centers. This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dental technicians understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. The technical and economic criteria are described for four labside and two production center dental NC milling machines available on the market. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of milling machines to mill prosthetic materials and various restoration shapes. The economic criteria are focused on investment cost and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is discussed through the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. It can be asserted that dental production center milling machines offer a wider range of materials and types of restoration shapes than labside solutions, while labside solutions offer a wider range than chairside solutions. The accuracy and integrity of restorations may be improved as a function of the embedded technologies provided. However, the more complex the technical solutions available, the more skilled the user must be. Investment cost and interoperability with third-party software increase according to the quality of the embedded technologies implemented. Each private dental practice may decide which fabrication option to use depending on the scope of the practice.

12. The MillSOT-A Spiral Orbit Tribometer on a Milling Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pepper, Stephen V.

2014-01-01

A spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) intended to characterize friction and wear phenomena has been constructed on a milling machine. The instrument, essentially a retainerless thrust bearing with one ball and flat races, is exceedingly simple and inexpensive to construct. The capabilities of the tribometer to measure both the coefficient of friction and contact electrical resistance are demonstrated with clean specimens as well as with well known lubricants such as molybdenum disulphide and Krytox oil. Operation in a purged environment of inert gas is also demonstrated. The results with these lubricants are quite close to what is obtained by other methods. Suggestions for extending the capabilities of the tribometer are given. This arrangement may find use in university mechanical engineering laboratories to introduce and study rolling contact motion as well as for research in contact mechanics and tribology.

13. Machining Strategy to Adapt Cutting Conditions under Digital Copy Milling Concept

Shimada, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi

Most machining tools are controlled by numerical control (NC) programs in order to achieve unmanned machining operations with high precision and improved productivity. However, all the movements of the machining tool are predetermined, and all instructions coded in the NC program are performed sequentially. Therefore, since the cutting process is not adaptable during unmanned machining, the cutting conditions should be set conservatively to avoid cutting difficulties. In this study, machining strategies for adapting the cutting process during a milling operation to avoid tool breakage and to stabilize cutting load have been integrated into an autonomous NC machining tool developed under the Digital Copy Milling (DCM) concept for generating a tool path in real time. In machining strategies, feed speed, radial and axial depths of cut are adapted according to cutting load detected from load cells in the machining table. Successful endmilling experiments verified the effectiveness of the developed machining strategy.

14. Comparison of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Laser Machined and Milled 304 L Stainless Steel

Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, Aniruddha; Nagpure, D. C.; Rai, S. K.; Singh, M. K.; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, Amrendra; Tiwari, M. K.; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Singh, B.

2016-12-01

Machining of austenitic stainless steel components is known to introduce significant enhancement in their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The paper compares stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined 304 L stainless steel specimens with conventionally milled counterpart in chloride environment. With respect to conventionally milled specimens, laser machined specimens displayed more than 12 times longer crack initiation time in accelerated stress corrosion cracking test in boiling magnesium chloride as per ASTM G36. Reduced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined surface is attributed to its predominantly ferritic duplex microstructure in which anodic ferrite phase was under compressive stress with respect to cathodic austenite.

15. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

Mohan Reddy, M.; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K. A.

2011-02-01

Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

16. Precission plunge milling for angled vertical walls, on three axis machining center

Pralea, B.; Nagit, GH

2016-11-01

In this study the authors will construct a type of milling based on the plunge milling and raster milling toolpath strategy, only this time it is not going to be used for roughing but only for finishing vertical and angled surfaces of particular components of injection molds, with the help of a three axis vertical machining center. This particular toolpath strategy designed, with a commercial CAM program, for finishing the vertical and angled walls, offers a better surface roughness, and a better dimensional control (accuracy), both for the milling tool and also for the work piece.

17. Experimental investigation of machining parameter under MQL milling of SS304

Gatade, Vivek T.; Patil, Vikas T.; Kuppan, P.; Balan, A. S. S.; Oyyaravelu, R.

2016-09-01

Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) or near dry machining has been recognized by many researchers and industrialist in order to move one step ahead towards the green manufacturing. MQL assisted machining reduces the harmful environmental impact caused by flood coolant and machining cost. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of oxygen as a carrier gas in MQL during end milling of austenitic stainless steel grade SS304. Also, the machining performance under conventional MQL with air and dry machining have been studied. The evaluation was done on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces under two distinct cutting speeds i.e. 75 m/min and 100 m/min. Investigation brings to light that presence of oxygen is susceptible in the case of machining of SS304, it provides extra protective oxide layer near the tool chip interface. Consequently, increased tool life, reduced surface roughness and cutting forces when compared to conventional MQL assisted milling.

18. The ESO VAX Computer's Largest Peripheral..-a Two-Ton Milling Machine

Balon, S.; Lund, G.; Chittim, D.

1986-03-01

The Garching workshop has now for some time been equipped with a "CNC" (programmable) precision milling machine, which has proven extremely useful not only for routine machining work, but also for the rather monotonous and extremely time-consuming task of preparing starplates for OPTOPUS observation runs (see also the Messenger No. 31 p. 13 [1983]). In the preparation of a single observation run, a total of some 1,500 precision-reamed holes must be machined, each requiring 9 different drilling operations and something like 24,000 lines of machine instructions.

19. Effect of microstructure on the breakage of tin bronze machining chips during pulverization via jet milling

Afshari, Elham; Ghambari, Mohammad; Farhangi, Hasan

2016-11-01

In this study, jet milling was used to recycle tin bronze machining chips into powder. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the microstructure of tin bronze machining chips on their breakage behavior. An experimental target jet mill was used to pulverize machining chips of three different tin bronze alloys containing 7wt%, 10wt%, and 12wt% of tin. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as sieve analysis, were used to follow the trend of pulverization. Each alloy exhibited a distinct rate of size reduction, particle size distribution, and fracture surface appearance. The results showed that the degree of pulverization substantially increased with increasing tin content. This behavior was attributed to the higher number of machining cracks as well as the increased volume fraction of brittle δ phase in the alloys with higher tin contents. The δ phase was observed to strongly influence the creation of machining cracks as well as the nucleation and propagation of cracks during jet milling. In addition, a direct relationship was observed between the mean δ-phase spacing and the mean size of the jet-milled product; i.e., a decrease in the δ-phase spacing resulted in smaller particles.

20. Thread cutting with 3-axis N/C milling machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salley, G. C.; Wood, C. H., Jr.

1968-01-01

TAPDIE, a generalized macro written for the APT numerical control system, cuts threads in stock too big for conventional machines or for which conventional methods are unsuitable. TAPDIE computes the machine tool path necessary and the information is passed on to a post-processor which produces a control tape.

1. Computer Programmed Milling Machine Operations. High-Technology Training Module.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leonard, Dennis

This learning module for a high school metals and manufacturing course is designed to introduce the concept of computer-assisted machining (CAM). Through it, students learn how to set up and put data into the controller to machine a part. They also become familiar with computer-aided manufacturing and learn the advantages of computer numerical…

2. An Investigation of Machining Characteristics in Micro-scale Milling Process

Ku, Min-Su; Kang, Ik-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Suk

2011-01-01

In this paper, an analytical solution of micro-scale milling process is presented in order to suggest available machining conditions. The size effect should be considered to determine cutting characteristics in micro-scale cutting. The feed per tooth is the most dominant cutting parameter related to the size effect in micro-scale milling process. In order to determine the feed per tooth at which chips can be formed, the finite element method is used. The finite element method is employed by utilizing the Johnson-Cook (JC) model as a constitutive model of work material flow stress. Machining experiments are performed to validate the simulation results by using a micro-machining stage. The validation is conducted by observing cutting force signals from a cutting tool and the conditions of the machined surface of the workpiece.

3. An Investigation of Machining Characteristics in Micro-scale Milling Process

SciTech Connect

Ku, Min-Su; Kang, Ik-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Suk

2011-01-17

In this paper, an analytical solution of micro-scale milling process is presented in order to suggest available machining conditions. The size effect should be considered to determine cutting characteristics in micro-scale cutting. The feed per tooth is the most dominant cutting parameter related to the size effect in micro-scale milling process. In order to determine the feed per tooth at which chips can be formed, the finite element method is used. The finite element method is employed by utilizing the Johnson-Cook (JC) model as a constitutive model of work material flow stress. Machining experiments are performed to validate the simulation results by using a micro-machining stage. The validation is conducted by observing cutting force signals from a cutting tool and the conditions of the machined surface of the workpiece.

4. OPMILL - MICRO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC MILLING MACHINES THREE AXIS EQUATION PLOTTING CAPABILITIES

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ray, R. B.

1994-01-01

OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo

5. Ultrasonic 3D imaging system for the automated application in milling machines

Schmitt, Robert; Hafner, Philip

2007-04-01

In order to meet the requirements of rising flexibility and an automated material inspection in a small batch production environment, an automatically changeable ultrasound sensor tool for milling machines has been developed. This system enables an automated ultrasonic inspection of varying parts to be carried out directly on a machining center and visualizes hidden geometries and material imperfections three-dimensionally. The sensor tool is based on commercialized ultrasonic squirter-probes, which are able to use the cooling lubricant for sound coupling. During the measurement recordings, the milling machine's axes move the sensor numerical-controlled across the workpiece. By this means, automated material inspection tasks can be performed very cost-effectively without setting up separate testing facilities. 4- or 5-axes kinematics capacitates the system to check even very complex-shaped parts.

6. Consequences of heavy machining vis à vis the machine structure - typical applications

Leuch, M.

2011-12-01

StarragHeckert has built 5 axis machines since the middle of the 80s for heavy duty milling. The STC-Centres are predominantly utilised in the aerospace industry, especially for milling structural workpieces, casings or Impellers made out of titanium and steel. StarragHeckert has a history of building machines for high performance milling. The machining of these components includes high forces thus spreading the wheat from the chaff. Although FEM calculations and multi-body simulations are carried out in the early stages of development, this paper will illustrate how the real process stability with modal analysis and cutting trials is determined. The experiment observes chatter stability to identify if the machine devices are adequate for the application or if the design has to be improved. Machining parameters of industrial applications are demonstrating the process stability for five axis heavy duties milling of StarragHeckert machine.

7. Ion-plasma gun for ion-milling machine

DOEpatents

Kaminsky, Manfred S.; Campana, Jr., Thomas J.

1976-01-01

An ion gun includes an elongated electrode with a hollow end portion closed by a perforated end plate. The end plate is positioned parallel to a perforated flat electrode of opposite electrical polarity. An insulated sleeve encompasses the elongated electrode and extends outwardly from the perforated end towards the flat electrode. The sleeve length is separated into two portions of different materials. The first is formed of a high-temperature material that extends over the hollow portion of the elongated electrode where the arc is initiated by a point source electrode. The second sleeve portion extending over the remainder of the elongated electrode is of a resilient material for enhanced seal-forming ability and retention of plasma gas. Perforations are arranged in the flat electrode in a mutually opposing triangular pattern to project a plasma beam having a generally flat current profile towards a target requiring precision milling.

8. Integration of an autonomous optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers

Preißler, Marc; Schellhorn, Mathias; Hoffmann, Rolf; Notni, Gunther

2015-05-01

The integration of quality control in manufacturing process contains this paper and discusses the possibilities for integrated quality control in CNC milling machines without clamping off a workpiece. For these concepts non-contact measurements with image processing sensors have significant benefits for data acquisition in rapidity and a high grade of flexibility. New effective measurement strategies can be developed in effect of the quality controlling in the machining area. These includes classical geometric measurement applications from optical 2D but also options for 3D measurement tasks like determining roughness or other typical image processing applications. This paper presents the challenges for the implementation of an optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers. Primarily a suitable location in the machining area must be found and an associated strategy has to be developed. The integrated optical image sensor system should be protect against impurity and does not derogate in his functionality. For the full integration as a quality control loop, the results must feed into the machine control. Thus a further interface between measurement program and a machine control is necessary. Another major field of research exists in the optical components. Especially the illumination, image sensor and lens are selected and adaptable for the measurement tasks after the considerations of the above-mentioned basic requirements. The presented research provides a suitable solution to make the CNC manufacture more efficient. Quality controls of the work piece can be executed within the CNC process and potential post processing can be performed simultaneously.

9. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

2014-12-01

The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

10. Rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining for side milling of CFRP: tool performance and surface integrity.

PubMed

Geng, Daxi; Zhang, Deyuan; Xu, Yonggang; He, Fengtao; Liu, Dapeng; Duan, Zuoheng

2015-05-01

The rotary ultrasonic elliptical machining (RUEM) has been recognized as a new effective process to machining circular holes on CFRP materials. In CFRP face machining, the application of grinding tools is restricted for the tool clogging and the machined surface integrity. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to extend the RUEM process to side milling of CFRP for the first time, which kept the effect of elliptical vibration in RUEM. The experiment apparatus was developed, and the preliminary experiments were designed and conducted, with comparison to conventional grinding (CG). The experimental results showed that when the elliptical vibration was applied in RUEM, a superior cutting process can be obtained compared with that in CG, including providing reduced cutting forces (2-43% decrement), an extended tool life (1.98 times), and improved surface integrity due to the intermittent material removal mechanism and the excellent chip removal conditions achieved in RUEM. It was concluded that the RUEM process is suitable to mill flat surface on CFRP composites.

11. Design and development of a micro polycrystalline diamond ball end mill for micro/nano freeform machining of hard and brittle materials

Cheng, X.; Wang, Z. G.; Nakamoto, K.; Yamazaki, K.

2009-11-01

Micro end mills play a key role in micro/nano milling applications for intricate three-dimensional die/molds or sensors for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In order to achieve higher machining accuracy and longer tool life, micro end mills are usually made of ultra-hard materials such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD) or cubic boron nitride (CBN). One of the best choices for their fabrication is the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) method. There are two basic categories of micro end mills, namely the ball end mill for 3D freeform surface machining and straight/round edge end mills for non-freeform surface machining. This paper focuses on the design and development of the micro ball end mill for hard and brittle materials. Firstly, the available typical ball end mill is analyzed. Secondly, a micro ball end mill with uniform axial rake and clearance angles is designed and analyzed by the finite element method (FEM). The designed micro ball end mill only needs simultaneously three linear and one index rotational WEDM axes instead of simultaneously five WEDM axes for traditional ball end mills. Then, micro PCD ball end mills are fabricated and the radius variation follows in ±2.0 µm, which is more accurate than commercially available ones. Finally, the 3D freeform geometry milling on tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon wafer successfully demonstrated the possibility of micro-mechanical freeform machining by the developed micro ball end mill.

12. Improvement of the Laser Direct Metal Deposition Process in 5-axis Configuration

Boisselier, Didier; Sankaré, Simon; Engel, Thierry

The implementation of the continuous 5-axis configuration can extend the limits of the Laser Direct Metal Deposition (LDMD) processes, especially when the complexity of the parts to be built is growing. In order to follow the profile of a part, we use the orientation of its growth axis. Although 5-axis machining is well known nowadays, LDMD processes require a specific optimization that depends on many parameters. Unlike conventional machining, it has to be noted that the speed variation tool tip affects the stability of deposition. Thus, we have to smooth trajectories in order to provide fluid movements and also to ensure the stability of deposition. This article describes the method and results in the optimization of trajectories to build metallic parts with freeform. Optical sensors have been implemented in the focusing unit in order to follow the variations of the laser-powder-substrate interaction and also to detect the process instabilities. Thanks to the right use of a new and large 5 axis machine and specific setting trajectories, manufacturing parts in 5-axis, with no concession on the construction rate has been possible.

13. The hardness effect of friction stir welding by MILKO 37 milling machine

Jasri, M. A. H. M.; Afendi, M.; Ismail, A.; Ishak, M.

2015-05-01

This study investigates the mechanical properties of aluminium A5083 in terms of hardness after it has been welded by friction stir welding (FSW) process. In this study, MILKO 37 milling machine was modified to run FSW process on 4 mm aluminium A5083 plate butt joint. In the experiments, variables of travel speed and tool rotational speed based on capability of machine were used. From previous researches, the tool geometry design is one of the major parameters for FSW process. Therefore, tool geometry design was initially determined based on trial and error. The tool geometry chosen was solid cylinder as the effect toward the FSW process was minimal. The design shows that the pin length should be 80-95 % of plate thickness and the pin probe diameter shape is cylinder flat base. The tool's material chosen was a high carbon steel grade A709 with hardening process using standard ASTM A709 GR 50/type 1.

14. Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization

Wang, Yijun; Mei, Yushan

2015-12-01

Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine currently consists of micro-controller and peripheral devices. The structure has the problems which include low integration, single signal processing algorithms and great measurement error. Therefore, electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization is presented in the paper. Firstly, the device control electrical measuring system by ARM subsystem of OMAP dual-core architecture and DSP subsystem realizes digital signal processing and unbalance computing. Also, the low-pass filtering circuit is designed for solving frequency interference. Secondly, the system implement digital band-pass tracking filter based on harmonic wavelet packet. Thirdly, the system extracts any period of weak signal characteristics using the unlimited segmentation features harmonic for wavelet packet signal in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the system effectively inhibits nearly frequency signal interference, improves signal to noise ratio, and reduces the initial imbalance signal characteristics. And test results improve that precision indexes and technical specifications could meet the design goals.

15. Effect of High-speed Milling tool path strategies on the surface roughness of Stavax ESR mold insert machining

Mebrahitom, A.; Rizuan, D.; Azmir, M.; Nassif, M.

2016-02-01

High speed milling is one of the recent technologies used to produce mould inserts due to the need for high surface finish. It is a faster machining process where it uses a small side step and a small down step combined with very high spindle speed and feed rate. In order to effectively use the HSM capabilities, optimizing the tool path strategies and machining parameters is an important issue. In this paper, six different tool path strategies have been investigated on the surface finish and machining time of a rectangular cavities of ESR Stavax material. CAD/CAM application of CATIA V5 machining module for pocket milling of the cavities was used for process planning.

16. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

17. Business Case Analysis for Replacing the Mazak 30Y Mill-Turn Machine in SM-39. Summary

SciTech Connect

Booth, Steven Richard; Dinehart, Timothy Grant; Benson, Faith Ann

2015-03-19

Business case studies are being looked at to support procurement of new machines and capital equipment in the SM-39 and TA-03-0102 machine shops. The first effort conducted economic analysis of replacing the Mazak 30Y Mill-Turn Machine located in SM-39. To determine the value of switching machinery, a baseline scenario was compared with a future scenario where new machinery was purchased and installed. The conditions under the two scenarios were defined via interviews with subject matter experts in terms of one-time and periodic costs. The results of the analysis were compiled in a life-cycle cost/benefit table. The costs of procuring, installing, and maintaining a new machine were balanced against the costs avoided by replacing older machinery. Productivity savings were included as a measure to show the costs avoided by being able to produce parts at a quicker and more efficient pace.

18. User's manual for tooth contact analysis of face-milled spiral bevel gears with given machine-tool settings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, YI; Chen, Jui-Sheng

1991-01-01

Research was performed to develop a computer program that will: (1) simulate the meshing and bearing contact for face milled spiral beval gears with given machine tool settings; and (2) to obtain the output, some of the data is required for hydrodynamic analysis. It is assumed that the machine tool settings and the blank data will be taken from the Gleason summaries. The theoretical aspects of the program are based on 'Local Synthesis and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face Mill Milled Spiral Bevel Gears'. The difference between the computer programs developed herein and the other one is as follows: (1) the mean contact point of tooth surfaces for gears with given machine tool settings must be determined iteratively, while parameters (H and V) are changed (H represents displacement along the pinion axis, V represents the gear displacement that is perpendicular to the plane drawn through the axes of the pinion and the gear of their initial positions), this means that when V differs from zero, the axis of the pionion and the gear are crossed but not intersected; (2) in addition to the regular output data (transmission errors and bearing contact), the new computer program provides information about the contacting force for each contact point and the sliding and the so-called rolling velocity. The following topics are covered: (1) instructions for the users as to how to insert the input data; (2) explanations regarding the output data; (3) numerical example; and (4) listing of the program.

19. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

SciTech Connect

Burd, W.; Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T.

1993-08-01

The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

20. Carbon utilization profiles of bacteria colonizing the headbox water of two paper machines in a Canadian mill.

PubMed

Kashama, Johnny; Prince, Véronique; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Beaulieu, Carole

2009-03-01

Forty-one bacterial strains isolated from the headbox water of two machines in a Canadian paper mill were associated with the genera Asticcacaulis, Acidovorax, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA genes. The metabolic profile of these strains were determined using Biolog EcoPlate, and the bacteria were divided into four metabolic groups. Metabolic profiles of the bacterial communities colonizing the headbox water of two paper machines was also determined weekly over a 1 year period. The only compound that was not reduced by the bacterial community was 2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Utilization frequency of the other carbon sources in the Biolog EcoPlate ranged from 3 to 100%. The metabolic profiles of the bacterial community did not vary considerably between the two paper machines. However, the metabolic profile varied among the sampling dates.

1. Effect of milling machine roughness and wing dihedral on the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Darden, Christine M.

1989-01-01

An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of surface finish on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept wing at supersonic speeds. A study of the effects of wing dihedral was also made. Included in the tests were four wing models: three models having 22.5 degrees of outboard dihedral, identical except for surface finish, and a zero-dihedral, smooth model of the same planform for reference. Of the three dihedral models, two were taken directly from the milling machine without smoothing: one having a maximum scallop height of 0.002 inches and the other a maximum scallop height of 0.005 inches. The third dihedral model was handfinished to a smooth surface. Tests were conducted in Test Section 1 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA-Langley over a range of Mach numbers from 1.8 to 2.8, a range of angle of attack from -5 to 8 degrees, and at a Reynolds numbers per foot of 2 x 10(6). Selected data were also taken at a Reynolds number per foot of 6 x 10(6). Drag coefficient increases, with corresponding lift-drag ratio decreases were the primary aerodynamic effects attributed to increased surface roughness due to milling machine grooves. These drag and lift-drag ratio increments due to roughness increased as Reynolds number increased.

2. Characteristics and Machining Performance of TiN and TiAlN Coatings on a Milling Cutter

Sarwar, Mohammed; Haider, Julfikar

2011-01-01

Titanium Nitride (TiN) coating deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) or Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) techniques on cutting tools (single point or multipoint) has contributed towards the improvement of tool life, productivity and product quality [1]. Addition of Al in TiN coating (e.g., TiAlN or AlTiN) has further improved the coating properties required for machining applications [2, 3]. This work presents a comparative investigation on TiN and TiAlN coatings deposited on to a Powder Metallurgy High Speed Steel (PM HSS) milling cutter used for machining bimetal (M42+D6A) steel strips. PVD (Arc evaporation) technique was used to deposit the coatings after carefully preparing the cutting edges of the milling cutter. Microstructure, chemical composition, hardness and adhesion of the coatings have been characterised using different techniques. The incorporation of Al into TiN coating results in an improvement in hardness, wear resistance and cutting performance. Examination of the worn flank in the coated cutting edges revealed that abrasive and adhesive wear are the predominant failure mechanisms. Tool designers, coating suppliers and manufacturing engineers could benefit from the information provided.

3. Are different generations of CAD/CAM milling machines capable to produce restorations with similar quality?

PubMed Central

Roperto, Renato; Assaf, Hussein; Soares-Porto, Thiago; Lang, Lisa; Teich, Sorin

2016-01-01

Background Different CAD/CAM machines’ generation may impact the restoration overall quality. The present study evaluated the marginal fit of CAD/CAM restorations manufactured with different generations of CEREC milling unit systems. Material and Methods Sixteen typodont teeth were divided into two groups (n=8) according to the machine’s generation assigned. These are control group (G1): Cerec AC with Bluecam/Cerec 3 milling unit and (G2): Cerec AC with Bluecam/MC XL Premium Package milling unit. Scanning of the preparation were performed and crowns were milled using the Vita Mark II blocks. Blocks were cemented using epoxy glue on the pulpal floor only and finger pressure applied for 1 min. Upon completion of the cementation step, misfits between the restoration and abutment were measured by microphotography and the silicone replica technique using light body silicon material on Mesial (M) and Distal (D) surfaces. Results Mean and SDs of marginal gaps in micrometers were: G1/M: 94.90 (±38.52), G1/D: 88.53 (±44.87), G2/M: 85.65 (±29.89), G2/D: 95.28 (±28.13). Two-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences among different groups (P>0.05); surface area (P>0.05) and the interaction (P>0.05). Overall, G2 had greater margin gaps than G1, however, without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusions Difference in milling unit generation did not significantly affect the marginal fit. Marginal gap means were in the range of the clinical acceptance levels for both generations of Cerec milling units, regardless the teeth site area. Key words:CAD/CAM, margin, ceramics. PMID:27703611

4. Interpolation by Bezier curves and NURBS Strategies of Machining of Complex Surfaces In CNC Milling

Hacene, Ameddah.; Mekki, Assas.

2009-03-01

The increase in the productivity on machine with digital control passes, amongst other things, by the improvement of the programming of this machine. The language on which this programming is currently based is the standard 6983 which defines the principles of the code G. This last forward certain disadvantages to the sights of the new strategies of machining and creates a rupture of the numeric control on the level of manufacture. New formats, format by Bezier curves and NURBS, are born currently with the purpose of palliating to the lacks of the code G and to integrate CAO-FAO-CN channel completely. Our work aims to forward these new strategies of machining based on the interpolation of Bezier curves and NURBS like their new formats NC. A program in Visual BASIC 6.0 Windows pennies was developed making it possible to trace the trajectories of Bezier curves and B Spline in continuation of used in a software of FAO.

5. Optical system for the calibration and verification of correct axis positioning in medium-big sized milling boring machines

Mocellin, M.; Fedel, M.; Cocola, L.; Casarin, R.; Poletto, L.

2015-05-01

An optical system for the automatic recalibration of large machine tools during the machining process has been developed. The system provides an error signal during operation in order to compensate for structural deformations of axis and sliding parts. Those signals are used to reach a global positioning error below 50 microns on 3-axis translation stages, having range of several meters. One collimated diode laser beam has been mounted to the machining table reference system. Three resistive-type 2D-position-sensing devices are used to locate the beam on each axis. Before the first two sensors in the optical path, the beam is split by a wedge pentaprism in two secondary beams. The first one propagates linearly along the sensor for the displacement measurement. The second one is deflected with a fixed 90° angle and defines the sampling direction of the next axis. By duplicating the system using a second pentaprism on the latter deflected beam, three axis are monitored. In order to avoid any active electronic devises on the milling head, a passive corner cube is placed on the side of the head. Laser beam is then back reflected on a final position-sensitive sensor mounted in proximity of the second pentaprism. Additional channels consisting in laser beams back-reflected by mirrors on similar position sensing devices were used to acquire angular measurements as well. The tests performed on the prototype demonstrate the capability of mapping the actual deviations from the ideal linear translation with an error of 25 um along the full axis travel.

6. From MEMS to macro-world: a micro-milling machined wideband vibration piezoelectric energy harvester

Iannacci, J.; Sordo, G.

2015-05-01

In this work, we discuss a novel mechanical resonator design for the realization of vibration Energy Harvester (EH) capable to deliver power levels in the mW range. The device overcomes the typical constraint of frequency narrowband operability of standard cantilevered EHs, by exploiting a circular-shaped resonator with an increased number of mechanical Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs), leading to several resonant modes in the range of vibrations of interest (i.e. multi-modal wideband EH). The device, named Four-Leaf Clover (FLC), is simulated in Ansys Worbench™, showing a significant number of resonant modes up to vibrations of around 2 kHz (modal eigenfrequencies analysis), and exhibiting levels of converted power up to a few mW at resonance (harmonic coupled-field analysis). The sole FLC mechanical structure is realized by micro-milling an Aluminum foil, while a cantilevered test structure also including PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) film sheet is assembled in order to collect first experimental feedback on generated power levels. The first lab based tests show peak-to-peak voltages of several Volts when the cantilever is stimulated with a mechanical pulse. Further developments of this work will comprise the assembly of an FLC demonstrator with PVDF pads, and its experimental testing in order to validate the simulated results.

7. A novel path generation method of onsite 5-axis surface inspection using the dual-cubic NURBS representation

Li, Wen-long; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Gang; Pang, Chang-tao; Yin, Zhou-pin

2016-09-01

Onsite surface inspection with a touch probe or a laser scanner is a promising technique for efficiently evaluating surface profile error. The existing work of 5-axis inspection path generation bears a serious drawback, however, as there is a drastic orientation change of the inspection axis. Such a sudden change may exceed the stringent physical limit on the speed and acceleration of the rotary motions of the machine tool. In this paper, we propose a novel path generation method for onsite 5-axis surface inspection. The accessibility cones are defined and used to generate alternative interference-free inspection directions. Then, the control points are optimally calculated to obtain the dual-cubic non-Uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves, which respectively determine the path points and the axis vectors in an inspection path. The generated inspection path is smooth and non-interference, which deals with the ‘mutation and shake’ problems and guarantees a stable speed and acceleration of machine tool rotary motions. Its feasibility and validity is verified by the onsite inspection experiments of impeller blade.

8. Development of a scanning touch probe with 5-axis measuring functions

Chu, Chih-Liang; Lai, Kuan-Wen; Chen, Hung-Chi

2015-02-01

The purpose of this study is to develop a five-axis scanning touch probe with high precision and low contact force. The development of scanning touch probe is consisted of three parts: mechanism design, optical path design, and rotation structure design. The mechanism design contains three parts, Z-axis system, XY-axis system, and probe mechanism. The Z-axis system applies the characteristic of the thin sheet spring to move vertically. In the design of XY-axis system, a micro-beam is employed, through which length, width, and thickness of the micro-beam and corresponding dimensions of the leaf spring are designed according to the selected contact force. The freedom degree is limited to three. And the center of the mechanism is equipped with a stylus to inhibit displacement of the Z-axis. The contact between the probe and the work piece only leads to change in the angles of X- and Y-axes, achieving the feature of 2-degree freedom. To enable rapid change for the probes, this study designs a probe mechanism, reliability of which is analyzed and validated with ANSYS software, so that the design of 3-degree freedom mechanism is completed. The sensor has a laser diode to coordinate with Position Sensor Detector (PSD) which works with the optical path designed to measure placement of Z-axis and angle placement of XY-axis. The rotation structure refers to the principle of 5-axis machining design, and the two rotary axes (A- and C-axis) to join the self-developed scanning probe. This design can achieve independent measurements and eliminate the dynamic measurement error that three-axis scanning systems typically have. By validation through an experiment, the three-dimensional scanning touch probe developed by this study has a measuring range of +/-1mm×+/-1mm×1mm, and unidirectional repeatability of 0.6μm.

9. Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste (Paper machine at Appleton's West Carrollton paper mill)

SciTech Connect

2002-03-01

Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.

10. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

PubMed

Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

2000-01-01

Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems.

11. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

12. The CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes metastasis in basal breast cancer

PubMed Central

Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Pestell, Richard G.

2013-01-01

Recently, we have shown that the CCL5/CCR5 axis is active in patients affected by an aggressive basal subtype of breast cancer. Using preclinical models, we have demonstrated that CCR5 promotes breast cancer invasiveness and metastatic potential, while CCR5 inhibition abrogates them. Thus, CCR5 antagonists may constitute an alternative therapeutic approach for patients affected by metastatic basal breast cancer. PMID:23734321

13. Optimization of Machining Parameters of Milling Operation by Application of Semi-synthetic oil based Nano cutting Fluids

Giri Prasad, M. J.; Abhishek Raaj, A. S.; Rishi Kumar, R.; Gladson, Frank; M, Gautham

2016-09-01

The present study is concerned with resolving the problems pertaining to the conventional cutting fluids. Two samples of nano cutting fluids were prepared by dispersing 0.01 vol% of MWCNTs and a mixture of 0.01 vol% of MWCNTs and 0.01 vol% of nano ZnO in the soluble oil. The thermophysical properties such as the kinematic viscosity, density, flash point and the tribological properties of the prepared nano cutting fluid samples were experimentally investigated and were compared with those of plain soluble oil. In addition to this, a milling process was carried by varying the process parameters and by application of different samples of cutting fluids and an attempt was made to determine optimal cutting condition using the Taguchi optimization technique.

14. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

SciTech Connect

L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

2005-08-01

Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

15. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

16. An Erk/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ

PubMed Central

Banks, Alexander S.; McAllister, Fiona E.; Camporez, João Paulo G.; Zushin, Peter-James H.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Shulman, Gerald I.; Gygi, Steven P.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

2014-01-01

Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ at serine 273 by Cdk5 stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues1. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic PPARγ ligand drugs, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial/non-agonists2. To better understand the importance of this obesity-linked PPARγ phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. Surprisingly, these mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARγ phosphorylation at S273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that ERK kinases are activated in these KO animals. We show here that ERK directly phosphorylates S273 of PPARγ in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MEK, the ERK kinase. Importantly, pharmacological MEK and ERK inhibition markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25409143

17. PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE IS A WHEEL BORING MACHINE USED DURING THE TIME THIS AREA WAS A WHEEL SHOP. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

18. Pitt Mill Demonstration

SciTech Connect

Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

1990-05-01

Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

19. Machining in Microgravity

Vincent, Graylan

2003-01-01

A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

20. Vibration in textile mills.

PubMed

Sorainen, E

1988-12-01

The vibration in nine halls of the six weaving mills was measured in 1978-80. The measurements were taken at regular intervals in the working area of the weavers, which was the wooden support attached to the machine or the floor of the textile mill. The accelerometer was mounted with screws onto the working area, and all vibration samples were analyzed immediately, in situ. The vibration of the floor was tangent to or exceeded slightly the "reduced comfort boundary" specified in International Standard ISO 2631/1 (1985) only in the areas where the floor was not against the ground. The greatest amount of vibration occurred on the supports which had been attached to the machines. On these supports the vibration in places exceeded the "fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary."

1. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

2. Diamond machining of steel molds for optical components

Bohr, Roland

2016-08-01

The requirement of ultra precision diamond machining of lens molds in steel is identified. A solution for this type of machining is presented and results of such a machining in steel compared to standard milling and polishing process are shown.

3. 1. EAGLE MILL EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1907. SHOWS INITIAL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EAGLE MILL EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1907. SHOWS INITIAL MILL CONFIGURATION WITH FULLY EXPOSED CRUDE ORE BIN CONCRETE RETAINING WALL, SINGLE (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN, AND EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE. NOTE THE LACK OF MACHINE SHOP OR SNOW SHEDS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

4. Low-cost boring mill

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hibdon, R. A.

1979-01-01

Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

5. Novel method for producing amorphous cellulose only by milling.

PubMed

Shimura, Ryoichiro; Nishioka, Akihiro; Kano, Ichiro; Koda, Tomonori; Nishio, Taichi

2014-02-15

The present study investigated a novel method for producing amorphous cellulose by milling without adding water. A new type of milling machine was developed (called a shear and cooling milling machine (SCMM)), which was capable of applying mechanical shear and cooling during the milling process. The SCMM consisted of a pair of mortars attached to a servomotor and a ring cooler. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis was used to determine the cellulose crystallinity in samples produced using the SCMM at different milling temperatures. The results of WAXD for cellulose powder milled at lower temperatures exhibited no diffraction peaks. This experimental result demonstrates that the SCMM produces amorphous cellulose easily by cooled milling without the addition of water. The milling conditions, such as the applied shear and cooling, can be used to control the crystallinity of cellulose.

6. Diagnosis of the Computer-Controlled Milling Machine, Definition of the Working Errors and Input Corrections on the Basis of Mathematical Model

Starikov, A. I.; Nekrasov, R. Yu; Teploukhov, O. J.; Soloviev, I. V.; Narikov, K. A.

2016-10-01

Manufactures, machinery and equipment improve of constructively as science advances and technology, and requirements are improving of quality and longevity. That is, the requirements for surface quality and precision manufacturing, oil and gas equipment parts are constantly increasing. Production of oil and gas engineering products on modern machine tools with computer numerical control - is a complex synthesis of technical and electrical equipment parts, as well as the processing procedure. Technical machine part wears during operation and in the electrical part are accumulated mathematical errors. Thus, the above-mentioned disadvantages of any of the following parts of metalworking equipment affect the manufacturing process of products in general, and as a result lead to the flaw.

7. Interferometric study of a machine tool

Hoefling, Roland; Vaclavik, Jaroslav; Neigebauer, Reimund

1996-09-01

This paper describes the use of a non-destructive optical technique, digital speckle pattern interferometry, for the deformation analysis of a machine tool. An interferometric set-up has been designed and measurements of the milling head deformation have been made on the horizontal single spindle milling machine center.

8. 165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

9. 24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

10. The upset machine and furnace in bay 24 of the ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

The upset machine and furnace in bay 24 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

11. Highly Productive Tools For Turning And Milling

Vasilko, Karol

2015-12-01

Beside cutting speed, shift is another important parameter of machining. Its considerable influence is shown mainly in the workpiece machined surface microgeometry. In practice, mainly its combination with the radius of cutting tool tip rounding is used. Options to further increase machining productivity and machined surface quality are hidden in this approach. The paper presents variations of the design of productive cutting tools for lathe work and milling on the base of the use of the laws of the relationship among the highest reached uneveness of machined surface, tool tip radius and shift.

12. Wear mechanisms of milling inserts: Dry and wet cutting

SciTech Connect

Gu, J.; Tung, S.C.; Barber, G.C.

1998-07-01

There is less literature on wear of milling tools than on wear of turning tools because milling is one of the most complicated machining operations. The intermittent milling action creates mechanical and thermal surges that distinguish milling from single-point machining. A systematic tool life study for face milling inserts was conducted with and without coolant. Workpieces made of 4140 steel were cut by C5 grade carbide inserts under various cutting conditions. The comparison between dry and wet cutting shows that caution should be taken when applying a coolant for milling operations. Special tests should be carried out in evaluating potential coolant candidates. It is not always true that coolant enhances tool life for milling. Wear mechanisms are presented by means of war maps. Identified wear mechanisms are: micro-attrition, micro-abrasion, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermal pitting, and edge chipping.

13. A novel IL-17 signaling pathway controlling keratinocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis via the TRAF4-ERK5 axis.

PubMed

Wu, Ling; Chen, Xing; Zhao, Junjie; Martin, Bradley; Zepp, Jarod A; Ko, Jennifer S; Gu, Chunfang; Cai, Gang; Ouyang, Wenjun; Sen, Ganes; Stark, George R; Su, Bing; Vines, Charlotte M; Tournier, Cathy; Hamilton, Thomas A; Vidimos, Allison; Gastman, Brian; Liu, Caini; Li, Xiaoxia

2015-09-21

Although IL-17 is emerging as an important cytokine in cancer promotion and progression, the underlining molecular mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies suggest that IL-17 (IL-17A) sustains a chronic inflammatory microenvironment that favors tumor formation. Here we report a novel IL-17-mediated cascade via the IL-17R-Act1-TRAF4-MEKK3-ERK5 positive circuit that directly stimulates keratinocyte proliferation and tumor formation. Although this axis dictates the expression of target genes Steap4 (a metalloreductase for cell metabolism and proliferation) and p63 (a transcription factor for epidermal stem cell proliferation), Steap4 is required for the IL-17-induced sustained expansion of p63(+) basal cells in the epidermis. P63 (a positive transcription factor for the Traf4 promoter) induces TRAF4 expression in keratinocytes. Thus, IL-17-induced Steap4-p63 expression forms a positive feedback loop through p63-mediated TRAF4 expression, driving IL-17-dependent sustained activation of the TRAF4-ERK5 axis for keratinocyte proliferation and tumor formation.

14. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

15. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

16. 9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

17. 8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

18. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF EVERETT MILLS, LAWRENCE, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF EVERETT MILLS, LAWRENCE, MASS., INSURANCE SURVEY DRAWING n. d. From the collection of Factory Mutual Insurance Company, Norwood, Mass. - Lawrence Machine Shop, Union & Canal Streets, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

19. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

SciTech Connect

Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

2011-01-17

This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

20. Looking Northeast at Southwest End of Maintenance Shop with Milling ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northeast at Southwest End of Maintenance Shop with Milling Machines, Hoist, Electrical Boxes in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

1. 11. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST, c. 194059. ROASTER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST, c. 1940-59. ROASTER AND OTHER UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT ADDITIONS PRESENT, ALONG WITH SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 AND ADDITIONS TO MACHINE SHOP. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

2. VIEW OF HANDOPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF HAND-OPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH (OPERATED AS A TWO-HIGH); TWO HIGH TWO HIGH MANUFACTURED BY BLAW-KNOX THREE HIGH MANUFACTURED BY LEWIS FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

3. Numerical robust stability estimation in milling process

Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Limin; Ding, Han; Xiong, Youlun

2012-09-01

The conventional prediction of milling stability has been extensively studied based on the assumptions that the milling process dynamics is time invariant. However, nominal cutting parameters cannot guarantee the stability of milling process at the shop floor level since there exists many uncertain factors in a practical manufacturing environment. This paper proposes a novel numerical method to estimate the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram, which is used to predict the milling stability in a robust way by taking into account the uncertain parameters of milling system. Time finite element method, a milling stability theory is adopted as the conventional deterministic model. The uncertain dynamics parameters are dealt with by the non-probabilistic model in which the parameters with uncertainties are assumed to be bounded and there is no need for probabilistic distribution densities functions. By doing so, interval instead of deterministic stability Lobe is obtained, which guarantees the stability of milling process in an uncertain milling environment. In the simulations, the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram obtained by the changes of modal parameters of spindle-tool system and cutting coefficients are given, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and can obtain satisfying bounds of Lobe diagrams. The proposed method is helpful for researchers at shop floor to making decision on machining parameters selection.

4. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Loveland, Thomas

2012-01-01

In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

5. VIEW OF PART OF THE MILL FAÇADE STRAIGHTON FROM KEKAHA ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF PART OF THE MILL FAÇADE STRAIGHT-ON FROM KEKAHA ROAD WITH FRONT FACING GABLE OF CRUSHING MILL AND A PORTION OF THE LATERAL RUNNING MACHINE SHOP. VIEW FROM THE NORTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

6. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

2015-07-01

This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

7. Improved data display for milling machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surrency, W. M.; Moravek, P. S.

1976-01-01

Axis position and sequence number indicator system is designed to work in conjunction with numerical tape controller. Visual display of coordinate-axis position to nearest 0.0001 inch and sequential blocks of input data up to maximum of 999 are provided.

8. High-speed machining of space shuttle External Tank (ET) panels

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miller, J. A.

1982-01-01

The applicability to and advantages of the high-speed machining process for the production of Space Shuttle external tank panels by physically machining selected sample portions of an external tank panel were investigated. The panel sample configuration was selected, and potential high speed milling procedures identified. An 8 foot long panel was machined and the milling demonstration is described in detail.

9. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF HYDRAULIC 48' BORING MILL. Manufactured by ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF HYDRAULIC 48' BORING MILL. Manufactured by Simmons Machine Tool Corporation, Albany, New York, and Betts Company, a division of Niles Tool Company, Hamilton, Ohio. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

10. Bacterial community diversity in paper mills processing recycled paper.

PubMed

Granhall, Ulf; Welsh, Allana; Throbäck, Ingela Noredal; Hjort, Karin; Hansson, Mikael; Hallin, Sara

2010-10-01

Paper mills processing recycled paper suffer from biofouling causing problems both in the mill and final product. The total bacterial community composition and identification of specific taxa in the process water and biofilms at the stock preparation and paper machine areas in a mill with recycled paper pulp was described by using a DNA-based approach. Process water in a similar mill was also analyzed to investigate if general trends can be found between mills and over time. Bacterial community profiles, analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in process water showed that the dominant peaks in the profiles were similar between the two mills, although the overall composition was unique for each mill. When comparing process water and biofilm at different locations within one of the mills, we observed a separation according to location and sample type, with the biofilm from the paper machine being most different. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were generated and 404 clones were screened by RFLP analysis. Grouping of RFLP patterns confirmed that the biofilm from the paper machine was most different. A total of 99 clones representing all RFLP patterns were analyzed, resulting in sequences recovered from nine bacterial phyla, including two candidate phyla. Bacteroidetes represented 45% and Actinobacteria 23% of all the clones. Sequences with similarity to organisms implicated in biofouling, like Chryseobacterium spp. and Brevundimonas spp., were recovered from all samples even though the mill had no process problems during sampling, suggesting that they are part of the natural paper mill community. Moreover, many sequences showed little homology to as yet uncultivated bacteria implying that paper mills are interesting for isolation of new organisms, as well as for bioprospecting.

11. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

12. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

13. Biomass torrefaction mill

DOEpatents

Sprouse, Kenneth M.

2016-05-17

A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

14. Experimental Research on Ultrasonic Vibration Milling Metal Matrix Composites SiCp/Al

SciTech Connect

Gao, G. F.; Zhao, B.; Xiang, D. H.; Zhao, M. L.

2011-01-17

Although particle reinforced metal matrix composites possess excellent physical properties, its machining performance is rather bad because of its specific structure. It is difficult to obtain good cutting effect by traditional machining method. So machining has become the bottleneck which strictly restricts its industry application. This paper mainly focuses on both wear characteristics of different tool materials and material removal mechanism in ultrasonic milling high volume fraction particle reinforced metal matrix composites SiCp/Al. An acoustic device for ultrasonic vibration milling was developed to introduce the ultrasonic vibration into the traditional machining process. Through the contrast experiment of traditional milling and ultrasonic vibration milling SiCp/Al, the mechanism of tool wear and characteristics of surface topography were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the surface integrity and tool life in the ultrasonic vibration milling SiCp/Al were improved.

15. Automatic tool changer for laser machining centers

Borgstrom, Robert

1993-08-01

In order to improve flexibility when changing between different laser processing workheads we have developed an automatic tool changer for laser machining centers. This tool system was designed for large multi axis machines such as gantries suitable for three-dimensional processing, but can also be used for other types of laser operations like robots for example. The system also offers the possibility to combine laser processing with deburring and milling on the same machine.

16. Nontraditional Machining Guide, 26 Newcomers for Production

DTIC Science & Technology

1976-07-01

100 c/5 CO (- oo USM MILLED ANNEALED SHOT PEENED AS ROLLED CHM GROUND EDM 107 CYCLES Fatigue Endurance Strength of 5Al-2iV Titanium ...Discharge Sawing 46 EDWC- Electrical Discharge Wire Cutting 48 LBM - Laser Beam Machining 50 LBT - Laser Beam Torch 52 PBM - Plasma Beam...Discharge Machining EDS - Electrical Discharge Sawing EDWC - Electrical Discharge Wire Cutting LBM - Laser Beam Machining LBT - Laser Beam Torch

17. Speed-Selector Guard For Machine Tool

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shakhshir, Roda J.; Valentine, Richard L.

1992-01-01

Simple guardplate prevents accidental reversal of direction of rotation or sudden change of speed of lathe, milling machine, or other machine tool. Custom-made for specific machine and control settings. Allows control lever to be placed at only one setting. Operator uses handle to slide guard to engage or disengage control lever. Protects personnel from injury and equipment from damage occurring if speed- or direction-control lever inadvertently placed in wrong position.

18. View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; the gallery housed turret, engine and toolroom lathes, small milling machines and drill presses used for machining small parts. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

19. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS. LATHES ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS. LATHES MANUFACTURED BY POND MACHINE TOOL COMPANY AND BENNETT-RAFFIN MACHINE COMPANY ARE TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

20. Marsdenia tenacissima extract suppresses A549 cell migration through regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and phosphorylated FAK.

PubMed

Lin, Sen-Sen; Li, Fang-Fang; Sun, Li; Fan, Wei; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Qin, Song; Yuan, Sheng-Tao

2016-03-01

Marsdenia tenacissima, a traditional Chinese medicine, is long been used to treat various diseases including asthma, cancer, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, and pneumonia. Although Marsdenia tenacissima has been demonstrated to have strong anti-tumor effects against primary tumors, its effect on cancer metastasis remains to be defined, and the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effect is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of XAP (an extract of Marsdenia tenacissima) on A549 lung cancer cell migration and explored the role of CCR5-CCL5 axis in the anti-metastatic effects of XAP. Our resutls showed that XAP inhibited A549 lung cancer cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The protein levels of CCR5, but not CCR9 and CXCR4, were decreased by XAP. The secretion of CCL5, the ligand of CCR5, was reduced by XAP. XAP down-regulated Rho C expression and FAK phosphorylation. In conclusion, XAP inhibited A549 cell migration and invasion through down-regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and FAK.

1. CXCL13-CXCR5 axis promotes the growth and invasion of colon cancer cells via PI3K/AKT pathway.

PubMed

Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xukui; Guo, Hongliang; Fu, Ling; Pan, Ganlin; Sun, Yinggang

2015-02-01

CXCL13, an inflammatory factor in the microenvironment, plays a vital role in the progression of inflammatory diseases and tumors. CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5 have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis of advanced colon cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in colon cancer remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CXCR5-CXCL13 axis in the growth and invasion of colon cancer cells. Our results showed that CXCL13 promoted the growth, migration, and matrigel invasion of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, CXCL13 increased the expression and secretion of MMP-13, and stimulated the activation of PI3K/AKT pathway. After knockdown of CXCR5 by siRNA, the biological functions of colon cancer cells regulated by CXCL13 were significantly inhibited. In addition, inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway by specific inhibitor LY294002 suppressed the CXCL13-mediated growth, migration, and invasion of colon cancer cells. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL13-CXCR5 axis promotes the growth, migration, and invasion of colon cancer cells, probably via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCL13 may be a useful biomarker for the detection and treatment of colon cancer.

2. Abrasive-waterjet machining of isogrid structures

Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark; Monserud, David

1990-12-01

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of machining isogrid structures with abrasive-waterjets (AWJs). The main objective was to mill isogrid patterns in surfaces with accurate depth control using an AWJ. Three different approaches using AWJs were tested: linear cutting of isogrid patterns for diffusion bonding, milling with conventional AWJ nozzles, and milling with a single-angled rotary AWJ nozzle. It was shown that pocket milling with conventional AWJs is the most feasible of those tested. The milling can be done internally on preformed aluminum tubes, and the AWJ can also be used on materials other than aluminum. Accurate depth control can be achieved at high productivity rates. As an example, it is projected that a 48-inch-diameter skirt 12 inches high could be milled with an isogrid pattern in 6.3 hours. Milled isogrid patterns can be controlled to 0.001 inch, and thin walls of less than 0.025 inch are achievable. Milling isogrid patterns with conventional AWJs could be very economical, but additional development efforts are required to optimize the milling process and to demonstrate the milling of prototype parts.

3. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2010-11-23

... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

4. Procedure for computer-controlled milling of accurate surfaces of revolution for millimeter and far-infrared mirrors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emmons, Louisa; De Zafra, Robert

1991-01-01

A simple method for milling accurate off-axis parabolic mirrors with a computer-controlled milling machine is discussed. For machines with a built-in circle-cutting routine, an exact paraboloid can be milled with few computer commands and without the use of the spherical or linear approximations. The proposed method can be adapted easily to cut off-axis sections of elliptical or spherical mirrors.

5. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF MAIN ELEVATION OF MILL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DETAIL VIEW OF MAIN ELEVATION OF MILL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTE ORIGINAL WINDOWS ON UPPER FLOORS. THE TOP FLOOR CONTAINED SPINNING AND TWISTER EQUIPMENT, THE SECOND FLOOR THE CARD ROOM AND ADDITIONAL SPINNING, AND THE GROUND FLOOR WEAVING, THE CLOTH ROOM, AND SHIPPING. A PARTIAL BASEMENT CONTAINED A MACHINE SHOP, SUPPLY DEPARTMENT, AND OVERFLOW COTTON STORAGE. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

6. 110. MILL APPROACH FROM EAST. THE TRAM LINE RANT TO ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. MILL APPROACH FROM EAST. THE TRAM LINE RANT TO THE RIGHT (NORTH) OF THE ROAD AND REACHED THE CRUDE ORE BINS AROUND THE FAR BEND. BUILDINGS FROM FRONT TO BACK ARE, ON RIGHT, OIL WAREHOUSE AND GASOLINE SHED, AND ON LEFT, GARAGE, CARPENTER'S SHOP, OIL SHED, AND MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

7. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, CENTER LEFT; STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF THE STEEL ORE BIN; AND THE BAKER COOLER, LOWER RIGHT. THESE MACHINES AND OTHERS IN THE AREA WERE PART OF THE UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT. THE ROASTER IS OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT (EAST). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

8. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

Benghersallah, M.; Boulanouar, L.; Le Coz, G.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

2010-06-01

This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

9. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

PubMed

Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

2015-09-28

A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains.

10. On the bistable zone of milling processes

PubMed Central

Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

2015-01-01

A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. PMID:26303918

11. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

12. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

13. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dunn, James

This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

14. Advanced image analysis verifies geometry performance of micro-milling systems.

PubMed

Daemi, Bita; Ekberg, Peter; Mattsson, Lars

2017-04-01

Accurate dimensional measurement of micro-milled items is a challenge and machine specifications do not include operational parameters in the workshop. Therefore, a verification test that shows the machine's overall geometrical performance over its working area would help machine users in the assessment and adjustment of their equipment. In this study, we present an optical technique capable of finding micro-milled features at submicron uncertainty over working areas >10  cm2. The technique relies on an ultra-precision measurement microscope combined with advanced image analysis to get the center of gravity of milled cross-shaped features at subpixel levels. Special algorithms had to be developed to handle the disturbing influence of burr and milling marks. The results show repeatability, reproducibility, and axis straightness for three micro-milling facilities and also discovered an unknown 2 μm amplitude undulation in one of them.

15. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

16. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS FROM THE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE, METAL AND ELECTRIC SHOPS FROM THE ELECTRIC SHOP. RAILROAD TRACKS IN FLOOR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

17. Looking north at the threading machine of the no. 1 ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking north at the threading machine of the no. 1 seamless line in bay 11 of the main pipe mill building - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

18. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

19. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP LOOKING NORTH. FROM ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP LOOKING NORTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, NORTH END OF THE LONG LATHE, WOOD STOVE WITH A BRICK HEARTH FLOOR, FAR BACK LEFT CORNER IS THE MAIN CLUTCH FOR THE MILL POWER SHAFTS, SHAFT LATHE, SMALL PLANER, BORING MACHINE WITH IONIC COLUMN DETAIL., AND THE ENTRANCE TO THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

20. Critical Technology Assessment of Five Axis Simultaneous Control Machine Tools

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-07-01

assessment, BIS specifically examined: • The application of Export Control Classification Numbers ( ECCN ) 2B001.b.2 and 2B001.c.2 controls and related...availability of certain five axis simultaneous control mills, mill/turns, and machining centers controlled by ECCN 2B001.b.2 (but not grinders controlled by... ECCN 2B001.c.2) exists to China and Taiwan, which both have an indigenous capability to produce five axis simultaneous control machine tools with

1. Surface acquisition through virtual milling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Merriam, Marshal L.

1993-01-01

Surface acquisition deals with the reconstruction of three dimensional objects from a set of data points. The most straightforward techniques require human intervention, a time consuming proposition. It is desirable to develop a fully automated alternative. Such a method is proposed in this paper. It makes use of surface measurements obtained from a 3-D laser digitizer - an instrument which provides the (x,y,z) coordinates of surface data points from various viewpoints. These points are assembled into several partial surfaces using a visibility constraint and a 2-D triangulation technique. Reconstruction of the final object requires merging these partial surfaces. This is accomplished through a procedure that emulates milling, a standard machining operation. From a geometrical standpoint the problem reduces to constructing the intersection of two or more non-convex polyhedra.

2. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mann, Franklin D.

1988-01-01

Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

3. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freedman, Eric

2011-01-01

It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

4. Modeling of cumulative tool wear in machining metal matrix composites

SciTech Connect

Hung, N.P.; Tan, V.K.; Oon, B.E.

1995-12-31

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are notoriously known for their low machinability because of the abrasive and brittle reinforcement. Although a near-net-shape product could be produced, finish machining is still required for the final shape and dimension. The classical Taylor`s tool life equation that relates tool life and cutting conditions has been traditionally used to study machinability. The turning operation is commonly used to investigate the machinability of a material; tedious and costly milling experiments have to be performed separately; while a facing test is not applicable for the Taylor`s model since the facing speed varies as the tool moves radially. Collecting intensive machining data for MMCs is often difficult because of the constraints on size, cost of the material, and the availability of sophisticated machine tools. A more flexible model and machinability testing technique are, therefore, sought. This study presents and verifies new models for turning, facing, and milling operations. Different cutting conditions were utilized to assess the machinability of MMCs reinforced with silicon carbide or alumina particles. Experimental data show that tool wear does not depend on the order of different cutting speeds since abrasion is the main wear mechanism. Correlation between data for turning, milling, and facing is presented. It is more economical to rank machinability using data for facing and then to convert the data for turning and milling, if required. Subsurface damages such as work-hardened and cracked matrix alloy, and fractured and delaminated particles are discussed.

5. Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milling conditions on milling quality of medium grain rough rice M202. Using a McGill No. 3 mill, the conditions studied were milling weight and duration, and polishing weight and duration. This research examined the relationships among the...

6. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

7. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

8. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

9. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

10. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

11. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

12. Database machines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stiefel, M. L.

1983-01-01

The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

13. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

14. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

15. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

Gilhooley, N.

The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

16. Surface topography and roughness of high-speed milled AlMn1Cu

Wang, Zhenhua; Yuan, Juntang; Yin, Zengbin; Hu, Xiaoqiu

2016-10-01

The aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu has been broadly applied for functional parts production because of its good properties. But few researches about the machining mechanism and the surface roughness were reported. The high-speed milling experiments are carried out in order to improve the machining quality and reveal the machining mechanism. The typical topography features of machined surface are observed by scan electron microscope(SEM). The results show that the milled surface topography is mainly characterized by the plastic shearing deformation surface and material piling zone. The material flows plastically along the end cutting edge of the flat-end milling tool and meanwhile is extruded by the end cutting edge, resulting in that materials partly adhere to the machined surface and form the material piling zone. As the depth of cut and the feed per tooth increase, the plastic flow of materials is strengthened and the machined surface becomes rougher. However, as the cutting speed increases, the plastic flow of materials is weakened and the milled surface becomes smoother. The cutting parameters (e.g. cutting speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut) influencing the surface roughness are analyzed. It can be concluded that the roughness of the machined surface formed by the end cutting edge is less than that by the cylindrical cutting edge when a cylindrical flat-end mill tool is used for milling. The proposed research provides the typical topography features of machined surface of the anti-rust aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu in high speed milling.

17. Ion Milling of Sapphire

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

18. Tool simplifies machining of pipe ends for precision welding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Matus, S. T.

1969-01-01

Single tool prepares a pipe end for precision welding by simultaneously performing internal machining, end facing, and bevel cutting to specification standards. The machining operation requires only one milling adjustment, can be performed quickly, and produces the high quality pipe-end configurations required to ensure precision-welded joints.

19. 21. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP LOOKING SOUTH. FROM ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP LOOKING SOUTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, PULLEY'S ABOVE FOR THE LATHE BELOW, ENTRANCE TO THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM, BORING MACHINE, PLANER, TOOL, BENCH AGAINST THE BACK WALL, DOORWAY INTO THE ANNEX, LONG LATHE. WOOD STOVE IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

20. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

1. Milling and Drilling Evaluation of Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Alloys

SciTech Connect

Lazarus, L.J.

2001-12-10

Near-net-shape components can be made with powder metallurgy (PM) processes. Only secondary operations such as milling and drilling are required to complete these components. In the past and currently production components are made from powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steel alloys. process engineers are unfamiliar with the difference in machining properties of wrought versus PM alloys and have had to make parts to develop the machining parameters. Design engineers are not generally aware that some PM alloy variations can be furnished with machining additives that greatly increase tool life. Specimens from a MANTEC PM alloy property study were made available. This study was undertaken to determine the machining properties of a number of stainless steel wrought and PM alloys under the same conditions so that comparisons of their machining properties could be made and relative tool life determined.

2. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

3. Multilayered piezoceramic microactuators formed by milling in the green state

Simu, Urban; Johansson, Stefan A. I.

1999-10-01

Methods for the fabrication of piezoceramic microactuators that will be used in a miniaturized robot have been investigated. Multilayered structures for piezoceramic microactuators are usually fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The present structures are fabricated with a wet building process where thin layers of ceramic slurry and screen-printed electrodes are cast sequentially. The use of multilayered structures reduces the drive voltage to common levels for integrated circuits, but also result in difficulties forming complicated shapes. Dicing is a straightforward alternative to achieve a simple geometry, but it can not machine e.g. a hollow cylindrical structure. There are several methods that could be used, but only few that would be cost-efficient for large-scale production. One of these is milling with modern high-precision CNC machine tools. Conventional milling of sintered ceramic components would result in many problems since the material is rather brittle and cracks are easily formed. Cracks are detrimental to the mechanical properties as well as for the electrical properties. Milling in the ceramic green state appears to be a promising method, since microcracks does not arise. The relatively soft green body puts great demands on the milling process. A high speed of the spindle is necessary to achieve low cutting forces since sub-millimeter cutting tools are used. The paper present result from different milling test and discusses how the machining parameters affect the resulting shape. The resolution is comparable with other techniques and it can be concluded that it is sufficient for normal screen-printed multilayered components. The evaluation of resulting deformation of the material after milling and sintering is presented.

4. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

2011-01-01

The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

5. Conventional machining of ESR 4340 steel

Niji, K. K.

1980-07-01

This program involved the study of conventional machining of heat treated ESR 4340 steel (Rc 54-57). Initial effort involved a survey of available data regarding the machining of high strength steels with hardnesses of Rc 50 and above. A machining program was conducted, determining optimum tools and conditions for turning, drilling, face milling, end milling, and grinding operations. Effects of various parameters includng cutting speeds, feeds, depths of cut, and cutting fluids on tool life was determined. All the operations were found to be extremely difficult and applicaton of conventional procedures is not feasible. Tool lives remained short despite reductions in speeds and feeds. Conventional grinding methods induced detrimental residual tensile stresses along the surface, resulting in cracking, lapping, and untempered martensitic structures. Low stress grinding techniques were found to be applicable to this material when proper dressing procedures and reduced rates were used.

6. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

7. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

8. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

9. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

10. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

11. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

12. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

13. Electric machine

DOEpatents

El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

2012-07-17

An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

14. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

SciTech Connect

Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

2002-05-15

This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

15. The construction of the milling process simulation models

Ślusarczyk, Ł.

2016-09-01

The paper has aimed at presentation of the possibilities of using computer-based techniques into scope of machine cutting processes, and mostly of analytical and numerical modeling of the milling process for austenitic high-alloy chromium-nickel steel X 5 CrNi 18-10 and verification of the results experiments. The study was mostly focused on measuring and assessment of deformations in the given sample with the specific load. The simulations were executed in modern computer simulation software which supports such activities. These include: NX by Siemens and Simulia Abaqus. The selection of parameters was based on the real values measured during the milling process.

16. 4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, c. 1912. SHOWS TIMBER FRAMING UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EAST AND WEST CRUDE ORE BINS AT PREVIOUS LOCATION OF CRUSHER HOUSE, AND SNOW SHED PRESENT OVER SOUTH CRUDE ORE BIN WITH PHASE CHANGE IN SNOW SHED CONSTRUCTION INDICATED AT EAST END OF EAST CRUDE ORE BIN. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE FIRST IMAGE OF THE MACHINE SHOP, UPPER LEFT CORNER. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

17. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

18. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

19. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

20. Modeling the milling tool wear by using an evolutionary SVM-based model from milling runs experimental data

Nieto, Paulino José García; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; Robleda, Abraham Segade

2015-12-01

The main aim of this research work is to build a new practical hybrid regression model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut as well as entry cut and exit cut of a milling tool. The model was based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). This optimization mechanism involved kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Bearing this in mind, a PSO-SVM-based model, which is based on the statistical learning theory, was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset represents experiments from runs on a milling machine under various operating conditions. In this way, data sampled by three different types of sensors (acoustic emission sensor, vibration sensor and current sensor) were acquired at several positions. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Firstly, this hybrid PSO-SVM-based regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the flank wear (output variable) and input variables (time, depth of cut, feed, etc.). Indeed, regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.95 was obtained. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. Secondly, the main advantages of this PSO-SVM-based model are its capacity to produce a simple, easy-to-interpret model, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed.

1. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

Mamun, Abdullah Al

The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

2. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

SciTech Connect

2006-09-01

The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

3. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

4. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

5. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

6. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

2016-08-01

Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

7. Experimental Investigation into the Effect of Ball End Milling Parameters on Surface Integrity of Inconel 718

Bhopale, Nandkumar N.; Joshi, Suhas S.; Pawade, Raju S.

2015-02-01

In machining of Inconel 718, various difficulties such as increased tool wear and poor machined surface quality are frequently encountered due to its high temperature strength and poor thermal properties. This work considers the effect of number of passes and the machining environment on the machined surface quality in ball end milling of Inconel 718, which hitherto has not been adequately understood. To this effect, extensive experimentation has been carried out to analyze machined surface quality and integrity in terms of surface roughness, surface damage, and microhardness variation in the machined surfaces. The machined surfaces show formation of distinct bands as a function of instantaneous machining parameters along the periphery of cutting tool edge. A distinct variation is also observed in the measured values of surface roughness and microhardness in these regions. The minimum surface roughness is obtained in the stable cutting zone and it increases toward the periphery of the cutter on band #2 and band #3. Microhardness of depth beneath the machined surface shows that the machining affected zone varies from 60 to 100 µm in ball end milling under various machining conditions.

8. Design and implementation of a system for laser assisted milling of advanced materials

Wu, Xuefeng; Feng, Gaocheng; Liu, Xianli

2016-09-01

Laser assisted machining is an effective method to machine advanced materials with the added benefits of longer tool life and increased material removal rates. While extensive studies have investigated the machining properties for laser assisted milling(LAML), few attempts have been made to extend LAML to machining parts with complex geometric features. A methodology for continuous path machining for LAML is developed by integration of a rotary and movable table into an ordinary milling machine with a laser beam system. The machining strategy and processing path are investigated to determine alignment of the machining path with the laser spot. In order to keep the material removal temperatures above the softening temperature of silicon nitride, the transformation is coordinated and the temperature interpolated, establishing a transient thermal model. The temperatures of the laser center and cutting zone are also carefully controlled to achieve optimal machining results and avoid thermal damage. These experiments indicate that the system results in no surface damage as well as good surface roughness, validating the application of this machining strategy and thermal model in the development of a new LAML system for continuous path processing of silicon nitride. The proposed approach can be easily applied in LAML system to achieve continuous processing and improve efficiency in laser assisted machining.

9. Vane Pump Casing Machining of Dumpling Machine Based on CAD/CAM

Huang, Yusen; Li, Shilong; Li, Chengcheng; Yang, Zhen

Automatic dumpling forming machine is also called dumpling machine, which makes dumplings through mechanical motions. This paper adopts the stuffing delivery mechanism featuring the improved and specially-designed vane pump casing, which can contribute to the formation of dumplings. Its 3D modeling in Pro/E software, machining process planning, milling path optimization, simulation based on UG and compiling post program were introduced and verified. The results indicated that adoption of CAD/CAM offers firms the potential to pursue new innovative strategies.

10. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

2016-05-01

Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

11. Fabrication of micro-lens array on convex surface by meaning of micro-milling

Zhang, Peng; Du, Yunlong; Wang, Bo; Shan, Debin

2014-08-01

In order to develop the application of the micro-milling technology, and to fabricate ultra-precision optical surface with complex microstructure, in this paper, the primary experimental research on micro-milling complex microstructure array is carried out. A complex microstructure array surface with vary parameters is designed, and the mathematic model of the surface is set up and simulated. For the fabrication of the designed microstructure array surface, a micro three-axis ultra-precision milling machine tool is developed, aerostatic guideway drove directly by linear motor is adopted in order to guarantee the enough stiffness of the machine, and novel numerical control strategy with linear encoders of 5nm resolution used as the feedback of the control system is employed to ensure the extremely high motion control accuracy. With the help of CAD/CAM technology, convex micro lens array on convex spherical surface with different scales on material of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and pure copper is fabricated using micro tungsten carbide ball end milling tool based on the ultra-precision micro-milling machine. Excellent nanometer-level micro-movement performance of the axis is proved by motion control experiment. The fabrication is nearly as the same as the design, the characteristic scale of the microstructure is less than 200μm and the accuracy is better than 1μm. It prove that ultra-precision micro-milling technology based on micro ultra-precision machine tool is a suitable and optional method for micro manufacture of microstructure array surface on different kinds of materials, and with the development of micro milling cutter, ultraprecision micro-milling complex microstructure surface will be achieved in future.

12. Study of some parameters affecting noise level in textile spinning and weaving mills.

PubMed

el-Dakhakhny, A A; Noweir, M H; Kamel, N R

1975-01-01

Noise was evaluated in six spinning and five weaving halls located in three textile mills in Egypt. Spindle speed (rpm) and loom speed (picks per minutes) were found to be important parameters affecting the noise level in these mills. Reduction of the number of spinning machines to five spindles per square meter of floor area will probably bring the noise level below the TLV. In the weaving departments, the decrease in the number of looms will not effectively reduce the noise level.

13. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

14. Ion Milling of Sapphire

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gregory, Don A.

2002-01-01

The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

15. Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites.

PubMed

Hammond, Duane R; Shulman, Stanley A; Echt, Alan S

2016-07-01

Asphalt pavement milling machines use a rotating cutter drum to remove the deteriorated road surface for recycling. The removal of the road surface has the potential to release respirable crystalline silica, to which workers can be exposed. This article describes an evaluation of respirable crystalline silica exposures to the operator and ground worker from two different half-lane and larger asphalt pavement milling machines that had ventilation dust controls and water-sprays designed and installed by the manufacturers. Manufacturer A completed milling for 11 days at 4 highway construction sites in Wisconsin, and Manufacturer B completed milling for 10 days at 7 highway construction sites in Indiana. To evaluate the dust controls, full-shift personal breathing zone air samples were collected from an operator and ground worker during the course of normal employee work activities of asphalt pavement milling at 11 different sites. Forty-two personal breathing zone air samples were collected over 21 days (sampling on an operator and ground worker each day). All samples were below 50 µg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 6.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 6.1 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer A milling machine. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 4.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 9.0 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer B milling machine. In addition, upper 95% confidence limits for the mean exposure for each occupation were well below 50 µg/m(3) for both studies. The silica content in the bulk asphalt material being milled ranged from 7-23% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer A and from 5-12% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer B. The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are

16. Development of CAM System for Multi-Tasking Machine Tools

Kubota, Koji; Kotani, Takashi; Nakamoto, Keiichi; Ishida, Tohru; Takeuchi, Yoshimi

Multi-tasking machine tools are very useful to manufacture complicated workpiece efficiently. However, it is very difficult to generate NC data when an operator uses multi-tasking machine tools. Currently, there are some CAM systems for multi-tasking machine tools. However, there are such problems as the manual allocation of parts to generate tool paths, the difficulty of self-interference recognition without a simulator, and so on. Therefore, this study deals with the development of CAM system which can recognize part configurations, calculate tool paths automatically for turning and milling operations, and sort them in machining order, based on 3-D CAD data of workpieces.

17. Engagement Angle Modeling for Multiple-circle Continuous Machining and Its Application in the Pocket Machining

WU, Shixiong; MA, Wei; BAI, Haiping; WANG, Chengyong; SONG, Yuexian

2017-03-01

The progressive cutting based on auxiliary paths is an effective machining method for the material accumulating region inside the mould pocket. But the method is commonly based on the radial depth of cut as the control parameter, further more there is no more appropriate adjustment and control approach. The end-users often fail to set the parameter correctly, which leads to excessive tool load in the process of actual machining. In order to make more reasonable control of the machining load and tool-path, an engagement angle modeling method for multiple-circle continuous machining is presented. The distribution mode of multiple circles, dynamic changing process of engagement angle, extreme and average value of engagement angle are carefully considered. Based on the engagement angle model, numerous application techniques for mould pocket machining are presented, involving the calculation of the milling force in multiple-circle continuous machining, and rough and finish machining path planning and load control for the material accumulating region inside the pocket, and other aspects. Simulation and actual machining experiments show that the engagement angle modeling method for multiple-circle continuous machining is correct and reliable, and the related numerous application techniques for pocket machining are feasible and effective. The proposed research contributes to the analysis and control tool load effectively and tool-path planning reasonably for the material accumulating region inside the mould pocket.

18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

3. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

SciTech Connect

Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

2009-06-01

A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

4. Workout Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1995-01-01

The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

5. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

Shunmugam, M. S.

2016-04-01

Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

6. Wacky Machines

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fendrich, Jean

2002-01-01

Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

7. Legionellosis Outbreak Associated with Asphalt Paving Machine, Spain, 2009

PubMed Central

Fenollar, José; Escribano, Isabel; González-Candelas, Fernando

2010-01-01

From 1999 through 2005 in Alcoi, Spain, incidence of legionellosis was continually high. Over the next 4 years, incidence was lower, but an increase in July 2009 led health authorities to declare an epidemic outbreak. A molecular epidemiology investigation showed that the allelic profiles for all Legionella pneumophila samples from the 2009 outbreak patients were the same, thus pointing to a common genetic origin for their infections, and that they were identical to that of the organism that had caused the previous outbreaks. Spatial-temporal and sequence-based typing analyses indicated a milling machine used in street asphalt repaving and its water tank as the most likely sources. As opposed to other machines used for street cleaning, the responsible milling machine used water from a natural spring. When the operation of this machine was prohibited and cleaning measures were adopted, infections ceased. PMID:20735921

8. 252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS dredged reflecting pond which illustrates how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

9. 1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village area of LaGrange at 613 Arthur St. The saltbox house form is unusual in the LaGrange area and perhaps indicates the influence of Northern investors. - 613 Arthur Street (House), 613 Arthur Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

10. Micro Slot Generation by μ-ED Milling

Dave, H. K.; Mayanak, M. K.; Rajpurohit, S. R.; Mathai, V. J.

2016-08-01

Micro electro discharge machining is one of the most widely used advanced micro machining technique owing to its capability to fabricate micro features on any electrically conductive materials irrespective of its material properties. Despite its wide acceptability, the process is always adversely affected by issues like wear that occurred on the tool electrode, which results into generation of inaccurate features. Micro ED milling, a process variant in which the tool electrode simultaneously rotated and scanned during machining, is reported to have high process efficiency for generation of 3D complicated shapes and features with relatively less electrode wear intensity. In the present study an attempt has been made to study the effect of two process parameters viz. capacitance and scanning speed of tool electrode on end wear that occurs on the tool electrode and overcut of micro slots generated by micro ED milling. The experiment has been conducted on Al 1100 alloy with tungsten electrode having diameter of 300 μm. Results suggest that wear on the tool electrode and overcut of the micro features generated are highly influenced by the level of the capacitance employed during machining. For the parameter usage employed for present study however, no significant effect of variation of scanning speed has been observed on both responses.

11. Machine Learning

The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

12. A Flush-Rivet Milling Tool

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gottlieb, Robert

1942-01-01

The investigation of machine-countersunk flush rivets for aircraft described in reference 1 revealed the necessity of having the height of the rivet heads greater than the depth of the countersunk holes if tightly riveted joints were to be obtained. If ordinary roundhead rivets were inserted from the opposite side of the joint and the countersunk heads formed in the driving of the rivets filled the countersunk holes completely, still tighter joints were obtained. In either case the rivets protruded above the skin surface after driving, and the protruding portion of the rivet heads had to be removed in order to obtain flush rivets. A number of requests have been received for a description of the tool used to mill off the protruding portion of the rivet heads. This report contains assembly and detail drawings of the latest flush-rivet milling tool used at the NACA Structures Research Laboratory. Figure 6 shows the tool in operation. This tool is quite satisfactory for 1/8-inch rivets, but a more powerful motor is recommended for use with larger rivets.

13. Charging machine

DOEpatents

Medlin, John B.

1976-05-25

A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

14. An Attachable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Driven Wireless Sensing System Demonstrating Milling-Processes and Cutter-Wear/Breakage-Condition Monitoring.

PubMed

Chung, Tien-Kan; Yeh, Po-Chen; Lee, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Tseng, Chia-Yung; Lo, Wen-Tuan; Wang, Chieh-Min; Wang, Wen-Chin; Tu, Chi-Jen; Tasi, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Jui-Wen

2016-02-23

An attachable electromagnetic-energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system for monitoring milling-processes and cutter-wear/breakage-conditions is demonstrated. The system includes an electromagnetic energy harvester, three single-axis Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers, a wireless chip module, and corresponding circuits. The harvester consisting of magnets with a coil uses electromagnetic induction to harness mechanical energy produced by the rotating spindle in milling processes and consequently convert the harnessed energy to electrical output. The electrical output is rectified by the rectification circuit to power the accelerometers and wireless chip module. The harvester, circuits, accelerometer, and wireless chip are integrated as an energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system. Therefore, this completes a self-powered wireless vibration sensing system. For system testing, a numerical-controlled machining tool with various milling processes is used. According to the test results, the system is fully self-powered and able to successfully sense vibration in the milling processes. Furthermore, by analyzing the vibration signals (i.e., through analyzing the electrical outputs of the accelerometers), criteria are successfully established for the system for real-time accurate simulations of the milling-processes and cutter-conditions (such as cutter-wear conditions and cutter-breaking occurrence). Due to these results, our approach can be applied to most milling and other machining machines in factories to realize more smart machining technologies.

15. An Attachable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Driven Wireless Sensing System Demonstrating Milling-Processes and Cutter-Wear/Breakage-Condition Monitoring

PubMed Central

Chung, Tien-Kan; Yeh, Po-Chen; Lee, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Tseng, Chia-Yung; Lo, Wen-Tuan; Wang, Chieh-Min; Wang, Wen-Chin; Tu, Chi-Jen; Tasi, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Jui-Wen

2016-01-01

An attachable electromagnetic-energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system for monitoring milling-processes and cutter-wear/breakage-conditions is demonstrated. The system includes an electromagnetic energy harvester, three single-axis Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers, a wireless chip module, and corresponding circuits. The harvester consisting of magnets with a coil uses electromagnetic induction to harness mechanical energy produced by the rotating spindle in milling processes and consequently convert the harnessed energy to electrical output. The electrical output is rectified by the rectification circuit to power the accelerometers and wireless chip module. The harvester, circuits, accelerometer, and wireless chip are integrated as an energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system. Therefore, this completes a self-powered wireless vibration sensing system. For system testing, a numerical-controlled machining tool with various milling processes is used. According to the test results, the system is fully self-powered and able to successfully sense vibration in the milling processes. Furthermore, by analyzing the vibration signals (i.e., through analyzing the electrical outputs of the accelerometers), criteria are successfully established for the system for real-time accurate simulations of the milling-processes and cutter-conditions (such as cutter-wear conditions and cutter-breaking occurrence). Due to these results, our approach can be applied to most milling and other machining machines in factories to realize more smart machining technologies. PMID:26907297

16. Milling strategies evaluation when simulating the forming dies' functional surfaces production

Ižol, Peter; Tomáš, Miroslav; Beňo, Jozef

2016-05-01

The paper deals with selection and evaluation of milling strategies, available in CAM systems and applicable when complicated shape parts are produced, such as forming dies. A method to obtain samples is proposed and this stems from real forming die surface machined by proper strategies. The strategy applicability for the whole part - forming die - is reviewed by the particular specimen evaluation. The presented methodology has been verified by machining model die and comparing it to the production procedure proposed in other CAM systems.

17. Induction machine

DOEpatents

Owen, Whitney H.

1980-01-01

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

18. Machine vision

SciTech Connect

Horn, D.

1989-06-01

To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a \$2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

19. The influence of milling-burnishing successive and simultaneous processes on the material hardness

Grigoraş, C. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

2016-08-01

Recent developments in the field of bio-engineering allow the use of magnesium alloys as a substitute for medical implants. The issue with such alloys is the degradation rate witch has to be improved in order to provide the necessary support for the entire duration of the bone fraction healing. For improving the bone shielding heat treatment does not represent a solution, but chemical and/or mechanical do. One mechanical process that has excellent result is burnishing, but this process is difficult to be implemented on a milling machine. Therefore, it was necessary that a new tool and tool holder to be developed, that allow the simultaneous process to take place. A high-pressure hydraulic roller burnishing tool with a special tool holder was used on a CNC milling machine. The material used for this study is magnesium alloy AZ31B-F, and one of the main purposes was to improve the material hardness (HV). The milling-burnishing parameters that where varied are the speed and feed, burnishing pressure and depth, type of process (successive or simultaneous), machining direction and the material hardness after milling. The results were analyzed as percentage improvement between the milling and burnishing measured values.

20. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

1. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

2. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

3. 113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND WAS ONCE ENCLOSED AS PART OF THE SHOP. THE TRAM LINE AND SNOWSHED RAN TO THE RIGHT (SOUTH) TO EAGLE MINE PORTAL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

4. Development of a Tri-Axial Cutting Force Sensor for the Milling Process

PubMed Central

Li, Yingxue; Zhao, Yulong; Fei, Jiyou; Zhao, You; Li, Xiuyuan; Gao, Yunxiang

2016-01-01

This paper presents a three-component fixed dynamometer based on a strain gauge, which reduces output errors produced by the cutting force imposed on different milling positions of the workpiece. A reformative structure of tri-layer cross beams is proposed, sensitive areas were selected, and corresponding measuring circuits were arranged to decrease the inaccuracy brought about by positional variation. To simulate the situation with a milling cutter moving on the workpiece and validate the function of reducing the output errors when the milling position changes, both static calibration and dynamic milling tests were implemented on different parts of the workpiece. Static experiment results indicate that with standard loads imposed, the maximal deviation between the measured forces and the standard inputs is 4.87%. The results of the dynamic milling test illustrate that with identical machining parameters, the differences in output variation between the developed sensor and standard dynamometer are no larger than 6.61%. Both static and dynamic experimental results demonstrate that the developed dynamometer is suitable for measuring milling force imposed on different positions of the workpiece, which shows potential applicability in machining a monitoring system. PMID:27007374

5. Development of a Tri-Axial Cutting Force Sensor for the Milling Process.

PubMed

Li, Yingxue; Zhao, Yulong; Fei, Jiyou; Zhao, You; Li, Xiuyuan; Gao, Yunxiang

2016-03-19

This paper presents a three-component fixed dynamometer based on a strain gauge, which reduces output errors produced by the cutting force imposed on different milling positions of the workpiece. A reformative structure of tri-layer cross beams is proposed, sensitive areas were selected, and corresponding measuring circuits were arranged to decrease the inaccuracy brought about by positional variation. To simulate the situation with a milling cutter moving on the workpiece and validate the function of reducing the output errors when the milling position changes, both static calibration and dynamic milling tests were implemented on different parts of the workpiece. Static experiment results indicate that with standard loads imposed, the maximal deviation between the measured forces and the standard inputs is 4.87%. The results of the dynamic milling test illustrate that with identical machining parameters, the differences in output variation between the developed sensor and standard dynamometer are no larger than 6.61%. Both static and dynamic experimental results demonstrate that the developed dynamometer is suitable for measuring milling force imposed on different positions of the workpiece, which shows potential applicability in machining a monitoring system.

6. Vision-based on-machine measurement for CNC machine tool

Xia, Ruixue; Han, Jiang; Lu, Rongsheng; Xia, Lian

2015-02-01

A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.

7. Discrete element method as an approach to model the wheat milling process

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is a well-known phenomenon that break-release, particle size, and size distribution of wheat milling are functions of machine operational parameters and grain properties. Due to the non-uniformity of characteristics and properties of wheat kernels, the kernel physical and mechanical properties af...

8. VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFTBUILDING 25NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (c.1853) NEXT BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) NEXT BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) EXTREME RIGHT-DOBBINS BUILDING (NOT AM STEEL & WIRE) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

9. TEMPO machine

SciTech Connect

Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

1986-06-01

TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

10. Direct core structuring of microstructured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling.

PubMed

Warren-Smith, Stephen C; André, Ricardo M; Perrella, Christopher; Dellith, Jan; Bartelt, Hartmut

2016-01-11

We demonstrate the use of focused ion beam milling to machine optical structures directly into the core of microstructured optical fibers. The particular fiber used was exposed-core microstructured optical fiber, which allowed direct access to the optically guiding core. Two different designs of Fabry-Perot cavity were fabricated and optically characterized. The first cavity was formed by completely removing a section of the fiber core, while the second cavity consisted of a shallow slot milled into the core, leaving the majority of the core intact. This work highlights the possibility of machining complex optical devices directly onto the core of microstructured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling for applications including environmental, chemical, and biological sensing.

11. Analysis of deformations of thin wall parts in machining

Ślusarczyk, Ł.

2015-09-01

The article presents a study on deformation of thin-walled components during milling. In the practical part, the test position consisting of conventional milling machines, high-speed camera and piezoelectric dynamometer was prepared. Milling operations performed on samples prepared of ST3S steel. Cutting parameters for each sample were the same, the way of mounting the samples in a holder constituted the difference. The tests were made for conventional and climbing milling. During the tests, deformation of samples was recorded with the high-speed camera. Moreover, the cutting forces were also recorded. In the second part of the article, the work in NX application was described. Geometric models of samples and material model were built, and simulation of deformation of the samples was performed. A comparison of the deformation results obtained from the laboratory tests and simulations constitutes a summary of the article.

12. Status of Pulse Milling Processes and Technologies: A Review.

PubMed

Vishwakarma, Rajesh Kumar; Shivhare, Uma Shanker; Gupta, Ram Kishore; Yadav, Deep Narayan; Jaiswal, Arvind; Prasad, Priyanka

2017-01-26

Pulses are essential component of the human diet in the underdeveloped and the developing countries. Pulse milling mainly focuses on complete removal of the hull with minimum generation of powder, broken, and in certain cases dehulled split formation. Physical and mechanical properties of different pulses are described and their role in dehulling is discussed in this review. The review discusses nature of gums that binds hull and cotyledons together and their effect on milling characteristics. Pitting operation is performed for all pulses prior to the pretreatment for better dehulling. Various pretreatment processes (soaking, edible oils, chemicals, enzymes, hydrothermal) developed to loosen the bond are examined for their dehulling efficacy from commercial application viewpoint. Dependence of dehulling characteristics of different pulses on size, shape, variety, grain hardness, and moisture content are discussed. Most of the machines developed for pulses dehulling in India are abrasion based emery-cylinder concave system. The studies done for optimization of different pretreatment process conditions are also reviewed. The losses taking place in the form of broken and powder during pulse milling are described. Methods for performance evaluation of pulse dehulling system are reviewed and expressions are suggested for proper evaluation. This review gives complete overview of the processes and technological status of pulse milling in present context.

13. Determining energy costs for milling solid matter

Guangbin, Yu., Dr.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Marakhovskii, M. B.; Aleksina, A. A.

2015-05-01

The article provides findings of analytical research into the process of milling friable matter in a ball mill. We have received an expression to determine energy cost of milling with the account of the method of milling and the characteristics of the material to be ground.

14. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

SciTech Connect

Iannucci, R.A. )

1990-01-01

This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

15. A prediction-correction scheme for microchannel milling using femtosecond laser

Chen, Jianxiong; Zhou, Xiaolong; Lin, Shuwen; Tu, Yiliu

2017-04-01

In this paper, a prediction-correction scheme is proposed to online measure and regulate the milling depth of microchannel using an indicator of laser triggered plasma. Firstly, a prediction model, with respect to the laser fluence and feedrate, is established with several calibration tests using the least square fitting method. It is utilized to change the focal position of objective to track the depth evolution of newly generated surface. Meanwhile, a scanning path for every milling layer with an offset in Z-axis at the beginning and the end of the trajectory, is developed to drive the plasma brightness periodically changing. Then, the milling depth could be obtained when the brightness reaches to the maximum value. By doing so, an online measurement method is presented to estimate the milling depth using the trend of plasma brightness. Furthermore, a correction model is developed to iteratively adjust the feedrate with the online estimated depth. Therefore, the microchannel milling process could be monitored and controlled in a closed-loop manner, in order to accurately regulate the milling depth. Finally, an online measurement and closed-loop microchannel milling is carried out on the self-developed micro-machining center. The effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method are verified by comparing the estimated depth with the actually measured results.

16. Characterisation of aerobically grown non-spore-forming bacteria from paper mill pulps containing recycled fibres.

PubMed

Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Skyttä, Eija

2009-01-01

A total of 179 non-spore-forming bacteria aerobically growing on Nutrient Agar, Plate Count Agar or in specific enrichment conditions for salmonella, campylobacteria, listeria, yersinia or staphylococci, were isolated from 16 untreated paper mill pulps. After phenotypical screening the isolates were characterised by automated ribotyping and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. They could be divided into seven taxonomical classes representing 63 taxa (species): actinobacteria (11 species), bacilli (7), flavobacteria (3) alphaproteobacteria (10), betaproteobacteria (5), gammaproteobacteria (25) and sphingobacteria (2). Most of the gammaproteobacteria were enterobacteria, mainly species of the genera Enterobacter (7 species, 7 samples/3 mills) and Klebsiella (5 species, 6 samples/3 mills). Other commonly occurring bacteria were most closely related to Microbacterium barkeri (7 samples/3 mills), Cloacibacterium normanense (6 samples/2 mills), Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis (5 samples/2 mills) and Sphingobacterium composti (5 samples/1 mill). Sporadic isolates of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus warneri were detected, from which only L. monocytogenes is considered to be a food pathogen. No isolates of the genera Campylobacter, Salmonella or Yersinia were detected. The detected bacteria may be harmful in process control, but the load of food pathogens with recycled fibres to paper machines is insignificant. Faecal contamination of the pulp samples was not indicated.

17. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

18. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

PubMed

2003-07-01

Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

19. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a \$200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional \$150,000 in funding.

20. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

1. 8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

2. Diamond micro-milling of lithium niobate for sensing applications

Huo, Dehong; Jie Choong, Zi; Shi, Yilun; Hedley, John; Zhao, Yan

2016-09-01

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a crystalline material which is widely applied in surface acoustic wave, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and optical devices, owing to its superior physical, optical, and electronic properties. Due to its low toughness and chemical inactivity, LiNbO3 is considered to be a hard-to-machine material and has been traditionally left as as an inert substrate upon which other micro structures are deposited. However, in order to make use of its superior material properties and increase efficiency, the fabrication of microstructures directly on LiNbO3 is in high demand. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the micro machinability of LiNbO3 via micro milling with the aim of obtaining optimal process parameters. Machining of micro slots was performed on Z-cut LiNbO3 wafers using single crystal diamond tools. Surface and edge quality, cutting forces, and the crystallographic effect were examined and characterized. Ductile mode machining of LiNbO3 was found to be feasible at a low feed rate and small depth of cut. A strong crystallographic effect on the machined surface quality was also observed. Finally, some LiNbO3 micro components applicable to sensing applications were fabricated.

3. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

SciTech Connect

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

4. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions

SciTech Connect

Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Yang, Y.T.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

2009-06-01

Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R2 > 0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced strongly fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 25.4 mm screens and fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

5. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions.

PubMed

Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Yang, Yuechuan T; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2009-11-01

Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin-Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R(2)>0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced 'strongly fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 12.7-25.4 mm screens and 'fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

6. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

2016-10-01

We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

7. Machine musicianship

Rowe, Robert

2002-05-01

The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

8. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

DOEpatents

1997-01-01

A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

9. Laser milling of martensitic stainless steels using spiral trajectories

Romoli, L.; Tantussi, F.; Fuso, F.

2017-04-01

A laser beam with sub-picosecond pulse duration was driven in spiral trajectories to perform micro-milling of martensitic stainless steel. The geometry of the machined micro-grooves channels was investigated by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and linked to laser parameters by using an experimental approach combining the beam energy distribution profile and the absorption phenomena in the material. Preliminary analysis shows that, despite the numerous parameters involved in the process, layer removal obtained by spiral trajectories, varying the radial overlap, allows for a controllable depth of cut combined to a flattening effect of surface roughness. Combining the developed machining strategy to a feed motion of the work stage, could represent a method to obtain three-dimensional structures with a resolution of few microns, with an areal roughness Sa below 100 nm.

10. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

SciTech Connect

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2006-06-24

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

11. Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues

SciTech Connect

2000-05-15

Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

12. Flotation machine

SciTech Connect

Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

1993-08-10

A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

13. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

14. Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, est. 1885. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

15. 4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) IS SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

16. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

SciTech Connect

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2004-01-30

generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

17. Mössbauer analysis of high-energy mechanical-milled sand fraction of a magnetic soil developing on basalt

Borges, José Flávio Marcelino; Hneda, Marlon Luiz; Brinatti, André Maurício; Cunha, João Batista Marimon da; Rosa, Jadir Aparecido; Fabris, José Domingos

2011-11-01

A sample of the coarse sand fraction from the soil material of the A-horizon (0-0.2 m from the soil surface) of a dusky red magnetic Oxisol was submitted to high-energy mechanical milling for different times. This assay aimed mainly at (a) monitoring the individualization of strongly aggregated mineral particles, and (b) measuring the effect of the milling pressure on the mineralogy changes of the material. These data are also intended to experimentally subside any physical model describing the mechanical behavior of the superficial soil layer that is subjected to intensive machine management, in agriculture fields. Powder X-ray data reveal that some mineralogical phases, notably gibbsite, disappear soon after the first few hours milling. The 298 K-transmission Mössbauer spectrum for the non-milled sand sample shows a qualitatively typical pattern for the sand fraction of basalt derived soils, with magnetically ordered sextets, assignable mainly to hematite and maghemite, and an intense central (super)paramagnetic Fe3 + doublet. For the milled samples, spectra revealed progressive spectral reduction of the magnetic hyperfine structure, with concomitant increase of relative subspectral areas due to (super)paramagnetic phases, as the milling time increased. This result is consistent with the reduction of measured saturation magnetization, from 4.96(8) J T - 1 kg - 1, for the non-milled sample, to 3.26(7) J T - 1 kg - 1, for the sample milled for 8 hours.

18. Uranium mill tailings and radon

SciTech Connect

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

SciTech Connect

Hanchey, L A

1981-04-01

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

20. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

1. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, A REINFORCED CONCRETE MILL BUILT BY NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-24. THE MILL WAS DESIGNED BY LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS, AND CONTAINED 35,000 SPINDLES FOR MAKING TIRE FABRICS. PART OF THE WEAVING WOULD TAKE PLACE AT HOGANSVILLE MILL (BUILT c. 1900), ANOTHER NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILL NEARBY, UNTIL THE DEMOLITION OF THAT MILL IN THE 1970s. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

2. Factors contributing to milling quality differences in MY3, a 'RiceCAP' project milling population

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A unique California long grain milling population is being phenotyped for milling and fissuring characteristics within the RiceCAP project. Low milling parent of this population has difference in grain shape, degree of chalkiness, and amylose content, as compared to the high milling parent. Contri...

3. A hybrid analytical model for the transverse vibration response of a micro-end mill

Mustapha, K. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

2013-01-01

As a result of its detrimental effect on tool life and product quality, vibration analyses are crucial if the full potential of micro-milling operation is to be attained. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model (HAM) developed for estimating the transverse response of a micro-end mill is presented. The HAM is a combination of discrete and distributed structural elements. The discrete elements account for the stiffness and damping coefficients of the machining system, while the distributed elements idealize the geometrical representation of the micro-end mill with a novel model of the micro-flute. A number of slot micro-end milling operations, carefully designed with the Taguchi method of design of experiments, are carried out to examine the accuracy of the HAM. The comparison of the response profile from the experiment and the developed model shows reasonably close similarity. The influence of the helix angle is found to be far greater on the response of the micro-end mill than the other geometric variables. By making use of the root mean square of the response, it is further observed that the representation of the micro-flute of the micro-end mill with a less accurate model deteriorates the prediction of the HAM.

4. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

SciTech Connect

Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

2011-05-04

Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

5. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

2011-05-01

Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction. Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge® software, is based on data taken from Outeiro & al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature. Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R&D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

6. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

7. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

8. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

9. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

10. Ultra-precision diamond milling of aspheric microlens array

Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chien-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Yao

2013-06-01

The applications of AMLA (aspheric micro lens array) have been frequently required in opto-electro industries, such as optical communication, contact image sensor (CIS) module of scanner, wafer level optics, etc. In addition to the typical requirements of aspheric lens, for instance form accuracy and surface roughness, the pitch error of each micro lens has been highly required. Three ultra-precision freeform machining methods have been widely applied for the manufacturing of AMLA, namely fast tool servo, slow tool servo and diamond milling. UPDM (Ultra-precision diamond milling) have the advantage with no tool interference problem in comparison with tool servo machining techniques. In this paper, the tool setting error compensation method and the tool path of UPDM has been developed for the fabrication of a 5 by 5 AMLA model. The form accuracy and surface roughness of each lenses of the AMLA was less than 0.2μm and 5nm, respectively. And the pitch error of each micro lens was less than 2μm in 25 micro lenses.

11. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humphrey, M. F.

1977-01-01

Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

12. J. S. Mill on Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ryan, Alan

2011-01-01

Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

13. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arias, A.

1976-01-01

On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

14. Bacillus anthracis aerosolization associated with a contaminated mail sorting machine.

PubMed

Dull, Peter M; Wilson, Kathy E; Kournikakis, Bill; Whitney, Ellen A S; Boulet, Camille A; Ho, Jim Y W; Ogston, Jim; Spence, Mel R; McKenzie, Megan M; Phelan, Maureen A; Popovic, Tanja; Ashford, David

2002-10-01

On October 12, 2001, two envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores passed through a sorting machine in a postal facility in Washington, D.C. When anthrax infection was identified in postal workers 9 days later, the facility was closed. To determine if exposure to airborne B. anthracis spores continued to occur, we performed air sampling around the contaminated sorter. One CFU of B. anthracis was isolated from 990 L of air sampled before the machine was activated. Six CFUs were isolated during machine activation and processing of clean dummy mail. These data indicate that an employee working near this machine might inhale approximately 30 B. anthracis-containing particles during an 8-h work shift. What risk this may have represented to postal workers is not known, but this estimate is approximately 20-fold less than a previous estimate of sub-5 micro m B. anthracis-containing particles routinely inhaled by asymptomatic, unvaccinated workers in a goat-hair mill.

15. Development of Web-based Virtual Training Environment for Machining

Yang, Zhixin; Wong, S. F.

2010-05-01

With the booming in the manufacturing sector of shoe, garments and toy, etc. in pearl region, training the usage of various facilities and design the facility layout become crucial for the success of industry companies. There is evidence that the use of virtual training may provide benefits in improving the effect of learning and reducing risk in the physical work environment. This paper proposed an advanced web-based training environment that could demonstrate the usage of a CNC machine in terms of working condition and parameters selection. The developed virtual environment could provide training at junior level and advanced level. Junior level training is to explain machining knowledge including safety factors, machine parameters (ex. material, speed, feed rate). Advanced level training enables interactive programming of NG coding and effect simulation. Operation sequence was used to assist the user to choose the appropriate machining condition. Several case studies were also carried out with animation of milling and turning operations.

16. Study on residual stresses in ultrasonic torsional vibration assisted micro-milling

Lu, Zesheng; Hu, Haijun; Sun, Yazhou; Sun, Qing

2010-10-01

It is well known that machining induced residual stresses can seriously affect the dimensional accuracy, corrosion and wear resistance, etc., and further influence the longevity and reliability of Micro-Optical Components (MOC). In Ultrasonic Torsional Vibration Assisted Micro-milling (UTVAM), cutting parameters, vibration parameters, mill cutter parameters, the status of wear length of tool flank are the main factors which affect residual stresses. A 2D model of UTVAM was established with FE analysis software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook's flow stress model and shear failure principle are used as the workpiece material model and failure principle, while friction between tool and workpiece uses modified Coulomb's law whose sliding friction area is combined with sticking friction. By means of FEA, the influence rules of cutting parameters, vibration parameters, mill cutter parameters, the status of wear length of tool flank on residual stresses are obtained, which provides a basis for choosing optimal process parameters and improving the longevity and reliability of MOC.

17. Surface roughness analysis of hardened steel after high-speed milling.

PubMed

Twardowski, Paweł; Wojciechowski, Szymon; Wieczorowski, Michał; Mathia, Thomas

2011-01-01

The work refers to analysis of various factors affecting surface roughness after end milling of hardened steel in high-speed milling (HSM) conditions. Investigations of milling parameters (cutting speed v(c) , axial depth of cut a(p) ) and the process dynamics that influence machined surface roughness were presented, and a surface roughness model, including cutter displacements, was elaborated. The work also involved analysis of surface profile charts from the point of view of vibrations and cutting force components. The research showed that theoretic surface roughness resulting from the kinematic-geometric projection of cutting edge in the workpiece is significantly different from the reality. The dominant factor in the research was not feed per tooth f(z) (according to the theoretical model) but dynamical phenomena and feed per revolution f.

18. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

PubMed

Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

2015-01-01

Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

19. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles

PubMed Central

Vogl, Gregory W.; Donmez, M. Alkan

2016-01-01

Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition. PMID:28065985

20. Surface texture generation during cylindrical milling in the aspect of cutting force variations

Wojciechowski, S.; Twardowski, P.; Pelic, M.

2014-03-01

The work presented here concentrates on surface texture analysis, after cylindrical milling of hardened steel. Cutting force variations occurring in the machining process have direct influence on the cutter displacements and thus on the generated surface texture. Therefore, in these experiments, the influence of active number of teeth (zc) on the cutting force variations was investigated. Cutting forces and cutter displacements were measured during machining process (online) using, namely piezoelectric force dynamometer and 3D laser vibrometer. Surface roughness parameters were measured using stylus surface profiler. The surface roughness model including cutting parameters (fz, D) and cutting force variations was also developed. The research revealed that in cylindrical milling process, cutting force variations have immediate influence on surface texture generation.

1. Influence of the direction of selective laser sintering on machinability of parts from 316L steel

Alexeev, V. P.; Balyakin, A. V.; Khaimovich, A. I.

2017-02-01

This work presents the results of research of the impact of layer-by-layer growing of workpieces made of 316L steel on their machinability. The results of determination of residual stresses and measurement of hardness of the workpieces grown have been demonstrated. A series of experimental studies has been performed in order to determine the cutting force which occurs in the process of machining. The microstructure of the workpieces grown has been examined. It has been shown that the workpieces machined using Selective Laser Melting technology have the microstructure which is a totality of ‘microwelded seams’, which have a significant influence on the behavior of deformation processes in case of machining. The studies have shown that in case of lateral milling of the horizontally grown workpiece, the codirectional microwelded borders prevent any significant deformation of the misalignment which increases the cutting force by up to 10% as compared with milling of the vertically grown workpiece.

2. 2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east down Water Street. Mill No. 2 is in the center of the photo, Mill No. 1 is to the right. The tower in Mill No. 1 retains its original design. The tower in Mill No. 2 was altered when an elevator was installed. The shed monitor in Mill No. 2 was constructed in 1879. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

3. Stirling machine operating experience

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1991-01-01

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

4. Women, Men, and Machines.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

1983-01-01

Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

5. System technology for laser-assisted milling with tool integrated optics

Hermani, Jan-Patrick; Emonts, Michael; Brecher, Christian

2013-02-01

High strength metal alloys and ceramics offer a huge potential for increased efficiency (e. g. in engine components for aerospace or components for gas turbines). However, mass application is still hampered by cost- and time-consuming end-machining due to long processing times and high tool wear. Laser-induced heating shortly before machining can reduce the material strength and improve machinability significantly. The Fraunhofer IPT has developed and successfully realized a new approach for laser-assisted milling with spindle and tool integrated, co-rotating optics. The novel optical system inside the tool consists of one deflection prism to position the laser spot in front of the cutting insert and one focusing lens. Using a fiber laser with high beam quality the laser spot diameter can be precisely adjusted to the chip size. A high dynamic adaption of the laser power signal according to the engagement condition of the cutting tool was realized in order not to irradiate already machined work piece material. During the tool engagement the laser power is controlled in proportion to the current material removal rate, which has to be calculated continuously. The needed geometric values are generated by a CAD/CAM program and converted into a laser power signal by a real-time controller. The developed milling tool with integrated optics and the algorithm for laser power control enable a multi-axis laser-assisted machining of complex parts.

6. Inverse Method for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Milling Experiments

Maurel, A.; Michel, G.; Thibaud, S.; Fontaine, M.; Gelin, J. C.

2007-04-01

An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of High Speed Machining processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measures, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse method of identification is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

7. Inverse Method for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Milling Experiments

SciTech Connect

Maurel, A.; Michel, G.; Thibaud, S.; Fontaine, M.; Gelin, J. C.

2007-04-07

An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of High Speed Machining processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measures, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse method of identification is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

8. The influence of milling-burnishing successive and simultaneous processes on the surface roughness

Grigoraş, C. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

2016-08-01

The present techniques do not offer the possibility for milling and burnishing at the same time. The novelty of this study is the development of a new tool and tool holder that allows this processes to take place simultaneous. Magnesium alloys have a wide range of usages in industry; in the past years they seem to be a promising solution to classic implants. Improvements in fatigue and tensile strength need to be made. Heat treatments are difficult to implement, so the solution is a mechanical treatment. The burnishing process offers very good results, but it has difficulties in simultaneous machining with the milling process. Thereby a hydraulic roller burnishing tool and a special tool holder was manufactured to solve this issue. The combined process was carried out on a CNC milling machine. This study seeks to highlight the influence of the milling-burnishing process parameter on the surface roughness in the case of magnesium alloy AZ31B-F. Parameters like speed and feed of cut, burnishing pressure and depth where taken into consideration. It was noted that with the increase of the feed, speed, pressure and depth of burnishing the general percentage improvement of the surface roughness was higher.

9. The Iowa wave machines

Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

2010-03-01

Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

10. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

11. Cable-Twisting Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kurnett, S.

1982-01-01

New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

12. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

SciTech Connect

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2007-06-30

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study

13. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

2016-06-01

In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

14. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

PubMed

Livesey, M

1991-01-01

A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

15. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

2007-05-01

An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

16. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

SciTech Connect

Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

2007-05-17

An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

17. 1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK MILL HOUSING ON CORINTH ROAD. THESE FRONT GABLE BUNGALOWS WERE BUILT AS OVERSEERS HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN HOGANSVILLE IN 1923-1924. THE MILL ENGINEERS FOR STARK MILL, LOCKWOOD GREENE COMPANY, ALSO BUILT THE NEW WORKER HOUSING. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

18. 3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking west. Unlike Mill No. 2 or the Sugar River Grist Mill, there were no iron tension members in this roof truss design. The structural framing members and the roof sheathing have been encased in finish millwork. - Monadnock Mills, Mill No. 1, 13-17 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

19. 10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to right) Mill No. 3 (1892), the Weave Shed (1876), and Mill No. 2 (1853). The Office Building is visible in the foreground, with Mill No. 5 to its left. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

20. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2010-08-13

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...

1. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Machine Trades. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on machine trades. This program is designed to run 36 weeks and cover 6 instructional areas: use of measuring tools; benchwork/tool bit grinding; lathe work; milling work; precision grinding; and combination machine work. A duty-task index…

2. Influence of Motion Errors of Feed Drive Systems on Machined Surface

Nishio, Kentaro; Sato, Ryuta; Shirase, Keiichi

The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the dynamic motion errors of feed drive systems and the machined surfaces. To achieve this purpose, a simulation method for a machined surface by peripheral milling is proposed. In the proposed method, the motion errors of a feed drive system and the machined surface are simulated based on tool diameter, number of flutes, spindle speed, and feed speed. In addition, to clarify the correctness of the proposed method, actual cutting tests are carried out. In the cutting tests, the control parameters of the machine tool are intentionally changed to obtain the motion errors. As the results of the cutting tests, it is confirmed that the influence of the motion errors of feed drive systems on machined surface can be predicted by the proposed simulation method. The relationship between the motion errors and machined surfaces is also examined based on the simulations.

3. Laser Assisted Milling of Ti-6Al-4V ELI with the Analysis of Surface Integrity and its Economics

Hedberg, Gary K.; Shin, Yung C.

2015-09-01

This study presents the experimental evaluation of laser assisted milling (LAML) of Ti-6AL-4V ELI (Ti-64), which is used in the orthopedic industry, by using localized preheating of the workpiece via laser irradiation. Improvements to the machinability of this material with LAML are assessed while considering the surface integrity. Suitable laser heating conditions as well as machining conditions are determined based on temperature prediction modeling. Machinability improvements are shown in terms of tool wear, material removal rates and cutting force reduction. Systematic characterization of samples is shown to demonstrate that the machined sub-surfaces are not adversely affected during LAML by precisely controlling laser heating, via hardness measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for residual stresses. An economic analysis shows that LAML provides the cost reduction over conventional machining.

4. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

Anderson, James A. D. W.

2006-01-01

The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

5. Rapid fabrication of miniature lens arrays by four-axis single point diamond machining

PubMed Central

McCall, Brian; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2013-01-01

A novel method for fabricating lens arrays and other non-rotationally symmetric free-form optics is presented. This is a diamond machining technique using 4 controlled axes of motion – X, Y, Z, and C. As in 3-axis diamond micro-milling, a diamond ball endmill is mounted to the work spindle of a 4-axis ultra-precision computer numerical control (CNC) machine. Unlike 3-axis micro-milling, the C-axis is used to hold the cutting edge of the tool in contact with the lens surface for the entire cut. This allows the feed rates to be doubled compared to the current state of the art of micro-milling while producing an optically smooth surface with very low surface form error and exceptionally low radius error. PMID:23481813

6. Feasibility investigations on multi-cutter milling process: A novel fabrication method for microreactors with multiple microchannels

Pan, Minqiang; Zeng, Dehuai; Tang, Yong

A novel multi-cutter milling process for multiple parallel microchannels with manifolds is proposed to address the challenge of mass manufacture as required for cost-effective commercial applications. Several slotting cutters are stacked together to form a composite tool for machining microchannels simultaneously. The feasibility of this new fabrication process is experimentally investigated under different machining conditions and reaction characteristics of methanol steam reforming for hydrogen production. The influences of cutting parameters and the composite tool on the microchannel qualities and burr formation are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that larger cutting speed, smaller feed rate and cutting depth are in favor of obtaining relatively good microchannel qualities and small burrs. Of all the cutting parameters considered in these experiments, 94.2 m min -1 cutting speed, 23.5 mm min -1 feed rate and 0.5 mm cutting depth are found to be the optimum value. According to the comparisons of experimental results of multi-cutter milling process and estimated one of other alternative methods, it is found that multi-cutter milling process shows much shorter machining time and higher work removal rate than that of other alternative methods. Reaction characteristics of methanol steam reforming in microchannels also indicate that multi-cutter milling process is probably suitable for a commercial application.

7. On-machine ultrasonic sensors for paper stiffness. Final report

SciTech Connect

Hall, Maclin S.; Jackson, Theodore G.; Brown, Ernest

2000-04-01

This final report presents the results of a 5-year effort by the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) and its participating partners. The objective of this work was to develop and demonstrate sensors capable of measuring the velocity of ultrasound in the out-of-plane (ZD) and in-plane directions of paper as it is being produced on a commercial paper machine. On-machine ultrasonic measurements can be used to determine various mechanical properties of paper and to monitor process status and product quality. This report first presents a review of the background and potential benefits of on-machine ultrasonic measurements, then summarizes the results of previous work. The ZD measurement system involving the use of ultrasonic transducers in fluid-filled wheels is described in detail, including the method of measurement, the wheel mounting hardware, the on-machine operation, and an overview of the system software. Mill-trial results from two bump tests when producing 69{number_sign} and 55{number_sign} linearboard are presented. For the 69{number_sign} trial the correlation of ZD transit time with plybond and with ZDT (Z-direction tensile or internal bond strength) was greater than 0.8 (R squared). Also observed were ZD stiffness responses to refining and to calendering. ABB Industrial Systems Inc. was responsible for the in-plane sensor. A paper describing ABB's sensor and mill experience is appended.

8. Yang-Mills instanton sheaves

Lai, Sheng-Hong; Lee, Jen-Chi; Tsai, I.-Hsun

2017-02-01

The SL(2 , C) Yang-Mills instanton solutions constructed recently by the biquaternion method were shown to satisfy the complex version of the ADHM equations and the monad construction. Moreover, we discover that, in addition to the holomorphic vector bundles on CP3 similar to the case of SU(2) ADHM construction, the SL(2 , C) instanton solutions can be used to explicitly construct instanton sheaves on CP3. Presumably, the existence of these instanton sheaves is related to the singularities of the SL(2 , C) instantons on S4 which do not exist for SU(2) instantons.

9. Partial Southwest Elevation Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (with Section of Courtyard) (Parts 1 & 2) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

10. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

11. 1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the outside of mill building center of picture. Looking northeast from below bridge. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

12. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

13. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

14. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

15. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

16. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

17. 2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ACROSS ROUTE 101, MAIN MILL BUILDING - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

18. 1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

19. 2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

20. 11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

1. Machine tool locator

DOEpatents

Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

2001-01-01

Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

2. A High Performance Torque Sensor for Milling Based on a Piezoresistive MEMS Strain Gauge

PubMed Central

Qin, Yafei; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Yingxue; Zhao, You; Wang, Peng

2016-01-01

In high speed and high precision machining applications, it is important to monitor the machining process in order to ensure high product quality. For this purpose, it is essential to develop a dynamometer with high sensitivity and high natural frequency which is suited to these conditions. This paper describes the design, calibration and performance of a milling torque sensor based on piezoresistive MEMS strain. A detailed design study is carried out to optimize the two mutually-contradictory indicators sensitivity and natural frequency. The developed torque sensor principally consists of a thin-walled cylinder, and a piezoresistive MEMS strain gauge bonded on the surface of the sensing element where the shear strain is maximum. The strain gauge includes eight piezoresistances and four are connected in a full Wheatstone circuit bridge, which is used to measure the applied torque force during machining procedures. Experimental static calibration results show that the sensitivity of torque sensor has been improved to 0.13 mv/Nm. A modal impact test indicates that the natural frequency of torque sensor reaches 1216 Hz, which is suitable for high speed machining processes. The dynamic test results indicate that the developed torque sensor is stable and practical for monitoring the milling process. PMID:27070620

3. A High Performance Torque Sensor for Milling Based on a Piezoresistive MEMS Strain Gauge.

PubMed

Qin, Yafei; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Yingxue; Zhao, You; Wang, Peng

2016-04-09

In high speed and high precision machining applications, it is important to monitor the machining process in order to ensure high product quality. For this purpose, it is essential to develop a dynamometer with high sensitivity and high natural frequency which is suited to these conditions. This paper describes the design, calibration and performance of a milling torque sensor based on piezoresistive MEMS strain. A detailed design study is carried out to optimize the two mutually-contradictory indicators sensitivity and natural frequency. The developed torque sensor principally consists of a thin-walled cylinder, and a piezoresistive MEMS strain gauge bonded on the surface of the sensing element where the shear strain is maximum. The strain gauge includes eight piezoresistances and four are connected in a full Wheatstone circuit bridge, which is used to measure the applied torque force during machining procedures. Experimental static calibration results show that the sensitivity of torque sensor has been improved to 0.13 mv/Nm. A modal impact test indicates that the natural frequency of torque sensor reaches 1216 Hz, which is suitable for high speed machining processes. The dynamic test results indicate that the developed torque sensor is stable and practical for monitoring the milling process.

4. Nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling for certain area removal of metal coating on plastics surface

Zhao, Kai; Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Jianwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ling

2014-12-01

Metal coating with functional pattern on engineering plastics surface plays an important role in industry applications; it can be obtained by adding or removing certain area of metal coating on engineering plastics surface. However, the manufacturing requirements are improved continuously and the plastic substrate presents three-dimensional (3D) structure-many of these parts cannot be fabricated by conventional processing methods, and a new manufacturing method is urgently needed. As the laser-processing technology has many advantages like high machining accuracy and constraints free substrate structure, the machining of the parts is studied through removing certain area of metal coating based on the nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling. To improve the edge quality of the functional pattern, generation mechanism and corresponding avoidance strategy of the processing defects are studied. Additionally, a prediction model for the laser ablation depth is proposed, which can effectively avoid the existence of residual metal coating and reduces the damage of substrate. With the optimal machining parameters, an equiangular spiral pattern on copper-clad polyimide (CCPI) is machined based on the laser milling at last. The experimental results indicate that the edge of the pattern is smooth and consistent, the substrate is flat and without damage. The achievements in this study could be applied in industrial production.

5. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

6. Agent Based Computing Machine

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-12-09

coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

7. Component based modelling of piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators for machining applications

Saleem, A.; Salah, M.; Ahmed, N.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

2013-07-01

Ultrasonically Assisted Machining (UAM) is an emerging technology that has been utilized to improve the surface finishing in machining processes such as turning, milling, and drilling. In this context, piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are being used to vibrate the cutting tip while machining at predetermined amplitude and frequency. However, modelling and simulation of these transducers is a tedious and difficult task. This is due to the inherent nonlinearities associated with smart materials. Therefore, this paper presents a component-based model of ultrasonic transducers that mimics the nonlinear behaviour of such a system. The system is decomposed into components, a mathematical model of each component is created, and the whole system model is accomplished by aggregating the basic components' model. System parameters are identified using Finite Element technique which then has been used to simulate the system in Matlab/SIMULINK. Various operation conditions are tested and performed to demonstrate the system performance.

8. Yang Mills Chern Simons supergravity

Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.; Sezgin, E.

2004-06-01

N = (1, 0) supergravity in six dimensions admits AdS3 × S3 as a vacuum solution. We extend our recent results presented in Lü et al (2002 Preprint hep-th/0212323), by obtaining the complete N = 4 Yang Mills Chern Simons supergravity in D = 3, up to quartic fermion terms, by S3 group manifold reduction of the six-dimensional theory. The SU(2) gauge fields have Yang Mills kinetic terms as well as topological Chern Simons mass terms. There is in addition a triplet of matter vectors. After diagonalization, these fields describe two triplets of topologically-massive vector fields of opposite helicities. The model also contains six scalars, described by a GL(3, R)/SO(3) sigma model. It provides the first example of a three-dimensional gauged supergravity that can be obtained by a consistent reduction of string theory or M-theory and that admits AdS3 as a vacuum solution. There are unusual features in the reduction from six-dimensional supergravity, owing to the self-duality condition on the 3-form field. The structure of the full equations of motion in N = (1, 0) supergravity in D = 6 is also elucidated, and the role of the self-dual field strength as torsion is exhibited.

9. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance

Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik

2017-01-01

Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

10. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young, R. J.

1968-01-01

Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

11. 43 CFR 3832.30 - Mill sites.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mill sites. 3832.30 Section 3832.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Mill Sites § 3832.30...

12. Perspex machine II: visualization

Anderson, James A. D. W.

2004-12-01

We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

13. Perspex machine II: visualization

Anderson, James A. D. W.

2005-01-01

We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

14. Progress in machine consciousness.

PubMed

Gamez, David

2008-09-01

This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

15. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-04-01

The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

16. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

PubMed

Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

17. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

18. Amorphization of sugar hydrates upon milling.

PubMed

Willart, J F; Dujardin, N; Dudognon, E; Danède, F; Descamps, M

2010-07-19

The possibility to amorphize anhydrous crystalline sugars, like lactose, trehalose and glucose, by mechanical milling was previously reported. We test here the possibility to amorphize the corresponding crystalline hydrates: lactose monohydrate, trehalose dihydrate and glucose monohydrate using fully identical milling procedures. The results show that only the first hydrate amorphizes while the other two remain structurally invariant. These different behaviours are attributed to the plasticizing effect of the structural water molecules which can decrease the glass transition temperature below the milling temperature. The results reveal clearly the fundamental role of the glass transition in the solid-state amorphization process induced by milling, and they also explain why crystalline hydrates are systematically more difficult to amorphize by milling than their anhydrous counterpart. The investigations have been performed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction.

19. Variable eccentric distance-based tool path generation for orthogonal turn-milling

Peng, Fangyu; Wang, Wei; Yan, Rong; Duan, Xianyin; Li, Bin

2015-12-01

This study proposes an algorithm for maximizing strip width in orthogonal turn-milling based on variable eccentric distance. The machining error model is first established based on the local cutting profile at the contact line. The influencing factors of the strip width are then investigated to analyze their features and determine an optimizing strategy. The optimized model for maximum machining strip width is formulated by adopting a variable eccentric distance. Hausdorff distance and Fréchet distance are introduced in this study to implement the constraint function of the machining error in the optimized model. The computing procedure is subsequently provided. Simulations and experiments have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

20. Achieving Small Structures in Thin NiTi Sheets for Medical Applications with Water Jet and Micro Machining: A Comparison

Frotscher, M.; Kahleyss, F.; Simon, T.; Biermann, D.; Eggeler, G.

2011-07-01

NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) are used for a variety of applications including medical implants and tools as well as actuators, making use of their unique properties. However, due to the hardness and strength, in combination with the high elasticity of the material, the machining of components can be challenging. The most common machining techniques used today are laser cutting and electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this study, we report on the machining of small structures into binary NiTi sheets, applying alternative processing methods being well-established for other metallic materials. Our results indicate that water jet machining and micro milling can be used to machine delicate structures, even in very thin NiTi sheets. Further work is required to optimize the cut quality and the machining speed in order to increase the cost-effectiveness and to make both methods more competitive.

1. Drum cutter mining machine

SciTech Connect

Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

1980-02-19

A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

2. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

DOEpatents

Yetter, H.H.

1985-05-06

An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

3. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

4. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

5. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

6. Semantics via Machine Translation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

7. The Hooey Machine.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

1992-01-01

Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

8. Machining heavy plastic sections

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stalkup, O. M.

1967-01-01

Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

9. Technique for Machining Glass

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rice, S. H.

1982-01-01

Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

10. Stirling machine operating experience

SciTech Connect

Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

1994-09-01

Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

11. Machine Translation Project

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bajis, Katie

1993-01-01

The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

St. Andre, Ralph E.

Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

13. Simple Machine Junk Cars

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herald, Christine

2010-01-01

During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

14. Introduction to machine learning.

PubMed

Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

2014-01-01

The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

15. FLINT MILL ROADLESS AREA, TENNESSEE.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Griffitts, Wallace R.; Jones, Jay G.

1984-01-01

A mineral-resource survey was made on the Flint Mill Roadless Area in northeastern Tennessee. Studies of known manganese deposits, most of which are small and mined out, evaluation of iron prospects, and the results of a geochemical survey for other metals in stream sediments indicate there is probable resource potential for the occurrence of small iron-manganese resources in the roadless area. Nonmetallic minerals such as clay, carbonate rock, and other industrial raw material are found in the area but, similar commodites are found outside the area. The remote possibility of deep oil or gas in the southern Appalachians, of which the roadless area is a part, cannot be evaluated with existing data. Further geophysical study and possibly drilling would be necessary to evaluate the resource potential for gas and oil in the roadless area.

16. Surface Integrity of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4 V in Ball end Milling

Mhamdi, M.-B.; Boujelbene, M.; Bayraktar, E.; Zghal, A.

With the evolution of machine tools and the emergence of new cutting tools such as cermet, CBN; and in framework of the production of parts with complex geometry, the manufacturers were able to realize more and more parts of complex shape. The multi-axis machining is the main technique for achieving the free form; in fact the multi-axis milling with ball end tools attracts the interest of the aerospace industry and the mussel industry which continues to seek ways to improve the surface quality of finished parts. The titanium alloy is widely used in aerospace industry is the subject of this study in fact, the integrity of the surfaces of parts produced by multi-axis milling is an issue more relevant than ever for the aerospace industry. This paper aims to study the influence of the tool position and the parameters cutting precisely the speed feed Vf, the engagement of the tool on the roughness 3 D, micro-hardness and microstructure alteration created in sub-surface during the milling of concave surface of titanium alloy type Ti-6Al-4 V.

17. Mathematical modelling to predict the roughness average in micro milling process

Burlacu, C.; Iordan, O.

2016-08-01

Surface roughness plays a very important role in micro milling process and in any machining process, because indicates the state of the machined surface. Many surface roughness parameters that can be used to analyse a surface, but the most common surface roughness parameter used is the average roughness (Ra). This paper presents the experimental results obtained at micro milling of the C45W steel and the ways to determine the Ra parameter with respect to the working conditions. The chemical characteristics of the material were determined from a spectral analysis, chemical composition was measured at one point and two points, graphical and tabular. A profilometer Surtronic 3+ was used to examine the surface roughness profiles; the effect of independent parameters can be investigated and can get a proper relationship between the Ra parameter and the process variables. The mathematical model were developed, using multiple regression method with four independent variables D, v, ap, fz; the analysis was done using statistical software SPSS. The ANOVA analysis of variance and the F- test was used to justify the accuracy of the mathematical model. The multiple regression method was used to determine the correlation between a criterion variable and the predictor variables. The prediction model can be used for micro milling process optimization.

18. Diversity of bacteria contaminating paper machines.

PubMed

Lahtinen, Tomi; Kosonen, Mirva; Tiirola, Marja; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

2006-09-01

Formation of microbial biofilms and slimes is a general and serious problem in the operation of paper machines. Studies of microbial populations in paper machine-derived biofilms have been conducted using standard microbiological procedures; however, the bacterial genera present in this type of samples as well as their diversity are quite poorly known. Here, the bacterial diversity of 38 process water and 22 biofilm samples from four different Finnish paper machines were analyzed by length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (LH-PCR). In addition, sequencing of the amplified 16S rRNA gene from 69 clones was conducted for characterization of the bacterial genera present in biofilm and slime samples. The LH-PCR profiles of both the free-living (process waters) and immobilized (biofilms) bacteria were diverse at all stages of the papermaking process. Out of the 69 sequenced clones, 44 belonged to alpha-Proteobacteria, most of which were close to the nitrogen-fixing root nodule genera Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Azorhizobium. Other clones were assigned to beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes. In addition, eight of the clones were assigned to a yet uncultivated phylum, TM7. Finally, epifluorescence microscopy revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were predominant in both the biofilm (65%) and process water (54%) samples and a small coccoid cell morphology was most common in all samples. Together, our results show that the analysis of microbial samples from paper machines using modern molecular biology techniques adds valuable information and should, therefore, be useful as a more specific and sensitive microbiological method for the paper industry. This information could further be applied, e.g., in the development of more specific and environmental friendly antimicrobial agents for paper mills.

19. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting.

PubMed

Yun, Dae Jin; Seo, Tae Il; Park, Dong Sam

2008-02-22

For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

20. Surface roughness analysis after machining of direct laser deposited tungsten carbide

Wojciechowski, S.; Twardowski, P.; Chwalczuk, T.

2014-03-01

In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in machining of tungsten carbide is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). Experiments carried out included milling of tungsten carbide samples using monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool and grinding with the diamond cup wheel. The effect of machining method on the generated surface topography was analysed. The 3D surface topographies were measured using optical surface profiler. The research revealed, that surface roughness generated after the machining of tungsten carbide is affected by feed per tooth (fz) value related to kinematic-geometric projection only in a minor extent. The main factor affecting machined surface roughness is the occurrence of micro grooves and protuberances on the machined surface, as well as other phenomena connected, inter alia, with the mechanism for material removal.

1. Feasibility Study for Electrical Discharge Machining of Large DU-Mo Castings

SciTech Connect

Hill, Mary Ann; Dombrowski, David E.; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Forsyth, Robert Thomas; Aikin, Robert M.; Alexander, David John; Tegtmeier, Eric Lee; Robison, Jeffrey Curt; Beard, Timothy Vance; Edwards, Randall Lynn; Mauro, Michael Ernest; Scott, Jeffrey E.; Strandy, Matthew Thomas

2016-10-31

U-10 wt. % Mo (U-10Mo) alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel for the CONVERT program. Optimization of processing for the monolithic fuel is being pursued with the use of electrical discharge machining (EDM) under CONVERT HPRR WBS 1.2.4.5 Optimization of Coupon Preparation. The process is applicable to manufacturing experimental fuel plate specimens for the Mini-Plate-1 (MP-1) irradiation campaign. The benefits of EDM are reduced machining costs, ability to achieve higher tolerances, stress-free, burr-free surfaces eliminating the need for milling, and the ability to machine complex shapes. Kerf losses are much smaller with EDM (tenths of mm) compared to conventional machining (mm). Reliable repeatability is achievable with EDM due to its computer generated machining programs.

2. Microbial diversity in various types of paper mill sludge: identification of enzyme activities with potential industrial applications.

PubMed

Ghribi, Manel; Meddeb-Mouelhi, Fatma; Beauregard, Marc

2016-01-01

This study is the first comprehensive investigation of enzyme-producing bacteria isolated from four sludge samples (primary, secondary, press and machine) collected in a Kraft paper mill. Overall, 41 strains encompassing 11 different genera were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and biochemical testing. Both biodiversity and enzymatic activities were correlated with sludge composition. Press sludge hosted the largest variety of bacterial strains and enzymatic activities, which included hydrolytic enzymes and ligninolytic enzymes. In contrast, strains isolated from secondary sludge were devoid of several enzymatic activities. Most strains were found to metabolize Kraft liquor at its alkaline pH and to decolorize industrial lignin-mimicking dyes. Resistance to lignin or the ability to metabolize this substrate is a prerequisite to survival in any paper mill sludge type. We demonstrate here that the bacterial strains found in a typical Kraft paper mill represent a source of potential novel enzymes for both industrial applications and bioremediation.

3. 28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in The Crown Roller Mill, Northwestern Miller 9 (May 21, 1880): 321; SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

4. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

5. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ACROSS ROUTE 101, MILL OFFICES IN FOREGROUND, SMOKESTACK OVER BOILER ROOM AND MAINTENANCE SHOP, MAIN MILL BUILDING WITH TOWER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

6. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

7. 2. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE MILL BUILDING AND THE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE MILL BUILDING AND THE ANCILLARY BUILDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MILLING PROCESS. TAILINGS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE MILL IS IN THE CENTER MID-GROUND AND THE MINE TAILINGS ARE IN THE BACKGROUND LEFT OF THE IMAGE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

8. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

9. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

10. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

11. 10. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM EAST, c. 191928. ADDITION TO ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM EAST, c. 1919-28. ADDITION TO THE EAST END OF MILLING FLOOR VISIBLE WITH TRAM ENTRY DOOR. ALSO SEEN ARE THE ADDITIONS FOR MILL SOLUTION TANKS AND THE EAST SIDE OF SAMPLING ROOMS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

12. Using residual lipid to assess rice degree of milling

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Color is often used to measure the degree of milling of rice. Milled rice color is determined by the adhering, pigmented bran. Bran and germ are successively removed during milling and those tissues contain large quantities of lipid, therefore, surface lipid content may be used to assess milling qua...

13. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

14. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

15. Milling by product Utilization Research at USDA-ARS

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the State of California, waste material from olive milling (“alperujo” for 2-phase milling and “pomace” for 3-phase milling) is increasing as the domestic olive oil industry grows. Current best practices, including land application and conversion to animal feed, for disposing of olive milling wa...

PubMed Central

Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-01-01

17. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

PubMed Central

Gurudatt, CL

2013-01-01

After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

18. The basic anaesthesia machine.

PubMed

Gurudatt, Cl

2013-09-01

After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

19. Machine Tool Software

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1988-01-01

A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

20. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

1. An investigation of cutting mechanics in 2 dimensional ultrasonic vibration assisted milling toward chip thickness and chip formation

Rasidi, I. I.; Rafai, N. H.; Rahim, E. A.; Kamaruddin, S. A.; Ding, H.; Cheng, K.

2015-12-01

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of 2 dimensional Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Milling (UVAM) cutting mechanics, considering tool path trajectory and the effect on the chip thickness. The theoretical modelling of cutting mechanics is focused by considering the trajectory of the tool locus into the workpiece during the machining. The studies found the major advantages of VAM are come from the intermittent tool tip interaction phenomena between cutting tool and workpiece. The reduction of thinning chip thickness formations can be identifying advantages from vibration assisted milling in 2 dimensional. The finding will be discussing the comparison between conventional machining the potential of the advantages toward the chip thickness and chip formation in conclusion.

2. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

3. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

4. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

5. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

6. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

7. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including groundwater and air monitoring information. Developed for support of proposed regulatory revisions supporting UMTRCA and CAA-NESHAPs.

8. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2012-03-13

... Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory...

9. Creation of damage-free ferroelectric nanostructures via focused ion beam milling

Hambe, M.; Wicks, S.; Gregg, J. M.; Nagarajan, V.

2008-04-01

We present a novel method for creating damage-free ferroelectric nanostructures with a focused ion beam milling machine. Using a standard e-beam photoresist followed by a dilute acid wash, nanostructures ranging in size from 1 µm down to 250 nm were created in a 90 nm thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafer. Transmission electron microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) confirmed that the surfaces of the nanostructures remained damage free during fabrication, and showed no gallium implantation, and that there was no degradation of ferroelectric properties. In fact DC strain loops, obtained using PFM, demonstrated that the nanostructures have a higher piezoresponse than unmilled films. As the samples did not have any top hard mask, the method presented is unique as it allows for imaging of the top surface to understand edge effects in well-defined nanostructures. In addition, as no post-mill annealing was necessary, it facilitates investigation of nanoscale domain mechanisms without process-induced artefacts.

10. Hypergolic Ionic Liquids to Mill, Suspend and Ignite Boron Nanoparticles

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-01-01

by milling micron-sized B with a ligand to create ligand-protected B nanoparticles. For example, oleic acid was utilized as a ligand to create...Boron (2 g) was added to the ball milling apparatus and dry milled, followed by additional milling with either no ligand, a combination of oleic acid ...milled in the oleic acid /olelyl amine surfactant mixture led to a complex flame behavior reproducibly exhibiting two flames which lengthened the

11. Effect of silica coating on the bond strength of milled pure titanium to dental porcelain.

PubMed

Ye, Jiantao; Ye, Xiuhua; Chang, Shaohai; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Yiping; Lin, Shiyao

2016-10-01

The creation of a high bond strength between machined computer-manufactured pure titanium and porcelain remains problematic, and the effects of a silica coating on the bond strength of milled pure titanium bonded to dental porcelain require further investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of machined pure titanium, with an intermediate coating of silica, to dental porcelain. In this work, 24 specimens of milled pure titanium were prepared and randomly divided into test and control groups, in which the test group was coated with silica using the sol-gel dipping technique. The metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated, according to ISO 9693 standards, using the three-point bending test, and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the microstructure and elemental composition of the specimens. The bonding strength of the silica-coated group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and more residual porcelain on the metal surface could be observed in the silica-coated group. Therefore, the application of a silica intermediate coating produced using the sol-gel method could significantly improve the bond strength between machined pure titanium and porcelain.

12. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

13. The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution

Yablon, Jay R.

2014-03-01

The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

14. Simulation of the plain milling process

Nikolaev, A. Yu

2017-02-01

The article considers the dynamics of the plain milling process. The model takes into account the time-lag effect due to the algorithm of new surface formation during material cutting-off. A reduced model based on the results of a modal analysis of the milling cutter is applied to describe the dynamics of the tool. The results of the work are presented in the comparison of the microprofiles obtained as a result of processing and simulation of surfaces.

15. Tunnel boring machine

SciTech Connect

Snyder, L. L.

1985-07-09

A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

2008-06-01

Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

17. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

PubMed Central

Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

2013-01-01

Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

18. Doubly fed induction machine

DOEpatents

Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

2005-10-11

An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

19. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-04-23

APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

20. Sealing intersecting vane machines

DOEpatents

Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

2005-06-07

The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

1. Sealing intersecting vane machines

SciTech Connect

Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

2007-06-05

The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

2. Human-machine interactions

DOEpatents

Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

2009-04-28

Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

3. Metalworking and machining fluids

DOEpatents

Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

2010-10-12

Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

4. Early succession of bacterial biofilms in paper machines.

PubMed

Tiirola, Marja; Lahtinen, Tomi; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

2009-07-01

Formation of biofilms causes severe problems in paper machines, and hence financial costs. It would be preferable to prevent attachment of the primary-colonizing bacteria than to control the growth of secondary communities, which are sheltered by exopolysaccharide slime layers. We have therefore investigated the early succession of paper-machine biofilms by incubating stainless-steel test coupons in the process water-flow lines in two paper machines operating in slightly alkaline conditions in temperatures (45 and 49 degrees C) supporting thermophilic microbes. Microbial succession was profiled using length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes (LH-PCR) and linking the sequence data of the created 16S rRNA gene libraries to the dominant LH-PCR peaks. Although the bacterial fingerprints obtained from the attached surface communities varied slightly in different samples, the biomarker signals of the dominating primary-colonizing bacterial groups remained high over time in each paper machine. Most of the 16S rRNA gene copies in the early biofilms were assigned to the genera Rhodobacter, Tepidimonas, and Cloacibacterium. The dominance of these sequence types decreased in the developing biofilms. Finally, as phylogenetically identical primary-colonizers were detected in the two different paper mills, the machines evidently had similar environmental conditions for bacterial growth and potentially a common source of contamination.

5. Desulfovibrionales-related bacteria in a paper mill environment as detected with molecular techniques and culture.

PubMed

Maukonen, Johanna; Saarela, Maria; Raaska, Laura

2006-01-01

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for the detection of Desulfovibrionales-related sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from paper mill samples. The samples were also analyzed with culturing. SRB cause/enhance industrial problems, namely creation of foul-smelling gases (hydrogen sulfide) and biological corrosion, and so far there has not been a simple method to study these bacteria in paper mill laboratories. In our study, culturing was able to detect Desulfovibrionales-related bacteria from two different white waters, two different brokes, pulp, clay, and slime. Out of the isolated Desulfovibrionales, 23 enrichment cultures were further characterized with Desulfovibrionales-selective PCR-DGGE. An identical Desulfovibrio species sequence was found from paper machine I (broke I, slime, and pulp) and from paper machine II (broke II and white water II), suggesting an in-house contamination with the same strain. Desulfovibrionales-selective PCR-DGGE was also performed from DNA templates extracted directly from the paper mill samples. The DGGE profiles derived from the samples without prior enrichment were more diverse and the sequenced amplicons proved to belong to the Desulfovibrionales order. Moreover, molecular techniques were able to detect Desulfovibrionales-related bacteria from calcium carbonate samples whereas culture did not. Altogether, the nested PCR-DGGE method used in this study was suitable for the detection of Desulfovibrionales-related SRB directly from different paper mill samples and it could be used for the rapid identification of SRB-contaminated industrial sites and, when combined with sequencing, for tracing of the contamination routes.

6. [Research progress of dental machinable materials].

PubMed

Liu, Xiao Zhou; Lu, Pei Jun; Wang, Yong

2008-12-18

7. Could a machine think

SciTech Connect

Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

1990-01-01

There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

8. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

9. Size-Free Weaving of Cotton Fabrics on a Modern High-Speed Weaving Machine: An Updated Progress Report

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weaving experiments to produce 1/2-twill fabrics of varied constructions, using a size-free (common) cotton warp, have been conducted under mill-like conditions on a modern, high-speed, flexible-rapier weaving machine. More than 100 yards of fabrics of the same warp density and different pick densit...

10. Finite Element Modelling and Residual Stress Prediction in End Milling of Ti6Al4Valloy

Krishnakumar, P.; Sripathi, J.; Vijay, P.; Ramachandran, K. I.

2016-09-01

Titanium and its alloys are materials that exhibit unique combination of mechanical and physical properties that enable their usage in various fields. In spite of having a lot of advantages, their usage is limited because they are difficult to machine due to their inherent properties of high specific heat capacity, reactivity with tool and low thermal conductivity thereby causing excessive tool wear. To facilitate the process of machining, it becomes necessary to find out and relieve the residual stress caused during machining. Since experiments cannot be performed for each instance, creation of an FE model is desirable. In this paper a finite element analysis (FEA) of the machining of Ti6Al4V for different cutting speeds is presented. A 3D finite element model is developed with the Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) as the workpiece and a four flute carbide tip end mill cutter as the tool to predict the residual stress developed within the titanium alloy after machining. The finite element model utilises the Johnson-Cook model to depict the plasticity and the damage criteria and implements the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation to increase the accuracy of the model. The FE model has been developed and the findings are presented. The results indicate that residual stresses are maximum at the surface and decrease linearly along the depth and increase as the cutting speed and depth of cut are increased.

SciTech Connect

Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

2008-01-01

During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

12. Influence of rice sample preparation and milling procedures on milling quality appraisals

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sample preparation and milling procedure on milling quality appraisals of rough rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium-grain rice (M202) with different initial moisture contents (MCs) ranging from 20.2% to 25.1% (w.b.) were used for...

13. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ezell, Allen

2009-01-01

This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

14. 27. The AssortingRoom in the paper mill. After the paper ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. The Assorting-Room in the paper mill. After the paper has been calendered, the big rolls are put into a cutting-machine that cuts the continuous roll into sheets of the desired size. These are then examined, sheet by sheet, by the women shown in the picture. All perfect shoes are put into one pile and the imperfect ones are placed in another pile. The perfect sheets are then ready, after trimming, for the presses of the National Geographic. (p.241.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

15. Peripheral Milling of Thin Titanium Plates: Modeling, Analysis, and Process Planning (Preprint)

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-07-01

5 respectively, and the maximum cutting feedrate is 250 mm/s. A solid–carbide, eight– flute end mill was utilized in all of the machining...all nine experiments the spindle speed and depth–of–cut were Ns = 1350 rpm and d = 12.7 mm, respectively, the feed/ flute varied such that 0.051 ≤ ff...significant energy at 22.5 Hz and 180 Hz, which are the tool rotation and flute passing frequencies, respectively, for this experiment. The y and z force

16. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

DOEpatents

Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

2000-01-01

An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

17. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bichsel, J.

1992-01-01

Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

18. Perspectives on the amorphisation/milling relationship in pharmaceutical materials.

PubMed

Descamps, M; Willart, J F

2016-05-01

This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the role of the amorphous state in the physical and chemical transformations of pharmaceutical materials induced by mechanical milling. The following points are addressed: (1) Is milling really able to amorphise crystals?, (2) Conditions for obtaining an amorphisation, (3) Milling of hydrates, (4) Producing amorphous state without changing the chemical nature, (5) Milling induced crystal to crystal transformations: mediation by an amorphous state, (6) Nature of the amorphous state obtained by milling, (7) Milling of amorphous compounds: accelerated aging or rejuvenation, (8) Specific recrystallisation behaviour, and (9) Toward a rationalisation and conceptual framework.

19. Three-dimensional tool radius compensation for multi-axis peripheral milling

Chen, Youdong; Wang, Tianmiao

2013-05-01

Few function about 3D tool radius compensation is applied to generating executable motion control commands in the existing computer numerical control (CNC) systems. Once the tool radius is changed, especially in the case of tool size changing with tool wear in machining, a new NC program has to be recreated. A generic 3D tool radius compensation method for multi-axis peripheral milling in CNC systems is presented. The offset path is calculated by offsetting the tool path along the direction of the offset vector with a given distance. The offset vector is perpendicular to both the tangent vector of the tool path and the orientation vector of the tool axis relative to the workpiece. The orientation vector equations of the tool axis relative to the workpiece are obtained through homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix and forward kinematics of generalized kinematics model of multi-axis machine tools. To avoid cutting into the corner formed by the two adjacent tool paths, the coordinates of offset path at the intersection point have been calculated according to the transition type that is determined by the angle between the two tool path tangent vectors at the corner. Through the verification by the solid cutting simulation software VERICUT® with different tool radiuses on a table-tilting type five-axis machine tool, and by the real machining experiment of machining a soup spoon on a five-axis machine tool with the developed CNC system, the effectiveness of the proposed 3D tool radius compensation method is confirmed. The proposed compensation method can be suitable for all kinds of three- to five-axis machine tools as a general form.

20. Micro-machined resonator

DOEpatents

Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

1993-03-30

A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

1. Micro-machined resonator

DOEpatents

Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

1993-01-01

A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

2. The Bateman Flotation Machine

SciTech Connect

Bezuidenhout, G.

1995-12-31

The newly developed Bateman Flotation Machine has proven its versatility in roughing and cleaning flotation circuits. This mechanical flotation machine has the dual performance capability of suspending solids and dispersing air at relatively low power inputs without compromising these two important fundamentals. This new development has been successfully marketed to a wide cross section of concentrator mineral processes. The mechanical design of the flotation mechanism has been optimized to reduce operational costs and to lower manufacturing costs. Production process environments were utilized for verification of the scale-up of each cell volume size rated mechanism. These thorough investigations produced performance data which could be accurately quoted. This paper is a historical account of the Batement Flotation Machine. Technical details of the development are covered with descriptions of the operational applications.

3. Brown coal preparation machines

SciTech Connect

Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

1981-05-01

Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

4. New photolithography stepping machine

SciTech Connect

Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

1995-03-08

A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

5. Intersecting vane machines

SciTech Connect

Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

2007-01-16

The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

1991-01-01

Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

7. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

DOEpatents

Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

1999-01-01

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

8. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

DOEpatents

Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

1999-01-05

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

9. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

2005-12-01

We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

10. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

ScienceCinema

None

2016-07-12

The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

11. Machining of Aircraft Titanium with Abrasive-Waterjets for Fatigue Critical Applications

SciTech Connect

Liu, H. T.; Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.

2010-10-04

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the fatigue performance of AWJ-machined aircraft titanium. Dog-bone specimens machined with AWJs were prepared and tested with and without sanding and dry-grit blasting with Al2O3 as secondary processes. The secondary processes were applied to remove the visual appearance of AWJ-generated striations and to clean up the garnet embedment. The fatigue performance of AWJ-machined specimens was compared with baseline specimens machined with CNC milling. Fatigue test results not only confirmed the findings of the aluminum dog-bone specimens but also further enhance the fatigue performance. In addition, titanium is known to be notoriously difficult to cut with contact tools while AWJs cut it 34% faster than stainless steel. AWJ cutting and dry-grit blasting are shown to be a preferred combination for processing aircraft titanium that is fatigue critical.

12. The Influence of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Machinability of a Prehardened Mold Steel

Hoseiny, Hamed; Caballero, Francisca G.; M'Saoubi, Rachid; Högman, Berne; Weidow, Jonathan; Andrén, Hans-Olof

2015-05-01

The machinability performance of a modified AISI P20 steel, heat treated to have the same hardness but three different microstructures, lower bainite, tempered martensite, and primary spheroidized carbides in a tempered martensite matrix, was studied. The microstructures were characterized using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties were compared by means of tensile and Charpy V-notch impact tests. The influence of microstructure and the resultant mechanical properties on machinability was studied in the context of single tooth end milling operation. The results showed that the material containing primary spheroidized carbides exhibited a superior machinability at the expense of a marginal loss of tensile strength and impact toughness, with comparable yield strength to that of the material containing tempered martensite. By contrast, the material with bainitic microstructure showed the lowest yield strength and the poorest machinability performance while having the highest uniform elongation.

13. Machining of Aircraft Titanium with Abrasive-Waterjets for Fatigue Critical Applications

SciTech Connect

Liu, H. T.; Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.

2012-02-01

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the fatigue performance of abrasive-waterjet- (AWJ-) machined aircraft titanium. Dog-bone specimens machined with AWJs were prepared and tested with and without sanding and dry-grit blasting with Al2O3 as secondary processes. The secondary processes were applied to remove the visual appearance of AWJ-generated striations and to clean up the garnet embedment. The fatigue performance of AWJ-machined specimens was compared with baseline specimens machined with CNC milling. Fatigue test results of the titanium specimens not only confirmed our previous findings in aluminum dog-bone specimens but in comparison also further enhanced the fatigue performance of the titanium. In addition, titanium is known to be difficult to cut, particularly for thick parts, however AWJs cut the material 34% faster han stainless steel. AWJ cutting and dry-grit blasting are shown to be a preferred ombination for processing aircraft titanium that is fatigue critical.

14. Lightning prevention systems for paper mills

SciTech Connect

Carpenter, R.B. Jr. )

1989-05-01

Paper mills are increasingly relying on sensitive electronic equipment to control their operations. However, the sensitivity of these devices has made mills vulnerable to the effects of lightning strokes. An interruption in the power supply or the destruction of delicate microcircuits can have devastating effects on mill productivity. The authors discuss how lightning strokes can be prevented by a Dissipation Array system (DAS). During the past 17 years, the concept has been applied to a host of applications in regions with a high incidence of lightning activity. With nearly 700 systems now installed, more than 4000 system-years of history have been accumulated. Areas as large as 1 km{sup 2} and towers as high as 2000 ft have been protected and completely isolated from lightning strokes. There have been very few failures, and in every case, the cause of the failure was determined and corrected.

15. Milling Stability Analysis Based on Chebyshev Segmentation

HUANG, Jianwei; LI, He; HAN, Ping; Wen, Bangchun

2016-09-01

Chebyshev segmentation method was used to discretize the time period contained in delay differential equation, then the Newton second-order difference quotient method was used to calculate the cutter motion vector at each time endpoint, and the Floquet theory was used to determine the stability of the milling system after getting the transfer matrix of milling system. Using the above methods, a two degree of freedom milling system stability issues were investigated, and system stability lobe diagrams were got. The results showed that the proposed methods have the following advantages. Firstly, with the same calculation accuracy, the points needed to represent the time period are less by the Chebyshev Segmentation than those of the average segmentation, and the computational efficiency of the Chebyshev Segmentation is higher. Secondly, if the time period is divided into the same parts, the stability lobe diagrams got by Chebyshev segmentation method are more accurate than those of the average segmentation.

16. Yang-Mills for Historians and Philosophers

Crease, R. P.

The phrase "Yang-Mills" can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the "Pauli snag," or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.

17. Structural characterization of mechanically milled ZnO: influence of zirconia milling media

Vojisavljević, K.; Šćepanović, M.; Srećković, T.; Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Branković, Z.; Branković, G.

2008-11-01

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained by milling in a planetary ball mill with a zirconia milling assembly for up to 5 h in air. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy methods. The deviation of the lattice parameters from single crystal values was related to defect creation and increase of strain inside the hexagonal lattice of milled ZnO nanoparticles. The observed redshift and peak broadening of the major first-order Raman modes were ascribed to the formation of intrinsic defects by mechanical milling combined with the effects of phonon confinement in nanosized powders. To investigate the type of intrinsic defects and impurities introduced during milling, it was necessary to analyze both milled and thermally treated ZnO. After thermal treatment, the intensity of the Raman spectra increased and the peak positions reverted to values similar to those in unmilled ZnO powder, pointing to defect annihilation. XRD patterns of sintered samples confirmed the existence of zirconia impurities and the Rietveld analysis revealed a small amount of zirconium introduced in the ZnO crystal lattice on the Zn sites or interstitial sites. The large influence of those impurities on the micro-Raman spectra of thermally treated samples was observed in this study.

18. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

SciTech Connect

Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

2003-02-26

The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

19. Dependence of milling time on electrochemical properties of nano Si electrodes prepared by ball-milling.

PubMed

Cho, G B; Choi, S Y; Noh, J P; Jeon, Y M; Jung, K T; Nam, T H

2011-07-01

Morphology, crystallinity and electrochemical properties of Si powders fabricated by a mechanical milling process with milling time of 6-40 h were investigated by means of FESEM, XRD, Raman, TEM and cell test. Average size of Si powders was reduced to sub-micrometer scale after 10 h-milling and 40 nm-Si powders could be obtained at 48 h-milling. With increasing milling time, Si powders mostly changes from crystalline Si to amorphous one and the content of amorphous Si was increased. TEM result showed that a negligiable amount of crystalline Si remained even after 48 h-milling. Si electrode with 48 h-milled Si powders exhibited the best electrochemical properties in terms of capacity, efficiency and cycle performance: initial capacity of 3025 mAh g(-1), coulrombic efficiency of 79.4% and the capacity retention of 1000 mAh g(-1) (at 130 cycles). The good electrochemical properties of nano- and amorphous-Si are due to the high resistance against volume change and good reversibility of Li ion.

20. Application of orthogonal array technique and particle swarm optimization approach in surface roughness modification when face milling AISI1045 steel parts

2016-12-01

Face milling is an important and common machining operation because of its versatility and capability to produce various surfaces. Face milling is a machining process of removing material by the relative motion between a work piece and rotating cutter with multiple cutting edges. It is an interrupted cutting operation in which the teeth of the milling cutter enter and exit the work piece during each revolution. This paper is concerned with the experimental and numerical study of face milling of AISI1045. The proposed approach is based on statistical analysis on the experimental data gathered using Taguchi design matrix. Surface roughness is the most important performance characteristics of the face milling process. In this study the effect of input face milling process parameters on surface roughness of AISI1045 steel milled parts have been studied. The input parameters are cutting speed ( v), feed rate ( f z ) and depth of cut ( a p ). The experimental data are gathered using Taguchi L9 design matrix. In order to establish the relations between the input and the output parameters, various regression functions have been fitted on the data based on output characteristics. The significance of the process parameters on the quality characteristics of the process was also evaluated quantitatively using the analysis of variance method. Then, statistical analysis and validation experiments have been carried out to compare and select the best and most fitted models. In the last section of this research, mathematical model has been developed for surface roughness prediction using particle swarm optimization (PSO) on the basis of experimental results. The model developed for optimization has been validated by confirmation experiments. It has been found that the predicted roughness using PSO is in good agreement with the actual surface roughness.

1. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

2. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

3. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

4. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

5. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

2007-02-01

Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

6. Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips

PubMed Central

Jung, Woo-Chul; Heo, Young-Moo; Yoon, Gil-Sang; Shin, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gun-Hee; Cho, Myeong-Woo

2007-01-01

Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip), has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for microfluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

7. Machinability Evaluation of Ti-5Nb- xFe Alloys for Dental Applications

Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Hsu, Kuan-Huang; Ho, Wen-Fu

2015-03-01

In this study, we evaluated the machinability of a series of Ti-5Nb- xFe alloys with an Fe content ranging from 1 to 5 mass% and compared the results to those of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V. The alloys were slotted using a milling machine and end mills under four cutting conditions. Machinability was evaluated using cutting force which was measured using a dynamometer. The experimental results indicate that the addition of Fe significantly affected the machinability of the Ti alloys in terms of cutting force under the present cutting conditions. Under certain conditions, the cutting force of Ti-5Nb-4Fe was lower than that of c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, a result which can be explained by a higher degree of hardness and greater amounts of ω phase. Ti-5Nb-4Fe also had a better surface finish: cutting marks were less apparent and metal chips did not adhere to the cut surfaces under cutting condition C (cutting speed: 1.83 m/s, feed rate: 0.0005 m/s, and depth of cut: 0.0002 m). Ti-5Nb-4Fe had the lowest average surface roughness ( R a) after machining (approximately 0.27 μm under cutting condition C).

8. Machine speech and speaking about machines

SciTech Connect

Nye, A.

1996-12-31

Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

9. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás

2009-03-01

In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

10. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

SciTech Connect

Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

2009-03-15

In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

11. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

SciTech Connect

Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

2005-03-30

The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

12. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

2016-02-01

The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

13. Investigation of the milling capabilities of the F10 Fine Grind mill using Box-Behnken designs.

PubMed

Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Tay, Justin Yong Soon; Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

2015-01-01

Size reduction or milling of the active is often the first processing step in the design of a dosage form. The ability of a mill to convert coarse crystals into the target size and size distribution efficiently is highly desirable as the quality of the final pharmaceutical product after processing is often still dependent on the dimensional attributes of its component constituents. The F10 Fine Grind mill is a mechanical impact mill designed to produce unimodal mid-size particles by utilizing a single-pass two-stage size reduction process for fine grinding of raw materials needed in secondary processing. Box-Behnken designs were used to investigate the effects of various mill variables (impeller, blower and feeder speeds and screen aperture size) on the milling of coarse crystals. Response variables included the particle size parameters (D10, D50 and D90), span and milling rate. Milled particles in the size range of 5-200 μm, with D50 ranging from 15 to 60 μm, were produced. The impeller and feeder speeds were the most critical factors influencing the particle size and milling rate, respectively. Size distributions of milled particles were better described by their goodness-of-fit to a log-normal distribution (i.e. unimodality) rather than span. Milled particles with symmetrical unimodal distributions were obtained when the screen aperture size was close to the median diameter of coarse particles employed. The capacity for high throughput milling of particles to a mid-size range, which is intermediate between conventional mechanical impact mills and air jet mills, was demonstrated in the F10 mill. Prediction models from the Box-Behnken designs will aid in providing a better guide to the milling process and milled product characteristics.

14. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

PubMed

Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

2016-10-01

Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

15. Uranium Mines and Mills | RadTown USA | US EPA

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

2017-03-27

Uranium is used as nuclear fuel for electric power generation. U.S. mining industries can obtain uranium in two ways: mining or milling. Mining waste and mill tailings can contaminate water, soil and air if not disposed of properly.

16. 16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL' CLEANER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL'- CLEANER FOR BUCKWHEAT, AND GRAIN CHUTES. GRAIN ELEVATOR TURN-AROUND AT BASE. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

17. 72. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE MILL, CONSTRUCTION 1911-1912 - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

18. 70. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE MILL, CONSTRUCTION 1911-1912 - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

19. 71. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE MILL, CONSTRUCTION 1911-1912 - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

20. 3. SOUTH ELEVATION OF SELMA COTTON MILL, NOW PHILLIES CIGAR ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH ELEVATION OF SELMA COTTON MILL, NOW PHILLIES CIGAR COMPANY. ONE OF THE ORIGINAL FIRE PROTECTION RESERVOIRS IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Selma Cotton Mill, 218 Morgan Avenue, Selma, Dallas County, AL

1. 2. View looking northeast at Dixie Cotton Mill warehouses. Note ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View looking northeast at Dixie Cotton Mill warehouses. Note firestops between sections of the building to prevent fire from spreading. - Dixie Cotton Mill, Warehouses, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

2. View northwest, Brandywine Creek with Walkers Mill on right, Brecks ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northwest, Brandywine Creek with Walkers Mill on right, Brecks Mill on left, and the Charles I. Du Pont House in center background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

3. 2. Skewed view of E elevation of sugar mill looking ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Skewed view of E elevation of sugar mill looking NW. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

4. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

5. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

6. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

7. 3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, OHIO. Date unknown. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

8. 1. VIEW NORTH OF PARADISE MILL FOUNDATION AND TAILINGS (FEATURE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW NORTH OF PARADISE MILL FOUNDATION AND TAILINGS (FEATURE P-7). PHOTO TAKEN FROM MERCURY RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Paradise Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

9. 98. VIEW OF PUMPS FROM NORTH. MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. VIEW OF PUMPS FROM NORTH. MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 IN FOREGROUND, ABANDONED BARREN SOLUTION PUMP BEYOND. AGITATOR No. 1 IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

10. 97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. SUMPS ARE UNDER FLOOR, BEYOND. STAIR LEADS TO AGITATOR/GOLD TANK ACCESS PLATFORM. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

11. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of Pemberton Mill Insurance ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of Pemberton Mill Insurance Survey No. 942, n.d., original drawing in collection of Factory Mutual Insurance Co., Norwood, Massachusetts - Pemberton Mill, Union Street vicinity, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

12. 30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

13. 9. PHOTOCOPY OF 'VIEW OF ELLICOTT'S MILLS STATION,' FROM THE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. PHOTOCOPY OF 'VIEW OF ELLICOTT'S MILLS STATION,' FROM THE BOOK OF GREAT RAILWAY CELEBRATIONS OF 1857, PART I - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Ellicott's Mills Station, South Side of State Route 144, Ellicott City, Howard County, MD

14. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

15. 20. VIEW WEST OF TUNNEL FROM BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW WEST OF TUNNEL FROM BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL TO OUTBUILDINGS. TUNNEL IS USED TO CONDUCT WATER AND OTHER UTILITY PIPES. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

16. 253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

17. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

18. 17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS TO PINION STAND AND VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

19. 42. PHOTOCOPY OF DOCUMENT ENTITLED 'SURVEY OF INDIANA COTTON MILLS, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. PHOTOCOPY OF DOCUMENT ENTITLED 'SURVEY OF INDIANA COTTON MILLS, On Which Insurance Is To Be Predicated' FROM THE OFFICE OF CHARLES GERBER, GERBER OIL COMPANY, CANNELTON, IND. - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

20. 12. Credit WS. Basement of Mill, showing wooden flywheels to ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Credit WS. Basement of Mill, showing wooden flywheels to water wheel and Fairbanks. Morse 20 hp, 350 rpm diesel engine, patented April 20, 1920. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

1. 1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

2. 9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. WINTER SNOW ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. WINTER SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

3. 69. VIEW FROM ABOVE OF PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. VIEW FROM ABOVE OF PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2. PRIMARY CLASSIFIER No. 1 AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

4. 29. VIEW OF MILL FROM WEST. SHOWS SECONDARY THICKENER No. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF MILL FROM WEST. SHOWS SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 TANK FLOOR FRAMING AND CENTRAL MECHANISM AT CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

5. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

6. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

7. 1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for unloading sugar cane in foreground, looking W. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

8. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

9. 21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE VERTICAL ROLLS ARE VISIBLE TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

10. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

11. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

12. 1. VIEW OF THE ROAD NORTH OF THE MILL. WATER ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF THE ROAD NORTH OF THE MILL. WATER TANKS (FEATURE B-2) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

13. 2. VIEW OF OFFICE OF THE NEVADA LUCKY TIGER MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF OFFICE OF THE NEVADA LUCKY TIGER MILL AND MINE COMPLEX, (FEATURE B-I), FACING NORTH. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Office, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

14. 3. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH MILL REMNANTS TO THE RIGHT ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH MILL REMNANTS TO THE RIGHT OF TREE. CAMERA POINTED WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Historic Roadway No. 2, West flank Florida Mountain, East of Rich Gulch Mine & Mill, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

15. 2. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH OLD MILL LOOKING DOWN JACOBS ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH OLD MILL LOOKING DOWN JACOBS CREEK. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Historic Roadway No. 2, West flank Florida Mountain, East of Rich Gulch Mine & Mill, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

16. Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old office building has also been used as a starch mixing house. Note entrance to new office building on right - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Office Building, Old, Valley, Chambers County, AL

17. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

18. 19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open end of purging house in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

19. 18. View of archeological excavations along base of mill wall ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. View of archeological excavations along base of mill wall showing unidentified pits. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

20. 16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing discharge and top rolls. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR