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Sample records for 5-dimensional projective unified

  1. Project UNIFY. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Special Olympics Project UNIFY (Andrea Cahn); (2) The Impact of Project UNIFY; (3) Project UNIFY Brings Youth Together to Learn and Graduate (William H. Hughes); (4)…

  2. Project CERES. Ceres Unified School District, Ceres, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Octave V.; Lish, Virginia

    This description of career education activities in the Ceres (California) Unified School District was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final…

  3. Project Support Evaluation, Los Angeles Unified School District. Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovacek, Simeon P.; And Others

    This report describes the first operating year of Project Support, a 3-year gang/drug prevention program aimed at elementary students in six inner city schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District. The project involves the implementation of nine strategies described in the research literature as being effective in drug/gang prevention. These…

  4. SUMMER MIGRANT PROJECT, UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT NUMBER 467, WICHITA COUNTY, LEOTI, KANSAS. EVALUATION REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIS, ALTON E.

    THE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 3467 CONDUCTED A SUMMER REMEDIAL PROGRAM FOR 121 MIGRANTS AND 19 NON-MIGRANTS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE LEOTI COMMUNITY SERVICES AND THE LOCAL OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY. THE PROJECT OFFERED A HEALTH AND FOOD SERVICE IN ADDITION TO THE EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM. THE CURRICULUM FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH 6 WAS…

  5. A unified evaluation of iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, S

    2006-03-08

    Iterative projection algorithms are successfully being used as a substitute of lenses to recombine, numerically rather than optically, light scattered by illuminated objects. Images obtained computationally allow aberration-free diffraction-limited imaging and allow new types of imaging using radiation for which no lenses exist. The challenge of this imaging technique is transferred from the lenses to the algorithms. We evaluate these new computational ''instruments'' developed for the phase retrieval problem, and discuss acceleration strategies.

  6. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  7. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.

  8. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2003 activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Gregory F.; Baird William P.; Lee, Rei C.; Tull, Craig E.; Welcome, Michael L.; Whitney Cary L.

    2004-04-30

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center whose goal is to provide a scalable, high-performance, high-bandwidth, shared file system for all of the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make the scientific users more productive as they conduct advanced scientific research at NERSC by simplifying the scientists' data management tasks and maximizing storage and data availability. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is accessible by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. In order to successfully deploy a scalable high-performance shared file system with consolidated disk storage, three major emerging technologies must be brought together: (1) shared/cluster file systems software, (2) cost-effective, high-performance storage area network (SAN) fabrics, and (3) high-performance storage devices. Although they are evolving rapidly, these emerging technologies individually are not targeted towards the needs of scientific high-performance computing (HPC). The GUPFS project is in the process of assessing these emerging technologies to determine the best combination of solutions for a center-wide shared file system, to encourage the development of these technologies in directions needed for HPC, particularly at NERSC, and to then put them into service. With the development of an evaluation methodology and benchmark suites, and with the updating of the GUPFS testbed system, the project did a substantial number of investigations and evaluations during FY 2003. The investigations and evaluations involved many vendors and products. From our evaluation of these products, we have found that most vendors and many of the products are more focused on the commercial market. Most vendors lack the

  9. First Version of Japan Unified High-resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes by JUICE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T. E.; Takeda, T.; Matsubara, M.; Shiomi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of Japan Unified High-resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes (JUICE project) is to understand the tectonic processes, seismogenic zones, and active fault evaluations. We have completed the first version of catalog by JUICE project for the Japan Islands where the shallow (> 40 km) earthquakes up to M6.9 between years of 2001 and 2013. Events were relocated using the Double-Difference method for high-resolution earthquake location. NIED High-Sensitivity seismic observation (Hi-net) has been established in 2000 to observe micro-earthquakes in Japan. We take advantage of having such good and big data to revisit the problem in the past using these Hi-net data. We collect NIED Hi-net hypocenter catalog, Hi-net P and S arrival data, and waveforms of magnitude up to M6.5 and down to depth of 40 km from year of 2001/Jan to 2013/Dec. Then we apply our data set to the double-difference algorithm (hypoDD) by Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) for high-resolution hypocenter locations. It turns out to be that we relocate over 1,000,000 events for JUICE project and these events are now confined into appropriate clusters and lines. An example of applying this catalog by JUICE project is to estimate the cutoff depth where 90 % of earthquake occurred (D90) (Omuralieva et al., 2012). We now estimate the cutoff depth where 95 % of earthquake occurred (D95) by using the JUICE catalog. D95 is mainly around 15 km under the Japan Island while there the strong spatial variation throughout the Japan Island. However, some of these variations may be due to hypocenters being contaminated by intra and inner slab events and misleading a seismogenic zone for fault related events to be deeper. Since the new high-resolution catalog makes easier to distinguish hypocenters into different types, it gives shed to more detail studies. In our presentation, we will show the new JUICE catalog and its applications.

  10. Introducing the Japan Unified HIgh-Resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes (JUICE) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T. E.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the tectonic processes, seismogenic zones, and active fault evaluations, the precise location of earthquake hypocenters is necessary. Routinely determined hypocenters typically have uncertainties that can make seismically active areas appear more diffuse. These uncertainties influence the interpretation of what are active faults. Objective of this Japan Unified HIgh-resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes (JUICE) project is to create a high-resolution earthquake relocated catalog for all of Japan. To initiate the project, we relocate hypocenters around Kanto-Tokai region. The network geometry, available phases, arrival-time reading accuracy, and knowledge of crustal structure control the accuracy of absolute hypocenter locations (Pavlis, 1986; Gomberg et al., 1990). We take advantage of having an excellent network operated by NIED Hi-net team. We use the high-quality data from this network for events from 2001 to the present. To initiate the JUICE project, we utilize more than 5,500,000 and 5,300,000 P and S phase arrival-time readings (catalog data) and waveforms for about 120,000 events between M0 and M6.5 from 2001 through 2012 in the Kanto and Tokai region. To reduce uncertainties, we apply the double-difference algorithm (hypoDD) by Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) to the data. To obtain the travel time differences for the pairs of earthquakes, we cross correlate the seismograms at the stations, which produces another data set -- cross-correlation data. In addition to the catalog phase data, we add 800,000 and 1,000,000 of P and S phase cross-correlations that are used to relocate hypocenters. We use Hi-net routine velocity structure (Ukawa et al., 1984) to estimate theoretical differential travel times. The newly relocated hypocenters show tighter clusters and lineaments compared to the routinely generated hypocenters. Figure 1 (a) shows the hypocenters in the Shizuoka region before relocation and (b) shows the hypocenters after relocation

  11. Toward a unified system for understanding, predicting and projecting regional hurricane activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, G. A.; Delworth, T. L.; Yang, X.; Murakami, H.; Zhang, W.; Underwood, S.; Zeng, F. J.; Jia, L.; Kapnick, S. B.; Paffendorf, K.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Msadek, R.; Villarini, G.; Chen, J. H.; Lin, S. J.; Harris, L.; Gudgel, R.; Stern, B.; Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    A family of high-resolution (50km and 25km atmospheric/land resolution) global coupled climate models provide a unified framework towards the understanding, intraseasonal-to-decadal prediction and decadal to multi-decadal projection of regional and extreme climate, including tropical cyclones. Initialized predictions of global hurricane activity show skill on regional scales, comparable to the skill on basin-wide scales, suggesting that regional seasonal TC predictions may be a feasible forecast target. The 25km version of the model shows skill at seasonal predictions of the frequency of the most intense hurricanes (Cat. 3-4-5 and Cat. 4-5). It is shown that large-scale systematic errors in the mean-state are a key constraint on the simulation and prediction of variations of regional climate and extremes, and methodologies for overcoming model biases are explored. Improvements in predictions of regional climate are due both to improved representation of local processes, and to improvements in the large-scale climate and variability from improved process representation. These models are used to explore the the response of tropical cyclones, both globally and regionally, to increasing greenhouse gases and to internal climate variations. The 25km model in generally shows a more faithful representation of the impact of climate variability on hurricane activity than the 50km model. The response of the total number and the total power dissipation index of tropical cyclones to increasing greenhouse gases can differ substantially between models of two atmospheric resolutions, 50km and 25km - with the 25km version of the model showing a larger increase in power dissipation from increasing greenhouse gases, principally because - in contrast to that of the 50km model - its global hurricane frequency does not decrease with increasing CO2. Some thoughts on the reasons behind those differences will be offered. The 25km model shows an increase in the frequency of intense tropical

  12. Project Support Evaluation. Los Angeles Unified School District, Report #3 - Final Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simun, Patricia Bates; And Others

    Project Support, a 3-year project funded by the federal government, was designed as a demonstration of the impact of a comprehensive school-based drug and gang prevention program for high-risk students in six elementary schools in Los Angeles (California). In addition to providing some programs for entire grade levels, the program planned to…

  13. Project Catch-Up (Newport-Mesa Unified School District, California): Analysis and Selection Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Project Catch-Up is a reading and math laboratory project for kindergarten through sixth-grade students. It features highly qualified teachers and aides who teach in the morning only, in an attractive, well-equipped laboratory, using an eclectic approach. Staff members are free to use whatever techniques they choose and to purchase instructional…

  14. Project CERES. Ceres Unified School District, Ceres, California. A Submission to the Joint Dissemination Review Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Octave V.

    One of seven career education programs chosen for nationwide dissemination by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), Project CERES (Career Education Responsive to Every Student) is being conducted for grades K-6 with planned expansion to grades 7-12. For the years 1972-76, it received funding…

  15. Contemporary Mathematics in Context: A Unified Approach. Core-Plus Mathematics Project: Scope & Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxford, Arthur F.; Fey, James T.; Hirsch, Christian R.; Schoen, Harold L.; Burrill, Gail; Hart, Eric W.; Watkins, Ann E.

    Contemporary Mathematics in Context is a four-year, integrated mathematics program developed by the Core-Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP) at the Everyday Learning Corporation. The program features student and teacher materials for a three-year core curriculum for all students as well as a fourth-year course continuing the preparation of students…

  16. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  17. Unified Engineering Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  18. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  19. Working Smart. The Los Angeles Unified School District Workplace Literacy Project. Performance Modules. Communication Modules, Manual/Workbook. Computational Modules, Manual/Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    This document consists of performance, computational, and communication modules used by the Working Smart workplace literacy project, a project conducted for the hotel and food industry in the Los Angeles area by a public school district and several profit and nonprofit companies. Literacy instruction was merged with job requirements of the…

  20. Unified theory in the worldline approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, James P.

    2015-11-01

    We explore unified field theories based on the gauge groups SU (5) and SO (10) using the worldline approach for chiral fermions with a Wilson loop coupling to a background gauge field. Representing path ordering and chiral projection operators with functional integrals has previously reproduced the sum over the chiralities and representations of standard model particles in a compact way. This paper shows that for SU (5) the 5 bar and 10 representations - into which the Georgi-Glashow model places the left-handed fermionic content of the standard model - appear naturally and with the familiar chirality. We carry out the same analysis for flipped SU (5) and uncover a link to SO (10) unified theory. We pursue this by exploring the SO (10) theory in the same framework, the less established unified theory based on SU (6) and briefly consider the Pati-Salam model using SU (4) × SU (2) × SU (2).

  1. Unified tensile fracture criterion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Eckert, J

    2005-03-11

    We find that the classical failure criteria, i.e., maximum normal stress criterion, Tresca criterion, Mohr-Coulomb criterion, and von Mises criterion, cannot satisfactorily explain the tensile fracture behavior of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials. For a better description, we propose an ellipse criterion as a new failure criterion to unify the four classical criteria above and apply it to exemplarily describe the tensile fracture behavior of BMGs as well as a variety of other materials. It is suggested that each of the classical failure criteria can be unified by the present ellipse criterion depending on the difference of the ratio alpha=tau(0)/sigma(0).

  2. Carnap on unified science.

    PubMed

    Klev, Ansten

    2016-10-01

    Unified science is a recurring theme in Carnap's work from the time of the Aufbau until the end of the 1930's. The theme is not constant, but knows several variations. I shall extract three quite precise formulations of the thesis of unified science from Carnap's work during this period: from the Aufbau, from Carnap's so-called syntactic period, and from Testability and Meaning and related papers. My main objective is to explain these formulations and to discuss their relation, both to each other and to other aspects of Carnap's work.

  3. Unified Database Development Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    unified database (UDB) program was to develop an automated system that would be useful to those responsible for the design , development, testing, and...weapon system design . Baekgound The Air Force is concerned with the lack of adequate logistics consideration during the weapon system design process. To...produce a weapon system with optimal cost and mission effectiveness, logistics factors must be considered very early and throughout the system design

  4. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  5. 77 FR 43350 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan for the San Diego Unified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... San Diego Unified School District's Jonas Salk Elementary School Project in the City of San Diego, San... Elementary School Project in response to an application from the San Diego Unified School District (District... Elementary School'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Jim Bartel, Field Supervisor, (760)...

  6. Unified Bohm criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2015-09-15

    Recent decades have seen research into the conditions necessary for the formation of the monotonic potential shape in the sheath, appearing at the plasma boundaries like walls, in fluid, and kinetic approximations separately. Although either of these approaches yields a formulation commonly known as the much-acclaimed Bohm criterion (BC), the respective results involve essentially different physical quantities that describe the ion gas behavior. In the fluid approach, such a quantity is clearly identified as the ion directional velocity. In the kinetic approach, the ion behavior is formulated via a quantity (the squared inverse velocity averaged by the ion distribution function) without any clear physical significance, which is, moreover, impractical. In the present paper, we try to explain this difference by deriving a condition called here the Unified Bohm Criterion, which combines an advanced fluid model with an upgraded explicit kinetic formula in a new form of the BC. By introducing a generalized polytropic coefficient function, the unified BC can be interpreted in a form that holds, irrespective of whether the ions are described kinetically or in the fluid approximation.

  7. Development and Test of 2.5-Dimensional Electromagnetic PIC Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Lee, Ensang; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Seon, Jongho; Lee, Dong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation code using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to investigate electromagnetic phenomena that occur in space plasmas. Our code is based on the leap-frog method and the centered difference method for integration and differentiation of the governing equations. We adopted the relativistic Buneman-Boris method to solve the Lorentz force equation and the Esirkepov method to calculate the current density while maintaining charge conservation. Using the developed code, we performed test simulations for electron two-stream instability and electron temperature anisotropy induced instability with the same initial parameters as used in previously reported studies. The test simulation results are almost identical with those of the previous papers.

  8. The DSM-5 dimensional trait model and five-factor models of general personality.

    PubMed

    Gore, Whitney L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    The current study tests empirically the relationship of the dimensional trait model proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) with five-factor models of general personality. The DSM-5 maladaptive trait dimensional model proposal included 25 traits organized within five broad domains (i.e., negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism). Consistent with the authors of the proposal, it was predicted that negative affectivity would align with five-factor model (FFM) neuroticism, detachment with FFM introversion, antagonism with FFM antagonism, disinhibition with low FFM conscientiousness and, contrary to the proposal; psychoticism would align with FFM openness. Three measures of alternative five-factor models of general personality were administered to 445 undergraduates along with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results provided support for the hypothesis that all five domains of the DSM-5 dimensional trait model are maladaptive variants of general personality structure, including the domain of psychoticism.

  9. Unitary or unified taxonomy?

    PubMed Central

    Scoble, Malcolm J

    2004-01-01

    Taxonomic data form a substantial, but scattered, resource. The alternative to such a fragmented system is a 'unitary' one of preferred, consensual classifications. For effective access and distribution the (Web) revision for a given taxon would be established at a single Internet site. Although all the international codes of nomenclature currently preclude the Internet as a valid medium of publication, elements of unitary taxonomy (UT) still exist in the paper system. Much taxonomy, unitary or not, already resides on the Web. Arguments for and against adopting a unitary approach are considered and a resolution is attempted. Rendering taxonomy essentially Web-based is as inevitable as it is desirable. Apparently antithetical to the UT proposal is the view that in reality multiple classifications of the same taxon exist, since different taxonomists often hold different concepts of their taxa: a single name may apply to many different (frequently overlapping) circumscriptions and more than one name to a single taxon. However, novel means are being developed on single Internet sites to retain the diversity of multiple concepts for taxa, providing hope that taxonomy may become established as a Web-based information discipline that will unify the discipline and facilitate data access. PMID:15253355

  10. Towards Unified Conventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    yield required results . Research Criteria Overhauling the interagency process is a complex issue that requires exploration from multiple angles...more thoroughly. The weakness of this method is that the narrow breadth of study results in leaving out one critical element of national security...Security Council: A Legal History of the President‘s Most Powerful Advisors‖ Cody Brown of the Project for National Security Reform (PNSR) notes the

  11. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of April 6, 2011 Unified Command Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of... the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title 10, United States Code, section 161(b)(2)...

  12. 75 FR 79921 - Fall 2010 Unified Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...) FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Ch. III Fall 2010 Unified Agenda AGENCY: Federal Deposit... Corporation (FDIC) is hereby publishing items for the Fall 2010 Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory...

  13. Deaf People, Modernity, and a Contentious Effort to Unify Arab Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fityani, Kinda

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines a project to unify sign languages across twenty-two Arab countries. Proponents of the project, mainly pan-Arab governmental bodies with the support of members of the staff at the Al Jazeera satellite network, have framed the project as a human rights effort to advance the welfare of deaf Arab people. They have urged its…

  14. Unified capacitance modelling of MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, O. G.; Fjeldly, T. A.; Ytterdal, T.

    1994-01-01

    A unified physics based capacitance model for MOSFETs suitable for implementation in circuit simulators is presented. This model is based on the charge conserving, so-called Meyer-like approach proposed by Turchetti et al., and utilizes a unified charge control model to assure a continuous description of the MOSFET capacitances both above and below threshold. The capacitances associated with the model are comparable to those of the well-known BSIM model in the above-threshold regime, but it is more precise in the description of near-threshold and subthreshold behaviour. Moreover, the discontinuities at the transitions between the various regimes of operation are removed. The present modelling scheme was implemented in our circuit simulator AIM-Spice, and simulations of the dynamic behaviour of various demanding benchmark circuits clearly reveal its superiority over simulations using the simple Meyer model.

  15. Unified theory of effective interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.

  16. Recurrence theorems: A unified account

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, David

    2015-02-15

    I discuss classical and quantum recurrence theorems in a unified manner, treating both as generalisations of the fact that a system with a finite state space only has so many places to go. Along the way, I prove versions of the recurrence theorem applicable to dynamics on linear and metric spaces and make some comments about applications of the classical recurrence theorem in the foundations of statistical mechanics.

  17. Coordination in Disaster Management and Response: A Unified Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    Unified Aproach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Cormen, T.H., Leiserson, C.E., Rivest, R.L., Stein, C.: Introduction to Algorithms. 2nd edn. MIT Press (2001) 6. Kuhn, H.W.: The hungarian method for the

  18. Unified-theory-of-reinforcement neural networks do not simulate the blocking effect.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Nicholas T; J McDowell, J

    2015-11-01

    For the last 20 years the unified theory of reinforcement (Donahoe et al., 1993) has been used to develop computer simulations to evaluate its plausibility as an account for behavior. The unified theory of reinforcement states that operant and respondent learning occurs via the same neural mechanisms. As part of a larger project to evaluate the operant behavior predicted by the theory, this project was the first replication of neural network models based on the unified theory of reinforcement. In the process of replicating these neural network models it became apparent that a previously published finding, namely, that the networks simulate the blocking phenomenon (Donahoe et al., 1993), was a misinterpretation of the data. We show that the apparent blocking produced by these networks is an artifact of the inability of these networks to generate the same conditioned response to multiple stimuli. The piecemeal approach to evaluate the unified theory of reinforcement via simulation is critiqued and alternatives are discussed.

  19. Unifying suspension and granular rheology.

    PubMed

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2011-10-28

    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  20. Sedenion unified theory of gravi-electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyal, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we represent 16-component sedenions, the generalization of octonions, which is noncommutative space-time algebra. The sedenions is neither a composition algebra nor a division algebra because it has zero divisors. Here we have formulated the sedenionic unified potential equations, unified fields equations and unified current equations of dyons and gravito-dyons. We have developed the sedenionic unified theory of dyons and gravito-dyons in terms of two eight-potentials leading to the structural symmetry between generalized electromagnetic fields of dyons and generalized gravito-Heavisidian fields of gravito-dyons. Thus we have obtained the sedenionic form of generalized Dirac-Maxwell's equations, unified work-energy theorem (Poynting theorem), generalized unified gravi-electromagnetic force and other quantum equations of dyons and gravito-dyons in simple, compact and consistent way incorporating the non-associativity and non-commutativity of sedenion variables.

  1. A unified lunar control network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Colvin, Tim R.; Meyer, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping network control on the Moon is composed of a number of independent regional networks. These networks frequently have different origins but never have common ties, even in overlapping areas. The objective of the unified network program is to tie the regional networks into a single consistent planetwide control network. The plan is to start with the best defined regions, create common ties with neighboring data sets, and then expand into poorly defined regions. The most accurately defined points on the Moon are locations of the laser ranging retroreflectors and the VLBI measurements of the locations of the Apollo 15, 16, 17 ALSEP stations. Recent values for the coordinates of the retroreflectors have been received. The accuracy of these locations is about 30 m and their locations are used to define the center-of-mass and, hence, the origin of the unified lunar coordinate system. The coordinates of the retroreflectors are given in both principal axis and mean Earth/Polar axis systems. Mean Earth/Polar axis coordinates have been recommended by the IAU for the Moon. The difference in the coordinates is important, more than 600 m in latitude and longitude.

  2. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  3. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  4. CONDUIT: Control Designer's Unified Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, William S.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    CONDUIT, which stands for control designer's unified interface, is a computer software package. Its purpose is to assist a human control system designer in designing control systems for aircraft. At the present time CONDUIT is being used by most of the major U. S. rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft manufacturers to assist in the design of stability and control augmentation systems. Work is also continuing on the development of additional features for CONDUIT, including tools for analyzing the sensitivity of solutions, and on further enhancements to the basic package. The purpose of this paper is to describe CONDUIT, its operation, and the sensitivity tools that are being developed for inclusion in the next release of the package.

  5. Gravity and grand unified theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Toms, D. J.

    1985-02-01

    Curvature-dependent consequences of grand unified theories (GUTs) for the evolution of the very early universe are investigated, considering the possibility that at high curvature and particle energies of 10 to the 24th eV the effective values of the coupling constants governing the strength of the curvature-matter interaction are largely determined by the elementary-particle content defined by the particular GUT. The GUTs examined include those of Georgi and Glashow (1974) and Chang et al. (1980), and the coupling constants studied are the cosmological Lambda, Newtonian G, xi(phi) and xi(H) linking curvature and the scalar Higgs bosons, and alpha(i) (coefficients of action terms quadratically dependent on the curvature tensor).

  6. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    Korea’s calculus and result in a different outcome. Given the strategic implications of a unified Korea’s alignment, the United States should consider...Korea’s calculus and result in a different outcome. Given the strategic implications of a unified Korea’s alignment, the United States should

  7. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  8. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  9. Unifying Quantum Physics with Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2014-09-01

    We find that the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in quantum mechanical units is close to 137. Since science is not religion, it is our moral duty to recognize the importance of this finding on the following ground. The experimentally obtained number 137 is a mystical number in science, as if written by the hand of God. It is found in cosmology; unlike other theories, it works in biology too. A formula by Boltzmann also works in both: biology and physics, as if it is in the heart of God. His formula simply leads to finding the logarithm of microstates. One of the two conflicting theories of physics (1) Einstein's theory of General Relativity and (2) Quantum Physics, the first applies only in cosmology, but the second applies in biology too. Since we have to convert the age of the universe, 13 billion years, into 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Planck times to get close to 137, quantum physics clearly shows the characteristics of unifying with biology. The proof of its validity also lies in its ability to extend information system observed in biology.

  10. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, Antonio

    The following sections are included: * THE STANDARD MODEL: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL * The "Low Energy" Limit of Renormalizable Gauge Theories * The Standard Model: its purity * The Standard Model: its impurity * Vices and Virtues of the Standard Model * INTRODUCTION TO GRAND UNIFIED THEORIES * When "Strong" and "Weak" Merge Together * The "Big Desert" Picture of the World * A Persistent Cloud: the hierarchy problem * PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GUTs * What is New in GUTs * General Features of the B and L Violating Processes * A FIRST GLIMPSE AT THE SU(5) MODEL * Why SU(5)? * The Higgs Sector and the Hierarchy Nightmare * LOW ENERGY PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF SU(5) * The Successful sin2θW Prediction of SU(5) * Fermion Masses in SU(5) * Mixing Angles and Phases * Proton Lifetime: A Death Blow to the SU(5) Model? * B-L and Neutrino Masses in SU(5) * SU(5): A Final Score * NEW PHYSICS NOT FAR FROM THE FERMI SCALE? * L-Right Symmetry: A Fundamental Symmetry? * Massive Majorana Neutrinos * Neutron -Antineutron Oscillations * Lepton Number as a Fourth Colour * THE SO(10) MODEL * Few Generalities on the Orthogonal Groups * The SO(10) Gauge Interactions * Patterns of Symmetry Breaking in the SO(10) Model * The Fermion Mass Spectrum * The Question of the Neutrino Mass * PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE INTERMEDIATE MASS SCALES * Renormalization Group Equations in the Presence of IMS * MI and MX in IMS models * Higgs Contributions to the β-Functions * Phenomenological Consequences of IMS * A GENERAL OUTLOOK ON GUTs * General Constraints on GUTs * Major Unsolved Questions in GUTs * Bibliography * References

  11. Unifying evolutionary and network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarup, Samarth; Gasser, Les

    2007-06-01

    Many important real-world networks manifest small-world properties such as scale-free degree distributions, small diameters, and clustering. The most common model of growth for these networks is preferential attachment, where nodes acquire new links with probability proportional to the number of links they already have. We show that preferential attachment is a special case of the process of molecular evolution. We present a single-parameter model of network growth that unifies varieties of preferential attachment with the quasispecies equation (which models molecular evolution), and also with the Erdős-Rényi random graph model. We suggest some properties of evolutionary models that might be applied to the study of networks. We also derive the form of the degree distribution resulting from our algorithm, and we show through simulations that the process also models aspects of network growth. The unification allows mathematical machinery developed for evolutionary dynamics to be applied in the study of network dynamics, and vice versa.

  12. A unified relation for cavitation erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Buckley, D. H.; Matsumura, M.

    A power-law relationship between the average erosion rate and cumulative erosion is presented. Data analyses from Venturi, magnetostriction, and liquid-impingement devices conform to this unified relation. A normalization technique is also suggested for prediction purposes.

  13. Toward a Unified Timestamp with explicit precision

    PubMed Central

    Benzler, Justus; Clark, Samuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Demographic and health surveillance (DS) systems monitor and document individual and group-level processes in well-defined populations over long periods of time. The resulting data are complex and inherently temporal. Established methods of storing and manipulating temporal data are unable to adequately address the challenges posed by these data. Building on existing standards, a temporal framework and notation are presented that are able to faithfully record all of the time-related information (or partial lack thereof) produced by surveillance systems. The Unified Timestamp isolates all of the inherent complexity of temporal data into a single data type and provides the foundation on which a Unified Timestamp class can be built. The Unified Timestamp accommodates both point- and interval-based time measures with arbitrary precision, including temporal sets. Arbitrary granularities and calendars are supported, and the Unified Timestamp is hierarchically organized, allowing it to represent an unlimited array of temporal entities. PMID:20396403

  14. A unified relation for cavitation erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Buckley, D. H.; Matsumura, M.

    1984-01-01

    A power-law relationship between the average erosion rate and cumulative erosion is presented. Data analyses from Venturi, magnetostriction, and liquid-impingement devices conform to this unified relation. A normalization technique is also suggested for prediction purposes.

  15. Specification for the unified heliostat array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-13

    The performance and design requirements for the Unified Heliostat Array are established. The Unified Heliostat Array is an array of heliostats on a common terraced structure. Requirements are given for designing and evaluating the individual heliostats. Representative site conditions to be encountered and survived by the array are described, including wind loading, precipitation, insolation, and earthquake, and soil properties are described. Heliostat design load calculations and preliminary design point calculations are presented. (LEW)

  16. Complex Spinors and Unified Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Ramond, Pierre; Slansky, Richard

    We were told by Frank Yang in his welcoming speech that supergravity is a phenomenon of theoretical physics. Why, at this time, is it not more than that? Self-coupled extended supergravity, especially for N = 8, seems very close to the overall unified theory for which all of us have yearned since the time of Einstein. There are no quanta of spin >2 there is just one graviton of spin 2; there are N gravitini of spin 3/2, just right for eating the N Goldstone fermions of spin 1/2 that are needed if N-fold supersymmetry is to be violated spontaneously; there are N(N-1)/2 spin 1 bosons, perfectly suited to be the gauge bosons for SON in the theory with self-coupling. There are N(N - 1)(N - 2)/6 spin 1/2 Majorana particles, and with the simplest assignments of charge and colour they include isotopic doublets of quarks and leptons. The theory is highly non-singular in perturbation theory, and the threatened divergence at the level of three loops has not even been demonstrated. The apparently arbitrary cancellation of huge contributions of opposite sign to the cosmological constant (from self-coupling on the one hand and from spontaneous violation of supersymmetry on the other) has been phrased in such an elegant way that it may be acceptable. (Of course, if we follow Hawking at al., we may not even need to cancel out the cosmological constant!)…

  17. Transferring Standard English Braille Skills to the Unified English Braille Code: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kimbrough, B. T.; Johnson, Franklin; LeJeune, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    The enormously complex and sometimes controversial project to unify the traditional literary Braille code used in English-speaking countries with the technical and mathematical codes authorized by the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) and the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom (BAUK) proposes to change English Grade Two Braille on a…

  18. Unified Technical Concepts--Phase II. Expand Application to Industrial Technologies and Adult Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    A project was conducted to develop a laboratory-based instructional system in physics for two-year technician programs that emphasizes both the analogies between basic physical principles and the applications of the principles in modern technology. The Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) system that was developed is (1) a reorganization of physics…

  19. Building a Unified Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avram, Henriette D.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses cooperative efforts between research organizations and libraries to create a national information network. Topics discussed include the Linked System Project (LSP); technical processing versus reference and research functions; Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model; the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET); and…

  20. Unified Aerosol Microphysics for NWP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Specifically, the goal is to develop a COAMPS that is capable of simulating the full range of interactions between aerosol particles, clouds , and radiative...aerosol species that are responsible for degradation of Electro- Optical (EO) propagation or that modify cloud behavior and lifetime. Report...enabling new development of more complex cloud -aerosol interactions. The work on this project has been divided into two phases, an investigation phase

  1. Unifying process control and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    2005-09-01

    About 40% of US generation is now subject to wholesale competition. To intelligently bid into these new markets, real-time prices must be aligned with real-time costs. It is time to integrate the many advanced applications, sensors, and analyzers used for control, automation, and optimization into a system that reflects process and financial objectives. The paper reports several demonstration projects in the USA revealing what is being done in the area of advanced process optimization (by Alliant Energy, American Electric Power, PacifiCorp, Detroit Edison and Tennessee Valley Authority). In addition to these projects US DOE's NETL has funded the plant environment and cost optimization system, PECOS which combines physical models, neural networks and fuzzy logic control to provide operators with least cost setpoints for controllable variables. At Dynegy Inc's Baldwin station in Illinois the DOE is subsidizing a project where real time, closed-loop IT systems will optimize combustion, soot-blowing and SCR performance as well as unit thermal performance and plant economic performance. Commercial products such as Babcock and Wilcox's Flame Doctor, continuous emissions monitoring systems and various real-time predictive monitoring systems are also available. 4 figs.

  2. Over Not Through: The Search for a Strong, Unified Culture for America’s Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Reports & Bookstore Make a charitable contribution Limited Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark( s ) contained herein are protected by...Unified Culture for America’s Airmen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) RAND Corporation,Project Air Force,1776 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138

  3. A statistical test of the unified model of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiao-yu; Wan, Tong-shan

    1995-02-01

    A statistical test is carried out on the AGN unified model using a sample of superluminal sources. For different classes of source the distribution of R, the luminosity ration between the core and extended region, and the mean angle overlineφ between the jet and the line of sight were evaluated. Correlations among R, the Lorentz factor γ, the projected size of the jet d and the linear size of the source l were examined. It was found that there is anticorrelation between R and d, and correlation between γ and l. These results are favorable to the orientation interpretation of the unified model of the AGN.

  4. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    PubMed

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    PubMed Central

    Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM‐5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED‐A). The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED‐A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM‐5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27378317

  6. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  7. Unified Green's Function Retrieval by Cross Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wapenaar, Kees; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2006-12-08

    It has been shown by many authors that the cross correlation of two recordings of a diffuse wave field at different receivers yields the Green's function between these receivers. Recently the theory has been extended for situations where time-reversal invariance does not hold (e.g., in attenuating media) and where source-receiver reciprocity breaks down (in moving fluids). Here we present a unified theory for Green's function retrieval that captures all these situations and, because of the unified form, readily extends to more complex situations, such as electrokinetic Green's function retrieval in poroelastic or piezoelectric media. The unified theory has a wide range of applications in ''remote sensing without a source.''.

  8. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  9. Simulation of Aerosols and Chemistry with a Unified Global Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2004-01-01

    This project is to continue the development of the global simulation capabilities of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry and aerosols in a unified global model. This is a part of our overall investigation of aerosol-chemistry-climate interaction. In the past year, we have enabled the tropospheric chemistry simulations based on the GEOS-CHEM model, and added stratospheric chemical reactions into the GEOS-CHEM such that a globally unified troposphere-stratosphere chemistry and transport can be simulated consistently without any simplifications. The tropospheric chemical mechanism in the GEOS-CHEM includes 80 species and 150 reactions. 24 tracers are transported, including O3, NOx, total nitrogen (NOy), H2O2, CO, and several types of hydrocarbon. The chemical solver used in the GEOS-CHEM model is a highly accurate sparse-matrix vectorized Gear solver (SMVGEAR). The stratospheric chemical mechanism includes an additional approximately 100 reactions and photolysis processes. Because of the large number of total chemical reactions and photolysis processes and very different photochemical regimes involved in the unified simulation, the model demands significant computer resources that are currently not practical. Therefore, several improvements will be taken, such as massive parallelization, code optimization, or selecting a faster solver. We have also continued aerosol simulation (including sulfate, dust, black carbon, organic carbon, and sea-salt) in the global model to cover most of year 2002. These results have been made available to many groups worldwide and accessible from the website http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/People/Chin/aot.html.

  10. Technical writing practically unified through industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.

  11. Project UNIFY: Promoting Social Inclusion through Sports, Interaction and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robin C.; Corona, Laura; Cahn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Today's youth face many challenges, from achieving personal and academic success to feeling emotionally and physically healthy and safe. These challenges are even greater for some students due to the presence of a disability, and especially students with intellectual disabilities (ID). Increasingly, children with ID, who once were on the margins…

  12. Unified Technical Concepts. Physics for Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary programs. This UTC classroom textbook, consisting of 14 chapters, deals with physics for technicians. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force, work, rate, momentum, resistance, power, potential and…

  13. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  14. A Grand Unified Theory of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2007-01-01

    Aside from the appeal to administrators as a tool to reduce costs by combining less robust departments with heftier relations, interdisciplinarity is a powerful idea because it implies that different branches of knowledge can benefit from talking to one another: a grand, unified theory of knowledge in which each discipline contributes building…

  15. A Unifying Curriculum for Museum-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povis, Kaleen E.

    2011-01-01

    There are over two dozen schools in the United States with the word "museum" in their names. However, the philosophy and pedagogy that tie these schools together is unclear. A consistent definition, criteria for classification, and a unifying curriculum to guide museum- schools is lacking. Yet, museum-schools continue to open across the country.…

  16. Molecular selection in a unified evolutionary sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    With guidance from experiments and observations that indicate internally limited phenomena, an outline of unified evolutionary sequence is inferred. Such unification is not visible for a context of random matrix and random mutation. The sequence proceeds from Big Bang through prebiotic matter, protocells, through the evolving cell via molecular and natural selection, to mind, behavior, and society.

  17. 78 FR 63100 - Unified Registration System; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... System; Correction AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: FMCSA makes corrections to its August 23, 2013, final rule regarding the Unified... Friday, August 23, 2013, the following corrections are made: Sec. 390.3 0 1. In Part 390--Federal...

  18. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  19. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the first of two volumes, consists of 56 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force, work,…

  20. Toward a Unified Theory of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Paivio, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Despite nearly 40 years of scientific theorizing about reading, the field remains fragmented with little progress toward unification. In this article, we (a) emphasize the privileged position of unified theories in all science, (b) compare the growth of theory in cognitive science and reading, (c) identify the phenomenal domain of a unified…

  1. Unified Database Development Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Everett L., Jr.; Deem, Robert N.

    The objective of the unified database (UDB) program was to develop an automated information system that would be useful in the design, development, testing, and support of new Air Force aircraft weapon systems. Primary emphasis was on the development of: (1) a historical logistics data repository system to provide convenient and timely access to…

  2. A Unified Stability Property in Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Dmitry

    2012-08-01

    Gibbs' measures in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type models satisfy two asymptotic stability properties, the Aizenman-Contucci stochastic stability and the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities, which play a fundamental role in our current understanding of these models. In this paper we show that one can combine these two properties very naturally into one unified stability property.

  3. Unified classical path theories of pressure broadening.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottcher, C.

    1971-01-01

    Derivation of a unified classical path theory of pressure broadening, using only elementary concepts. It is shown that the theory of Smith, Cooper and Vidal (1969) is only correct at all frequencies to first order in the number density of perturbers.

  4. Unified Modern Mathematics, Course 2, Teachers Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    This commentary is designed for use with "Unified Modern Mathematics, Course II," Parts 1 and 2. As in the commentary for "Course I," statements of the specific purposes and goals of each section of every chapter are presented. Also included are suggestions for teaching the concepts presented in each section, time estimates for each section,…

  5. Unified Modern Mathematics, Course 1, Teachers Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    This commentary is designed for use with "Unified Modern Mathematics, Course I," Parts 1 and 2. Included in the commentary are statements of the specific purposes and goals of each section of every chapter, suggestions for teaching the concepts presented in each section, time estimates for each section, suggested instructional aids for presenting…

  6. Unified Modern Mathematics, Course 3, Teachers Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    This commentary is to be used with "Unified Modern Mathematics, Course III." Statements of specific purposes and goals of each section of every chapter of Course III are included in the "Commentary." Also included are suggestions for teaching concepts presented in each section; time estimates for each section; suggested instructional aids for…

  7. Mapping the fundamental niches of two freshwater microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae), in 5-dimensional ion space

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five dimensional experimental design, i.e. a five component ion mixture design for nitrate, phosphate, potassium, sodium and chloride projected across a total ion concentration gradient of 1-30 mM was utilized to map the ion-based, scenopoetic, or ‘Grinnellian’, niche space for two freshwater alga...

  8. OVERGRID: A Unified Overset Grid Generation Graphical Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Akien, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a unified graphical interface and gridding strategy for performing overset grid generation. The interface called OVERGRID has been specifically designed to follow an efficient overset gridding strategy, and contains general grid manipulation capabilities as well as modules that are specifically suited for overset grids. General grid utilities include functions for grid redistribution, smoothing, concatenation, extraction, extrapolation, projection, and many others. Modules specially tailored for overset grids include a seam curve extractor, hyperbolic and algebraic surface grid generators, a hyperbolic volume grid generator, and a Cartesian box grid generator, Grid visualization is achieved using OpenGL while widgets are constructed with Tcl/Tk. The software is portable between various platforms from UNIX workstations to personal computers.

  9. Unified entropic measures of quantum correlations induced by local measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Bellomo, G.; Zozor, S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce quantum correlation measures based on the minimal change in unified entropies induced by local rank-one projective measurements, divided by a factor that depends on the generalized purity of the system in the case of nonadditive entropies. In this way, we overcome the issue of the artificial increasing of the value of quantum correlation measures based on nonadditive entropies when an uncorrelated ancilla is appended to the system, without changing the computability of our entropic correlation measures with respect to the previous ones. Moreover, we recover as limiting cases the quantum correlation measures based on von Neumann and Rényi entropies (i.e., additive entropies), for which the adjustment factor becomes trivial. In addition, we distinguish between total and semiquantum correlations and obtain some inequalities between them. Finally, we obtain analytical expressions of the entropic correlation measures for typical quantum bipartite systems.

  10. Unified Synthesis Product (USP) Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. C.

    2009-05-01

    The USP identifies a number of areas in which inadequate information or understanding hampers our ability to estimate likely future climate change and its impacts. For example, our knowledge of changes in tornadoes, hail, and ice storms is quite limited, making it difficult to know if and how such events have changed as climate has warmed, and how they might change in the future. Research on ecological responses to climate change also is limited, as is our understanding of social responses. The Report identifies the five most important gaps in knowledge and offers some thoughts on how to address those gaps: 1. Expand our understanding of climate change impacts. There is a clear need to increase understanding of how ecosystems, social and economic systems, human health, and the built environment will be affected by climate change in the context of other stresses. This includes ecosystems as well as economic systems, human health, and the built environment. 2. Refine ability to project climate change at local scales. One of the main messages to emerge from the past decade of synthesis and assessments is that while climate change is a global issue, it has a great deal of regional variability. There is an indisputable need to improve understanding of climate system effects at these smaller scales, because these are often the scales of decision-making in society. 3. Expand capacity to provide decision makers and the public with relevant information on climate change and its impacts. The United States has tremendous potential to create more comprehensive measurement, archive, and data-access systems that could provide great benefit to society. 4. Improve understanding of and ability to identify thresholds likely to lead to abrupt changes in the climate system. Paleoclimatic data shows that climate can and has changed quite abruptly when certain thresholds are crossed. Similarly, there is evidence that ecological and human systems can undergo abrupt change when tipping

  11. Evaluation of Project Trend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report is a descriptive evaluation of the five pilot sites of Project TREND (Targeting Resources on the Educational Needs of the Disadvantaged). The five Local Education Agency (LEA) pilot sites are the educational systems of: (1) Akron, Ohio; (2) El Paso, Texas; (3) Newark, New Jersey; (4) Portland, Oregon; and, (5) San Jose (Unified),…

  12. Shuttle unified navigation filter, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, E. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Equations designed to meet the navigation requirements of the separate shuttle mission phases are presented in a series of reports entitled, Space Shuttle GN and C Equation Document. The development of these equations is based on performance studies carried out for each particular mission phase. Although navigation equations have been documented separately for each mission phase, a single unified navigation filter design is embodied in these separate designs. The purpose of this document is to present the shuttle navigation equations in a form in which they would most likely be coded-as the single unified navigation filter used in each mission phase. This document will then serve as a single general reference for the navigation equations replacing each of the individual mission phase navigation documents (which may still be used as a description of a particular navigation phase).

  13. Unified Process Planning, the Allison approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Clair

    Process Planning, the organization of product/process information for the manufacturing enterprise, represents the lead activity within the manufacturing portion of a business. Process planning encompasses all aspects that contribute to the successful manufacture of a quality product. This paper explains the role of process planning and how a 'Unified Process Plan' (UPP) provides Allison with a more effective and organized method of manufacturing information management. This approach allows for a more effective use of the manufacturing engineering staff. Allison is transitioning to a knowledge base of process information that will be continually improved and accessible to every engineer and operator. Unified Process Planning focuses key pieces of information into one manageable and controlled environment.

  14. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, Sven; Carlton, James T; Duncan, Richard P; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2011-07-01

    There has been a dramatic growth in research on biological invasions over the past 20 years, but a mature understanding of the field has been hampered because invasion biologists concerned with different taxa and different environments have largely adopted different model frameworks for the invasion process, resulting in a confusing range of concepts, terms and definitions. In this review, we propose a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions. The unified framework combines previous stage-based and barrier models, and provides a terminology and categorisation for populations at different points in the invasion process.

  15. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  16. Can (should) theories of crowding be unified?

    PubMed Central

    Agaoglu, Mehmet N.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objects in clutter are difficult to recognize, a phenomenon known as crowding. There is little consensus on the underlying mechanisms of crowding, and a large number of models have been proposed. There have also been attempts at unifying the explanations of crowding under a single model, such as the weighted feature model of Harrison and Bex (2015) and the texture synthesis model of Rosenholtz and colleagues (Balas, Nakano, & Rosenholtz, 2009; Keshvari & Rosenholtz, 2016). The goal of this work was to test various models of crowding and to assess whether a unifying account can be developed. Adopting Harrison and Bex's (2015) experimental paradigm, we asked observers to report the orientation of two concentric C-stimuli. Contrary to the predictions of their model, observers' recognition accuracy was worse for the inner C-stimulus. In addition, we demonstrated that the stimulus paradigm used by Harrison and Bex has a crucial confounding factor, eccentricity, which limits its usage to a very narrow range of stimulus parameters. Nevertheless, reporting the orientations of both C-stimuli in this paradigm proved very useful in pitting different crowding models against each other. Specifically, we tested deterministic and probabilistic versions of averaging, substitution, and attentional resolution models as well as the texture synthesis model. None of the models alone was able to explain the entire set of data. Based on these findings, we discuss whether the explanations of crowding can (should) be unified. PMID:27936273

  17. The unified lunar control network: 1994 version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Colvin, Tim R.; Meyer, Donald L.; Nelson, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the unified lunar control network is to combine a series of control networks into one compatible network with its origin at the center of mass of the Moon and its coordinates referred to the mean Earth/polar axis system. The initial unified system contained 130 nearside points from Apollo data and 1026 from telescopic data. It also contained ten Mariner 10 points. The total number of points was 1166. The current network includes modifications to the past network and extends the coverage. Coordinates of points north of the Apollo region have been recomputed based on Galileo images from the second Earth-Moon flyby. Coordinates of points in the Apollo region were held fixed; however, coordinates of points north of the Apollo region in the telescopic region and many Mariner 10 points were recomputed. All of the Mariner 10 points were remeasured and integrated into the network. Additional points in the Apollo region including the farside have been added. The unified network now contains 1478 points. Apollo, Mariner 10, and Galileo pictures all contained some farside points. The coordinates of the 1478 points are available only in the microfiche supplement to this paper.

  18. Image segmentation with a unified graphical model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ji, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    We propose a unified graphical model that can represent both the causal and noncausal relationships among random variables and apply it to the image segmentation problem. Specifically, we first propose to employ Conditional Random Field (CRF) to model the spatial relationships among image superpixel regions and their measurements. We then introduce a multilayer Bayesian Network (BN) to model the causal dependencies that naturally exist among different image entities, including image regions, edges, and vertices. The CRF model and the BN model are then systematically and seamlessly combined through the theories of Factor Graph to form a unified probabilistic graphical model that captures the complex relationships among different image entities. Using the unified graphical model, image segmentation can be performed through a principled probabilistic inference. Experimental results on the Weizmann horse data set, on the VOC2006 cow data set, and on the MSRC2 multiclass data set demonstrate that our approach achieves favorable results compared to state-of-the-art approaches as well as those that use either the BN model or CRF model alone.

  19. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  20. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.K.; Anderson, D.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.; Houser, P.; Hou, A.; Lang, S.; Lau, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kakar, R.; Kumar, S.; Lapenta, W.; Li, X.; Matsui, T.; Rienecker, M.; Shen, B.W.; Shi, J.J.; Simpson, J.; Zeng, X.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical cloud resolving models (CRMs), which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that CRMs agree with observations in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and regional scale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a szrper-parameterization or multi-scale modeling -framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign can provide initial conditions as well as validation through utilizing the Earth Satellite simulators. At Goddard, we have developed a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics. The modeling system consists a coupled GCM-CRM (or MMF); a state-of-the-art weather research forecast model (WRF) and a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model). In these models, the same microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 3ICE), radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models are applied. In addition, a comprehensive unified Earth Satellite

  1. Unified Field Mechanics: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    Recently we hear more and more physicists saying, `spacetime is doomed', `spacetime is a mirage', the `end of spacetime', `spacetime is not fundamental but emergent' etc. "Henceforth space by itself and time by itself are doomed to fade into the mere shadows, and only a union of the two will preserve an independent reality." - 1908 Hermann Minkowski. We have come full circle from the time of Minkowski's 1908 statement to the brink of an imminent new age of discovery. The basis of our understanding of the natural world has evolved in modern times from Newtonian Mechanics to the 2nd regime of Quantum Mechanics; and now to the threshold of a 3rd regime - Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). The Planck scale stochastic quantum realm can no longer be considered the `basement' or fundamental level of reality. As hard as quantum reality was to imagine so is the fact that the quantum domain is a manifold of finite radius; and that the `sacrosanct - indelible' Quantum Uncertainty Principle can now be surmounted. For decades main stream physicists have been stymied by efforts to reconcile General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The stumbling block lies with the two theories conflicting views of space and time: For quantum theory, space and time offer a fixed backcloth against which particles move. In Einstein's relativities, space and time are not only inextricably linked, but the resultant spacetime is warped by the matter within it. In our nascent UFM paradigm for arcane reasons the quantum manifold is not the regime of integration with gravity; it is instead integrated with the domain of the unified field where the forces of nature are deemed to unify. We give a simplistic survey of the fundamental premises of UFM and summarize experimental protocols to falsify the model at this stage of the paradigm's development.

  2. a Unified Blending Framework for Panorama Completion via Graph Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Yao, Jian; Xia, Menghan; Gui, Xinyuan; Lu, Xiaohu; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified framework for efficiently completing streetview and indoor 360° panoramas due to the lack of bottom areas caused by the occlusion of the acquisition platform. To greatly reduce the severe distortion at the bottom of the panorama, we first reproject it onto the ground perspective plane containing the whole occluded region to be completed. Then, we formulate the image completion problem in an improved graph cuts optimization framework based on the statistics of similar patches by strengthening the boundary constraints. To further eliminate image luminance differences and color deviations and conceal geometrical parallax among the optimally selected patches for completion, we creatively apply a multi-bland image blending algorithm for perfect image mosaicking from the completed patches and the originally reprojected image. Finally, we back-project the completed and blended ground perspective image into the cylindrical-projection panorama followed by a simple feathering to further reduce artifacts in the panorama. Experimental results on some representative non-panoramic images and streetview and indoor panoramas demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method even in some challenging cases.

  3. Interactive analysis environment of unified accelerator libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, V.; Malitsky, N.; Talman, R.

    2006-04-01

    Unified Accelerator Libraries (UAL, http://www.ual.bnl.gov) software is an open accelerator simulation environment addressing a broad spectrum of accelerator tasks ranging from efficient online-oriented modeling to full-scale realistic beam dynamics studies. The paper introduces a new package integrating UAL simulation algorithms with the QT-based Graphical User Interface and the ROOT data analysis and visualization framework ( http://root.cern.ch). The primary user application is implemented as an interactive and configurable Accelerator Physics Player. Its interface to visualization components is based on the QT layer ( http://root.bnl.gov) supported by the STAR experiment.

  4. Management of the Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, K.; Erdmann, C.; Accomazzi, A.; Rubin, L.; Biemesderfer, C.; Gray, N.; Soles, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable, and community-supported thesaurus of astronomical and astrophysical concepts and their relationships. Management of the UAT is based on a community-supported approach. This will ensure that the thesaurus stays current by allowing users to suggest an addition or revision. These suggestions will then be subjected to a thorough expert review process before being accepted for addition to the UAT or rejected. Many leading astronomical institutions, professional associations, journal publishers, learned societies, and data repositories support the UAT as a standard astronomical terminology.

  5. Unified framework for systematic loop transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.C.; Chen, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents a formal mathematical framework which unifies the existing loop transformations. This framework also includes more general classes of loop transformations, which can extract more parallelism from a class of programs than the existing techniques. We classify schedules into three classes: uniform, subdomain-variant, and statement-variant. Viewing from the degree of parallelism to be gained by loop transformation, the schedules can also be classified as single-sequential level, multiple-sequential level, and mixed schedules. We also illustrate the usefulness of the more general loop transformation with an example program.

  6. All About Project I-C-E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert W.; Warpinski, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Project ICE is a regional, multidisciplinary, k-12 environmental education program that stresses student involvement. Four major project objectives and twelve unifying concepts for the curriculum are listed. The role of the teacher, project services, and available resources are discussed. Several specific examples illustrate student involvement…

  7. Process of research investigations in artificial intelligence-an unified view

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.; Yadav, S.B.

    1995-05-01

    A number of research communities recognize Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a valid reference discipline. However, several papers have criticized AI`s research methodologies. This paper attempts to clarify and improve the methods used in AI. Definitions are proposed for terms such as AI theory, principles, hypotheses, and observations. Next, a unified view of AI research methodology is proposed. This methodology contains a long term dimension based upon the scientific method and an individual project dimension. The individual project dimension identifies four strategies: Hypothetical/deductive, hermeneutical/inductive, case-based, and historical analysis. The strategies differ according to how prototyping is used in an experiment. 78 refs.

  8. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  9. Inelastic mechanics: A unifying principle in biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Gralka, Matti; Kroy, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Many soft materials are classified as viscoelastic. They behave mechanically neither quite fluid-like nor quite solid-like - rather a bit of both. Biomaterials are often said to fall into this class. Here, we argue that this misses a crucial aspect, and that biomechanics is essentially damage mechanics, at heart. When deforming an animal cell or tissue, one can hardly avoid inducing the unfolding of protein domains, the unbinding of cytoskeletal crosslinkers, the breaking of weak sacrificial bonds, and the disruption of transient adhesions. We classify these activated structural changes as inelastic. They are often to a large degree reversible and are therefore not plastic in the proper sense, but they dissipate substantial amounts of elastic energy by structural damping. We review recent experiments involving biological materials on all scales, from single biopolymers over cells to model tissues, to illustrate the unifying power of this paradigm. A deliberately minimalistic yet phenomenologically very rich mathematical modeling framework for inelastic biomechanics is proposed. It transcends the conventional viscoelastic paradigm and suggests itself as a promising candidate for a unified description and interpretation of a wide range of experimental data. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  10. Simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Songze; Guo, Zhaoli; Xu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The equilibrium part of the UGKS flux is calculated by analytical solution instead of the numerical quadrature in velocity space. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and the conventional discrete ordinate method. Several simplification strategies are tested, through which we can identify the key ingredient of the Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving property. Numerical tests show that, as long as the collision effect is built into the macroscopic numerical flux, the numerical scheme is Navier-Stokes asymptotic preserving, regardless the accuracy of the microscopic numerical flux for the velocity distribution function.

  11. A unifying description of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We review and extend a novel approach that we recently introduced, to describe general dark energy or scalar-tensor models. Our approach relies on an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formulation based on the hypersurfaces where the underlying scalar field is uniform. The advantage of this approach is that it can describe in the same language and in a minimal way a vast number of existing models, such as quintessence, F(R) theories, scalar tensor theories, their Horndeski extensions and beyond. It also naturally includes Horava-Lifshitz theories. As summarized in this review, our approach provides a unified treatment of the linear cosmological perturbations about a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe, obtained by a systematic expansion of our general action up to quadratic order. This shows that the behavior of these linear perturbations is generically characterized by five time-dependent functions. We derive the full equations of motion in the Newtonian gauge. In the Horndeski case, we obtain the equation of state for dark energy perturbations in terms of these functions. Our unifying description thus provides the simplest and most systematic way to confront theoretical models with current and future cosmological observations.

  12. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Savalia, Tejas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus, attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks. PMID:27917146

  13. Toward a unifying framework for evolutionary processes

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Tiago; Badkobeh, Golnaz; Barton, Nick; Çörüş, Doğan; Dang, Duc-Cuong; Friedrich, Tobias; Lehre, Per Kristian; Sudholt, Dirk; Sutton, Andrew M.; Trubenová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    The theory of population genetics and evolutionary computation have been evolving separately for nearly 30 years. Many results have been independently obtained in both fields and many others are unique to its respective field. We aim to bridge this gap by developing a unifying framework for evolutionary processes that allows both evolutionary algorithms and population genetics models to be cast in the same formal framework. The framework we present here decomposes the evolutionary process into its several components in order to facilitate the identification of similarities between different models. In particular, we propose a classification of evolutionary operators based on the defining properties of the different components. We cast several commonly used operators from both fields into this common framework. Using this, we map different evolutionary and genetic algorithms to different evolutionary regimes and identify candidates with the most potential for the translation of results between the fields. This provides a unified description of evolutionary processes and represents a stepping stone towards new tools and results to both fields. PMID:26215686

  14. Minimal realistic SU(5) Grand Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assad, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Despite making predictions in unprecedented agreement with experiment, such as the magnetic dipole moment of the electron to one part in a billion, the experimental confirmation of neutrino flavor oscillations, and thus of massive neutrinos, implies that the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is incomplete. An extension of the SM, which retains its low energy predictions while accounting for massive neutrinos, is achieved through the introduction of the dimension 5 Weinberg operator and its associated energy scale above the electroweak (102 GeV), but below the Planck scale (1019 GeV). The Beyond Standard Model (BSM) class of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) implicates such a scale (1016 GeV) in the unification of the three SM gauge couplings, thus making the origin of neutrino mass a theoretically appealing probe into particle behavior at energies currently inaccessible experimentally. Here, we compare the 24F and 15H extensions of the Georgi-Glashow SU(5) GUT to accommodate massive neutrinos and to unify SM gauge couplings while minimizing the theory's additional field content. Using the Monte Carlo event generator MadGraph, each extension is found to produce distinct signatures at the run II of the LHC.

  15. Unified Access Architecture for Large-Scale Scientific Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Risav

    2014-05-01

    data formats have been anticipated and considered during the design of the unified architecture. The research focuses on the feasibility of the designed coupling mechanism and the evaluation of the efficiency and benefits of our proposed unified access architecture. Zhang 2011: Zhang, Ying and Kersten, Martin and Ivanova, Milena and Nes, Niels, SciQL: Bridging the Gap Between Science and Relational DBMS, Proceedings of the 15th Symposium on International Database Engineering Applications, 2011. Baumann 98: Baumann, P., Dehmel, A., Furtado, P., Ritsch, R., Widmann, N., "The Multidimensional Database System RasDaMan", SIGMOD 1998, Proceedings ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, June 2-4, 1998, Seattle, Washington, 1998. hadoop1: hadoop.apache.org, "Hadoop", http://hadoop.apache.org/, [Online; accessed 12-Jan-2014]. scalapack1: netlib.org/scalapack, "ScaLAPACK", http://www.netlib.org/scalapack,[Online; accessed 12-Jan-2014]. r1: r-project.org, "R", http://www.r-project.org/,[Online; accessed 12-Jan-2014]. matlab1: mathworks.com, "Matlab Documentation", http://www.mathworks.de/de/help/matlab/,[Online; accessed 12-Jan-2014]. scidbusr1: scidb.org, "SciDB User's Guide", http://scidb.org/HTMLmanual/13.6/scidb_ug,[Online; accessed 01-Dec-2013].

  16. First Year Progress Report on Project Open, Ona Junior High School, Cabell County, West Virginia, 1977-78 Project Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murwin, Scott; Murray, Michael

    As part of Project Open (see related documents listed below), unified arts and industrial arts curricula were developed and implemented at Ona Junior High School in West Virginia. The unified arts program combines the four subject areas of art, home economics, music, and industrial arts. It is a two-year required course for all seventh and eighth…

  17. Unified theory of nonlinear electrodynamics and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2011-01-15

    We describe a class of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. The Lagrangian is of the BF type, with a potential for the B field, the gauge group is U(2) (complexified). Given a choice of the potential function the theory is a deformation of (complex) general relativity and electromagnetism, and describes just two propagating polarizations of the graviton and two of the photon. When gravity is switched off the theory becomes the usual nonlinear electrodynamics with a general structure function. The Einstein-Maxwell theory can be recovered by sending some of the parameters of the defining potential to zero, but for any generic choice of the potential the theory is indistinguishable from Einstein-Maxwell at low energies. A real theory is obtained by imposing suitable reality conditions. We also study the spherically-symmetric solution and show how the usual Reissner-Nordstrom solution is recovered.

  18. Unified theories and the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1988-05-01

    The interface between particle physics and cosmology, particularly inflationary cosmology, is reviewed. Grand unified theories (GUT) and Big Bang Cosmology (BBC) are discussed. The standard model of particle physics was extended to GUTs, super GUTs or possibly superstring theories, while the standard BBC was extended to contain the inflationary era. Inflation predicts omega = 1 and adiabatic, scale invariant energy density perturbations, which will be tested in experiment. Present experimental values are much smaller than one, but it seems that mass is being missed (better light), and there is dark matter that may close the Universe. Particle theory provides a list of candidates, e.g., photino, massive neutrino, axion, for dark matter and particle experimenters are building dark matter detectors to test these ideas. Developments in galaxy formation and observational developments on the large structure of the Universe, may put under severe test the ideas of scale-invariant energy density perturbations.

  19. UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

  20. Unified Ultrasonic/Eddy-Current Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging station for detecting cracks and flaws in solid materials developed combining both ultrasonic C-scan and eddy-current imaging. Incorporation of both techniques into one system eliminates duplication of computers and of mechanical scanners; unifies acquisition, processing, and storage of data; reduces setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy-current scans; and increases efficiency of system. Same mechanical scanner used to maneuver either ultrasonic or eddy-current probe over specimen and acquire point-by-point data. For ultrasonic scanning, probe linked to ultrasonic pulser/receiver circuit card, while, for eddy-current imaging, probe linked to impedance-analyzer circuit card. Both ultrasonic and eddy-current imaging subsystems share same desktop-computer controller, containing dedicated plug-in circuit boards for each.

  1. Unifying Gate Synthesis and Magic State Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Howard, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The leading paradigm for performing a computation on quantum memories can be encapsulated as distill-then-synthesize. Initially, one performs several rounds of distillation to create high-fidelity magic states that provide one good T gate, an essential quantum logic gate. Subsequently, gate synthesis intersperses many T gates with Clifford gates to realize a desired circuit. We introduce a unified framework that implements one round of distillation and multiquibit gate synthesis in a single step. Typically, our method uses the same number of T gates as conventional synthesis but with the added benefit of quadratic error suppression. Because of this, one less round of magic state distillation needs to be performed, leading to significant resource savings.

  2. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The Unified Heliostat Array (UHA) is comprised of conventional two-axis heliostats mounted on a terraced south-facing wall of a single structure. The arrangement of heliostats on the array is chosen to eliminate or control the degree of inter-heliostat shading and blocking. The UHA was investifated as to cost and optical performance. Two heliostats, the Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) and the Repowering Heliostat were investigated in conjunction with the UHA. The UHA was found to be a viable candidate for solar thermal central receiver applications. The UHA-VIH combination was shown to provide very high flux densities and to be suitable for high temperature applications in the 1000/sup 0/K to 2000/sup 0/K range. These temperatures were shown to be achievable even with very small (1 MWt) collector fields.

  3. A Unified Theory of Trust and Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guoray; Squicciarini, Anna

    We consider a type of applications where collaboration and trust are tightly coupled with the need to protect sensitive information. Existing trust management technologies have been limited to offering generic mechanisms for enforcing access control policies based on exchanged credentials, and rarely deal with the situated meaning of trust in a specific collaborative context. Towards trust management for highly dynamic and collaborative activities, this paper describes a theory of trust intention and semantics that makes explicit connections between collaborative activities and trust. The model supports inferring trust state based on knowledge about state of collaborative activity. It is the first step towards a unified approach for computer-mediated trust communication in the context of collaborative work.

  4. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Gu, Pei-Hong; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy (νDE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2)R breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1)R is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  5. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.; Gu, P.-H.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy ({nu}DE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2){sub R} breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1){sub R} is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  6. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  7. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  8. Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

    Presented is the second part of the K-12 unified science materials used in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are made of the roles of students and teachers, purposes of the bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, a scheme and model for scientific literacy, and program…

  9. Educating All Students Together: How School Leaders Create Unified Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrello, Leonard C.; Lashley, Carl; Beatty, Edith E.

    This book established a plan for creating a truly integrated educational system, one that unifies the separate and parallel systems of special and general education. Chapter 1, "Students at the Margins," explores the dual tragedy of discouraged and disinterested students and presents eight essential questions guiding a unified system of…

  10. 26 CFR 1.1502-36 - Unified loss rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unified loss rule. 1.1502-36 Section 1.1502-36 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-36 Unified loss rule. (a) In general—(1) Scope....

  11. 26 CFR 1.1502-36 - Unified loss rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unified loss rule. 1.1502-36 Section 1.1502-36 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-36 Unified loss rule. (a) In general—(1) Scope....

  12. Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

    Presented are first-revision materials of the K-12 unified science program implemented in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are given of the roles of students and teachers, purposes of bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, scheme and model for scientific literacy, and…

  13. Supporting Teachers, Principals--and Students--through Unified Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Audette, Bob; Ellis, Edward; Marr, Mary Beth; White, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This article profiles Unified Discipline, a schoolwide systemic model of discipline that incorporates factors associated with best practices in teaching behavior and improving discipline. The four components of the program are described and include unified attitudes, expectations, correction, and team roles. Implications for practice are…

  14. A Unified Framework for Street-View Panorama Stitching

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Yao, Jian; Xie, Renping; Xia, Menghan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified framework to generate a pleasant and high-quality street-view panorama by stitching multiple panoramic images captured from the cameras mounted on the mobile platform. Our proposed framework is comprised of four major steps: image warping, color correction, optimal seam line detection and image blending. Since the input images are captured without a precisely common projection center from the scenes with the depth differences with respect to the cameras to different extents, such images cannot be precisely aligned in geometry. Therefore, an efficient image warping method based on the dense optical flow field is proposed to greatly suppress the influence of large geometric misalignment at first. Then, to lessen the influence of photometric inconsistencies caused by the illumination variations and different exposure settings, we propose an efficient color correction algorithm via matching extreme points of histograms to greatly decrease color differences between warped images. After that, the optimal seam lines between adjacent input images are detected via the graph cut energy minimization framework. At last, the Laplacian pyramid blending algorithm is applied to further eliminate the stitching artifacts along the optimal seam lines. Experimental results on a large set of challenging street-view panoramic images captured form the real world illustrate that the proposed system is capable of creating high-quality panoramas. PMID:28025481

  15. Producing EGS4 shower displays with the Unified Graphics System

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, R.F. . Lab. for Nuclear Science); Nelson, W.R. )

    1990-08-16

    The EGS4 Code System has been coupled with the SLAC Unified Graphics System in such a manner as to provide a means for displaying showers on UGS77-supported devices. This is most easily accomplished by attaching an auxiliary subprogram package (SHOWGRAF) to existing EGS4 User Codes and making use of a graphics display or a post-processor code called EGS4PL. SHOWGRAF may be used to create shower displays directly on interactive IBM 5080 color display devices, supporting three-dimensional rotations, translations, and zoom features, and providing illustration of particle types and energies by color and/or intensity. Alternatively, SHOWGRAF may be used to record a two-dimensional projection of the shower in a device-independent graphics file. The EGS4PL post-processor may then be used to convert this file into device-dependent graphics code for any UGS77-supported device. Options exist within EGS4PL that allow for two-dimensional translations and zoom, for creating line structure to indicate particle types and energies, and for optional display of particles by type. All of this is facilitated by means of the command processor EGS4PL EXEC together with new options (5080 and PDEV) with the standard EGS4IN EXEC routine for running EGS4 interactively under VM/SP. 6 refs.

  16. On a unified framework for linear nuisance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongchang; Leus, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Estimation problems in the presence of deterministic linear nuisance parameters arise in a variety of fields. To cope with those, three common methods are widely considered: (1) jointly estimating the parameters of interest and the nuisance parameters; (2) projecting out the nuisance parameters; (3) selecting a reference and then taking differences between the reference and the observations, which we will refer to as "differential signal processing." A lot of literature has been devoted to these methods, yet all follow separate paths. Based on a unified framework, we analytically explore the relations between these three methods, where we particularly focus on the third one and introduce a general differential approach to cope with multiple distinct nuisance parameters. After a proper whitening procedure, the corresponding best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) are shown to be all equivalent to each other. Accordingly, we unveil some surprising facts, which are in contrast to what is commonly considered in literature, e.g., the reference choice is actually not important for the differencing process. Since this paper formulates the problem in a general manner, one may specialize our conclusions to any particular application. Some localization examples are also presented in this paper to verify our conclusions.

  17. GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Herget, S; Ranzinger, R; Maass, K; Lieth, C-W V D

    2008-08-11

    As part of the EUROCarbDB project (www.eurocarbdb.org) we have carefully analyzed the encoding capabilities of all existing carbohydrate sequence formats and the content of publically available structure databases. We have found that none of the existing structural encoding schemata are capable of coping with the full complexity to be expected for experimentally derived structural carbohydrate sequence data across all taxonomic sources. This gap motivated us to define an encoding scheme for complex carbohydrates, named GlycoCT, to overcome the current limitations. This new format is based on a connection table approach, instead of a linear encoding scheme, to describe the carbohydrate sequences, with a controlled vocabulary to name monosaccharides, adopting IUPAC rules to generate a consistent, machine-readable nomenclature. The format uses a block concept to describe frequently occurring special features of carbohydrate sequences like repeating units. It exists in two variants, a condensed form and a more verbose XML syntax. Sorting rules assure the uniqueness of the condensed form, thus making it suitable as a direct primary key for database applications, which rely on unique identifiers. GlycoCT encompasses the capabilities of the heterogeneous landscape of digital encoding schemata in glycomics and is thus a step forward on the way to a unified and broadly accepted sequence format in glycobioinformatics.

  18. A Unified Air-Sea Visualization System: Survey on Gridding Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, Harsh; Moorhead, Robert

    1995-01-01

    The goal is to develop a Unified Air-Sea Visualization System (UASVS) to enable the rapid fusion of observational, archival, and model data for verification and analysis. To design and develop UASVS, modelers were polled to determine the gridding structures and visualization systems used, and their needs with respect to visual analysis. A basic UASVS requirement is to allow a modeler to explore multiple data sets within a single environment, or to interpolate multiple datasets onto one unified grid. From this survey, the UASVS should be able to visualize 3D scalar/vector fields; render isosurfaces; visualize arbitrary slices of the 3D data; visualize data defined on spectral element grids with the minimum number of interpolation stages; render contours; produce 3D vector plots and streamlines; provide unified visualization of satellite images, observations and model output overlays; display the visualization on a projection of the users choice; implement functions so the user can derive diagnostic values; animate the data to see the time-evolution; animate ocean and atmosphere at different rates; store the record of cursor movement, smooth the path, and animate a window around the moving path; repeatedly start and stop the visual time-stepping; generate VHS tape animations; work on a variety of workstations; and allow visualization across clusters of workstations and scalable high performance computer systems.

  19. Soar and the case for unified theories of cognition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Shallice, T

    1995-05-01

    Despite the potential importance to cognitive psychology of unified theories no attempt has been made to assess concretely the methodological problems that such theorising produces. This paper addresses this issue of unified theorising, and in particular the arguments for unified theories put forward by Newell (1990). Close examination of these arguments reveals that Newell's approach does not adequately counter the difficulties which beset the grand theories of the 1930s, nor the problems of irrelevant specification which arise in modern computational psychological work. These difficulties do not prevent the development of unified theories, but they do pose serious problems, problems which it is argued can only be met by rigorous empirical testing together with extreme methodological sensitivity. The methodological concerns lead us to examine Soar, perhaps the most well-developed unified theory, from methodological, computational, and empirical perspectives. Our conclusions are that, whilst Soar represents an impressive body of research, its methodological foundations are insecure, it is ill specified as a computational/psychological theory, and under empirical testing it does not stand up to close scrutiny as a unified theory. The Soar research programme as it currently stands thus fails to meet the necessary methodological demands imposed by unified theorising.

  20. Unified State Model theory and application in Astrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittaldev, V.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    The Unified State Model is a method for expressing orbits using a set of seven elements. The elements consist of a quaternion and three parameters based on the velocity hodograph. A complete derivation of the original model is given in addition to two proposed modifications. Both modifications reduce the number of state elements from seven to six by replacing the quaternion with either modified Rodrigues parameters or the Exponential Map. Numerical simulations comparing the original Unified State Model, the Unified State Model with modified Rodrigues parameters, and the Unified State Model with Exponential Map, with the traditional Cartesian coordinates have been carried out. The Unified State Model and its derivatives outperform the Cartesian coordinates for all orbit cases in terms of accuracy and computational speed, except for highly eccentric perturbed orbits. The performance of the Unified State Model is exceptionally better for the case of orbits with continuous low-thrust propulsion with CPU simulation time being an order of magnitude lower than for the simulation using Cartesian coordinates. This makes the Unified State Model an excellent state propagator for mission optimizations.

  1. [The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2013-10-01

    This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution.

  2. UPM: unified policy-based network management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Eddie; Saxena, Achint

    2001-07-01

    Besides providing network management to the Internet, it has become essential to offer different Quality of Service (QoS) to users. Policy-based management provides control on network routers to achieve this goal. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed a two-tier architecture whose implementation is based on the Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). However, there are several limitations to this design such as scalability and cross-vendor hardware compatibility. To address these issues, we present a functionally enhanced multi-tier policy management architecture design in this paper. Several extensions are introduced thereby adding flexibility and scalability. In particular, an intermediate entity between the policy server and policy rule database called the Policy Enforcement Agent (PEA) is introduced. By keeping internal data in a common format, using a standard protocol, and by interpreting and translating request and decision messages from multi-vendor hardware, this agent allows a dynamic Unified Information Model throughout the architecture. We have tailor-made this unique information system to save policy rules in the directory server and allow executions of policy rules with dynamic addition of new equipment during run-time.

  3. Structural basis unifying diverse GTP hydrolysis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anand, Baskaran; Majumdar, Soneya; Prakash, Balaji

    2013-02-12

    Central to biological processes is the regulation rendered by GTPases. Until recently, the GTP hydrolysis mechanism, exemplified by Ras-family (and G-α) GTPases, was thought to be universal. This mechanism utilizes a conserved catalytic Gln supplied "in cis" from the GTPase and an arginine finger "in trans" from a GAP (GTPase activating protein) to stabilize the transition state. However, intriguingly different mechanisms are operative in structurally similar GTPases. MnmE and dynamin like cation-dependent GTPases lack the catalytic Gln and instead employ a Glu/Asp/Ser situated elsewhere and in place of the arginine finger use a K(+) or Na(+) ion. In contrast, Rab33 possesses the Gln but does not utilize it for catalysis; instead, the GAP supplies both a catalytic Gln and an arginine finger in trans. Deciphering the underlying principles that unify seemingly unrelated mechanisms is central to understanding how diverse mechanisms evolve. Here, we recognize that steric hindrance between active site residues is a criterion governing the mechanism employed by a given GTPase. The Arf-ArfGAP structure is testimony to this concept of spatial (in)compatibility of active site residues. This understanding allows us to predict an as yet unreported hydrolysis mechanism and clarifies unexplained observations about catalysis by Rab11 and the need for HAS-GTPases to employ a different mechanism. This understanding would be valuable for experiments in which abolishing GTP hydrolysis or generating constitutively active forms of a GTPase is important.

  4. CUE: the continuous unified electronic diary method.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Davies, Kate; Sakkalou, Elena; Fowler, Nia C; Hilbrink, Elma E; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-12-01

    In the present article, we introduce the continuous unified electronic (CUE) diary method, a longitudinal, event-based, electronic parent report method that allows real-time recording of infant and child behavior in natural contexts. Thirty-nine expectant mothers were trained to identify and record target behaviors into programmed handheld computers. From birth to 18 months, maternal reporters recorded the initial, second, and third occurrences of seven target motor behaviors: palmar grasp, rolls from side to back, reaching when sitting, pincer grip, crawling, walking, and climbing stairs. Compliance was assessed as two valid entries per behavior: 97 % of maternal reporters met compliance criteria. Reliability was assessed by comparing diary entries with researcher assessments for three of the motor behaviors: palmar grasp, pincer grip and walking. A total of 81 % of maternal reporters met reliability criteria. For those three target behaviors, age of emergence was compared across data from the CUE diary method and researcher assessments. The CUE diary method was found to detect behaviors earlier and with greater sensitivity to individual differences. The CUE diary method is shown to be a reliable methodological tool for studying processes of change in human development.

  5. Unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Zheng Sheng

    2013-04-01

    In the process of mankind investigate natural rule: people know four kinds of force: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Meanwhile people use these four kinds force to explain all phenomena in the Nature. Obviously people do not know their mechanism of origin until now. On the other hand, these four kinds force is the difference showing form of one force, is not it? For solve these questions and find their mechanism of origin, I do some experiments and discover that the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I also do experiments show that light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. My experiments show that the elementary particles moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force, this effect also produce wave effect. That is to say my experiment and calculate not only reveal the origin of gravitation, but also reveal the origin of electric charge and magnetic force. Base on this I first unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation. The more detail see below website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter

  6. Unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng Ming, Zheng

    2013-04-01

    In the process of mankind investigate natural rule: people know four kinds of force: electromagnetic force, gravitation, weak force, and strong force. Meanwhile people use these four kinds force to explain all phenomena in the Nature. Obviously people do not know their mechanism of origin until now. On the other hand, these four kinds force is the difference showing form of one force, is not it? For solve these questions and find their mechanism of origin, I do some experiments and discover that the moving photons produce gravitation. This discovery shows the origin of gravitation. Meanwhile I also do experiments show that light is a particle, but is not a wave-particle duality. My experiments show that the elementary particles moving produce gravitation and electromagnetic force, this effect also produce wave effect. That is to say my experiment and calculate not only reveal the origin of gravitation, but also reveal the origin of electric charge and magnetic force. Base on this I first unify the electromagnetic force and gravitation. The more detail see below website: https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details/store/gb/book/978-3-8473-2658-8/mechanism-of-interaction-in-moving-matter.

  7. A unified model for yeast transcript definition.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Carl G; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Li, Joyce; Morris, Quaid D; Nislow, Corey; Greenblatt, Jack F; Hughes, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying genes in the genomic context is central to a cell's ability to interpret the genome. Yet, in general, the signals used to define eukaryotic genes are poorly described. Here, we derived simple classifiers that identify where transcription will initiate and terminate using nucleic acid sequence features detectable by the yeast cell, which we integrate into a Unified Model (UM) that models transcription as a whole. The cis-elements that denote where transcription initiates function primarily through nucleosome depletion, and, using a synthetic promoter system, we show that most of these elements are sufficient to initiate transcription in vivo. Hrp1 binding sites are the major characteristic of terminators; these binding sites are often clustered in terminator regions and can terminate transcription bidirectionally. The UM predicts global transcript structure by modeling transcription of the genome using a hidden Markov model whose emissions are the outputs of the initiation and termination classifiers. We validated the novel predictions of the UM with available RNA-seq data and tested it further by directly comparing the transcript structure predicted by the model to the transcription generated by the cell for synthetic DNA segments of random design. We show that the UM identifies transcription start sites more accurately than the initiation classifier alone, indicating that the relative arrangement of promoter and terminator elements influences their function. Our model presents a concrete description of how the cell defines transcript units, explains the existence of nongenic transcripts, and provides insight into genome evolution.

  8. Unifying Temporal and Structural Credit Assignment Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2004-01-01

    Single-agent reinforcement learners in time-extended domains and multi-agent systems share a common dilemma known as the credit assignment problem. Multi-agent systems have the structural credit assignment problem of determining the contributions of a particular agent to a common task. Instead, time-extended single-agent systems have the temporal credit assignment problem of determining the contribution of a particular action to the quality of the full sequence of actions. Traditionally these two problems are considered different and are handled in separate ways. In this article we show how these two forms of the credit assignment problem are equivalent. In this unified frame-work, a single-agent Markov decision process can be broken down into a single-time-step multi-agent process. Furthermore we show that Monte-Carlo estimation or Q-learning (depending on whether the values of resulting actions in the episode are known at the time of learning) are equivalent to different agent utility functions in a multi-agent system. This equivalence shows how an often neglected issue in multi-agent systems is equivalent to a well-known deficiency in multi-time-step learning and lays the basis for solving time-extended multi-agent problems, where both credit assignment problems are present.

  9. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  10. A Unified Taxonomy for Ciliary Dyneins

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Erik F.Y.; Witman, George B.; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Dutcher, Susan K.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Mitchell, David R.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Porter, Mary E.; Sale, Winfield S.; Wirschell, Maureen; Yagi, Toshiki; King, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation and function of eukaryotic cilia/flagella require the action of a large array of dynein microtubule motor complexes. Due to genetic, biochemical, and microscopic tractability, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become the premier model system in which to dissect the role of dyneins in flagellar assembly, motility, and signaling. Currently, fifty-four proteins have been described as components of various Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins or as factors required for their assembly in the cytoplasm and/or transport into the flagellum; orthologues of nearly all these components are present in other ciliated organisms including humans. For historical reasons, the nomenclature of these diverse dynein components and their corresponding genes, mutant alleles and orthologues has become extraordinarily confusing. Here, we unify Chlamydomonas dynein gene nomenclature and establish a systematic classification scheme based on structural properties of the encoded proteins. Furthermore, we provide detailed tabulations of the various mutant alleles and protein aliases that have been used and explicitly define the correspondence with orthologous components in other model organisms and humans. PMID:21953912

  11. Unified water isotherms for clayey porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Lu, N.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a unified model for the soil-water retention function, including the effect of bound and capillary waters for all types of soils, including clayey media. The model combines a CEC-normalized isotherm describing the sorption of the bound water (and the filling of the trapped porosity) and the van Genuchten model to describe the capillary water sorption retention but ignore capillary condensation. For the CEC-normalized isotherm, we tested both the BET and Freundlich isotherms, and we found that the Freundlich is more suitable than the BET isotherm in fitting the data. It is also easier to combine the Freundlich isotherm with the van Genuchten model. The new model accounts for (1) the different types of clay minerals, (2) the different types of ions sorbed in the Stern layer and on the basal planes of 2:1 clays, and (3) the pore size distribution. The model is validated with different data sets, including mixtures of kaolinite and bentonite. The model parameters include two exponents (the pore size exponent of the van Genuchten model and the exponent of the Freundlich isotherm), the capillary entry pressure, and two critical water contents. The first critical water content is the water content at saturation (porosity), and the second is the maximum water content associated with adsorption forces, including the trapped nonbound water.

  12. The Unified Radio and Plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J. L.; Caldwell, J.; Canu, P.; De Conchy, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; Fainberg, J.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment are twofold: (1) the determination of the direction, angular size, and polarization of radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere and the Jovian magnetosphere and (2) the detailed study of local wave phenomena, which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. A brief discussion of the scientific goals of the experiment is followed by a comprehensive description of the instrument. The URAP sensors consist of a 72.5 m electric field antenna in the spin plane, a 7.5-m electric field monopole along the spin axis of a pair of orthogonal search coil magnetic antennas. The various receivers, designed to encompass specific needs of the investigation, cover the frequency range from dc to 1 MHz. A relaxation sounder provides very accurate electron density measurements. Radio and plasma wave observations are shown to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the URAP instruments: radio observations include solar bursts, auroral kilometric radiation, and Jovian bursts; plasma waves include Langmuir waves, ion acousticlike noise, and whistlers.

  13. A unified model for yeast transcript definition

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Carl G.; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Li, Joyce; Morris, Quaid D.; Nislow, Corey; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying genes in the genomic context is central to a cell's ability to interpret the genome. Yet, in general, the signals used to define eukaryotic genes are poorly described. Here, we derived simple classifiers that identify where transcription will initiate and terminate using nucleic acid sequence features detectable by the yeast cell, which we integrate into a Unified Model (UM) that models transcription as a whole. The cis-elements that denote where transcription initiates function primarily through nucleosome depletion, and, using a synthetic promoter system, we show that most of these elements are sufficient to initiate transcription in vivo. Hrp1 binding sites are the major characteristic of terminators; these binding sites are often clustered in terminator regions and can terminate transcription bidirectionally. The UM predicts global transcript structure by modeling transcription of the genome using a hidden Markov model whose emissions are the outputs of the initiation and termination classifiers. We validated the novel predictions of the UM with available RNA-seq data and tested it further by directly comparing the transcript structure predicted by the model to the transcription generated by the cell for synthetic DNA segments of random design. We show that the UM identifies transcription start sites more accurately than the initiation classifier alone, indicating that the relative arrangement of promoter and terminator elements influences their function. Our model presents a concrete description of how the cell defines transcript units, explains the existence of nongenic transcripts, and provides insight into genome evolution. PMID:24170600

  14. The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archinal, Brent A.; Rosiek, Mark R.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Redding, Bonnie L.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a new general unified lunar control network and lunar topographic model based on a combination of Clementine images and a previous network derived from Earth-based & Apollo photographs, and Mariner 10, & Galileo images. This photogrammetric network solution is the largest planetary control network ever completed. It includes the determination of the 3-D positions of 272,931 points on the lunar surface and the correction of the camera angles for 43,866 Clementine images, using 546,126 tie point measurements. The solution RMS is 20 ?m (= 0.9 pixels) in the image plane, with the largest residual of 6.4 pixels. The explanation given here, along with the accompanying files, comprises the release of the network information and of global lunar digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from the network. A paper that will describe the solution and network in further detail will be submitted to a refereed journal, and will include additional background information, solution details, discussion of accuracy and precision, and explanatory figures.

  15. A Unifying Theory for Camera Calibration.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, SriKumar; Sturm, Peter

    2016-07-19

    This paper proposes a unified theory for calibrating a wide variety of camera models such as pinhole, fisheye, cata-dioptric, and multi-camera networks. We model any camera as a set of image pixels and their associated camera rays in space. Every pixel measures the light traveling along a (half-) ray in 3-space, associated with that pixel. By this definition, calibration simply refers to the computation of the mapping between pixels and the associated 3D rays. Such a mapping can be computed using images of calibration grids, which are objects with known 3D geometry, taken from unknown positions. This general camera model allows to represent non-central cameras; we also consider two special subclasses, namely central and axial cameras. In a central camera, all rays intersect in a single point, whereas the rays are completely arbitrary in a non-central one. Axial cameras are an intermediate case: the camera rays intersect a single line. In this work, we show the theory for calibrating central, axial and non-central models using calibration grids, which can be either three-dimensional or planar.

  16. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  17. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  18. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District: PSD Delegation Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agreements for Partial Delegation of the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Program Set Forth in 40 CPR 52.21 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District.

  19. 24 CFR 578.41 - Unified Funding Agency costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 578.41 Unified Funding Agency costs. (a) In general. UFAs may use up to 3 percent of their FPRN, or a... under the Continuum of Care program. (b) UFA costs. UFA costs include costs of ensuring that...

  20. 24 CFR 578.41 - Unified Funding Agency costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 578.41 Unified Funding Agency costs. (a) In general. UFAs may use up to 3 percent of their FPRN, or a... under the Continuum of Care program. (b) UFA costs. UFA costs include costs of ensuring that...

  1. A unified paraxial approach to astigmatic optics.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F

    1999-07-01

    In Gaussian optics properties such as dioptric power, lateral and angular magnification and thickness are simple scalar concepts. In linear optics, the optics of thick astigmatic systems, however, these concepts generalize to three-dimensional concepts in some cases (the dioptric power of thin systems, for example) and to four-dimensional concepts in general. As a result, the quantitative treatment of these properties in astigmatic systems presents challenges to the researcher in optometry, ophthalmology, and vision science. Considerable progress has been made only in the case of dioptric power. This paper presents a generalized approach to astigmatic optics which allows different physical properties to be treated in the same way: the theory is unified and, in a sense, complete. Mathematical and statistical methods developed for treating one concept become directly applicable to others. The paraxial optical properties of any optical system are completely defined by the 4 x 4 ray transfer matrix, called here the (ray) transference. The transference defines four fundamental properties of an optical system, tentatively called here positional magnification, optical thickness, divergence, and directional magnification. They are the four 2 x 2 submatrices A, B, C, and D of the transference. Each fundamental property is a modification of a familiar concept. Divergence is the negative of dioptric power expressed as the dioptric power matrix F. The four fundamental optical properties A, B, C, and D, and the derived property F, despite being different physically, all have the same underlying mathematical structure. This fact is exploited in developing a unified theory. The theory is complete in the sense that the fundamental properties fully characterize the paraxial optics of any system. The paper presents a general treatment that applies to any of the five properties. The implications are far reaching and extend beyond what can be described in the paper. Dioptric power of

  2. Unified Model Deformation and Flow Transition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Liu, Tianshu; Garg, Sanjay; Bell, James H.; Morgan, Daniel G.

    1999-01-01

    The number of optical techniques that may potentially be used during a given wind tunnel test is continually growing. These include parameter sensitive paints that are sensitive to temperature or pressure, several different types of off-body and on-body flow visualization techniques, optical angle-of-attack (AoA), optical measurement of model deformation, optical techniques for determining density or velocity, and spectroscopic techniques for determining various flow field parameters. Often in the past the various optical techniques were developed independently of each other, with little or no consideration for other techniques that might also be used during a given test. Recently two optical techniques have been increasingly requested for production measurements in NASA wind tunnels. These are the video photogrammetric (or videogrammetric) technique for measuring model deformation known as the video model deformation (VMD) technique, and the parameter sensitive paints for making global pressure and temperature measurements. Considerations for, and initial attempts at, simultaneous measurements with the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and the videogrammetric techniques have been implemented. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) has been found to be useful for boundary-layer transition detection since turbulent boundary layers convect heat at higher rates than laminar boundary layers of comparable thickness. Transition is marked by a characteristic surface temperature change wherever there is a difference between model and flow temperatures. Recently, additional capabilities have been implemented in the target-tracking videogrammetric measurement system. These capabilities have permitted practical simultaneous measurements using parameter sensitive paint and video model deformation measurements that led to the first successful unified test with TSP for transition detection in a large production wind tunnel.

  3. Evolutionary mechanism unifies the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Horne, Steven D; Pollick, Sarah A; Heng, Henry H Q

    2015-05-01

    The basis for the gene mutation theory of cancer that dominates current molecular cancer research consists of: the belief that gene-level aberrations such as mutations are the main cause of cancers, the concept that stepwise gene mutation accumulation drives cancer progression, and the hallmarks of cancer. The research community swiftly embraced the hallmarks of cancer, as such synthesis has supported the notions that common cancer genes are responsible for the majority of cancers and the complexity of cancer can be dissected into simplified molecular principles. The gene/pathway classification based on individual hallmarks provides explanation for the large number of diverse gene mutations, which is in contrast to the original estimation that only a handful of gene mutations would be discovered. Further, these hallmarks have been highly influential as they also provide the rationale and research direction for continued gene-based cancer research. While the molecular knowledge of these hallmarks is drastically increasing, the clinical implication remains limited, as cancer dynamics cannot be summarized by a few isolated/fixed molecular principles. Furthermore, the highly heterogeneous genetic signature of cancers, including massive stochastic genome alterations, challenges the utility of continuously studying each individual gene mutation under the framework of these hallmarks. It is therefore necessary to re-evaluate the concept of cancer hallmarks through the lens of cancer evolution. In this analysis, the evolutionary basis for the hallmarks of cancer will be discussed and the evolutionary mechanism of cancer suggested by the genome theory will be employed to unify the diverse molecular mechanisms of cancer.

  4. A unified multiwavelength model of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Benson, Andrew J.; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Helly, John C.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Mitchell, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new version of the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. This brings together several previous developments of GALFORM into a single unified model, including a different initial mass function (IMF) in quiescent star formation and in starbursts, feedback from active galactic nuclei suppressing gas cooling in massive haloes, and a new empirical star formation law in galaxy discs based on their molecular gas content. In addition, we have updated the cosmology, introduced a more accurate treatment of dynamical friction acting on satellite galaxies, and updated the stellar population model. The new model is able to simultaneously explain both the observed evolution of the K-band luminosity function and stellar mass function, and the number counts and redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies selected at 850 μm. This was not previously achieved by a single physical model within the Λcold dark matter framework, but requires having an IMF in starbursts that is somewhat top-heavy. The new model is tested against a wide variety of observational data covering wavelengths from the far-UV to sub-mm, and redshifts from z = 0 to 6, and is found to be generally successful. These observations include the optical and near-infrared (IR) luminosity functions, H I mass function, fraction of early type galaxies, Tully-Fisher, metallicity-luminosity and size-luminosity relations at z = 0, as well as far-IR number counts, and far-UV luminosity functions at z ˜ 3-6. Discrepancies are, however, found in galaxy sizes and metallicities at low luminosities, and in the abundance of low-mass galaxies at high-z, suggesting the need for a more sophisticated model of supernova feedback.

  5. A unified approach to sparse signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvasti, Farokh; Amini, Arash; Haddadi, Farzan; Soltanolkotabi, Mahdi; Khalaj, Babak Hossein; Aldroubi, Akram; Sanei, Saeid; Chambers, Janathon

    2012-12-01

    A unified view of the area of sparse signal processing is presented in tutorial form by bringing together various fields in which the property of sparsity has been successfully exploited. For each of these fields, various algorithms and techniques, which have been developed to leverage sparsity, are described succinctly. The common potential benefits of significant reduction in sampling rate and processing manipulations through sparse signal processing are revealed. The key application domains of sparse signal processing are sampling, coding, spectral estimation, array processing, component analysis, and multipath channel estimation. In terms of the sampling process and reconstruction algorithms, linkages are made with random sampling, compressed sensing, and rate of innovation. The redundancy introduced by channel coding in finite and real Galois fields is then related to over-sampling with similar reconstruction algorithms. The error locator polynomial (ELP) and iterative methods are shown to work quite effectively for both sampling and coding applications. The methods of Prony, Pisarenko, and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) are next shown to be targeted at analyzing signals with sparse frequency domain representations. Specifically, the relations of the approach of Prony to an annihilating filter in rate of innovation and ELP in coding are emphasized; the Pisarenko and MUSIC methods are further improvements of the Prony method under noisy environments. The iterative methods developed for sampling and coding applications are shown to be powerful tools in spectral estimation. Such narrowband spectral estimation is then related to multi-source location and direction of arrival estimation in array processing. Sparsity in unobservable source signals is also shown to facilitate source separation in sparse component analysis; the algorithms developed in this area such as linear programming and matching pursuit are also widely used in compressed sensing. Finally

  6. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  7. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  8. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  9. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  10. 29 CFR 779.218 - Methods to accomplish “unified operation.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methods to accomplish âunified operation.â 779.218 Section... Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.218 Methods to accomplish “unified operation.” There are... case the activities are performed through “unified operation” and have the effect of creating a...

  11. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-13

    Viewgraphs for the mid-term review outline the contract objectives and project details, give optical performance assumptions and constraints, and diagram the methodologies for the performance determination. The method of calculating performance is outlined. The flux distribution over the heliostat field is computed and graphed. (LEW)

  12. SCEC UCVM - Unified California Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Ely, G. P.; Taborda, R.

    2011-12-01

    The SCEC Unified California Velocity Model (UCVM) is a software framework for a state-wide California velocity model. UCVM provides researchers with two new capabilities: (1) the ability to query Vp, Vs, and density from any standard regional California velocity model through a uniform interface, and (2) the ability to combine multiple velocity models into a single state-wide model. These features are crucial in order to support large-scale ground motion simulations and to facilitate improvements in the underlying velocity models. UCVM provides integrated support for the following standard velocity models: SCEC CVM-H, SCEC CVM-S and the CVM-SI variant, USGS Bay Area (cencalvm), Lin-Thurber Statewide, and other smaller regional models. New models may be easily incorporated as they become available. Two query interfaces are provided: a Linux command line program, and a C application programming interface (API). The C API query interface is simple, fully independent of any specific model, and MPI-friendly. Input coordinates are geographic longitude/latitude and the vertical coordinate may be either depth or elevation. Output parameters include Vp, Vs, and density along with the identity of the model from which these material properties were obtained. In addition to access to the standard models, UCVM also includes a high resolution statewide digital elevation model, Vs30 map, and an optional near-surface geo-technical layer (GTL) based on Ely's Vs30-derived GTL. The elevation and Vs30 information is bundled along with the returned Vp,Vs velocities and density, so that all relevant information is retrieved with a single query. When the GTL is enabled, it is blended with the underlying crustal velocity models along a configurable transition depth range with an interpolation function. Multiple, possibly overlapping, regional velocity models may be combined together into a single state-wide model. This is accomplished by tiling the regional models on top of one another in

  13. Unifying plant molecular data and plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, N; Orgaard, M

    1996-01-01

    Located at a botanical department at an Agricultural University, our taxonomical and genetic research is mainly directed towards cultivated plants and their wild relatives. The investigations are usually under a common heading 'experimental taxonomy', and include basic systematics, cytogenetics, biodiversity, population dynamics, conservation and evolutionary questions correlating the wild species and the cultivated forms. Our point of initiation is the plants and questions/problems raised regarding these plants. Our way of approaching the problems is usually by applying different sets of data and testing them. Experimental taxonomy covers classical cytogenetics (chromosome counting and karyotyping) as well as molecular cytogenetic methods (RAPD, RFLP, in situ hybridization), and includes also chemical data on isoenzymes and anthocyanins. We have had good collaborations with other laboratories and found their expertise on the plants in question very helpful. The aim is always to unify various data on the same set of problems, in order to get a more complete understanding of the plants. At present the department is working on several, quite different plant genera, comprising herbs, aquatic plants, and trees. The methods vary, depending on the plants and the problems in question. Some of the current investigations concern the horticultural genera Lilium and Crocus, in which the main point of interest is the study of chromosome evolution using fluorescence in situ hybridization; preliminary investigations into the composition of anthocyanins in Crocus look very promising. In the tropical starch tuber crop Pachyrhizus (Fabaceae), molecular analyses of relationships between existing cultivars, landraces and wild material have been carried out. A genus which we, in cooperation with a number of other laboratories, have been working with for many years is Hordeum (Poaceae) with one cultivated species (barley) and 31 wild species. Here the main areas of investigation have

  14. Next Generation Phenotyping Using the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyama, Naoki; Shimoyama, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Structured information within patient medical records represents a largely untapped treasure trove of research data. In the United States, privacy issues notwithstanding, this has recently become more accessible thanks to the increasing adoption of electronic health records (EHR) and health care data standards fueled by the Meaningful Use legislation. The other side of the coin is that it is now becoming increasingly more difficult to navigate the profusion of many disparate clinical terminology standards, which often span millions of concepts. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for integrating large amounts of structured clinical information that is both terminology agnostic and able to capture heterogeneous clinical phenotypes including problems, procedures, medications, and clinical results (such as laboratory tests and clinical observations). In this context, we define phenotyping as the extraction of all clinically relevant features contained in the EHR. Methods The scope of the project was framed by the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Dataset terminology standards; the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), RxNorm, the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), the Health care Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was used as a mapping layer among the MU ontologies. An extract, load, and transform approach separated original annotations in the EHR from the mapping process and allowed for continuous updates as the terminologies were updated. Additionally, we integrated all terminologies into a single UMLS derived ontology and further optimized it to make the relatively large concept graph manageable. Results

  15. A Unified Satellite-Observation Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Database for Long-Term Climate-Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromm, Michael; Pitts, Michael; Alfred, Jerome

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the project team's activity and accomplishments during the period 12 February, 1999 - 12 February, 2000. The primary objective of this project was to create and test a generic algorithm for detecting polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), an algorithm that would permit creation of a unified, long term PSC database from a variety of solar occultation instruments that measure aerosol extinction near 1000 nm The second objective was to make a database of PSC observations and certain relevant related datasets. In this report we describe the algorithm, the data we are making available, and user access options. The remainder of this document provides the details of the algorithm and the database offering.

  16. Nothing From Everything- A Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Vijay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Nothing From Everything-A Unified Theory is a philosophical insight into principles of nature through principle of complementary spontaneity and principle of vertical continuity. This work is intended to explain various cosmological phenomena in light of behaviour of particles in range of their respective and relative speed of light. This theory explains creation of Universe from nothing or zero spacetime through scalar energy field collapsing into Higgs field resulting into giving mass to various particles. The energy particles taking origin from nothing while moving away from zero space-time would create space-time of their own order because energy/matter needs space to exist. The particles while moving away from zero space-time would end up in breaking symmetry of matter/energy at their mass infinity (highest possible mass of any particle, which is function of speed of spin). This break in symmetry would lead to curving of particles upon themselves and hence would lead to creation of antiparticles going back in time towards zero spacetime. Therefore the Universe could have been created by alternate layers of particles and antiparticles and also alternate layers of matter and antimatter with decelerating speed of light, which would lead to creation a closed and flat Universe. With increase in mass of Universe (creation of more and more Universe's matter from nothing), the gravitational force of Universe is bound to increase and hence with quantum by quantum increase in gravity, it would apply brakes on relative speed of photon/light out of its reference frame or designated space and hence speed of photon would decrease. If closed and flat Universe was created with decelerating speed of light, then such Universe is bound to contract back with accelerating speed of light which would have inverse impact on gravitational constant across various spacetime zones of Universe. And hence mass bodies would drift away spontaneously purely on basis and proportional to

  17. A novel unified coding analytical method for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Zhang, JianHong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel unified coding analytical method for Internet of Things, which abstracts out the `displacement goods' and `physical objects', and expounds the relationship thereof. It details the item coding principles, establishes a one-to-one relationship between three-dimensional spatial coordinates of points and global manufacturers, can infinitely expand, solves the problem of unified coding in production phase and circulation phase with a novel unified coding method, and further explains how to update the item information corresponding to the coding in stages of sale and use, so as to meet the requirement that the Internet of Things can carry out real-time monitoring and intelligentized management to each item.

  18. Unified constitutive models for high-temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.

    1988-01-01

    Unified constitutive models are characterized by the use of a single inelastic strain rate term for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation, including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation under monotonic or cyclic loading. The structure of this class of constitutive theory pertinent for high temperature structural applications is first outlined and discussed. The effectiveness of the unified approach for representing high temperature deformation of Ni-base alloys is then evaluated by extensive comparison of experimental data and predictions of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models. The use of the unified approach for hot section structural component analyses is demonstrated by applying the Walker model in finite element analyses of a benchmark notch problem and a turbine blade problem.

  19. Complex Chebyshev-polynomial-based unified model (CCPBUM) neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Lee, Tsu-Tian

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, we propose complex Chebyshev Polynomial Based unified model neural network for the approximation of complex- valued function. Based on this approximate transformable technique, we have derived the relationship between the single-layered neural network and multi-layered perceptron neural network. It is shown that the complex Chebyshev Polynomial Based unified model neural network can be represented as a functional link network that are based on Chebyshev polynomial. We also derived a new learning algorithm for the proposed network. It turns out that the complex Chebyshev Polynomial Based unified model neural network not only has the same capability of universal approximator, but also has faster learning speed than conventional complex feedforward/recurrent neural network.

  20. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  1. A Unified Framework for Reservoir Computing and Extreme Learning Machines based on a Single Time-delayed Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ortín, S.; Soriano, M. C.; Pesquera, L.; Brunner, D.; San-Martín, D.; Fischer, I.; Mirasso, C. R.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a unified framework for extreme learning machines and reservoir computing (echo state networks), which can be physically implemented using a single nonlinear neuron subject to delayed feedback. The reservoir is built within the delay-line, employing a number of “virtual” neurons. These virtual neurons receive random projections from the input layer containing the information to be processed. One key advantage of this approach is that it can be implemented efficiently in hardware. We show that the reservoir computing implementation, in this case optoelectronic, is also capable to realize extreme learning machines, demonstrating the unified framework for both schemes in software as well as in hardware. PMID:26446303

  2. Unified model of loop quantum gravity and matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Olson, S. Jay; Pullin, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    We reconsider the unified model of gravitation and Yang Mills interactions proposed by Chakraborty and Peldán, in the light of recent formal developments in loop quantum gravity. In particular, we show that one can promote the Hamiltonian constraint of the unified model to a well defined anomaly-free quantum operator using the techniques introduced by Thiemann, at least for the Euclidean theory. The Lorentzian version of the model can be consistently constructed, but at the moment appears to yield a correct weak field theory only under restrictive assumptions, and its quantization appears problematic.

  3. Strong coupling phase transitions in supersymmetric grand unified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, David B.

    1985-08-01

    The determination of the temperature at which a grand unified model becomes strongly coupled should be based upon a physical quantity such as the screening lenght rather than the ad hoc condition that the opening becomes O(1). I use a recent calculation of this screening length (the inverse electric mass) to discuss some aspects of strong coupling behavior in the cosmology of supersymmetric grand unified models. Significant effects may occur in a variety of cases. An interesting possibilit is that there may be a pair of confining and deconfining phase transitions at a temperature as low as the supersymmetry breaking scale (O(TeV)). I present illustrative examples for these effects.

  4. Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; López, Carlos; Marín-Solano, Jesús; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2004-01-01

    The Rusk-Skinner formalism was developed in order to give a geometrical unified formalism for describing mechanical systems. It incorporates all the characteristics of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions of these systems (including dynamical equations and solutions, constraints, Legendre map, evolution operators, equivalence, etc.). In this work we extend this unified framework to first-order classical field theories, and show how this description comprises the main features of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, both for the regular and singular cases. This formulation is a first step toward further applications in optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  5. [Arabian food pyramid: unified framework for nutritional health messages].

    PubMed

    Shokr, Adel M

    2008-01-01

    There are several ways to present nutritional health messages, particularly pyramidic indices, but they have many deficiencies such as lack of agreement on a unified or clear methodology for food grouping and ignoring nutritional group inter-relation and integration. This causes confusion for health educators and target individuals. This paper presents an Arabian food pyramid that aims to unify the bases of nutritional health messages, bringing together the function, contents, source and nutritional group servings and indicating the inter-relation and integration of nutritional groups. This provides comprehensive, integrated, simple and flexible health messages.

  6. A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: unified classifications of threats and actions.

    PubMed

    Salafsky, Nick; Salzer, Daniel; Stattersfield, Alison J; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Neugarten, Rachel; Butchart, Stuart H M; Collen, Ben; Cox, Neil; Master, Lawrence L; O'Connor, Sheila; Wilkie, David

    2008-08-01

    An essential foundation of any science is a standard lexicon. Any given conservation project can be described in terms of the biodiversity targets, direct threats, contributing factors at the project site, and the conservation actions that the project team is employing to change the situation. These common elements can be linked in a causal chain, which represents a theory of change about how the conservation actions are intended to bring about desired project outcomes. If project teams want to describe and share their work and learn from one another, they need a standard and precise lexicon to specifically describe each node along this chain. To date, there have been several independent efforts to develop standard classifications for the direct threats that affect biodiversity and the conservation actions required to counteract these threats. Recognizing that it is far more effective to have only one accepted global scheme, we merged these separate efforts into unified classifications of threats and actions, which we present here. Each classification is a hierarchical listing of terms and associated definitions. The classifications are comprehensive and exclusive at the upper levels of the hierarchy, expandable at the lower levels, and simple, consistent, and scalable at all levels. We tested these classifications by applying them post hoc to 1191 threatened bird species and 737 conservation projects. Almost all threats and actions could be assigned to the new classification systems, save for some cases lacking detailed information. Furthermore, the new classification systems provided an improved way of analyzing and comparing information across projects when compared with earlier systems. We believe that widespread adoption of these classifications will help practitioners more systematically identify threats and appropriate actions, managers to more efficiently set priorities and allocate resources, and most important, facilitate cross-project learning and the

  7. UAF: a generic OPC unified architecture framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2012-09-01

    As an emerging Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) specically designed for industrial automation and process control, the OPC Unied Architecture specication should be regarded as an attractive candidate for controlling scientic instrumentation. Even though an industry-backed standard such as OPC UA can oer substantial added value to these projects, its inherent complexity poses an important obstacle for adopting the technology. Building OPC UA applications requires considerable eort, even when taking advantage of a COTS Software Development Kit (SDK). The OPC Unied Architecture Framework (UAF) attempts to reduce this burden by introducing an abstraction layer between the SDK and the application code in order to achieve a better separation of the technical and the functional concerns. True to its industrial origin, the primary requirement of the framework is to maintain interoperability by staying close to the standard specications, and by expecting the minimum compliance from other OPC UA servers and clients. UAF can therefore be regarded as a software framework to quickly and comfortably develop and deploy OPC UA-based applications, while remaining compatible to third party OPC UA-compliant toolkits, servers (such as PLCs) and clients (such as SCADA software). In the rst phase, as covered by this paper, only the client-side of UAF has been tackled in order to transparently handle discovery, session management, subscriptions, monitored items etc. We describe the design principles and internal architecture of our open-source software project, the rst results of the framework running at the Mercator Telescope, and we give a preview of the planned server-side implementation.

  8. A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    Developing a unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation has been proven to be a challenging endeavor. Three papers published in this issue of Temperature take a closer look at this problem and add interesting views to our knowledge about the way that endothermic thermoregulation works. PMID:27624651

  9. When Unified Teacher Pay Scales Meet Differential Alternative Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent to which unified teacher pay scales and differential alternatives produce opportunity costs that are asymmetric in math and verbal skills. Data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1997 and 2003 follow-ups are used to estimate a fully parametric, selection-corrected wage equation for nonteachers, which is then used to…

  10. A Unified Arts Program for the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    1976-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of industrial arts, home economics, and art is being developed at Cox Landing Junior High School, Huntington, West Virginia, through the designing of a unified arts guide. The needs of the early adolescent are emphasized. (LH)

  11. Heresies of the New Unified Notion of Test Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Ivan

    By focusing on "appropriateness" and "adequacy" of inference and action, unified validity may be misused in rejecting valid test outcomes. The notion of levels of validity is challenged, the necessity of assumption is argued, and experience is proposed as the basis of validity. "Consequential validity" is interpreted as an optional predictive…

  12. Effects of Positive Unified Behavior Support on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John S.; White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2009-01-01

    "Positive Unified Behavior Support" (PUBS) is a school-wide intervention designed to establish uniform attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and roles among faculty, staff, and administration. PUBS is grounded in the general principles of positive behavior support and represents a straightforward, practical implementation model. When…

  13. Unified Budget Recommendations for Fiscal Year 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Recommendations for appropriations to each public college and university in Alabama are presented by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education (ACHE) in its 1987-1988 unified budget report. For each institution and type of expenditure (e.g., academic, research, public service, and capital outlay), data are provided for: 1985-1986 appropriations,…

  14. Unified Education System: From Implementation to Evaluation, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Curt

    In 1995, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) school district devised a plan to merge special education, cross-cultural education, Indian education, and Title I with the general education program, designated the Unified Education System (UES). Considering the abrupt implementation of UES in the first year and subsequent confusion regarding staff positions…

  15. Modeling associated protein-DNA pattern discovery with unified scores.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak-Ming; Lo, Leung-Yau; Sze-To, Ho-Yin; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Xiao, Xinshu; Wong, Man-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Understanding protein-DNA interactions, specifically transcription factor (TF) and transcription factor binding site (TFBS) bindings, is crucial in deciphering gene regulation. The recent associated TF-TFBS pattern discovery combines one-sided motif discovery on both the TF and the TFBS sides. Using sequences only, it identifies the short protein-DNA binding cores available only in high-resolution 3D structures. The discovered patterns lead to promising subtype and disease analysis applications. While the related studies use either association rule mining or existing TFBS annotations, none has proposed any formal unified (both-sided) model to prioritize the top verifiable associated patterns. We propose the unified scores and develop an effective pipeline for associated TF-TFBS pattern discovery. Our stringent instance-level evaluations show that the patterns with the top unified scores match with the binding cores in 3D structures considerably better than the previous works, where up to 90 percent of the top 20 scored patterns are verified. We also introduce extended verification from literature surveys, where the high unified scores correspond to even higher verification percentage. The top scored patterns are confirmed to match the known WRKY binding cores with no available 3D structures and agree well with the top binding affinities of in vivo experiments.

  16. Are There Unifying Trends in the Psychologies of 1990?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    The complexity and rapid expansion of the entire field of psychology make it appropriate to speak of "psychologies" when acknowledging the need for specialization of training and expertise. Nevertheless, unifying trends (UTs) exist in psychology, even though there can be no single set of theoretical principles to account for all empirical…

  17. 78 FR 18235 - Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock CFR Correction 0 In Title..., the preferred stock is treated as entitled to a distribution no later than the time the...

  18. 78 FR 18235 - Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock CFR Correction 0 In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.1401 to 1.1550), revised as of April...

  19. Unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.

    1988-01-01

    The iteration-subtraction method for the unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems is compared and contrasted with a similar method for the two-body bound-state problem via nonsingular scattering equations developed recently. We also compare another recent method for solving bound-state problems with the iteration-subtraction method.

  20. Four Courses within a Discipline: UGA Unified Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.; Johnson, Corey W.; James, Joy; Dunlap, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to the Unified Core Curriculum model developed and implemented at the University of Georgia (UGA). Four courses are taught as one course to the juniors coming into the Recreation and Leisure Studies major. An overview of the blended course and sample assignments are provided, as well as a discussion of challenges…

  1. The Unified Core: A "Major" Learning Community Model in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.; Johnson, Corey W.; James, J. Joy; Dunlap, Rudy

    2011-01-01

    The Unified Core is an innovative approach to higher education that blends content through linked courses within a major to create a community of learners. This article offers the theoretical background for the approach, describes the implementation, and offers suggestions to educators who would like to design their own version of this innovative…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of Technology Integration in a Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodman, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    A unified school district (USD) continues to invest millions of dollars into its technology integration initiatives with minimal academic gains. Since teachers are essential to effective technology integration, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to analyze the perceptions of 13 teachers within the USD relative to how they could more…

  3. In Search of a Unified Model of Language Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winford, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has pointed to the need for a unified framework for language contact phenomena -- one that would include social factors and motivations, structural factors and linguistic constraints, and psycholinguistic factors involved in processes of language processing and production. While Contact Linguistics has devoted a great deal…

  4. Calculus of Functions and Their Inverses: A Unified Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Srilal N.

    2006-01-01

    In this pedagogical article, I explore a unified approach in obtaining the derivatives of functions and their inverses by adopting a guided self-discovery approach. I begin by finding the derivative of the exponential functions and the derivative of their inverses, the logarithmic functions. I extend this approach to generate formulae for the…

  5. Catastrophe Theory: A Unified Model for Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Patricia; Elton, Lewis

    1990-01-01

    Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's theory of motivation at work was used to create a model of change that unifies and extends Lewin's two separate stage and force field models. This new model is used to analyze the behavior of academics as they adapt to the changing university environment. (Author/MLW)

  6. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  7. Toward a Unified Picture of Elementary Particle Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses progress made over the last two decades concerning the synthesis and possible unification of the three interactions (strong, electromagnetic, gravitational) relevant to high energy experiments. Areas addressed include quantum field theories, a unified quantum field theory, connection with cosmology, and possibilities for further…

  8. 24 CFR 578.11 - Unified Funding Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as the Unified Funding Agency (UFA) for a Continuum, a collaborative applicant must be selected by the Continuum to apply to HUD to be designated as the UFA for the Continuum. (b) Criteria for designating a UFA. HUD will consider these criteria when deciding whether to designate a...

  9. 24 CFR 578.11 - Unified Funding Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as the Unified Funding Agency (UFA) for a Continuum, a collaborative applicant must be selected by the Continuum to apply to HUD to be designated as the UFA for the Continuum. (b) Criteria for designating a UFA. HUD will consider these criteria when deciding whether to designate a...

  10. Integration Defended: Berkeley Unified's Strategy to Maintain School Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Lisa; Frankenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Supreme Court limited the tools that school districts could use to voluntarily integrate schools. In the aftermath of the decision, educators around the country have sought models of successful plans that would also be legal. One such model may be Berkeley Unified School District's (BUSD) plan. Earlier this year, the California…

  11. Unified (Russian) State Exam in English: Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the study of Reading Comprehension Tasks utilized in preparation for Unified (Russian) State Exam. The corpus of reading tasks was analyzed with the use of the classification algorithm developed by Weir and Urquhart (1998), and aimed at determining the level of engagement (local or global) and type of engagement (literal or…

  12. Proportionality: A Unifying Theme for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanius, Cynthia S.; Williams, Susan E.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how middle school mathematics topics are often taught as separate, discrete topics without a unifying thread. Discusses the importance of proportionality as a concept with the potential to untie, relate, and clarify many important, complex middle grades ideas into a cohesive theme. (YDS)

  13. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District, California; Final Limited Federal Implementation Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is finalizing a limited Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) to apply to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District (North Coast Unified AQMD or District) in California.

  14. 76 FR 68106 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  15. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  16. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

  17. 77 FR 65305 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is taking... (SIP) revision for the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (District) portion...

  18. Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Part II Regulatory Information Service Center Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal...;#7; ] REGULATORY INFORMATION SERVICE CENTER Introduction to the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Regulatory Information Service Center. ACTION: Introduction to...

  19. 77 FR 32493 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... submitted for the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (District) portion of...

  20. A Unified Framework for Periodic, On-Demand, and User-Specified Software Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolano, Paul Z.

    2004-01-01

    Although grid computing can increase the number of resources available to a user; not all resources on the grid may have a software environment suitable for running a given application. To provide users with the necessary assistance for selecting resources with compatible software environments and/or for automatically establishing such environments, it is necessary to have an accurate source of information about the software installed across the grid. This paper presents a new OGSI-compliant software information service that has been implemented as part of NASA's Information Power Grid project. This service is built on top of a general framework for reconciling information from periodic, on-demand, and user-specified sources. Information is retrieved using standard XPath queries over a single unified namespace independent of the information's source. Two consumers of the provided software information, the IPG Resource Broker and the IPG Neutralization Service, are briefly described.

  1. Rapid Technology Assessment via Unified Deployment of Global Optical and Virtual Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Fleming, Gary A.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Tyler, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses recent developments in rapid technology assessment resulting from an active collaboration between researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This program targets the unified development and deployment of global measurement technologies coupled with a virtual diagnostic interface to enable the comparative evaluation of experimental and computational results. Continuing efforts focus on the development of seamless data translation methods to enable integration of data sets of disparate file format in a common platform. Results from a successful low-speed wind tunnel test at WPAFB in which global surface pressure distributions were acquired simultaneously with model deformation and geometry measurements are discussed and comparatively evaluated with numerical simulations. Intensity- and lifetime-based pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and projection moire interferometry (PMI) results are presented within the context of rapid technology assessment to enable simulation-based R&D.

  2. 14 CFR 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual... Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA Program Identifiers, NASA Flags, and the Agency's Unified Visual Communications System § 1221.108 Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System. (a) The...

  3. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD or... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (``SJVUAPCD'' or ``District'') Rules 2020 (Exemptions) and... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified...

  4. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Rulemaking For the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

  5. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership. 779.219 Section 779.219 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation...

  6. The Moon as a unifying sociological attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Pachera, S.; Ciucci, A.

    We propose to develop an economic, fully automated telescope to equip a variety of public and private buildings, such as disco dancings, pubs, resting houses, hospitals, schools etc., optimized to image and project the Moon, both in daylight and nightime. We strongly believe that the wide spread conscience of being part of a common Universe, by imaging the real Moon ( not a series of computer files) and following its changing course, distributed in places where the soul is usually taken in a wave of loneliness, can have a profound effect. In fact, living such an experience of observation in places where people of all ages usually meet, can help them to mix up socially and have fun and acquire new interests and fulfillment. They could confront their doubts, opinions, curiosity. The Moon is the natural choice, being visible even in polluted cities, it comes to the Zenith of a large band on the Earth encompassing each emisphere, it has deeply rooted meanings in all civilizations, and it is therefore the perfect astronomical object towards which humanity should direct its view above the ground. The possibility of the instrument to zoom in and out and to move across the surface of the Moon or to observe in real time the slowly moving line of the terminator, is intended just for the sheer wonder of it. No didactic use is meant to begin with, although interest is sure to be stimulated and may be followed up in many ways. Our object is indeed to make young and older people throughout the world feel our satellite nearer and more familiar in the shapes and names of its features, truly a constant presence in our everyday natural surroundings. When the time will come for human coloniz ation, the Moon could no longer be considered such an extraneous, exotic and faraway new home. The telescope can be built in very large quantities by a variety of firms practically even in underdeveloped countries, easily automated and connected to the world wide web.

  7. Homeless Education Project 1996-97. Scope of Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Contra Costa Unified School District, CA.

    The documents in this collection relate to the Homeless Education Project conducted in the elementary and secondary schools of the West Contra Costa Unified School District (California). The first document is a chart describing the project and its main goals: (1) an accelerated curriculum in reading and mathematics; (2) effective procedures for…

  8. Mathematics: PROJECT DESIGN. Educational Needs, Fresno, 1968, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, James R.

    This report examines and summarizes the needs in mathematics of the Fresno City school system. The study is one in a series of needs assessment reports for PROJECT DESIGN, an ESEA Title III project administered by the Fresno City Unified School District. Theoretical concepts, rather than computational drill, would be emphasized in the proposed…

  9. College Professors' and Instructors' Attitudes toward International Project Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryzhkova, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna process, the most successful European project in the field of higher education, calls for colleges and universities to take joint actions to create a unified European educational space. One possible way to accomplish this task is to implement international scientific research projects. In connection with this, it becomes necessary to…

  10. Project Catch-Up. Analysis and Selection Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Newport Beach, CA.

    Project Catch-Up is an ESEA Title I reading and math laboratory project for kindergarten through sixth-grade students, operating in Southern California's Newport-Mesa Unified School District. Its philosophy is that students having difficulty in reading and math can catch up with other students. Teachers take responsibility for the achievement…

  11. The neurosciences and the search for a unified psychology: the science and esthetics of a single framework.

    PubMed

    Stam, Henderikus J

    2015-01-01

    The search for a so-called unified or integrated theory has long served as a goal for some psychologists, even if the search is often implicit. But if the established sciences do not have an explicitly unified set of theories, then why should psychology? After examining this question again I argue that psychology is in fact reasonably unified around its methods and its commitment to functional explanations, an indeterminate functionalism. The question of the place of the neurosciences in this framework is complex. On the one hand, the neuroscientific project will not likely renew and synthesize the disparate arms of psychology. On the other hand, their reformulation of what it means to be human will exert an influence in multiple ways. One way to capture that influence is to conceptualize the brain in terms of a technology that we interact with in a manner that we do not yet fully understand. In this way we maintain both a distance from neuro-reductionism and refrain from committing to an unfettered subjectivity.

  12. A novel methodology for constructing a multi-wing chaotic and hyperchaotic system with a unified step function switching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao-Xia, Zhang; Si-Min, Yu

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a novel method of constructing a class of multi-wing chaotic and hyperchaotic system by introducing a unified step function. In order to overcome the essential difficulties in iteratively adjusting multiple parameters of conventional multi-parameter control, this paper introduces a unified step function controlled by a single parameter for constructing various multi-wing chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. In particular, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is also the first time to find a non-equilibrium multi-wing hyperchaotic system by means of the unified step function control. According to the heteroclinic loop Shilnikov theorem, some properties for multi-wing attractors and its chaos mechanism are further discussed and analyzed. A circuit for multi-wing systems is designed and implemented for demonstration, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61403143), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030313739), the Science and Technology Foundation Program of Guangzhou City, China (Grant No. 201510010124), and the Excellent Doctorial Dissertation Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. XM080054).

  13. The neurosciences and the search for a unified psychology: the science and esthetics of a single framework

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Henderikus J.

    2015-01-01

    The search for a so-called unified or integrated theory has long served as a goal for some psychologists, even if the search is often implicit. But if the established sciences do not have an explicitly unified set of theories, then why should psychology? After examining this question again I argue that psychology is in fact reasonably unified around its methods and its commitment to functional explanations, an indeterminate functionalism. The question of the place of the neurosciences in this framework is complex. On the one hand, the neuroscientific project will not likely renew and synthesize the disparate arms of psychology. On the other hand, their reformulation of what it means to be human will exert an influence in multiple ways. One way to capture that influence is to conceptualize the brain in terms of a technology that we interact with in a manner that we do not yet fully understand. In this way we maintain both a distance from neuro-reductionism and refrain from committing to an unfettered subjectivity. PMID:26500571

  14. Sandia/Stanford Unified Creep Plasticity Damage Model for ANSYS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, David M.; Vianco, Paul T.; Fossum, Arlo F.

    2006-09-03

    A unified creep plasticity (UCP) model was developed, based upon the time-dependent and time-independent deformation properties of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (wt.%) soldier that were measured at Sandia. Then, a damage parameter, D, was added to the equation to develop the unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model. The parameter, D, was parameterized, using data obtained at Sandia from isothermal fatigue experiments on a double-lap shear test. The softwae was validated against a BGA solder joint exposed to thermal cycling. The UCPD model was put into the ANSYS finite element as a subroutine. So, the softwae is the subroutine for ANSYS 8.1.

  15. Unified Picture for Magnetic Correlations in Iron-Based Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, W.G.; Lee, E.-C.; Ku, W.

    2010-09-02

    The varying metallic antiferromagnetic correlations observed in iron-based superconductors are unified in a model consisting of both itinerant electrons and localized spins. The decisive factor is found to be the sensitive competition between the superexchange antiferromagnetism and the orbital-degenerate double-exchange ferromagnetism. Our results reveal the crucial role of Hund's rule coupling for the strongly correlated nature of the system and suggest that the iron-based superconductors are closer kin to manganites than cuprates in terms of their diverse magnetism and incoherent normal-state electron transport. This unified picture would be instrumental for exploring other exotic properties and the mechanism of superconductivity in this new class of superconductors.

  16. Unified EEG terminology and criteria for nonconvulsive status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Kaplan, Peter W; Pressler, Ronit; Bauer, Gerhard; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-09-01

    The diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) relies largely on electroencephalography (EEG) findings. The lack of a unified EEG terminology, and of evidence-based EEG criteria, leads to varying criteria for and ability to diagnose NCSE. We propose a unified terminology and classification system for NCSE, using, as a template, the Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE). This approach integrates the terminology recently proposed for the rhythmic and periodic patterns in critically ill patients, the electroclinical classification of NCSE (type of NCSE) and the context for the pathologic conditions and age-related epilepsy syndromes. We propose flexible EEG criteria that employ the SCORE system to assemble a database for determining evidence-based EEG criteria for NCSE.

  17. Unified Formulation of the Aeroelasticity of Swept Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter; Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu

    2001-01-01

    An unified approach for dealing with stability and aeroelastic response to time-dependent pressure pulses of swept wings in an incompressible flow is developed. To this end the indicial function concept in time and frequency domains, enabling one to derive the proper unsteady aerodynamic loads is used. Results regarding stability in the frequency and time domains, and subcritical aeroelastic response to arbitrary time-dependent external excitation obtained via the direct use of the unsteady aerodynamic derivatives for 3-D wings are supplied. Closed form expressions for unsteady aerodynamic derivatives using this unified approach have been derived and used to illustrate their application to flutter and aeroelastic response to blast and sonic-boom signatures. In this context, an original representation of the aeroelastic response in the phase space was presented and pertinent conclusions on the implications of some basic parameters have been outlined.

  18. Light threshold effects in supersymmetric grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Grinstein, B.

    1993-08-01

    Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories have a rich spectrum of particles barely heavier than the intermediate vector bosons. As their non-supersymmetric counterparts, they lead to many relations among low energy observables. But the precise form of the predictions is modified by the extended spectrum. If the masses of these new particles are comparable to M{sub Z}, the standard computation of their effect becomes inaccurate. The authors, present a detailed discussion of the correct procedure, and carry out the relevant computations to one loop order. Attention is paid to the special treatment that the top and Higgs particles must receive. The size of the effect is explored for a range of parameters in the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand-unified theory with radiative breaking. It is found that the naive (leading-log) computation can be fairly inaccurate.

  19. Unified picture for magnetic correlations in iron-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei-Guo; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Ku, Wei

    2010-09-03

    The varying metallic antiferromagnetic correlations observed in iron-based superconductors are unified in a model consisting of both itinerant electrons and localized spins. The decisive factor is found to be the sensitive competition between the superexchange antiferromagnetism and the orbital-degenerate double-exchange ferromagnetism. Our results reveal the crucial role of Hund's rule coupling for the strongly correlated nature of the system and suggest that the iron-based superconductors are closer kin to manganites than cuprates in terms of their diverse magnetism and incoherent normal-state electron transport. This unified picture would be instrumental for exploring other exotic properties and the mechanism of superconductivity in this new class of superconductors.

  20. A unified model explains commonness and rarity on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sean R; Hughes, Terry P; Bellwood, David R

    2017-04-01

    Abundance patterns in ecological communities have important implications for biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. However, ecological theory has been largely unsuccessful at capturing multiple macroecological abundance patterns simultaneously. Here, we propose a parsimonious model that unifies widespread ecological relationships involving local aggregation, species-abundance distributions, and species associations, and we test this model against the metacommunity structure of reef-building corals and coral reef fishes across the western and central Pacific. For both corals and fishes, the unified model simultaneously captures extremely well local species-abundance distributions, interspecific variation in the strength of spatial aggregation, patterns of community similarity, species accumulation, and regional species richness, performing far better than alternative models also examined here and in previous work on coral reefs. Our approach contributes to the development of synthetic theory for large-scale patterns of community structure in nature, and to addressing ongoing challenges in biodiversity conservation at macroecological scales.

  1. Unified Planetary Coordinates System: A Searchable Database of Geodetic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, K. J.a; Gaddis, L. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Archinal, B. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Anderson, J. A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; LaVoie, S.; McAuley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, an enormous quantity of orbital remote sensing data has been collected for Mars from many missions and instruments. Unfortunately these datasets currently exist in a wide range of disparate coordinate systems, making it extremely difficult for the scientific community to easily correlate, combine, and compare data from different Mars missions and instruments. As part of our work for the PDS Imaging Node and on behalf of the USGS Astrogeology Team, we are working to solve this problem and to provide the NASA scientific research community with easy access to Mars orbital data in a unified, consistent coordinate system along with a wide variety of other key geometric variables. The Unified Planetary Coordinates (UPC) system is comprised of two main elements: (1) a database containing Mars orbital remote sensing data computed using a uniform coordinate system, and (2) a process by which continual maintainance and updates to the contents of the database are performed.

  2. Planetary and Solar Data Labeled with IVOA Unified Content Descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louys, Mireille; Cecconi, Baptiste; Derriere, Sébastien; Erard, S.; André, N.; Preite-Martinez, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Jacquey, C.; Génot, V.; Henry, F.; Bonnin, X.; Le Sidaner, P.; Chauvin, C.; Fuller, N.; Braga, V. F.; Aboudarham, J.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical data collections are widely using tabular formats to expose their data to the community and especially in the Virtual Observatory. In order to label the content of physical quantities stored in table columns, The Unified Content Descriptors (UCDs) [Preite Martinez et al. (2011)] labels have been standardized and attached as semantic tags to a wide range of measurements and metadata. This unifies the content description across multiple data collections and archive centers. The Planetary and Solar science communities proposed, together with the IVOA Semantics Working group, to extend this bank of semantic labels for the distribution of their own collections and to adopt compatible standards such as VOTable, TAP, etc. This work shows the new UCD set proposed and how it is made available in the Virtual Observatory framework. A reference vocabulary is set up, UCD assigning tools and tests are presented.

  3. A neuro-cognitive defense of the unified self.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan

    2017-02-01

    The topic of the self remains one of considerable controversy, and many arguments have been put forth suggesting the intuitive concept of self must be in some way mistaken - in part based on results in the cognitive and neural sciences. In this article I offer the alternative positive proposal that "the self" may indeed refer to a physical/computational system within the brain. To do this, I draw on empirical work regarding the neural basis of consciousness and decision-making, and on philosophical work regarding ecological control, unified group perspectives, and functional/mechanistic explanation. The work I review jointly supports the conclusion that a "core-circuit" of interacting cortical regions - the global workspace network - can be understood as a unified system for consciously perceiving and deciding, and thus fulfills many of the roles intuitively assigned to the self. I conclude that this self-concept need not be mistaken given current empirical knowledge.

  4. Development of Unified Lab Test Result Master for Multiple Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kume, Naoto; Suzuki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shinji; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A clinical study requires massive amounts of of lab test data, especially for rare diseases. Before creating a protocol, the hypothesis if the protocol will work with enough amount of patients' dataset has to be proved. However, a single facility, such as a university hospital, often faces a lack of number of patients for specific target diseases. Even if collecting datasets from several facilities, there is no active master table that can merge lab test results between the facility datasets. Therefore, the authors develop a unified lab test result master. Because test master standards such as JLAC10 and LOINC are provided from a viewpoint of academic classification of laboratory medicine, the classification does not fit clinical classification, which doctors understand with a mind-set of establishing a clinical study protocol. The authors establish a method to unify masters using an active lab test result master from two university hospitals.

  5. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design Guide. Army Reserve Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    compressed air piping system for maintenance bay service tools , typically the air compressor is located in the mechanical room. Other maintenance building...Including Change 3, 1 February 2010 FOREWORD The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides...Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are responsible for administration of the UFC system . Defense agencies

  6. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    in order to keep pace with the changing and complex global environment. 12 John T. Quinn , Toward a New Strategic Framework: A Unified Command Plan...aircraft changed how wars were expected to be fought. Airpower activists (in the Army and Navy) argued that 39 Cole, 107-108. 40 Quinn , 63-64. 41...Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, and 84 Ibid. 85 Elliot A. Cohen, Gulf War Air Power Survey, (Washington, D.C.: Joint

  7. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  8. The Unified Agenda: Implications for Rulemaking Transparency and Participation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    Service 11 • an April 2008 Department of Justice (DOJ) rule on “Classification of Three Steroids as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids under the Controlled... Steroids as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids Under the Controlled Substances Act,” 73 Federal Register 22294, April 25, 2008. DOJ said it was issuing...this proposed rule pursuant to the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-358). The first mention in the Unified Agenda for this proposed rule

  9. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  10. SB 1082 -- Unified hazardous materials/waste program: Local implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.

    1995-12-31

    California Senate Bill 1082 was signed into law in the fall of 1993 because business and industry believed there were too many hazardous materials inspectors asking the same questions, looking at the same items and requiring similar information on several variations of the same form. Industry was not happy with the large diversity of programs, each with its own inspectors, permits and fees, essentially doing what industry believed was the same inspection. SB 1082 will allow local city and county agencies to apply to the California Environmental Protection Agency to become a Certified Unified Program Agency (CUPA) or work with a CUPA as a Participating Agency (PA) to manage specific program elements. The CUPA will unify six regulatory programs including hazardous waste/tiered permitting, aboveground storage tanks, underground storage tanks, business and area plans/inventory or disclosure, acutely hazardous materials/risk management prevention and Uniform Fire Code programs related to hazardous materials inventory/plan requirements. The bill requires the CUPA to (1) implement a permit consolidation program; (2) implement a single fee system with a state surcharge; (3) consolidate, coordinate and make consistent any local or regional requirements or guidance documents; and (4) implement a single unified inspection and enforcement program.

  11. A Unified attentional bottleneck in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael N; Asplund, Christopher L; Dux, Paul E; Godwin, Douglass; Martin, Justin W; Marois, René

    2011-08-16

    Human information processing is characterized by bottlenecks that constrain throughput. These bottlenecks limit both what we can perceive and what we can act on in multitask settings. Although perceptual and response limitations are often attributed to independent information processing bottlenecks, it has recently been suggested that a common attentional limitation may be responsible for both. To date, however, evidence supporting the existence of such a "unified" bottleneck has been mixed. Here, we tested the unified bottleneck hypothesis using time-resolved fMRI. Experiment 1 isolated brain regions involved in the response selection bottleneck that limits speeded dual-task performance. These same brain regions were not only engaged by a perceptual encoding task in Experiment 2, their activity also tracked delays to a speeded decision-making task caused by concurrent perceptual encoding (Experiment 3). We conclude that a unified attentional bottleneck, including the inferior frontal junction, superior medial frontal cortex, and bilateral insula, temporally limits operations as diverse as perceptual encoding and decision-making.

  12. A Cartesian grid-based unified gas kinetic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Songze; Xu, Kun

    2014-12-01

    A Cartesian grid-based unified gas kinetic scheme is developed. In this approach, any oriented boundary in a Cartesian grid is represented by many directional boundary points. The numerical flux is evaluated on each boundary point. Then, a boundary flux interpolation method (BFIM) is constructed to distribute the boundary effect to the flow evolution on regular Cartesian grid points. The BFIM provides a general strategy to implement any kind of boundary condition on Cartesian grid. The newly developed technique is implemented in the unified gas kinetic scheme, where the scheme is reformulated into a finite difference format. Several typical test cases are simulated with different geometries. For example, the thermophoresis phenomenon for a plate with infinitesimal thickness immersed in a rarefied flow environment is calculated under different orientations on the same Cartesian grid. These computational results validate the BFIM in the unified scheme for the capturing of different thermal boundary conditions. The BFIM can be extended to the moving boundary problems as well.

  13. Creation and Maintenance of a Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Norman; Erdmann, C.; Accomazzi, A.; Soles, J.; McCann, G.; Cassar, M.; Biemesderfer, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort to update and unify the various vocabularies currently in use in Astronomy into a single thesaurus that can be further developed and updated through broad community participation. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) will be an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics thesauri into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the Astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing and the American Institute of Physics. While the AAS has assumed formal ownership of the UAT, the work will be available under a Creative Commons License, ensuring its widest use while protecting the intellectual property of the contributors. We envision that development and maintenance will be stewarded by a broad group of parties having a direct stake in it. This includes professional associations (IVOA, IAU), learned societies (AAS, RAS), publishers (IOP, AIP), librarians and other curators working for major astronomy institutes and data archives. While the impetus behind the creation of a single thesaurus has been the wish to support semantic enrichment of the literature, we expect that use of the UAT (along with other vocabularies and ontologies currently being developed) will be much broader and will have a greater impact on discovery of both literatue and data products.

  14. Unified spatial scaling of species and their trophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Brose, Ulrich; Ostling, Annette; Harrison, Kateri; Martinez, Neo D

    2004-03-11

    Two largely independent bodies of scaling theory address the quantitative relationships between habitat area, species diversity and trophic interactions. Spatial theory within macroecology addresses how species richness scales with area in landscapes, while typically ignoring interspecific interactions. Complexity theory within community ecology addresses how trophic links scale with species richness in food webs, while typically ignoring spatial considerations. Recent studies suggest unifying these theories by demonstrating how spatial patterns influence food-web structure and vice versa. Here, we follow this suggestion by developing and empirically testing a more unified scaling theory. On the basis of power-law species-area relationships, we develop link-area and non-power-law link-species models that accurately predict how trophic links scale with area and species richness of microcosms, lakes and streams from community to metacommunity levels. In contrast to previous models that assume that species richness alone determines the number of trophic links, these models include the species' spatial distribution, and hence extend the domain of complexity theory to metacommunity scales. This generality and predictive success shows how complexity theory and spatial theory can be unified into a much more general theory addressing new domains of ecology.

  15. NASA Taxonomy 2.0 Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne; Busch, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the project to develop a Taxonomy for NASA. The benefits of this project are: Make it easy for various audiences to find relevant information from NASA programs quickly, specifically (1) Provide easy access for NASA Web resources (2) Information integration for unified queries and management reporting ve search results targeted to user interests the ability to move content through the enterprise to where it is needed most (3) Facilitate Records Management and Retention Requirements. In addition the project will assist NASA in complying with E-Government Act of 2002 and prepare NASA to participate in federal projects.

  16. Optimal Unified Approach for Rare-Variant Association Testing with Application to Small-Sample Case-Control Whole-Exome Sequencing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunggeun; Emond, Mary J.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Rieder, Mark J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Christiani, David C.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Lin, Xihong

    2012-01-01

    We propose in this paper a unified approach for testing the association between rare variants and phenotypes in sequencing association studies. This approach maximizes power by adaptively using the data to optimally combine the burden test and the nonburden sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Burden tests are more powerful when most variants in a region are causal and the effects are in the same direction, whereas SKAT is more powerful when a large fraction of the variants in a region are noncausal or the effects of causal variants are in different directions. The proposed unified test maintains the power in both scenarios. We show that the unified test corresponds to the optimal test in an extended family of SKAT tests, which we refer to as SKAT-O. The second goal of this paper is to develop a small-sample adjustment procedure for the proposed methods for the correction of conservative type I error rates of SKAT family tests when the trait of interest is dichotomous and the sample size is small. Both small-sample-adjusted SKAT and the optimal unified test (SKAT-O) are computationally efficient and can easily be applied to genome-wide sequencing association studies. We evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed methods using extensive simulation studies and illustrate their application using the acute-lung-injury exome-sequencing data of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. PMID:22863193

  17. Perspectives of Central Office Staff, Principals, Teachers, and School Site Councils on Resource Allocation and "Budgeting for Student Achievement" Implementation in 2010-11. A Report Prepared for the Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Chambers, Jay G.; Manship, Karen; Cruz, Lisa; O'Neil, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project (called Budgeting for Student Success, or BSA, in Los Angeles Unified School District), the American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted surveys of principals, teachers, and members of School Site Councils (SSCs) to gather information on their attitudes and…

  18. Earthdata 3.0: A Unified Experience and Platform for Earth Science Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plofchan, P.; McLaughlin, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) as a multitude of websites and applications focused on serving the Earth Science community's extensive data needs. With no central user interface, theme, or mechanism for accessing that data, interrelated systems are confusing and potentially disruptive in users' searches for EOSDIS data holdings. In an effort to bring consistency across these systems, an effort was undertaken to develop Earthdata 3.0: a complete information architecture overhaul of the Earthdata website, a significant update to the Earthdata user experience and user interface, and an increased focus on searching across EOSDIS data holdings, including those housed and made available through DAAC websites. As part of this effort, and in a desire to unify the user experience across related websites, the Earthdata User Interface (EUI) was developed. The EUI is a collection of responsive design components and layouts geared toward creating websites and applications within the Earthdata ecosystem. Each component and layout has been designed specifically for Earth science-related projects which eliminates some of the complexities of building a website or application from the ground up. Its adoption will ensure both consistent markup and a unified look and feel for end users, thereby increasing usability and accessibility. Additionally, through the user of a Google Search Appliance, custom Clojure code, and in cooperation with DAACs, Earthdata 3.0 presents a variety of search results upon a user's keyword(s) entry. These results are not just textual links, but also direct links to downloadable datasets, visualizations of datasets and collections of data, and related articles and videos for further research. The end result of the development of the EUI and the enhanced multi-response type search is a consistent and usable platform for Earth scientists and users to navigate and locate data to further their research.

  19. Project PRISM: Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnion, Maryellen; And Others

    The first of three volumes of Project PRISM, a program designed to help classroom teachers (grades 6 through 8) provide for the needs of their gifted and talented students without removing those students from the mainstream of education, outlines the project's background and achievements. Sections review the following project aspects (sample…

  20. A new unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a new unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. By considering a four-dimensional spacetime as a hypersurface embedded in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime, we derive the complete set of field equations in the four-dimensional spacetime from the fivedimensional Einstein field equation. Besides the Einstein field equation in the four-dimensional spacetime, an electromagnetic field equation is obtained: ∇a F ab - ξ R b a A a = -4π J b with ξ = -2, where F ab is the antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor defined by the potential vector A a , R ab is the Ricci curvature tensor of the hypersurface, and J a is the electric current density vector. The electromagnetic field equation differs from the Einstein-Maxwell equation by a curvature-coupled term ξ R b a A a , whose presence addresses the problem of incompatibility of the Einstein-Maxwell equation with a universe containing a uniformly distributed net charge, as discussed in a previous paper by the author [L.-X. Li, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 48, 28 (2016)]. Hence, the new unified theory is physically different from Kaluza-Klein theory and its variants in which the Einstein-Maxwell equation is derived. In the four-dimensional Einstein field equation derived in the new theory, the source term includes the stress-energy tensor of electromagnetic fields as well as the stress-energy tensor of other unidentified matter. Under certain conditions the unidentified matter can be interpreted as a cosmological constant in the four-dimensional spacetime. We argue that, the electromagnetic field equation and hence the unified theory presented in this paper can be tested in an environment with a high mass density, e.g., inside a neutron star or a white dwarf, and in the early epoch of the universe.

  1. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  2. Towards the Development of a Unified Distributed Date System for L1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, Alan J.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant, 'Towards the Development of a Unified Distributed Data System for L1 Spacecraft', is to take the initial steps towards the development of a data distribution mechanism for making in-situ measurements more easily accessible to the scientific community. Our obligations as subcontractors to this grant are to add our Faraday Cup plasma data to this initial study and to contribute to the design of a general data distribution system. The year 1 objectives of the overall project as stated in the GSFC proposal are: 1) Both the rsync and Perl based data exchange tools will be fully developed and tested in our mixed, Unix, VMS, Windows and Mac OS X data service environment. Based on the performance comparisons, one will be selected and fully deployed. Continuous data exchange between all L1 solar wind monitors initiated. 2) Data version metadata will be agreed upon, fully documented, and deployed on our data sites. 3) The first version of the data description rules, encoded in a XML Schema, will be finalized. 4) Preliminary set of library routines will be collected, documentation standards and formats agreed on, and desirable routines that have not been implemented identified and assigned. 5) ViSBARD test site implemented to independently validate data mirroring procedures. The specific MIT tasks over the duration of this project are the following: a) implement mirroring service for WIND plasma data b) participate in XML Schema development c) contribute toward routine library.

  3. Unified optical distortion correction method for imaging systems using a concise geometrical transformation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shengqian; Liu, Siqi; Yuan, Fei; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-01-01

    Since optical distortion has been a big trouble for various kinds of imaging systems, finding a simple correction method with wide applications is of significant importance. In this paper, we propose a unified and simple correction method, performing well for both photographic and projective imaging systems. The basic idea is regarding the optical distortion as geometrical deformation between the object and image, without considering the specific features of an optical system. First of all, a calibration template is employed to establish the geometrical transformation model (GTM) for the distortion of a built optical system. Two alternative algorithms are given to estimate the GTM in algebraic form. The computation is very simple because no intrinsic parameters of the optical system are needed to establish the GTM. Besides, the errors introduced by the fabricating and assembling process can be eliminated. Then, the corrected image of the photographic system or the pre-distorted image of the projective systems can be obtained accordingly utilizing the GTM. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with wide applications.

  4. The aesthetic post and core: unifying radicular form and structure.

    PubMed

    Gluskin, Alan H; Ahmed, Irfan; Herrero, Dale B

    2002-05-01

    Use of a post system for the rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth requires traditional planning for the function of the restoration as well as a structural and aesthetic strategy for novel technologies in ceramic and composite dentistry. Contemporary material options have greatly expanded the clinician's ability to rehabilitate the coronoradicular complex. Transilluminating posts, bondable fabrics, and high-technology ceramics create exciting possibilities in post and core design. The use of bondable materials allows the practitioner to unify the structure and morphology of root systems to provide creative solutions to challenges heretofore unmet.

  5. Structural analysis of turbine blades using unified constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Tong, M.; Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The utility of advanced constitutive models and structural analysis methods in predicting the cyclic life of an air-cooled turbine blade is assessed. Five structural analysis methods were exercised in calculating the cyclic stress-strain response at the airfoil critical location. The methods studied were a cyclic elastic finite-element analysis, nonlinear finite-element analyses based on classical inelastic models and the unified models of Bodner and Walker, and a simplified inelastic procedure. These analyses were compared in terms of computing times and of predicted crack initiation lives using the Strainrange Partitioning method.

  6. A unified approach to asphaltene precipitation: Laboratory measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    MacMillan, D.J.; Tackett, J.E. Jr.; Jessee, M.A.; Monger-McClure, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    A unified approach to evaluating asphaltene precipitation based on laboratory measurement and modeling is presented. This approach used an organic deposition cell for measuring asphaltene drop out onset conditions. Asphaltene precipitation was detected by changes in optical fluorescence, electrical conductance, and visual observation. A series of experiments measured the effects of changing pressure, temperature and composition on asphaltene precipitation. A fully-compositional V-L-S mathematical model completed the analysis by matching the experimental results. The model was then used to forecast asphaltene precipitation under a variety of production scenarios including response to gas-lift operations, and to evaluate the possible location of a tar-mat.

  7. Comfort Theory: a unifying framework to enhance the practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kolcaba, Katharine; Tilton, Colette; Drouin, Carol

    2006-11-01

    The application of theory to practice is multifaceted. It requires a nursing theory that is compatible with an institution's values and mission and that is easily understood and simple enough to guide practice. Comfort Theory was chosen because of its universality. The authors describe how Kolcaba's Comfort Theory was used by a not-for-profit New England hospital to provide a coherent and consistent pattern for enhancing care and promoting professional practice, as well as to serve as a unifying framework for applying for Magnet Recognition Status.

  8. Addressing Learning Style Criticism: The Unified Learning Style Model Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Elvira

    Learning style is one of the individual differences that play an important but controversial role in the learning process. This paper aims at providing a critical analysis regarding learning styles and their use in technology enhanced learning. The identified criticism issues are addressed by reappraising the so called Unified Learning Style Model (ULSM). A detailed description of the ULSM components is provided, together with their rationale. The practical applicability of the model in adaptive web-based educational systems and its advantages versus traditional learning style models are also outlined.

  9. Spacetime stereo: a unifying framework for depth from triangulation.

    PubMed

    Davis, James; Nehab, Diego; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Rusinkiewicz, Szymon

    2005-02-01

    Depth from triangulation has traditionally been investigated in a number of independent threads of research, with methods such as stereo, laser scanning, and coded structured light considered separately. In this paper, we propose a common framework called spacetime stereo that unifies and generalizes many of these previous methods. To show the practical utility of the framework, we develop two new algorithms for depth estimation: depth from unstructured illumination change and depth estimation in dynamic scenes. Based on our analysis, we show that methods derived from the spacetime stereo framework can be used to recover depth in situations in which existing methods perform poorly.

  10. Improvement of transient stability using unified power flow controller

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalic, R.; Zunko, P.; Povh, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of an Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on transient stability margin enhancement of a longitudinal system. To utilize the UPFC possibilities fully, the three controllable UPFC parameters were determined during the digital simulation process performed by the NETOMAC simulation program. The basis for determination of the suitable damping strategy and for determination of the optimal UPFC parameters is a mathematical model, which describes the interdependence between longitudinal transmission system parameters, operating conditions and UPFC parameters in the form of analytical equations. On the basis of the mathematical model, the theoretical UPFC limits were also detected, and their appearance explained.

  11. Operation of the unified power flow controller as harmonic isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, J.H.R.; Zhao, J.; Spee, R.

    1996-11-01

    The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is a tool in the implementation of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). It provides for the equivalent of static VAr compensation and series injection using back-to-back force commutated converters. This paper proposes a control strategy to extend UPFC operation to allow for the isolation of harmonics due to nonlinear loads. Simulation results based on the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) are used to illustrate device performance in a power system environment. Experimental results based on a single phase laboratory implementation verify the proposed control algorithm.

  12. A unified cell biological perspective on axon–myelin injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Demyelination and axon loss are pathological hallmarks of the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Although we have an increasingly detailed understanding of how immune cells can damage axons and myelin individually, we lack a unified view of how the axon–myelin unit as a whole is affected by immune-mediated attack. In this review, we propose that as a result of the tight cell biological interconnection of axons and myelin, damage to either can spread, which might convert a local inflammatory disease process early in MS into the global progressive disorder seen during later stages. This mode of spreading could also apply to other neurological disorders. PMID:25092654

  13. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-31

    The Unified Heliostat Array (UHA) was investigated as to cost and optical performance. Two heliostats, the Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) and the Repowering Heliostat were investigated in conjunction with the UHA. The UHA was found to be a viable candidate for solar thermal central receiver applications. The UHA-VIH combination was shown to provide very high flux densities and to be suitable for high temperature applications in the 1000/sup 0/K to 2000/sup 0/K range. These temperatures were shown to be achievable even with very small (1 MWt) collector fields.

  14. A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-06-24

    Abstract?In this paper, we propose a new unified differential evolution (uDE) algorithm for single objective global optimization. Instead of selecting among multiple mutation strategies as in the conventional differential evolution algorithm, this algorithm employs a single equation as the mutation strategy. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexbility for broader exploration of different mutation strategies. Numerical tests using twelve basic unimodal and multimodal functions show promising performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to convential differential evolution algorithms.

  15. A Unified Approach to Intra-Domain Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Andrew J.; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2009-01-01

    While a variety of mechanisms have been developed for securing individual intra-domain protocols, none address the issue in a holistic manner. We develop a unified framework to secure prominent networking protocols within a single domain. We begin with a secure version of the DHCP protocol, which has the additional feature of providing each host with a certificate. We then leverage these certificates to secure ARP, prevent spoofing within the domain, and secure SSH and VPN connections between the domain and hosts which have previously interacted with it locally. In doing so, we also develop an incrementally deployable public key infrastructure which can later be leveraged to support inter-domain authentication.

  16. The ISPM unified radio and plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Caldwell, J.; Deconchy, Y.; Deschanciaux, C.; Ebbett, R.; Epstein, G.; Groetz, K.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoang, S.; Howard, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware for the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) wave experiment is presented. The URAP determines direction and polarization of distant radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere, and studies local wave phenomena which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. Electric and magnetic field antennas and preamplifiers; the electromagnetic compatibility plan and grounding; radio astronomy and plasma frequency receivers; a fast Fourier transformation data processing unit waveform analyzer; dc voltage measurements; a fast envelope sampler for the solar wind, and plasmas near Jupiter; a sounder; and a power converter are described.

  17. Nonlinear/linear unified thermal stress formulations - Transfinite element approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    A new unified computational approach for applicability to nonlinear/linear thermal-structural problems is presented. Basic concepts of the approach including applicability to nonlinear and linear thermal structural mechanics are first described via general formulations. Therein, the approach is demonstrated for thermal stress and thermal-structural dynamic applications. The proposed transfinite element approach focuses on providing a viable hybrid computational methodology by combining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element schemes in conjunction with transform techniques and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. Comparative samples of numerical test cases highlight the capabilities of the proposed concepts.

  18. Unified Stress Tensor of the Hydration Water Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongsu; Kim, QHwan; Kwon, Soyoung; An, Sangmin; Lee, Kunyoung; Lee, Manhee; Jhe, Wonho

    2013-12-01

    We present the general stress tensor of the ubiquitous hydration water layer (HWL), based on the empirical hydration force, by combining the elasticity and hydrodynamics theories. The tapping and shear component of the tensor describe the elastic and damping properties of the HWL, respectively, in good agreement with experiments. In particular, a unified understanding of HWL dynamics provides the otherwise unavailable intrinsic parameters of the HWL, which offer additional but unexplored aspects to the supercooled liquidity of the confined HWL. Our results may allow deeper insight on systems where the HWL is critical.

  19. Unified stress tensor of the hydration water layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongsu; Kim, Qhwan; Kwon, Soyoung; An, Sangmin; Lee, Kunyoung; Lee, Manhee; Jhe, Wonho

    2013-12-13

    We present the general stress tensor of the ubiquitous hydration water layer (HWL), based on the empirical hydration force, by combining the elasticity and hydrodynamics theories. The tapping and shear component of the tensor describe the elastic and damping properties of the HWL, respectively, in good agreement with experiments. In particular, a unified understanding of HWL dynamics provides the otherwise unavailable intrinsic parameters of the HWL, which offer additional but unexplored aspects to the supercooled liquidity of the confined HWL. Our results may allow deeper insight on systems where the HWL is critical.

  20. Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

    2007-04-01

    A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

  1. Unified mass-action theory for virus neutralization and radioimmunology.

    PubMed

    Trautman, R

    1976-01-01

    All ideas implicit in the papers since 1953 involved in applying mass-action thermodynamics to antibody-antigen reactions are unified by the use of: (a) the intermediary concept of extent of reaction; (b) the concept of intrinsic association constant; (c) a statistical analysis for probable complexes; and (d) identification of the complex or complexes that contribute to the bioassay. Several general theoretical examples are given that show the limitations of linear interpretations of equilibrium data. Two practical examples from the literature illustrate foot-and-mouth disease virus and influenza virus neutralization.

  2. IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ha, Vi Q; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-12-08

    We introduce IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations, an object oriented, easy-to-use, high performance, C++ program for three-dimensional simulations of complex physical systems that can benefit a large variety of research areas, especially in cell mechanics. The program implements cross-communication between locally interacting particles and continuum models residing in the same physical space while a network facilitates long-range particle interactions. Message Passing Interface is used for inter-processor communication for all simulations.

  3. Energy medicine and the unifying concept of information.

    PubMed

    Rubik, B

    1995-03-01

    Alternative medicine remains alternative because it poses serious challenges to the mainstream biomedical paradigm of mechanical reductionism and because it requires a new framework. This paper explores some of the hypotheses and challenges of energy medicine including healer interventions, electromagnetic therapies, and homeopathy. Together with new findings from the bioelectromagnetic field, they spell out the rudiments of a new paradigm for biology and medicine based on information. Information embraces the complex network of relations in the matter and energy transactions of living systems. It offers a unified view of energy medicine modalities as well as a fresh perspective for biology and medicine and new questions for further research.

  4. Energy Medicine and the Unifying Concept of Information

    PubMed

    Rubik

    1995-03-01

    Alternative medicine remains alternative because it poses serious challenges to the mainstream biomedical paradigm of mechanical reductionism and because it requires a new framework. This paper explores some of the hypotheses and challenges of energy medicine including healer interventions, electromagnetic therapies, and homeopathy. Together with new findings from the bioelectromagnetic field, they spell out the rudiments of a new paradigm for biology and medicine based on information. Information embraces the complex network of relations in the matter and energy transactions of living systems. It offers a unified view of energy medicine modalities as well as a fresh perspective for biology and medicine and new questions for further research.

  5. The COPII cage: unifying principles of vesicle coat assembly.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Cemal; Stagg, Scott M; Lapointe, Paul; Balch, William E

    2006-10-01

    Communication between compartments of the exocytic and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells involves transport carriers - vesicles and tubules - that mediate the vectorial movement of cargo. Recent studies of transport-carrier formation in the early secretory pathway have provided new insights into the mechanisms of cargo selection by coat protein complex-II (COPII) adaptor proteins, the construction of cage-protein scaffolds and fission. These studies are beginning to produce a unifying molecular and structural model of coat function in the formation and fission of vesicles and tubules in endomembrane traffic.

  6. Robust finite-time stabilization of unified chaotic complex systems with certain and uncertain parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the finite-time stabilization of unified chaotic complex systems with known and unknown parameters. Based on the finite-time stability theory, nonlinear control laws are presented to achieve finite-time chaos control of the determined and uncertain unified chaotic complex systems, respectively. The two controllers are simple, and one of the uncertain unified chaotic complex systems is robust. For the design of a finite-time controller on uncertain unified chaotic complex systems, only some of the unknown parameters need to be bounded. Simulation results for the chaotic complex Lorenz, Lü and Chen systems are presented to validate the design and analysis.

  7. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rahman; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Shujaat; Huh, Eui-Nam; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM) to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a “data modeler” tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets. PMID:26147731

  8. Modern Fysics Phallacies: The Best Way Not to Unify Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James E.

    Too many physicists believe the `phallacy' that the quantum is more fundamental than relativity without any valid supporting evidence, so the earliest attempts to unify physics based on the continuity of relativity have been all but abandoned. This belief is probably due to the wealth of pro-quantum propaganda and general `phallacies in fysics' that were spread during the second quarter of the twentieth century, although serious `phallacies' exist throughout physics on both sides of the debate. Yet both approaches are basically flawed because both relativity and the quantum theory are incomplete and grossly misunderstood as they now stand. Had either side of the quantum versus relativity controversy sought common ground between the two worldviews, total unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry, theoretical mathematics and classical physics all share one common characteristic that has never been fully explored or explained - a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point (discrete) and an extended length (continuity) in any dimension - and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this paradox relates to each paradigm, all of physics and indeed all of science could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.

  9. A unified theory of calcium alternans in ventricular myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhilin; Liu, Michael B.; Nivala, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca2+ cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans have been demonstrated in these models: one relies mainly on fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and uptake, and the other on refractoriness and other properties of Ca2+ sparks. Each of the two mechanisms can partially explain the experimental observations, but both have their inconsistencies with the experimental results. Here we developed an iterated map model that is composed of two coupled iterated maps, which unifies the two mechanisms into a single cohesive mathematical framework. The unified theory can consistently explain the seemingly contradictory experimental observations and shows that the two mechanisms work synergistically to promote Ca2+ alternans. Predictions of the theory were examined in a physiologically-detailed spatial Ca2+ cycling model of ventricular myocytes.

  10. Unified studies of structure and reactions in light unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    The generalized two-center cluster model (GTCM), which can treat covalent, ionic and atomic configurations in general systems with two inert cores plus valence nucleons, is formulated in the basis of the microscopic cluster model. In this model, the covalent configurations constructed by the molecular orbital (MO) method and the atomic (or ionic) configuration obtained by the valence bonding (VB) method can be described in a consistent manner. GTCM is applied to the light neutron-rich system, 10,12Be = α + α + XN (X = 2,4), and the unified studies of the structural changes and the reaction problem are performed. In the structure study, the calculated energy levels are characterized in terms of the chemical bonding like structures, such as the covalent MO or ionic VB structures. The chemical bonding structures changes from level to level within a small energy interval. In the unbound region, the structure problem with the total system of α + α + XN and the reaction problem, induced by the collision of an asymptotic VB state of α+6,8He, are combined by GTCM. The properties of unbound resonant states are discussed in a close connection to the reaction mechanism, and some enhancement factors originated from the properties of the intrinsic states are predicted in the reaction observables. The unified calculation of the structures and the reactions is applied to the Coulomb shift problem in the mirror system, such the 10Be and 10C nuclei. The Coulomb displacement energy of the mirror systems are discussed.

  11. A unified convention for biological assemblies with helical symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Assemblies with helical symmetry can be conveniently formulated in many distinct ways. Here, a new convention is presented which unifies the two most commonly used helical systems for generating helical assemblies from asymmetric units determined by X-ray fibre diffraction and EM imaging. A helical assembly is viewed as being composed of identical repetitive units in a one- or two-dimensional lattice, named 1-­D and 2-D helical systems, respectively. The unification suggests that a new helical description with only four parameters [n 1, n 2, twist, rise], which is called the augmented 1-D helical system, can generate the complete set of helical arrangements, including coverage of helical discontinuities (seams). A unified four-parameter characterization implies similar parameters for similar assemblies, can eliminate errors in reproducing structures of helical assemblies and facilitates the generation of polymorphic ensembles from helical atomic models or EM density maps. Further, guidelines are provided for such a unique description that reflects the structural signature of an assembly, as well as rules for manipulating the helical symmetry presentation. PMID:21795813

  12. A unified theory of calcium alternans in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhilin; Liu, Michael B.; Nivala, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca2+ cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans have been demonstrated in these models: one relies mainly on fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and uptake, and the other on refractoriness and other properties of Ca2+ sparks. Each of the two mechanisms can partially explain the experimental observations, but both have their inconsistencies with the experimental results. Here we developed an iterated map model that is composed of two coupled iterated maps, which unifies the two mechanisms into a single cohesive mathematical framework. The unified theory can consistently explain the seemingly contradictory experimental observations and shows that the two mechanisms work synergistically to promote Ca2+ alternans. Predictions of the theory were examined in a physiologically-detailed spatial Ca2+ cycling model of ventricular myocytes. PMID:27762397

  13. Novel, unifying mechanism for mescaline in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2009-01-01

    A unifying mechanism for abused drugs has been proposed previously from the standpoint of electron transfer. Mescaline can be accommodated within the theoretical framework based on redox cycling by the catechol metabolite with its quinone counterpart. Electron transfer may play a role in electrical effects involving the nervous system in the brain. This approach is in accord with structure activity relationships involving mescaline, abused drugs, catecholamines and etoposide. Inefficient demethylation is in keeping with the various drug properties, such as requirement for high dosage and slow acting. There is a discussion of receptor binding, electrical effects, cell signaling and other modes of action. Mescaline is a nonselective, seretonin receptor agonist. 5-HTP receptors are involved in the stimulus properties. Research addresses the aspect of stereochemical requirements. Receptor binding may involve the proposed quinone metabolite and/or the amino sidechain via protonation. Electroencephalographic studies were performed on the effects of mescaline on men. Spikes are elicited by stimulation of a cortical area. The potentials likely originate in nonsynaptic dendritic membranes. Receptor-mediated signaling pathways were examined which affect mescaline behavior. The hallucinogen belongs to the class of 2AR agonists which regulate pathways in cortical neurons. The research identifies neural and signaling mechanisms responsible for the biological effects. Recently, another hallucinogen, psilocybin, has been included within the unifying mechanistic framework. This mushroom constituent is hydrolyzed to the phenol psilocin, also active, which is subsequently oxidized to an ET o-quinone or iminoquinone. PMID:20716904

  14. Unified Geometrodynamics:. A Complementarity of Newton's and Einstein's Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    Newton claimed the influence of gravity is instantaneous; Einstein insisted no influence could propagate faster than the speed of light. Recent experiments to test the speed of gravity have been controversial and inconclusive on technical grounds. Considerable effort is currently expended in the search for a Quantum Gravity; but there is no a priori reason there should be one. We propose that is not the regime of integration which instead occurs in the arena of the Unified Field, UF; further that a completed model of Geometrodynamics inherently includes a Newton/Einstein duality which introduces shock effects in certain arenas. The unified theory predicts that there is no graviton of the usual phenomenal form (an artifact of the incompleteness of Gauge Theory, i.e. gauge theory is only an approximation suggesting new physics). A new Large Scale Additional Dimensional (LSXD) M-Theoretic topological charge alternative is presented. We also attempt to show how the Titius-Bode Law for solar and exoplanetary configurations appears to provide indicia of this multiverse gravitational model. Applications of the dual geometrodynamics formulation include an interpretation of quasar luminosity as the result of gravitational shock waves in a manner countering explanations of large redshift, Z in Big Bang cosmology putatively based on Doppler recession. Instead redshift occurs as the result of a periodic minute photon mass anisotropy caused by periodic coupling to a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum.

  15. Dynamics systems vs. optimal control--a unifying view.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Stefan; Mohajerian, Peyman; Ijspeert, Auke

    2007-01-01

    In the past, computational motor control has been approached from at least two major frameworks: the dynamic systems approach and the viewpoint of optimal control. The dynamic system approach emphasizes motor control as a process of self-organization between an animal and its environment. Nonlinear differential equations that can model entrainment and synchronization behavior are among the most favorable tools of dynamic systems modelers. In contrast, optimal control approaches view motor control as the evolutionary or development result of a nervous system that tries to optimize rather general organizational principles, e.g., energy consumption or accurate task achievement. Optimal control theory is usually employed to develop appropriate theories. Interestingly, there is rather little interaction between dynamic systems and optimal control modelers as the two approaches follow rather different philosophies and are often viewed as diametrically opposing. In this paper, we develop a computational approach to motor control that offers a unifying modeling framework for both dynamic systems and optimal control approaches. In discussions of several behavioral experiments and some theoretical and robotics studies, we demonstrate how our computational ideas allow both the representation of self-organizing processes and the optimization of movement based on reward criteria. Our modeling framework is rather simple and general, and opens opportunities to revisit many previous modeling results from this novel unifying view.

  16. Supersymmetric axion grand unified theories and their predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a class of unified supersymmetric axion theories with unified and Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetries broken by the same set of fields at a scale ˜2 ×1 016 GeV . A typical domain wall number of order 30 leads to an axion decay constant fa of order 1 015 GeV . Inflation generates a large saxion condensate, giving a reheat temperature TR below the QCD scale for supersymmetry breaking of order 1-10 TeV. Axion field oscillations commence in the saxion matter-dominated era near the QCD scale, and recent lattice computations of the temperature dependence of the axion mass in this era allow a controlled calculation of the axion dark matter abundance. The observed abundance can be successfully explained by an initial axion misalignment angle of order unity, θi˜1 . A highly correlated set of predictions is discussed for fa, TR, the supersymmetric Higgs mass parameter μ , the amount of dark radiation Δ Neff, the proton decay rate Γ (p →e+π0), isocurvature density perturbations and the B mode of the cosmic microwave background. The last two are particularly interesting when the energy scale of inflation is also of order 1 016 GeV .

  17. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  18. Nonlocal regularization of inverse problems: a unified variational framework.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhili; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a unifying energy minimization framework for nonlocal regularization of inverse problems. In contrast to the weighted sum of square differences between image pixels used by current schemes, the proposed functional is an unweighted sum of inter-patch distances. We use robust distance metrics that promote the averaging of similar patches, while discouraging the averaging of dissimilar patches. We show that the first iteration of a majorize-minimize algorithm to minimize the proposed cost function is similar to current nonlocal methods. The reformulation thus provides a theoretical justification for the heuristic approach of iterating nonlocal schemes, which re-estimate the weights from the current image estimate. Thanks to the reformulation, we now understand that the widely reported alias amplification associated with iterative nonlocal methods are caused by the convergence to local minimum of the nonconvex penalty. We introduce an efficient continuation strategy to overcome this problem. The similarity of the proposed criterion to widely used nonquadratic penalties (e.g., total variation and lp semi-norms) opens the door to the adaptation of fast algorithms developed in the context of compressive sensing; we introduce several novel algorithms to solve the proposed nonlocal optimization problem. Thanks to the unifying framework, these fast algorithms are readily applicable for a large class of distance metrics.

  19. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  20. Life assessment of combustor liner using unified constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, M. T.; Thompson, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Hot section components of gas turbine engines are subject to severe thermomechanical loads during each mission cycle. Inelastic deformation can be induced in localized regions leading to eventual fatigue cracking. Assessment of durability requires reasonably accurate calculation of the structural response at the critical location for crack initiation. In recent years nonlinear finite element computer codes have become available for calculating inelastic structural response under cyclic loading. NASA-Lewis sponsored the development of unified constitutive material models and their implementation in nonlinear finite element computer codes for the structural analysis of hot section components. These unified models were evaluated with regard to their effect on the life prediction of a hot section component. The component considered was a gas turbine engine combustor liner. A typical engine mission cycle was used for the thermal and structural analyses. The analyses were performed on a CRAY computer using the MARC finite element code. The results were compared with laboratory test results, in terms of crack initiation lives.

  1. A unified convention for biological assemblies with helical symmetry.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    Assemblies with helical symmetry can be conveniently formulated in many distinct ways. Here, a new convention is presented which unifies the two most commonly used helical systems for generating helical assemblies from asymmetric units determined by X-ray fibre diffraction and EM imaging. A helical assembly is viewed as being composed of identical repetitive units in a one- or two-dimensional lattice, named 1-D and 2-D helical systems, respectively. The unification suggests that a new helical description with only four parameters [n(1), n(2), twist, rise], which is called the augmented 1-D helical system, can generate the complete set of helical arrangements, including coverage of helical discontinuities (seams). A unified four-parameter characterization implies similar parameters for similar assemblies, can eliminate errors in reproducing structures of helical assemblies and facilitates the generation of polymorphic ensembles from helical atomic models or EM density maps. Further, guidelines are provided for such a unique description that reflects the structural signature of an assembly, as well as rules for manipulating the helical symmetry presentation.

  2. Unified solutions of extended Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, A. I.; Açıkgöz, I.

    2016-12-01

    We study some scale factor power-law solutions of the field equations of the extended Gauss Bonnet gravity in the spatial FRW (Friedmann-Robertson-Walker) universe. We consider the lagrangian density given by F ( R, G ) =f ( G ) + R + α R2 which exhibits a modification comparing with the modified Gauss Bonnet gravity. After constructing the Friedmann equations and finding the power-law solution we obtain the real valued of our model describing a mechanism that shows transitions among three stages of the universe (inflation, deceleration, acceleration) in an unified way. In particular, in this unified solution we obtained an inflation model without using any scalar field description when α>0, and also we verified our early time inflationary scenario using observational parameters, i.e. ns, r. Further, we research for the power-law solution of our model when the universe is in the phantom phase. Here, it is observed that the acceleration of the universe in phantom region is composed of two phases which congruent with the recent observations.

  3. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  4. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  5. Kernel Affine Projection Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weifeng; Príncipe, José C.

    2008-12-01

    The combination of the famed kernel trick and affine projection algorithms (APAs) yields powerful nonlinear extensions, named collectively here, KAPA. This paper is a follow-up study of the recently introduced kernel least-mean-square algorithm (KLMS). KAPA inherits the simplicity and online nature of KLMS while reducing its gradient noise, boosting performance. More interestingly, it provides a unifying model for several neural network techniques, including kernel least-mean-square algorithms, kernel adaline, sliding-window kernel recursive-least squares (KRLS), and regularization networks. Therefore, many insights can be gained into the basic relations among them and the tradeoff between computation complexity and performance. Several simulations illustrate its wide applicability.

  6. The WAC Glossary Project: Facilitating Conversations between Composition and WID Faculty in a Unified Writing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Dennis J.; Rhoades, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    The Writing Across the Curriculum Program at Appalachian State University, founded in 2008, supports faculty instruction in a vertical writing curriculum which requires two courses in Composition and two in the disciplines, ensuring that students take a dedicated writing course in each year of undergraduate education. To address the challenges of…

  7. Follow Through Project, Wichita Unified School District 259: Initial Year, September 1968 - May 1969 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This study obtained data to compare the progress of low income Follow Through pupils with full-year Head Start pupils attending regular kindergarten classes. Five groups of children were compared according to class characteristics, parent participation, teacher interviews, and parent interviews. All groups were administered the Metropolitan…

  8. A Unified Dark Matter Model in sUED

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Han, Zhenyu; /UC, Davis

    2008-11-01

    We propose a dark matter model with standard model singlet extension of the universal extra dimension model (sUED) to explain the recent observations of ATIC, PPB-BETS, PAMELA and DAMA. Other than the standard model fields propagating in the bulk of a 5-dimensional space, one fermion field and one scalar field are introduced and both are standard model singlets. The zero mode of the new fermion is identified as the right-handed neutrino, while its first KK mode is the lightest KK-odd particle and the dark matter candidate. The cosmic ray spectra from ATIC and PPB-BETS determine the dark matter particle mass and hence the fifth dimension compactification scale to be 1.0-1.6 TeV. The zero mode of the singlet scalar field with a mass below 1 GeV provides an attractive force between dark matter particles, which allows a Sommerfeld enhancement to boost the annihilation cross section in the Galactic halo to explain the PAMELA data. The DAMA annual modulation results are explained by coupling the same scalar field to the electron via a higher-dimensional operator. We analyze the model parameter space that can satisfy the dark matter relic abundance and accommodate all the dark matter detection experiments. We also consider constraints from the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, which can be satisfied if the dark matter particle and the first KK-mode of the scalar field have highly degenerate masses.

  9. Student-Performance Enhancement by Cross-Course Project Assignments: A Case Study in Bioengineering and Process Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birol, Gulnur; Birol, Inanc; Cinar, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that integrating cross-course concepts in bioengineering and process control courses through a unified project could provide a stimulating learning environment. Indicates that the project helped students to integrate their acquired knowledge in process control in the bioengineering project. (ASK)

  10. A unified view of the initiation of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tokumasa

    2006-03-17

    The mechanism of the initiation of protein synthesis is discussed in terms of two different hypotheses in which each emphasized a different possible element of the process: the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) hypothesis ascribed an essential role to recognition of the SD segment by the ribosomal RNA; it is supported by a variety of experiments but conflicting evidence negates its obligatory nature. In contrast, our hypothesis highlighted the role of the structure of the mRNA and proposes that the initiation codon is selected by virtue of its unique accessibility. The rationale for the importance of accessibility in the selection of the initiation site is discussed. An analysis and a recapitulation of the initiation process and ribosomal specificity are presented. The apparent conflicts with the SD hypothesis are resolved in a unified mechanism where accessibility is the dominant factor.

  11. Towards a unified theory of health-disease: II. Holopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a systematic framework for modeling several classes of illness-sickness-disease named as Holopathogenesis. Holopathogenesis is defined as processes of over-determination of diseases and related conditions taken as a whole, comprising selected facets of the complex object Health. First, a conceptual background of Holopathogenesis is presented as a series of significant interfaces (biomolecular-immunological, physiopathological-clinical, epidemiological-ecosocial). Second, propositions derived from Holopathogenesis are introduced in order to allow drawing the disease-illness-sickness complex as a hierarchical network of networks. Third, a formalization of intra- and inter-level correspondences, over-determination processes, effects and links of Holopathogenesis models is proposed. Finally, the Holopathogenesis frame is evaluated as a comprehensive theoretical pathology taken as a preliminary step towards a unified theory of health-disease. PMID:24897040

  12. Unifying the object-oriented paradigm with semantic data models

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, D.W. ); Nartker, T.; Taghva, K. . Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    The object-oriented paradigm can be used to model behavior, and to a lesser extent, the structure of a problem domain. Semantic data models describe structure and semantics. This paper unifies the behavioral focus of the object-oriented paradigm with the structural and semantic focus of semantic data models. It presents abstractions to model static and derived data, composite objects, part hierarchies, semantic constraints, and abstractions for identifying behavior. The abstractions keep the model close to the problem domain, are independent of language features, and can be translated into object-oriented, relational or network implementations. This paper makes three principal contributions. First, a comprehensive set of data structuring abstractions is described. Second, semantic constraints inherent in the graphical representation of the abstractions are identified. Third, abstractions for identifying behavior are described. 14 refs., 17 figs.

  13. UPDM - Unified Profile for DoDAF/MODAF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Expected target DoDAF 2.03 – MODAF MODEM – DNDAF 1.7 may also be required by the Canadians – UML for  BPMN  profile • Allows the seamless integration of... BPMN  artefacts into a DoDAF  Architecture along with an exchange environment – Others? – Priorities will be based on demand and participation • UPDM 2...19         ,  ,  ,  . • Provides flow‐down, traceability, integration across sectors • BPMN  integration is under development UPDM – Unified Profile

  14. A unified model for two-lane lattice traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a unified model is presented for two-lane lattice traffic flow, with comparing different effects in the various lattice hydrodynamic models. Results of linear and nonlinear analysis show that multiple density difference effect (MDDE) is the strongest to enlarge the stable region in two-lane systems. Followed by density difference effect (DDE), multiple flux difference effect (MFDE), and finally flux difference effect (FDE). But when density is around 0.25, MFDE is better to enlarge the stable region than DDE. The reason is that a small flow-rate value might correspond to either a light traffic or a heavy traffic. Also energy consumption and traffic emissions are analyzed and shown to be the same marshaling sequence as linear and nonlinear analysis results. Numerical simulations validate theoretical analysis. And this is consistent with the realistic.

  15. Capistrano unified school district works with San Onofre NGS

    SciTech Connect

    Osterfield, M.A. ); Cramer, E.N. )

    1992-01-01

    A unique arrangement has the science coordinator for Capistrano Unified School District's (CUSD) grades kindergarten through eight (K-8) as a part-time contract employee at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS). The purpose is to assess the science capabilities at SONGS useful to CUSD teachers and to assist in making them available. This is different from the usual single-teacher renewal program or from part-time employment. This creates several unique situations for SONGS and the 23 K-8 schools in CUSD, supplementing the existing program of optional science field trips to SONGS. This approach also interests the developing mind in science before being turned off by uninteresting, user-unfriendly, bookish approaches.

  16. Unified approach for predicting mechanical behaviors of textile composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, H.; Fujita, A.; Maekawa, Z.; Yokoyama, A.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to establish unified prediction method of mechanical properties and fracture behaviors in the composites reinforced with textile fabric preforms such as two and three-dimensional woven fabrics, braided fabrics and knitted fabrics. In this analysis model, factors deciding weaving structure such as fiber orientation state, crimp and continuity of fiber, transmission of force at cross part between fiber bundles and surface resin of the composite which affect on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the textile composites, were considered. The validity of this numerical analysis method was examined by comparing predicted results with experimental data. Consequently, it could be confirmed that this numerical analysis method was valid for predicting the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the textile composites. In this analysis model, not only the mechanical properties but also local stress state and fracture behavior of the textile composites could be estimated.

  17. Experimental Study on the Unified Power Flow Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Junya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Murata, Kenji

    This paper presents the results of experimental study on the performance of a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), one of the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) controllers. A laboratory-scale UPFC was manufactured and installed on a laboratory electric power system to investigate its multifunctional capabilities as a power flow controller. The UPFC consists of two 4.5kVA, 200V back-to-back voltage-sourced converters, labeled “Converter 1" and “Converter 2", operated from a common DC link provided by a DC storage capacitor of 380V. It can provide independent control of both the real and reactive power flow in the line. Tests were performed to examine the capabilities of UPFC, under one-machine connected to an infinite-bus system. Steady-state responses under various kinds of operating conditions were measured and analyzed.

  18. A unifying perspective: the relaxed linear micromorphic continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Patrizio; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Madeo, Angela; Placidi, Luca; Rosi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    We formulate a relaxed linear elastic micromorphic continuum model with symmetric Cauchy force stresses and curvature contribution depending only on the micro-dislocation tensor. Our relaxed model is still able to fully describe rotation of the microstructure and to predict nonpolar size effects. It is intended for the homogenized description of highly heterogeneous, but nonpolar materials with microstructure liable to slip and fracture. In contrast to classical linear micromorphic models, our free energy is not uniformly pointwise positive definite in the control of the independent constitutive variables. The new relaxed micromorphic model supports well-posedness results for the dynamic and static case. There, decisive use is made of new coercive inequalities recently proved by Neff, Pauly and Witsch and by Bauer, Neff, Pauly and Starke. The new relaxed micromorphic formulation can be related to dislocation dynamics, gradient plasticity and seismic processes of earthquakes. It unifies and simplifies the understanding of the linear micromorphic models.

  19. Unified messaging solution for biosurveillance and disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Abellera, John P; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Danos, C Scott; McNabb, Scott; Rhodes, Barry

    2007-10-11

    Biosurveillance and disease surveillance systems serve different purposes. However, the richness and quality of an existing data stream and infrastructure used in biosurveillance may prove beneficial for any state-based electronic disease surveillance system, especially if an electronic laboratory data feed does not exist between a hospital and state-based system. The use of an Enterprise Application Integration(EAI) engine, such as the BioSense Integrator,will be necessary to map heterogeneous messages into standard representations, then validate and route them [1] to a disparate system. This poster illustrates the use of an existing BioSense Integrator in order to create a unified message to support the exchange of electronic lab messages necessary for reportable disease notification. An evaluation of the infrastructure for data messaging will be examined and presented, along with a cost and benefit analysis between hospital and state-based system.

  20. Porters versus rowers: a unified stochastic model of motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We present a general phenomenological theory for chemical to mechanical energy transduction by motor enzymes which is based on the classical "tight-coupling" mechanism. The associated minimal stochastic model takes explicitly into account both ATP hydrolysis and thermal noise effects. It provides expressions for the hydrolysis rate and the sliding velocity, as functions of the ATP concentration and the number of motor enzymes. It explains in a unified way many results of recent in vitro motility assays. More importantly, the theory provides a natural classification scheme for the motors: it correlates the biochemical and mechanical differences between "porters" such as cellular kinesins or dyneins, and "rowers" such as muscular myosins or flagellar dyneins. PMID:8509455

  1. Toward a unified theory of objectification and dehumanization.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Sarah J; Bernard, Philippe; Klein, Olivier; Allen, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Objectification and dehumanization represent motivational conundrums because they are phenomena in which people are seen in ways that are fundamentally inaccurate; seeing people as objects, as animals, or not as people. The purpose of the 60th Nebraska Symposium on Motivation was to examine the motivational underpinnings of objectification and dehumanization of the self and others. To provide an overall context for this volume, we first provide classic conceptualizations of objectification and dehumanization and speculate about relations between the two. We then introduce a unified theory of objectification and dehumanization within the global versus local processing model (GLOMO) and provide initial supporting evidence. Finally, we introduce the chapters in this volume, which provide additional significant and novel motivational perspectives on objectification and dehumanization.

  2. A unified lunar control network - The near side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Merton E.; Colvin, Tim R.; Meyer, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A unified lunar control network for the moon's near side, which combines all the data collected by the Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions, is presented. Transformations involving translation, rotation, and scale were determined that adjusted the coordinates of the points of three Apollo control networks, computed previously, to the center of mass origin and the mean earth/polar axis coordinate system defined by the lunar ranging retroreflector experiment. The transformed control network computed by the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center was found to be the best fit to the Apollo ALSEP antenna coordinates and was selected as a base to transform all points in Meyer's (1979) telescopic network to the new origin and coordinate system. New coordinates of 1156 of these points are given as are 10 points from a Mariner 10 solution in the north polar region.

  3. Molecular catalysis science: Perspective on unifying the fields of catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Rong; Hurlburt, Tyler J.; Sabyrov, Kairat; Alayoglu, Selim; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal chemistry is used to control the size, shape, morphology, and composition of metal nanoparticles. Model catalysts as such are applied to catalytic transformations in the three types of catalysts: heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic. Real-time dynamics of oxidation state, coordination, and bonding of nanoparticle catalysts are put under the microscope using surface techniques such as sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under catalytically relevant conditions. It was demonstrated that catalytic behavior and trends are strongly tied to oxidation state, the coordination number and crystallographic orientation of metal sites, and bonding and orientation of surface adsorbates. It was also found that catalytic performance can be tuned by carefully designing and fabricating catalysts from the bottom up. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and likely enzymes, behave similarly at the molecular level. Unifying the fields of catalysis is the key to achieving the goal of 100% selectivity in catalysis. PMID:27114536

  4. Proton Stability in Grand Unified Theories and Discrete Gauge Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, R. N.

    2008-05-13

    Most supersymmetric grand unified theories face the problem of rapid proton decay coming either from R-parity violating interactions and/or from Planck scale induced R-parity conserving operators, possibly induced by non-perturbative Planck scale effects such as black holes or wormholes. In this talk, I argue in favor of the possibility that a natural way to resolve this problem is to assume that there are new discrete or continuous gauge symmetries accompanying these theories that resolve these problems while at the same time allowing enough flexibility to have a viable model. I discuss this for left-right and SO(10) theories and discuss the profound impact such considerations have on the construction of realistic GUT models. I then discuss a recently proposed SO(10) model which has only apparently string inspired multiplets and has enough structure to be a realistic model.

  5. Unified power flow controller: modeling and dynamic characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, D. H.; Loc, H. D.

    2005-12-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) consists two converters. There are three purposes of this paper, firstly to illustrate the UPFC device based VSC designs, then to describe a decoupling method the UPFC's controller into two separate control systems of the shunt and the series converters respectively in realizing an appropriate coordination between them. Finally, using the Matlab tool to build a discrete simulator for the UPFC with 12 pulse converters. The simulation results show that the developed UPFC model is reflected the static and dynamic characteristics of the UPFC. The harmonics of the output of the model were analyzed. Using the simple power system with UPFC as an example, the dynamics characteristics were studied. The fault status of the system with UPFC was analyzed too.

  6. Unified Interatomic Potential for Zircon, Zirconia and Silica Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jianguo; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Weber, William J.

    2009-06-04

    We report the development of a unified force field with high transferability and reliability to model both structures and mechanical properties of ZrSiO4, ZrO2 and SiO2 based on the success of the BKS potential for SiO2.1 The thermal expansion, relative stability and phase transition properties are consistent with experimental data and DFT calculations. The zircon to reidite transition pressure is 6.7 GPa. Amorphization of zircon results in volume expansion of 11% and decrease in the bulk modulus of 60%. Si polymerization and Zr under-coordination were observed in amorphous ZrSiO4 and in the damage produced by a 10 keV Zr recoil in crystalline ZrSiO4.

  7. Unified field theory: a search for unity in diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1981-09-01

    The study of the universe in which we find ourselves is part of the joys of the coming of age in the Asian tradition. At the periods of twilight in the transitions between night and day and between day and night we recite the gayatri which invokes the brilliance of light to inspire one. Further, this understanding is to be a unified whole encompassing the static and the dynamic. It is therefore appropriate that when we celebrate the Asian/Pacific American Heritage that we discuss the successes of the continuing efforts at unification of particle interactions. It is an adventure filled with successes along the way but by no means a finished adventure.

  8. A unified criterion for the growth and coalescence of microvoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Benzerga, A. Amine; Kondo, Djimédo

    2016-12-01

    A yield criterion is developed which unifies void growth and void coalescence theories. Standard void growth theory assumes that plastic flow is diffuse, if not prevalent everywhere within the matrix of the elementary cell considered. On the other hand, void coalescence theory assumes states of post-localized plasticity whereby plastic flow is restricted to intervoid ligaments. The new theory accommodates both scenarios through some appropriate choice of microscopic velocity fields. An important implication for actual evolution problems is a seamless transition from void growth to void coalescence. This is in contrast with previous hybrid approaches whereby abrupt transitions are associated with the presence of unavoidable corners in the effective yield surface. More generally, the new criterion is applicable to describe yielding in porous metal plasticity for both low and high void volume fractions.

  9. Unified treatment of the luminosity distance in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    Comparing the luminosity distance measurements to its theoretical predictions is one of the cornerstones in establishing the modern cosmology. However, as shown in Biern & Yoo, its theoretical predictions in literature are often plagued with infrared divergences and gauge-dependences. This trend calls into question the sanity of the methods used to derive the luminosity distance. Here we critically investigate four different methods—the geometric approach, the Sachs approach, the Jacobi mapping approach, and the geodesic light cone (GLC) approach to modeling the luminosity distance, and we present a unified treatment of such methods, facilitating the comparison among the methods and checking their sanity. All of these four methods, if exercised properly, can be used to reproduce the correct description of the luminosity distance.

  10. An Investigation of Unified Memory Access Performance in CUDA.

    PubMed

    Landaverde, Raphael; Zhang, Tiansheng; Coskun, Ayse K; Herbordt, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Managing memory between the CPU and GPU is a major challenge in GPU computing. A programming model, Unified Memory Access (UMA), has been recently introduced by Nvidia to simplify the complexities of memory management while claiming good overall performance. In this paper, we investigate this programming model and evaluate its performance and programming model simplifications based on our experimental results. We find that beyond on-demand data transfers to the CPU, the GPU is also able to request subsets of data it requires on demand. This feature allows UMA to outperform full data transfer methods for certain parallel applications and small data sizes. We also find, however, that for the majority of applications and memory access patterns, the performance overheads associated with UMA are significant, while the simplifications to the programming model restrict flexibility for adding future optimizations.

  11. Transfinite element methodology towards a unified thermal/structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, K. K.; Railkar, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes computational developments towards thermal/structural modeling and analysis via a generalized common numerical methodology for effectively and efficiently interfacing interdisciplinary areas. The proposed formulations use transform methods in conjunction with finite element developments for each of the heat transfer and structural disciplines, respectively, providing avenues for obtaining the structural response due to thermal effects. An alternative methodology for unified thermal/structural analysis is presented. The potential of the approach is outlined in comparison with conventional schemes and existing practices. Highlights and characteristic features of the approach are described via general formulations and applications to several problems. Results obtained demonstrate excellent agreement in comparison with analytic and/or conventional finite element schemes accurately and efficiently.

  12. A unifying modeling framework for highly multivariate disease mapping.

    PubMed

    Botella-Rocamora, P; Martinez-Beneito, M A; Banerjee, S

    2015-04-30

    Multivariate disease mapping refers to the joint mapping of multiple diseases from regionally aggregated data and continues to be the subject of considerable attention for biostatisticians and spatial epidemiologists. The key issue is to map multiple diseases accounting for any correlations among themselves. Recently, Martinez-Beneito (2013) provided a unifying framework for multivariate disease mapping. While attractive in that it colligates a variety of existing statistical models for mapping multiple diseases, this and other existing approaches are computationally burdensome and preclude the multivariate analysis of moderate to large numbers of diseases. Here, we propose an alternative reformulation that accrues substantial computational benefits enabling the joint mapping of tens of diseases. Furthermore, the approach subsumes almost all existing classes of multivariate disease mapping models and offers substantial insight into the properties of statistical disease mapping models.

  13. Viscous generalized Chaplygin gas as a unified dark fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Lixin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we revisit viscous generalized Chaplygin gas (VGCG) as a unified dark fluid, which modifies the pressure only by redefining the effective pressure p eff, according to p_{eff}=p-√{3}ζ0ρ, where ζ 0 is the newly added model parameter which characterizes the viscous property and can be determined by the cosmic observations. By using the currently available cosmic observational data from WMAP, BAO, and SN Ia, the model parameter space is obtained via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method: ζ0=0.000708_{- 0.00155- 0.00311- 0.00503}^{+ 0.00151+ 0.00275+ 0.00425} in 1, 2, 3 σ regions. The results show that the viscous effect is very small due the value ζ 0≈0 and the VGCG model can match observational data points as well as ΛCDM model.

  14. A Unified Submodular Framework for Multimodal IC Trojan Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koushanfar, Farinaz; Mirhoseini, Azalia; Alkabani, Yousra

    This paper presents a unified formal framework for integrated circuits (IC) Trojan detection that can simultaneously employ multiple noninvasive measurement types. Hardware Trojans refer to modifications, alterations, or insertions to the original IC for adversarial purposes. The new framework formally defines the IC Trojan detection for each measurement type as an optimization problem and discusses the complexity. A formulation of the problem that is applicable to a large class of Trojan detection problems and is submodular is devised. Based on the objective function properties, an efficient Trojan detection method with strong approximation and optimality guarantees is introduced. Signal processing methods for calibrating the impact of inter-chip and intra-chip correlations are presented. We propose a number of methods for combining the detections of the different measurement types. Experimental evaluations on benchmark designs reveal the low-overhead and effectiveness of the new Trojan detection framework and provides a comparison of different detection combining methods.

  15. A unified approach to asphaltene precipitation: Laboratory measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    MacMillan, D.J.; Tackett, J.E. Jr.; Jessee, M.A.; Monger-McClure, T.G.

    1995-09-01

    A unified approach to evaluation of asphaltene precipitation based on laboratory measurement and modeling is presented. This approach uses an organic deposition cell (ODC) for measuring asphaltene-dropout onset conditions. Asphaltene precipitation was detected by changes in optical fluorescence, electrical conductance, and visual observation. A series of experiments measured the effects of changing pressure,m temperature, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. A fully compositional vapor/liquid/solid (V/L/S) mathematical model completed by analysis by matching the experimental results. The authors then used the model to forecast asphaltene precipitation under a variety of production scenarios, including response to gas-lift operations,and to evaluate the possible location of a tar mat.

  16. Modeling stroke rehabilitation processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    In organising and providing rehabilitation procedures for stroke patients, the usual need for many refinements makes it inappropriate to attempt rigid standardisation, but greater detail is required concerning workflow. The aim of this study was to build a model of the post-stroke rehabilitation process. The model, implemented in the Unified Modeling Language, was grounded on international guidelines and refined following the clinical pathway adopted at local level by a specialized rehabilitation centre. The model describes the organisation of the rehabilitation delivery and it facilitates the monitoring of recovery during the process. Indeed, a system software was developed and tested to support clinicians in the digital administration of clinical scales. The model flexibility assures easy updating after process evolution.

  17. Unified treatment of cosmological perturbations from superhorizon to small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Matarrese, Sabino

    2005-02-15

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations, using a hybrid approximation scheme which upgrades the weak-field limit of Einstein's field equations to account for post-Newtonian scalar and vector metric perturbations and for leading-order source terms of gravitational waves, while including also the first- and second-order perturbative approximations. Our equations, which are derived in the Poisson gauge, provide a unified description of matter inhomogeneities in a Universe filled with a pressureless and irrotational fluid and a cosmological constant, ranging from the linear to the highly nonlinear regime. The derived expressions for scalar, vector and tensor modes may have a wide range of cosmological applications, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization effects, cosmographic relations in a inhomogeneous Universe, gravitational lensing and the stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds generated by nonlinear cosmic structures.

  18. Unifying niche shift studies: insights from biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Guisan, Antoine; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Daehler, Curtis; Kueffer, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Assessing whether the climatic niche of a species may change between different geographic areas or time periods has become increasingly important in the context of ongoing global change. However, approaches and findings have remained largely controversial so far, calling for a unification of methods. Here, we build on a review of empirical studies of invasion to formalize a unifying framework that decomposes niche change into unfilling, stability, and expansion situations, taking both a pooled range and range-specific perspective on the niche, while accounting for climatic availability and climatic analogy. This framework provides new insights into the nature of climate niche shifts and our ability to anticipate invasions, and may help in guiding the design of experiments for assessing causes of niche changes.

  19. Foundations to the unified psycho-cognitive engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Backus, George A.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.

    2010-10-01

    This document outlines the key features of the SNL psychological engine. The engine is designed to be a generic presentation of cognitive entities interacting among themselves and with the external world. The engine combines the most accepted theories of behavioral psychology with those of behavioral economics to produce a unified simulation of human response from stimuli through executed behavior. The engine explicitly recognizes emotive and reasoned contributions to behavior and simulates the dynamics associated with cue processing, learning, and choice selection. Most importantly, the model parameterization can come from available media or survey information, as well subject-matter-expert information. The framework design allows the use of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis to manage confidence in using the analysis results for intervention decisions.

  20. Unified computational method for design of fluid loop systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Masao

    1991-12-01

    Various kinds of empirical formulas of Nusselt numbers, fanning friction factors, and pressure loss coefficients were collected and reviewed with the object of constructing a common basis of design calculations of pumped fluid loop systems. The practical expressions obtained after numerical modifications are listed in tables with identification numbers corresponding to configurations of the flow passages. Design procedure of a cold plate and of a space radiator are clearly shown in a series of mathematical relations coupled with a number of detailed expressions which are put in the tables in order of numerical computations. Weight estimate models and several pump characteristics are given in the tables as a result of data regression. A unified computational method based upon the above procedure is presented for preliminary design analyses of a fluid loop system consisting of cold plates, plane radiators, mechanical pumps, valves, and so on.

  1. Unifying elemental stoichiometry and metabolic theory in predicting species abundances.

    PubMed

    Ott, David; Digel, Christoph; Rall, Björn C; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Brose, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    While metabolic theory predicts variance in population density within communities depending on population average body masses, the ecological stoichiometry concept relates density variation across communities to varying resource stoichiometry. Using a data set including biomass densities of 4959 populations of soil invertebrates across 48 forest sites we combined these two frameworks. We analyzed how the scaling of biomass densities with population-averaged body masses systematically interacts with stoichiometric variables. Simplified analyses employing either only body masses or only resource stoichiometry are highly context sensitive and yield variable and often misleading results. Our findings provide strong evidence that analyses of ecological state variables should integrate allometric and stoichiometric variables to explain deviations from predicted allometric scaling and avoid erroneous conclusions. In consequence, our study provides an important step towards unifying two prominent ecological theories, metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry.

  2. Dependence as a unifying construct in defining Alzheimer's disease severity.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Trent; Feldman, Howard; Fillit, Howard; Sano, Mary; Schmitt, Frederick; Aisen, Paul; Leibman, Christopher; Mucha, Lisa; Ryan, J Michael; Sullivan, Sean D; Spackman, D Eldon; Neumann, Peter J; Cohen, Joshua; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in relation to patient dependence and offers a unifying conceptual framework for dependence in AD. Clinicians typically characterize AD by symptomatic impairments in three domains: cognition, function, and behavior. From a patient's perspective, changes in these domains, individually and in concert, ultimately lead to increased dependence and loss of autonomy. Examples of dependence in AD range from a need for reminders (early AD) to requiring safety supervision and assistance with basic functions (late AD). Published literature has focused on the clinical domains as somewhat separate constructs and has given limited attention to the concept of patient dependence as a descriptor of AD progression. This article presents the concept of dependence on others for care needs as a potential method for translating the effect of changes in cognition, function, and behavior into a more holistic, transparent description of AD progression.

  3. High Magnetic Field Pulsars and Magnetars: A Unified Picture.

    PubMed

    Zhang; Harding

    2000-05-20

    We propose a unified picture of high magnetic field radio pulsars and magnetars by arguing that they are all rotating high-field neutron stars but that their magnetic axes have different orientations with respect to their rotation axes. In strong magnetic fields where photon splitting suppresses pair creation near the surface, the high-field pulsars can have active inner accelerators while the anomalous X-ray pulsars cannot. This can account for the very different observed emission characteristics of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586 and the high-field radio pulsar PSR J1814-1744. A predicted consequence of this picture is that radio pulsars having surface magnetic fields greater than about 2x1014 G should not exist.

  4. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. The following is presented in this report: (1) a brief review of the GCE model and its applications on the impact of aerosols on deep precipitation processes, (2) the Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) a discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications).

  5. Molecular catalysis science: Perspective on unifying the fields of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Hurlburt, Tyler J; Sabyrov, Kairat; Alayoglu, Selim; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2016-05-10

    Colloidal chemistry is used to control the size, shape, morphology, and composition of metal nanoparticles. Model catalysts as such are applied to catalytic transformations in the three types of catalysts: heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic. Real-time dynamics of oxidation state, coordination, and bonding of nanoparticle catalysts are put under the microscope using surface techniques such as sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under catalytically relevant conditions. It was demonstrated that catalytic behavior and trends are strongly tied to oxidation state, the coordination number and crystallographic orientation of metal sites, and bonding and orientation of surface adsorbates. It was also found that catalytic performance can be tuned by carefully designing and fabricating catalysts from the bottom up. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and likely enzymes, behave similarly at the molecular level. Unifying the fields of catalysis is the key to achieving the goal of 100% selectivity in catalysis.

  6. Unifying framework for scalar-tensor theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xian

    2014-10-01

    A general framework for effective theories propagating two tensor and one scalar degrees of freedom is investigated. Geometrically, it describes dynamical foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces coupled to a general background, in which the scalar mode encodes the fluctuation of the hypersurfaces. Within this framework, various models in the literature—including k-essence, Horndeski theory, the effective field theory of inflation, ghost condensate as well as the Hořava gravity—get unified. Our framework generalizes the Horndeski theory in the sense that, it propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom, although the equations of motion are generally higher order. We also identify new operators beyond the Horndeski theory, which yield second order equations of motion for linear perturbations around a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background.

  7. Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V; Wu, Zhigang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Hemley, Russell J; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2007-03-06

    High-temperature superconductivity in cuprates was discovered almost exactly 20 years ago, but a satisfactory theoretical explanation for this phenomenon is still lacking. The isotope effect has played an important role in establishing electron-phonon interaction as the dominant interaction in conventional superconductors. Here we present a unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors based on a phonon-mediated d-wave pairing model within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. We show that this model accounts for the magnitude of the isotope exponent as functions of the doping level as well as the variation between different cuprate superconductors. The isotope effect on the superconducting transition is also found to resemble the effect of pressure on the transition. These results indicate that the role of phonons should not be overlooked for explaining the superconductivity in cuprates.

  8. The quest for a unified view of bacterial land colonization

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Fang, Yongjun; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Exploring molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial water-to-land transition represents a critical start toward a better understanding of the functioning and stability of the terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we perform comprehensive analyses based on a large variety of bacteria by integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic and metagenomic data, in the quest for a unified view that elucidates genomic, evolutionary and ecological dynamics of the marine progenitors in adapting to nonaquatic environments. We hypothesize that bacterial land colonization is dominated by a single-gene sweep, that is, the emergence of dnaE2 derived from an early duplication event of the primordial dnaE, followed by a series of niche-specific genomic adaptations, including GC content increase, intensive horizontal gene transfer and constant genome expansion. In addition, early bacterial radiation may be stimulated by an explosion of land-borne hosts (for example, plants and animals) after initial land colonization events. PMID:24451209

  9. A unified approach to resolving the entropy production paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Essex, Christopher; Prehl, Janett

    2012-12-01

    Bridging the regime between fully irreversible and fully reversible dynamics as represented by the two paradigmatic evolution equations for diffusion and wave propagation became possible by the use of fractional diffusion equations based on time- or space-fractional differential operators. These bridges are each characterized by a one-parameter family of distribution functions. In both cases one encounters a counter-intuitive behavior: the closer one gets to the reversible case, the larger the entropy production becomes. This feature is known as the entropy production paradox, and could be partly resolved for the time-fractional case by using the distribution mean as a way to characterize the internal quickness of the process, while for the space-fractional case a special location parameter was used. Here we are able to present a unified approach based on the distribution modes as the appropriate measure for the internal quickness of the processes.

  10. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G; Robinett, III, Rush D

    2015-01-06

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  11. 75 FR 79877 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions-Fall 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...Twice a year, in spring and fall, the Commission publishes in the Federal Register a list in the Unified Agenda of those major items and other significant proceedings under development or review that pertain to the Regulatory Flexibility Act. See 5 U.S.C. 602. The Unified Agenda also provides the Code of Federal Regulations citations and legal authorities that govern these...

  12. 23 CFR 450.308 - Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding for transportation planning and unified planning... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.308 Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs. (a)...

  13. Unified Science Approach K-12, Proficiency Levels 13-21 and Semester Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oickle, Eileen M., Ed.

    Presented is the third part of the K-12 unified science materials used in the public schools of Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Detailed descriptions are presented for the roles of students and teachers, purposes of bibliography, major concepts in unified science, processes of inquiry, scheme and model for scientific literacy, and program…

  14. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No. 08-17309)] to overturn a District Court ruling...

  15. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified...

  16. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) * * * (D) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 201, ``Exemptions,'' adopted on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec....

  17. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this action, we are proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an...

  18. 77 FR 7536 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified...

  19. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Association of Home Builders v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No. 08-17309...

  20. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

  1. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified...

  2. Unified Budget Recommendations for Fiscal Year 1991-92. Alabama Commission on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Recommendations for the appropriations to each public college and university in Alabama are presented by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education (ACHE) in its 1991-92 unified budget report. The budget recommendations are provided in six sections: (1) executive summary of the 1991-92 unified budget recommendations; (2) higher education unified…

  3. A Unified Approach to Introductory Physics Based on the Conservation Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bradley; Miller, Charles

    1970-01-01

    Describes a new, unified approach to introductory physics based on the conservation laws. classical and quantum physics are presented together as different levels of a unified and consistent description of the world. This approach has been used for the last 3 years as the first course in general physics for science and engineering students at…

  4. Unified Budget Recommendations for Fiscal Year 1994-95: Alabama Commission on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    This document presents funding proposals from the Alabama Commission on Higher Education for the 1994-95 Fiscal Year. Individual sections present the following: (1) executive summary of the Unified Budget Recommendations; (2) the unified budget recommendation with program detail on 1992-93 and 1993-94 appropriations and 1994-95 requests, regional…

  5. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1... accessible only using the contractor's software. When contracts are rebid, the former contractor is tasked...

  6. 14 CFR 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual... ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA Program Identifiers, NASA Flags, and the Agency's Unified...

  7. 14 CFR 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual... ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA Program Identifiers, NASA Flags, and the Agency's Unified...

  8. 14 CFR § 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual... ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA Program Identifiers, NASA Flags, and the Agency's Unified...

  9. Unified Discipline: A School-Wide Approach for Managing Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Audette, Robert; Marr, Mary Beth; Ellis, Edward D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article explains how to implement "unified discipline" as a school-wide approach to managing problem behavior, an approach designed to support educators in meeting the needs of students with emotional and behavioral problems in general education classrooms by establishing unified attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and team roles.…

  10. 23 CFR 450.308 - Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work programs. 450.308 Section 450.308 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.308 Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs. (a) Funds... documented in a unified planning work program (UPWP) or simplified statement of work in accordance with...

  11. A unified view on weakly correlated recurrent networks

    PubMed Central

    Grytskyy, Dmytro; Tetzlaff, Tom; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of neuron models used in contemporary theoretical neuroscience to investigate specific properties of covariances in the spiking activity raises the question how these models relate to each other. In particular it is hard to distinguish between generic properties of covariances and peculiarities due to the abstracted model. Here we present a unified view on pairwise covariances in recurrent networks in the irregular regime. We consider the binary neuron model, the leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model, and the Hawkes process. We show that linear approximation maps each of these models to either of two classes of linear rate models (LRM), including the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process (OUP) as a special case. The distinction between both classes is the location of additive noise in the rate dynamics, which is located on the output side for spiking models and on the input side for the binary model. Both classes allow closed form solutions for the covariance. For output noise it separates into an echo term and a term due to correlated input. The unified framework enables us to transfer results between models. For example, we generalize the binary model and the Hawkes process to the situation with synaptic conduction delays and simplify derivations for established results. Our approach is applicable to general network structures and suitable for the calculation of population averages. The derived averages are exact for fixed out-degree network architectures and approximate for fixed in-degree. We demonstrate how taking into account fluctuations in the linearization procedure increases the accuracy of the effective theory and we explain the class dependent differences between covariances in the time and the frequency domain. Finally we show that the oscillatory instability emerging in networks of LIF models with delayed inhibitory feedback is a model-invariant feature: the same structure of poles in the complex frequency plane determines the population power

  12. On Unified Mode in Grid Mounted Round Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimalanathan, Senthil Kumar; T, Sundararajan; v, Raghavan

    2015-11-01

    The turbulence evolution in a free round jet is strongly affected by its initial conditions. Since the transition to turbulence is moderated by instability modes, the initial conditions seem to play a major role in altering the dynamics of these modes. In the present investigation, grids of different configurations are placed at the jet nozzle exit and the flow field characterization is carried out using a bi-component hot-wire anemometer. The instability modes has been obtained by analyzing the velocity spectral data. Free jets are characterized by the presence of two instability modes, viz., the preferred mode and the shear mode. The preferred mode corresponds to the most amplified oscillations along the jet centerline, while the shear modes are due to the dynamic evolution of vortical structures in the jet shear layer. The presence of grid clearly alters the jet structure, and plays a major role in altering the shear layer mode in particular. In fact, it is observed that close to the nozzle exit, the presence of grids deviate the streamlines inwards around the edge due to the momentum difference between the jet central core and the boundary layer region near the wall. This result in a single unified mode, where there is no distinct preferred or shear mode. This phenomena is more dominant in case of the grids having higher blockage ratio with small grid opening. In the present study, investigation of the physics behind the evolution of unified mode and how the grids affect the overall turbulent flow field evolution has been reported. Experimental Fluid Mechanics.

  13. Unified fluid/kinetic description of magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zuoyang; Callen, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    Unified fluid/kinetic equations for the plasma perturbed density ({tilde n}), parallel flow velocity ({tilde u}{sub {parallel}}) and temperature ({tilde T}) are developed in a sheared slab geometry by calculating the fluid moment closure relations kinetically. At first, a set of (unclosed) nonlinear perturbed fluid equations for {tilde n}, {tilde u}{sub {parallel}} and {tilde T} is developed using a drift ordering analysis and a new gyroviscous force ({del} {center dot} {product}{sub g}). Thereafter, to develop linear closure relations for b {center dot} {del} {center dot} {tilde product}{sub {parallel}} and {tilde q}{sub {parallel}}, a drift-kinetic version of a Chapman-Enskog-like (CEL) equation is developed and solved by using a moment approach and a physically realistic collision operator (Lorentz scattering operator plus the momentum restoring terms.) The resultant closure relations for b {center dot} {del} {center dot} {tilde product}{sub {parallel}} and {tilde q}{sub {parallel}} unify both the fluid and kinetic approaches. In the collisional fluid limit the equations reduce to the well-known Braginskii equations. In the adiabatic limit they reproduce the usual kinetic results, including Landau damping. It is shown that the CEL approach is more compatible with a fluid-like description of plasmas than the usual drift/gyro kinetic approach. A remarkable simplification of these complicated closure relations is achieved by using single power of plasma dispersion functions with modified arguments. The results are compared with other recently developed Landau damping models and shown to be more accurate, complete and physically meaningful. The resultant set of nonlinear fluid/kinetic equations (with linear closure relations) will be applied to various microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas and drift type microturbulence in a separate paper. 19 refs., 7 refs., 1 tab.

  14. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser.

  15. Predicting Turns in Proteins with a Unified Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qi; Li, Tonghua; Cong, Peisheng; Sun, Jiangming; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Shengnan

    2012-01-01

    Motivation Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. Results In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i) using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein) based on structure homologies, (ii) considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii) practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries) by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications. PMID:23144872

  16. Unified Theoretical Approach to Electron-Ion Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil

    1998-05-01

    Electron-ion recombination occurs via the electron continuum and embedded resonances that are coupled to each other and thus unified in nature. However, theoretical methods generally separate the two as ``radiative recombination" (RR), referring to recombination through the non-resonant continuum, and ``di-electronic recombination" (DR) through the autoionizing resonances. A computationally unified scheme(S.N. Nahar and A.K. Pradhan, Phys.Rev.Lett.) 68,1488(1992); H.L. Zhang and A.K. Pradhan, Phys.Rev.Lett. 78,195(1997) is described that employs the coupled channel R-matrix method, and detailed balance (the Milne relation), to obtain photo-recombination cross sections including both the continuum and resonant recombination in an ab intio manner. In the energy region corresponding to high-n Rydberg resonances, where the background recombination (RR) is negligibly small, a precise theory of DR (R.H. Bell and M.J. Seaton, J.Phys.B) 18,1589(1985) yields DR collision strengths consistent with their threshold behaviour leading to the cross section for electron impact excitation. For highly charged ions the relativistic fine structure and the effect of radiation damping of resonances are considered. Theoretical cross sections agree well with recent experiments on ion stograge rings and the electron-beam-ion-trap (EBIT). Total electron-ion recombination rates can be obtained for practical applications. For many complex atomic systems, such as the important Iron-peak elements, the new results differ considerably from those hitherto available.

  17. The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nikolas

    2014-06-18

    Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies.

  18. Geo-Seas - building a unified e-infrastructure for marine geoscientific data management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

    2012-04-01

    A significant barrier to marine geoscientific research in Europe is the lack of standardised marine geological and geophysical data and data products which could potentially facilitate multidisciplinary marine research extending across national and international boundaries. Although there are large volumes of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations as well as between countries. This makes the direct use of primary data very difficult and also hampers use of the data to produce integrated multidisciplinary data products and services. The Geo-Seas project, an EU Framework 7 funded initiative, is developing a unified e-infrastructure to facilitate the sharing of marine geoscientific data within Europe. This e-infrastructure is providing on-line access to both discovery metadata and the associated federated data sets from 26 European data centres via a dedicated portal. The implementation of the Geo-Seas portal is allowing a range of end users to locate, assess and access standardised geoscientific data from multiple sources which is interoperable with other marine data types. Geo-Seas is building on the work already done by the existing SeaDataNet project which currently provides a data management e-infrastructure for oceanographic data which allows users to locate and access federated oceanographic data sets. By adopting and adapting the SeaDataNet methodologies and technologies the Geo-Seas project has not only avoid unnecessary duplication of effort by reusing existing and proven technologies but also contributed to the development of a multidisciplinary approach to ocean science across Europe through the creation of a joint infrastructure for both marine geoscientific and oceanographic data. This approach is also leading to the development of

  19. Project Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  20. Organization of a Unified Data Archive and Accessories for Processing Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osin, A. I.; Trushkina, E. P.

    The orbital solar observatory CORONAS-F was launched in late July 2001. A vast database from 12 onboard instrumental complexes was accumulated for 3 years of the satellite operation time. The data processing information was displayed on the project site http://coronas.izmiran.ru . The bulk of data received from CORONAS-F amounted to 100 MB/day. On-line processing of such amounts of data was quite a challenge. The preprocessed CORONAS-F data were, then, subjected to additional processing by the principal investigators at the corresponding institutions, including the calibration, space-time binding, clearing, etc. The resulting data are stored at the participant institutions in the form of profiles, spectrograms, and images. The stored "raw" data are the main source of reliable information for further investigations, but they usually need further processing to be visualized. Besides, a full cycle of processing of the scientific data takes much time and can even drag on for years under financial stringency and shortage of personnel. The final information is stored at different institutions that do not possess unified means of access, analysis, and visualization of data. This hampers significantly the use of the entire database by individual researchers.

  1. Unifying the crystallization behavior of hexagonal and square crystals with the phase-field-crystal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yang; Zheng, Chen; Jing, Zhang; Yongxin, Wang; Yanli, Lu

    2016-03-01

    By employing the phase-field-crystal models, the atomic crystallization process of hexagonal and square crystals is investigated with the emphasis on the growth mechanism and morphological change. A unified regime describing the crystallization behavior of both crystals is obtained with the thermodynamic driving force varying. By increasing the driving force, both crystals (in the steady-state) transform from a faceted polygon to an apex-bulged polygon, and then into a symmetric dendrite. For the faceted polygon, the interface advances by a layer-by-layer (LL) mode while for the apex-bulged polygonal and the dendritic crystals, it first adopts the LL mode and then transits into the multi-layer (ML) mode in the later stage. In particular, a shift of the nucleation sites from the face center to the area around the crystal tips is detected in the early growth stage of both crystals and is rationalized in terms of the relation between the crystal size and the driving force distribution. Finally, a parameter characterizing the complex shape change of square crystal is introduced. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 54175378, 51474176, and 51274167), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JM7261), and the Doctoral Foundation Program of Ministry of China (Grant No. 20136102120021).

  2. Evaluation of the Unified Medical Language System as a Medical Knowledge Source

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Oliver; Burgun, Anita; Botti, Geneviève; Fieschi, Marius; Beux, Pierre Le; Kohler, François

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The authors evaluated the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a medical knowledge source for the representation of medical procedures in the MAOUSSC system. Design: MAOUSSC, a multiaxial coding system, was used for the representation of 1500 procedures from 15 clinical specialties, using UMLS concepts (augmented by full sources for three new vocabularies being added to the UMLS) and relationships whenever possible. Evaluation criteria for the UMLS included (1) completeness of representation of concepts and of inter-concept relationships, (2) consistency in the categorization of both concepts and inter-concept relationships, and (3) usability, including adaptability of the UMLS to a foreign language (French), its suitability to a geographic region with different medical practices than the USA, and issues relative to the annual update changes in the test vocabularies. Results: During the MAOUSSC trial, the number of missing concepts or relationships identified in the augmented UMLS sources was deemed to be inconsequential relative to overall project goals. “Missing” UMLS inter-concept relationships were identified, although they were small in number. Some inconsistencies in the UMLS were noted, especially in the area of hierarchic relationships. Conclusion: After UMLS was used for five years as a knowledge source for representing 1500 complex medical procedures in MAOUSSC, its value is considered significant. Future editions of the UMLS are expected to improve representation of inter-concept relationships and global consistency. PMID:9452987

  3. a Unified Approach for 3d Generalization of Building Models in Citygml

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, S. U.; Rahman, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Task-specific applications demand abstractions (generalized) 3D scenes of 3D models to be used for visualization and analysis purposes. Therefore, lower LoDs (level-of-details) from higher LoDs need to be made available to these applications. A unified generalization framework is proposed to derive multiple LoDs (LoD3-LoD1) taking both semantics and geometric aspects of 3D buildings modelled in CityGML (City Geography Markup Language) into account. For this purpose, interior structures of 3D objects at LoD4 are removed to derive LoD3 and openings (door, windows) are removed from LoD3 to derive LoD2. Remaining parts such as outer installations and walls are projected onto the ground and simplified based on CityGML generalization specifications. Algorithms for simplification with the aim to derive LoD1 from LoD2 are implemented and tested on a number of buildings of Putrajaya city, Malaysia.The experiments shows that elimination of important part (s) or merging could be avoided by applying semantic-based removal of objects at different LoDs.

  4. Collaboration Among Educators: An Essential Step in Unifying STEM Teaching Resources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIver, H.; Ellins, K. K.; Bohls-Graham, C. E.; O'dell, D.; Sergent, C.; Jacobs, B. E.; Stocks, E.; Serpa, L. F.; Riggs, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increased requirement for Science, Engineering, Technology, and Math (STEM) literacy among US secondary school students has enhanced the need for high-quality teaching resources in the modern STEM classroom. Many relevant resources exist online that could be used to address this issue, but too often these resources are spread throughout the Internet, and have not necessarily been audited for content, alignment with state and national science standards, or current functionality. Because STEM subjects are increasingly difficult to teach, we set out to design a localized platform of year-long teaching 'blueprints' comprising units that cover a range of Earth science topics, researched and compiled by education professionals. The Diversity and Innovation for Geosciences (DIG) Texas Instructional Blueprint project has united teachers from diverse science backgrounds who act as Education Interns and work alongside geoscientists and curriculum experts at the University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas El Paso. Our DIG collective has employed a cross-disciplinary approach to vetting resources while compiling them in useful, logical sequences for classroom instruction. The DIG team has aligned each blueprint with the Texas Essential Skills and Knowledge (TEKS) standards for Earth and Space Science, the Earth Science Literacy Principles, and the Next Generation Science Standards. Emphasis for the summer 2015 project group was placed upon (1) alignment of the units with these three sets of science standards to allow for use within disparate classroom settings, (2) creating teacher aides including scaffolding notes for practical unit application, and potential real and virtual field trips for unit illustration, and (3) final vetting ensuring units follow a narrative that carries learners from basic principles to a full concept understanding. Here, we present our progress and the essential workflow that has contributed to

  5. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  6. A unified Fourier theory for time-of-flight PET data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D

    2016-01-21

    Fully 3D time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners offer the potential of previously unachievable image quality in clinical PET imaging. TOF measurements add another degree of redundancy for cylindrical PET scanners and make photon-limited TOF-PET imaging more robust than non-TOF PET imaging. The data space for 3D TOF-PET data is five-dimensional with two degrees of redundancy. Previously, consistency equations were used to characterize the redundancy of TOF-PET data. In this paper, we first derive two Fourier consistency equations and Fourier-John equation for 3D TOF PET based on the generalized projection-slice theorem; the three partial differential equations (PDEs) are the dual of the sinogram consistency equations and John's equation. We then solve the three PDEs using the method of characteristics. The two degrees of entangled redundancy of the TOF-PET data can be explicitly elicited and exploited by the solutions of the PDEs along the characteristic curves, which gives a complete understanding of the rich structure of the 3D x-ray transform with TOF measurement. Fourier rebinning equations and other mapping equations among different types of PET data are special cases of the general solutions. We also obtain new Fourier rebinning and consistency equations (FORCEs) from other special cases of the general solutions, and thus we obtain a complete scheme to convert among different types of PET data: 3D TOF, 3D non-TOF, 2D TOF and 2D non-TOF data. The new FORCEs can be used as new Fourier-based rebinning algorithms for TOF-PET data reduction, inverse rebinnings for designing fast projectors, or consistency conditions for estimating missing data. Further, we give a geometric interpretation of the general solutions--the two families of characteristic curves can be obtained by respectively changing the azimuthal and co-polar angles of the biorthogonal coordinates in Fourier space. We conclude the unified Fourier theory by showing that the Fourier consistency equations are

  7. Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of ocean warming and acidification on individual species of marine ectothermic animals may be based on some common denominators, i.e. physiological responses that can be assumed to reflect unifying principles, common to all marine animal phyla. Identification of these principles requires studies, which reach beyond the species-specific response, and consider multiple stressors, for example temperature, CO2 or extreme hypoxia. Analyses of response and acclimation include functional traits of physiological performance on various levels of biological organisation, from changes in the transcriptome to patterns of acid-base regulation and whole animal thermal tolerance. Conclusions are substantiated by comparisons of species and phyla from temperate, Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems and also benefit from the interpretation of paleo-patterns based on the use of a unifying physiological concept, suitable to integrate relevant environmental factors into a more comprehensive picture. Studying the differential specialization of animals on climate regimes and their sensitivity to climate leads to improved understanding of ongoing and past ecosystem change and should then support more reliable projections of future scenarios. For example, accumulating CO2 causes disturbances in acid-base status. Resilience to ocean acidification may be reflected in the capacity to compensate for these disturbances or their secondary effects. Ion and pH regulation comprise thermally sensitive active and passive transfer processes across membranes. Specific responses of ion transporter genes and their products to temperature and CO2 were found in fish, crustaceans and bivalves. However, compensation may cause unfavourable shifts in energy budget and beyond that hamper cellular and mitochondrial metabolism, which are directly linked to the animal's aerobic performance window. In crabs, oysters and, possibly, fishes, a narrowing of the thermal window is caused by moderate increases in

  8. A unified Fourier theory for time-of-flight PET data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Fully 3D time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners offer the potential of previously unachievable image quality in clinical PET imaging. TOF measurements add another degree of redundancy for cylindrical PET scanners and make photon-limited TOF-PET imaging more robust than non-TOF PET imaging. The data space for 3D TOF-PET data is five-dimensional with two degrees of redundancy. Previously, consistency equations were used to characterize the redundancy of TOF-PET data. In this paper, we first derive two Fourier consistency equations and Fourier-John equation for 3D TOF PET based on the generalized projection-slice theorem; the three partial differential equations (PDEs) are the dual of the sinogram consistency equations and John's equation. We then solve the three PDEs using the method of characteristics. The two degrees of entangled redundancy of the TOF-PET data can be explicitly elicited and exploited by the solutions of the PDEs along the characteristic curves, which gives a complete understanding of the rich structure of the 3D X-ray transform with TOF measurement. Fourier rebinning equations and other mapping equations among different types of PET data are special cases of the general solutions. We also obtain new Fourier rebinning and consistency equations (FORCEs) from other special cases of the general solutions, and thus we obtain a complete scheme to convert among different types of PET data: 3D TOF, 3D non-TOF, 2D TOF and 2D non-TOF data. The new FORCEs can be used as new Fourier-based rebinning algorithms for TOF-PET data reduction, inverse rebinnings for designing fast projectors, or consistency conditions for estimating missing data. Further, we give a geometric interpretation of the general solutions—the two families of characteristic curves can be obtained by respectively changing the azimuthal and co-polar angles of the biorthogonal coordinates in Fourier space. We conclude the unified Fourier theory by showing that the Fourier consistency equations are

  9. A unified Fourier theory for time-of-flight PET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Fully 3D time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners offer the potential of previously unachievable image quality in clinical PET imaging. TOF measurements add another degree of redundancy for cylindrical PET scanners and make photon-limited TOF-PET imaging more robust than non-TOF PET imaging. The data space for 3D TOF-PET data is five-dimensional with two degrees of redundancy. Previously, consistency equations were used to characterize the redundancy of TOF-PET data. In this paper, we first derive two Fourier consistency equations and Fourier-John equation for 3D TOF PET based on the generalized projection-slice theorem; the three partial differential equations (PDEs) are the dual of the sinogram consistency equations and John’s equation. We then solve the three PDEs using the method of characteristics. The two degrees of entangled redundancy of the TOF-PET data can be explicitly elicited and exploited by the solutions of the PDEs along the characteristic curves, which gives a complete understanding of the rich structure of the 3D x-ray transform with TOF measurement. Fourier rebinning equations and other mapping equations among different types of PET data are special cases of the general solutions. We also obtain new Fourier rebinning and consistency equations (FORCEs) from other special cases of the general solutions, and thus we obtain a complete scheme to convert among different types of PET data: 3D TOF, 3D non-TOF, 2D TOF and 2D non-TOF data. The new FORCEs can be used as new Fourier-based rebinning algorithms for TOF-PET data reduction, inverse rebinnings for designing fast projectors, or consistency conditions for estimating missing data. Further, we give a geometric interpretation of the general solutions—the two families of characteristic curves can be obtained by respectively changing the azimuthal and co-polar angles of the biorthogonal coordinates in Fourier space. We conclude the unified Fourier theory by showing that the Fourier consistency equations

  10. Early Literacy: Towards a Unified Approach for Childcare and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow accountability-oriented Danish policy (mirroring…

  11. A Vision for the Future of Counseling: The 20/20 "Principles for Unifying and Strengthening the Profession"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David M.; Gladding, Samuel T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the historic "Principles for Unifying and Strengthening the Profession." An outcome of the "20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling" initiative, this document delineates a core set of principles that unifies and advances the counseling profession. "Principles for Unifying and Strengthening the…

  12. Unified Science Information Model for SoilSCAPE using the Mercury Metadata Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Lu, Kefa; Palanisamy, Giri; Cook, Robert; Santhana Vannan, Suresh; Moghaddam, Mahta Clewley, Dan; Silva, Agnelo; Akbar, Ruzbeh

    2013-12-01

    SoilSCAPE (Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator) introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective is to enable a guided and adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of spaceborne soil moisture sensors such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. This work is being carried out at the University of Michigan, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Southern California, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory we are using Mercury metadata search system [1] for building a Unified Information System for the SoilSCAPE project. This unified portal primarily comprises three key pieces: Distributed Search/Discovery; Data Collections and Integration; and Data Dissemination. Mercury, a Federally funded software for metadata harvesting, indexing, and searching would be used for this module. Soil moisture data sources identified as part of this activity such as SoilSCAPE and FLUXNET (in-situ sensors), AirMOSS (airborne retrieval), SMAP (spaceborne retrieval), and are being indexed and maintained by Mercury. Mercury would be the central repository of data sources for cal/val for soil moisture studies and would provide a mechanism to identify additional data sources. Relevant metadata from existing inventories such as ORNL DAAC, USGS Clearinghouse, ARM, NASA ECHO, GCMD etc. would be brought in to this soil-moisture data search/discovery module. The SoilSCAPE [2] metadata records will also be published in broader metadata repositories such as GCMD, data.gov. Mercury can be configured to provide a single portal to soil moisture information contained in disparate data management systems located anywhere on the Internet. Mercury is able to extract, metadata systematically from HTML pages or XML files using a variety of

  13. Toward a Unified Sub-symbolic Computational Theory of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Martin V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes how various disciplinary theories of cognition may be combined into a unifying, sub-symbolic, computational theory of cognition. The following theories are considered for integration: psychological theories, including the theory of event coding, event segmentation theory, the theory of anticipatory behavioral control, and concept development; artificial intelligence and machine learning theories, including reinforcement learning and generative artificial neural networks; and theories from theoretical and computational neuroscience, including predictive coding and free energy-based inference. In the light of such a potential unification, it is discussed how abstract cognitive, conceptualized knowledge and understanding may be learned from actively gathered sensorimotor experiences. The unification rests on the free energy-based inference principle, which essentially implies that the brain builds a predictive, generative model of its environment. Neural activity-oriented inference causes the continuous adaptation of the currently active predictive encodings. Neural structure-oriented inference causes the longer term adaptation of the developing generative model as a whole. Finally, active inference strives for maintaining internal homeostasis, causing goal-directed motor behavior. To learn abstract, hierarchical encodings, however, it is proposed that free energy-based inference needs to be enhanced with structural priors, which bias cognitive development toward the formation of particular, behaviorally suitable encoding structures. As a result, it is hypothesized how abstract concepts can develop from, and thus how they are structured by and grounded in, sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, it is sketched-out how symbol-like thought can be generated by a temporarily active set of predictive encodings, which constitute a distributed neural attractor in the form of an interactive free-energy minimum. The activated, interactive network attractor

  14. Toward a Unified Sub-symbolic Computational Theory of Cognition.

    PubMed

    Butz, Martin V

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes how various disciplinary theories of cognition may be combined into a unifying, sub-symbolic, computational theory of cognition. The following theories are considered for integration: psychological theories, including the theory of event coding, event segmentation theory, the theory of anticipatory behavioral control, and concept development; artificial intelligence and machine learning theories, including reinforcement learning and generative artificial neural networks; and theories from theoretical and computational neuroscience, including predictive coding and free energy-based inference. In the light of such a potential unification, it is discussed how abstract cognitive, conceptualized knowledge and understanding may be learned from actively gathered sensorimotor experiences. The unification rests on the free energy-based inference principle, which essentially implies that the brain builds a predictive, generative model of its environment. Neural activity-oriented inference causes the continuous adaptation of the currently active predictive encodings. Neural structure-oriented inference causes the longer term adaptation of the developing generative model as a whole. Finally, active inference strives for maintaining internal homeostasis, causing goal-directed motor behavior. To learn abstract, hierarchical encodings, however, it is proposed that free energy-based inference needs to be enhanced with structural priors, which bias cognitive development toward the formation of particular, behaviorally suitable encoding structures. As a result, it is hypothesized how abstract concepts can develop from, and thus how they are structured by and grounded in, sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, it is sketched-out how symbol-like thought can be generated by a temporarily active set of predictive encodings, which constitute a distributed neural attractor in the form of an interactive free-energy minimum. The activated, interactive network attractor

  15. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard J.; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E.; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Loh, Wai Y.; Matthews, Lillian G.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Seal, Marc L.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical gray

  16. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  17. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  18. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2016-12-20

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner.

  19. Unified modeling of turbulence effects on sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Cheinet, Sylvain; Ehrhardt, Loic; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Many aspects of outdoor sound propagation depend on the scattering effects induced by atmospheric turbulence. Standard analytical and numerical assessments of these effects make an a priori distinction between the scattering effects at large versus small angles. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical model in overcoming this distinction. The model solves a set of two coupled equations for the sound pressure and vector acoustic velocity, with the finite-difference time domain approach. It is first introduced and evaluated. The numerical predictions are compared to well-known analytical solutions in the case of two-dimensional plane wave propagation through turbulence. They are found to agree in the investigated scenarios. Hence, the finite-difference, time domain solution of the two coupled equations provides a unified, versatile numerical approach to investigating the effects of atmospheric turbulence on sound propagation. The comparison also provides original insights on the applicability and limitations of various methods used to investigate sound propagation through turbulence.

  20. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    PubMed

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  1. Unified modelling of passive homopolar and heteropolar electrodynamic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detoni, J. G.; Impinna, F.; Tonoli, A.; Amati, N.

    2012-09-01

    A model of passive electrodynamic bearings based on the R-L dynamics of the eddy currents inside a conductor is presented. The model is derived from an analytical solution of the magnetic field in the air region surrounding the rotor for electrodynamic bearings having an even number of magnetic pole pairs. It allows homopolar and heteropolar electrodynamic bearings to be considered in a single unified way that accounts for the electromechanical interactions between the rotating conductor and the magnetic field of the stator. The model of the bearings is then coupled to a Jeffcott rotor model using complex coordinates in a state-space representation, allowing the dynamics of rotors supported by electrodynamic bearings to be studied. The number of magnetic pole pairs is found to influence rotordynamic stability, unbalance responses and frequency responses. The results demonstrate that homopolar electrodynamic bearings have a unique characteristic of passively filtering the transmission of forces due to residual unbalance of the rotor to the machine supports. The models are also used to perform a stability analysis of a case study presented in literature, and results from experimental observation are compared to those obtained analytically.

  2. Finite and Gauge-Yukawa unified theories: Theory and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, J.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1999-10-25

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N=1 GUTs in which a complete reduction of couplings has been achieved. FUTs realize an old field theoretical dream and have remarkable predictive power. Reduction of dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI) relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exists RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of the {beta}- functions in certain N=1 supersymmetric GUTS even to all orders. Recent developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking (SSB) sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations also in this sector of the theories. Of particular interest is a RGI sum rule for the soft scalar masses holding to all orders. The characteristic features of SU(5) models that have been constructed based on the above tools are: a) the old agreement of the top quark prediction with the measured value remains unchanged, b) the lightest Higgs boson is predicted to be around 120 GeV, c) the s-spectrum starts above several hundreds of GeV.

  3. Semi-dynamical perturbations of unified dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy E-mail: ant@roe.ac.uk

    2015-11-01

    Linear cosmological perturbations of a large class of modified gravity and dark energy models can be unified in the effective field theory of cosmic acceleration, encompassing Horndeski scalar-tensor theories and beyond. The fully available model space inherent to this formalism cannot be constrained by measurements in the quasistatic small-scale regime alone. To facilitate the analysis of modifications from the concordance model beyond this limit, we introduce a semi-dynamical treatment extrapolated from the evolution of perturbations at a pivot scale of choice. At small scales, and for Horndeski theories, the resulting modifications recover a quasistatic approximation but account for corrections to it near the Hubble scale. For models beyond Horndeski gravity, we find that the velocity field and time derivative of the spatial metric potential can generally not be neglected, even in the small-scale limit. We test the semi-dynamical approximation against the linear perturbations of a range of dark energy and modified gravity models, finding good agreement between the two.

  4. The Unified Floating Point Vector Coprocessor for Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiara, Jainik

    There has been an increased interest recently in using embedded cores on FPGAs. Many of the applications that make use of these cores have floating point operations. Due to the complexity and expense of floating point hardware, these algorithms are usually converted to fixed point operations or implemented using floating-point emulation in software. As the technology advances, more and more homogeneous computational resources and fixed function embedded blocks are added to FPGAs and hence implementation of floating point hardware becomes a feasible option. In this research we have implemented a high performance, autonomous floating point vector Coprocessor (FPVC) that works independently within an embedded processor system. We have presented a unified approach to vector and scalar computation, using a single register file for both scalar operands and vector elements. The Hybrid vector/SIMD computational model of FPVC results in greater overall performance for most applications along with improved peak performance compared to other approaches. By parameterizing vector length and the number of vector lanes, we can design an application specific FPVC and take optimal advantage of the FPGA fabric. For this research we have also initiated designing a software library for various computational kernels, each of which adapts FPVC's configuration and provide maximal performance. The kernels implemented are from the area of linear algebra and include matrix multiplication and QR and Cholesky decomposition. We have demonstrated the operation of FPVC on a Xilinx Virtex 5 using the embedded PowerPC.

  5. A unified physical model to explain Supercavity closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Roger; Karn, Ashish; Hong, Jiarong

    2014-11-01

    An insight into underlying physics behind supercavity closure is an important issue for the operation of underwater vehicles for a number of reasons viz. associated gas flow requirement with each closure regime, effect of cavity closure on the overall cavity behavior and collapse, differences between natural and ventilated supercavity closure etc. There have been several reports on supercavity closure since the 1950s and many empirical relationships governing different closure modes have been proposed by different authors. Yet, there is no universal agreement between results obtained at different experimental facilities. In some cases, contradictory observations have been made. In this talk, systematic investigations conducted into supercavity closure across a wide range of experimental conditions at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) are presented. A variety of closure mechanisms were observed including the ones widely reported in the literature, viz. twin vortex, re-entrant jet; new stable closure modes viz. quad vortex and interacting vortex and a host of transition closure modes. A hypothesis on the physical mechanism based on the pressure gradient across the cavity that determines the closure modes is proposed. Using this hypothesis and the control volume analysis at supercavity closure, we explain the observations from SAFL experiments as well as reconcile the observations reported by different researchers. The hypothesis explains the supercavity closure across different experimental facilities, at different blockage ratios and at different flow conditions. Thus, a unified understanding into supercavity closure from the viewpoint of fundamental physics is attempted. Supported by the Office Of Naval Research.

  6. Entropy, a Unifying Concept: from Physics to Cognitive Psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Tsallis, Alexandra C.

    Together with classical, relativistic and quantum mechanics, as well as Maxwell electromagnetism, Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical mechanics constitutes one of the main theories of contemporary physics. This theory primarily concerns inanimate matter, and at its generic foundation we find nonlinear dynamical systems satisfying the ergodic hypothesis. This hypothesis is typically guaranteed for systems whose maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive. What happens when this crucial quantity is zero instead? We suggest here that, in what concerns thermostatistical properties, we typically enter what in some sense may be considered as a new world — the world of living systems — . The need emerges, at least for many systems, for generalizing the basis of BG statistical mechanics, namely the Boltzmann-Gibbs-von Neumann-Shannon en-tropic functional form, which connects the oscopic, thermodynamic quantity, with the occurrence probabilities of microscopic configurations. This unifying approach is briefly reviewed here, and its widespread applications — from physics to cognitive psychology — are overviewed. Special attention is dedicated to the learning/memorizing process in humans and computers. The present observations might be related to the gestalt theory of visual perceptions and the actor-network theory.

  7. Unified changes in cell size permit coordinated leaf evolution.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Jordan, Greg J; Carpenter, Raymond J

    2013-07-01

    The processes by which the functions of interdependent tissues are coordinated as lineages diversify are poorly understood. Here, we examine evolutionary coordination of vascular, epidermal and cortical leaf tissues in the anatomically, ecologically and morphologically diverse woody plant family Proteaceae. We found that, across the phylogenetic range of Proteaceae, the sizes of guard, epidermal, palisade and xylem cells were positively correlated with each other but negatively associated with vein and stomatal densities. The link between venation and stomata resulted in a highly efficient match between potential maximum water loss (determined by stomatal conductance) and the leaf vascular system's capacity to replace that water. This important linkage is likely to be driven by stomatal size, because spatial limits in the packing of stomata onto the leaf surface apparently constrain the maximum size and density of stomata. We conclude that unified evolutionary changes in cell sizes of independent tissues, possibly mediated by changes in genome size, provide a means of substantially modifying leaf function while maintaining important functional links between leaf tissues. Our data also imply the presence of alternative evolutionary strategies involving cellular miniaturization during radiation into closed forest, and cell size increase in open habitats.

  8. A unifying framework for quantifying the nature of animal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Mokross, Karl; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Collective phenomena, whereby agent–agent interactions determine spatial patterns, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, movement and space use are also greatly influenced by the interactions between animals and their environment. Despite both types of interaction fundamentally influencing animal behaviour, there has hitherto been no unifying framework for the models proposed in both areas. Here, we construct a general method for inferring population-level spatial patterns from underlying individual movement and interaction processes, a key ingredient in building a statistical mechanics for ecological systems. We show that resource selection functions, as well as several examples of collective motion models, arise as special cases of our framework, thus bringing together resource selection analysis and collective animal behaviour into a single theory. In particular, we focus on combining the various mechanistic models of territorial interactions in the literature with step selection functions, by incorporating interactions into the step selection framework and demonstrating how to derive territorial patterns from the resulting models. We demonstrate the efficacy of our model by application to a population of insectivore birds in the Amazon rainforest. PMID:24829284

  9. A unifying fractional wave equation for compressional and shear waves.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    This study has been motivated by the observed difference in the range of the power-law attenuation exponent for compressional and shear waves. Usually compressional attenuation increases with frequency to a power between 1 and 2, while shear wave attenuation often is described with powers less than 1. Another motivation is the apparent lack of partial differential equations with desirable properties such as causality that describe such wave propagation. Starting with a constitutive equation which is a generalized Hooke's law with a loss term containing a fractional derivative, one can derive a causal fractional wave equation previously given by Caputo [Geophys J. R. Astron. Soc. 13, 529-539 (1967)] and Wismer [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3493-3502 (2006)]. In the low omegatau (low-frequency) case, this equation has an attenuation with a power-law in the range from 1 to 2. This is consistent with, e.g., attenuation in tissue. In the often neglected high omegatau (high-frequency) case, it describes attenuation with a power-law between 0 and 1, consistent with what is observed in, e.g., dynamic elastography. Thus a unifying wave equation derived properly from constitutive equations can describe both cases.

  10. A Unified Flash Flood Database across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang; Flamig, Zachary L.; Arthur, Ami; Clark, Robert; Calianno, Martin; Ruin, Isabelle; Ortel, Terry W.; Wieczorek, Michael; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clark, Edward; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite flash flooding being one of the most deadly and costly weather-related natural hazards worldwide, individual datasets to characterize them in the United States are hampered by limited documentation and can be difficult to access. This study is the first of its kind to assemble, reprocess, describe, and disseminate a georeferenced U.S. database providing a long-term, detailed characterization of flash flooding in terms of spatiotemporal behavior and specificity of impacts. The database is composed of three primary sources: 1) the entire archive of automated discharge observations from the U.S. Geological Survey that has been reprocessed to describe individual flooding events, 2) flash-flooding reports collected by the National Weather Service from 2006 to the present, and 3) witness reports obtained directly from the public in the Severe Hazards Analysis and Verification Experiment during the summers 2008–10. Each observational data source has limitations; a major asset of the unified flash flood database is its collation of relevant information from a variety of sources that is now readily available to the community in common formats. It is anticipated that this database will be used for many diverse purposes, such as evaluating tools to predict flash flooding, characterizing seasonal and regional trends, and improving understanding of dominant flood-producing processes. We envision the initiation of this community database effort will attract and encompass future datasets.

  11. Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 and Topographic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Rosiek, M. R.; Redding, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    There are currently two generally accepted lunar control networks. These are the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN) and the Clementine Lunar Control Network (CLCN), both derived by M. Davies and T. Colvin at RAND. We address here our efforts to merge and improve these networks into a new ULCN. The ULCN was described in the last major publication about a lunar control network. The statistics on this and the other networks discussed here. Images for this network are from the Apollo, Mariner 10, and Galileo missions, and Earth-based photographs. The importance of this network is that its accuracy is relatively well quantified and published information on the network is available. The CLCN includes measurements on 43,871 Clementine 750-nm images - the largest planetary control network ever computed. This purpose of this network was to determine the geometry for the Clementine Basemap Mosiac (CBM). The geometry of that mosaic was used to produce the Clementine UVVIS digital image model and the Near-Infrared Global Multispectral Map of the Moon from Clementine. Through the extensive use of these products, they and the underlying CLCN in effect define the generally accepted current coordinate system for reporting and describing the location of lunar coordinates. However, no publication describes the CLCN itself.

  12. A kinematic unifying theory of microstructures in subglacial tills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, J.; van der Meer, J. J. M.; Ravier, E.

    2016-10-01

    A key aspect of all subglacial tills is the nature and form of microstructures present. Microstructures are symptomatic of repeated deformation phases prior to, during, and after emplacement. Critical to understanding microstructures in subglacial tills are the probable interrelationship that exists between all of these structures. In analyzing subglacial tills a kinematic deformation relationship can be observed existing between all microstructures. Based upon the rheological conditions at the ice basal interface, a close evolving paleo-strain link can be established that relates levels of deformation to all subglacial till microstructures. As subglacial till undergoes strain during transport and emplacement involving fluctuating conditions of porewater content, percentage of clays present, and changing thermal circumstances, a series of microstructures sequentially evolve. Initially, brittle edge-to-edge grain events occur, followed by grains stack development, often allied closely in time, with microshear formation as the sediment deforms, and is consequently followed by the development of ductile rotation structures. Likewise, deformation bands, shear zone formation, and typically "isolated" domains form. As strain and other factors vary over time so many of these microstructures may be obliterated, altered, or re-oriented. Much remains to be understood regarding paleo-strain conditions and subglacial deformation but a first step has been establishing this temporal sequence of microstructure stage development and thus achieving a theory that unifies these disparate microstructures observed in all subglacial tills.

  13. Unified Approach to the Biomechanics of Dental Implantology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, D. E.; Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The human need for safe and effective dental implants is well-recognized. Although many implant designs have been tested and are in use today, a large number have resulted in clinical failure. These failures appear to be due to biomechanical effects, as well as biocompatibility and surgical factors. A unified approach is proposed using multidisciplinary systems technology, for the study of the biomechanical interactions between dental implants and host tissues. The approach progresses from biomechanical modeling and analysis, supported by experimental investigations, through implant design development, clinical verification, and education of the dental practitioner. The result of the biomechanical modeling, analysis, and experimental phases would be the development of scientific design criteria for implants. Implant designs meeting these criteria would be generated, fabricated, and tested in animals. After design acceptance, these implants would be tested in humans, using efficient and safe surgical and restorative procedures. Finally, educational media and instructional courses would be developed for training dental practitioners in the use of the resulting implants.

  14. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease prepared a critique of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Strengths of the UPDRS include its wide utilization, its application across the clinical spectrum of PD, its nearly comprehensive coverage of motor symptoms, and its clinimetric properties, including reliability and validity. Weaknesses include several ambiguities in the written text, inadequate instructions for raters, some metric flaws, and the absence of screening questions on several important non-motor aspects of PD. The Task Force recommends that the MDS sponsor the development of a new version of the UPDRS and encourage efforts to establish its clinimetric properties, especially addressing the need to define a Minimal Clinically Relevant Difference and a Minimal Clinically Relevant Incremental Difference, as well as testing its correlation with the current UPDRS. If developed, the new scale should be culturally unbiased and be tested in different racial, gender, and age-groups. Future goals should include the definition of UPDRS scores with confidence intervals that correlate with clinically pertinent designations, "minimal," "mild," "moderate," and "severe" PD. Whereas the presence of non-motor components of PD can be identified with screening questions, a new version of the UPDRS should include an official appendix that includes other, more detailed, and optionally used scales to determine severity of these impairments.

  15. A unified framework for gesture recognition and spatiotemporal gesture segmentation.

    PubMed

    Alon, Jonathan; Athitsos, Vassilis; Yuan, Quan; Sclaroff, Stan

    2009-09-01

    Within the context of hand gesture recognition, spatiotemporal gesture segmentation is the task of determining, in a video sequence, where the gesturing hand is located and when the gesture starts and ends. Existing gesture recognition methods typically assume either known spatial segmentation or known temporal segmentation, or both. This paper introduces a unified framework for simultaneously performing spatial segmentation, temporal segmentation, and recognition. In the proposed framework, information flows both bottom-up and top-down. A gesture can be recognized even when the hand location is highly ambiguous and when information about when the gesture begins and ends is unavailable. Thus, the method can be applied to continuous image streams where gestures are performed in front of moving, cluttered backgrounds. The proposed method consists of three novel contributions: a spatiotemporal matching algorithm that can accommodate multiple candidate hand detections in every frame, a classifier-based pruning framework that enables accurate and early rejection of poor matches to gesture models, and a subgesture reasoning algorithm that learns which gesture models can falsely match parts of other longer gestures. The performance of the approach is evaluated on two challenging applications: recognition of hand-signed digits gestured by users wearing short-sleeved shirts, in front of a cluttered background, and retrieval of occurrences of signs of interest in a video database containing continuous, unsegmented signing in American Sign Language (ASL).

  16. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner. PMID:27930289

  17. Regularized variational theories of fracture: A unified approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freddi, Francesco; Royer-Carfagni, Gianni

    2010-08-01

    The fracture pattern in stressed bodies is defined through the minimization of a two-field pseudo-spatial-dependent functional, with a structure similar to that proposed by Bourdin-Francfort-Marigo (2000) as a regularized approximation of a parent free-discontinuity problem, but now considered as an autonomous model per se. Here, this formulation is altered by combining it with structured deformation theory, to model that when the material microstructure is loosened and damaged, peculiar inelastic (structured) deformations may occur in the representative volume element at the price of surface energy consumption. This approach unifies various theories of failure because, by simply varying the form of the class for admissible structured deformations, different-in-type responses can be captured, incorporating the idea of cleavage, deviatoric, combined cleavage-deviatoric and masonry-like fractures. Remarkably, this latter formulation rigorously avoid material overlapping in the cracked zones. The model is numerically implemented using a standard finite-element discretization and adopts an alternate minimization algorithm, adding an inequality constraint to impose crack irreversibility ( fixed crack model). Numerical experiments for some paradigmatic examples are presented and compared for various possible versions of the model.

  18. Local magnitude calibration of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordilis, E. M.; Kementzetzidou, D.; Papazachos, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    A new relation is proposed for accurate determination of local magnitudes in Greece. This relation is based on a large number of synthetic Wood-Anderson (SWA) seismograms corresponding to 782 regional shallow earthquakes which occurred during the period 2007-2013 and recorded by 98 digital broad-band stations. These stations are installed and operated by the following: (a) the National Observatory of Athens (HL), (b) the Department of Geophysics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (HT), (c) the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens (HA), and (d) the Seismological Laboratory of the Patras University (HP). The seismological networks of the above institutions constitute the recently (2004) established Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). These records are used to calculate a refined geometrical spreading factor and an anelastic attenuation coefficient, representative for Greece and surrounding areas, proper for accurate calculation of local magnitudes in this region. Individual station corrections depending on the crustal structure variations in their vicinity and possible inconsistencies in instruments responses are also considered in order to further ameliorate magnitude estimation accuracy. Comparison of such calculated local magnitudes with corresponding original moment magnitudes, based on an independent dataset, revealed that these magnitude scales are equivalent for a wide range of values.

  19. Toward a unifying taxonomy and definition for meditation.

    PubMed

    Nash, Jonathan D; Newberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the norm of fabricatIng new terminology from a first-person perspective. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on the historically well-established and commonly accepted third-person paradigm of Affect and Cognition, borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation which clearly distinguishes "method" from "state" and is conceptualized as a dynamic process which is inclusive of six related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

  20. DNA Origami with Double Stranded DNA as a Unified Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Han, Dongran; Nangreave, Jeanette; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolded DNA origami is a widely used technology for self-assembling precisely structured nanoscale objects that contain a large number of addressable features. Typical scaffolds are long, single strands of DNA (ssDNA) that are folded into distinct shapes through the action of many, short ssDNA staples that are complementary to several different domains of the scaffold. However, sources of long single stranded DNA are scarce, limiting the size and complexity of structures that can be assembled. Here we demonstrated that dsDNA scaffolds can be directly used to fabricate integrated DNA origami structures that incorporate both of the constituent ssDNA molecules. Two basic principles were employed in the design of scaffold folding paths – folding path asymmetry and periodic convergence of the two ssDNA scaffold strands. Asymmetry in the folding path minimizes unwanted complementarity between staples, and incorporating an offset between the folding paths of each ssDNA scaffold strand reduces the number of times that complementary portions of the strands are brought into close proximity with one another, both of which decrease the likelihood of dsDNA scaffold recovery. Meanwhile, the folding paths of the two ssDNA scaffold strands were designed to periodically converge to promote the assembly of a single, unified structure rather than two individual ones. Our results reveal that this basic strategy can be used to reliably assemble integrated DNA nanostructures from dsDNA scaffolds. PMID:22830653

  1. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages.

  2. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-12-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three `flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The `composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design.

  3. A Unified Computational Model for Solar and Stellar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Joel; Kowalski, Adam; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-04-01

    We describe a unified computational framework which can be used to model impulsive flares on the Sun and on dMe stars. The models are constructed assuming that the flare impulsive phase is caused by a beam of charged particles (primarily electrons and protons) that is accelerated in the corona and propagates downward depositing energy and momentum along the way. This rapidly heats the lower stellar atmosphere causing it to explosively expand and emission to dramatically brighten. Our models consist of flux tubes that extend from the sub-photosphere into the corona. We simulate how these flare-accelerated particles propagate down one dimensional flux tubes and heat the stellar atmosphere using Fokker-Planck kinetic theory. Detailed radiative transfer is included so that model predictions can be directly compared with observations. The flux of flare-accelerated particles drives return currents which additionally heat the stellar atmosphere, and these effects are also included in our models. We examine the impact of the flare-accelerated particle beams on model solar and dMe stellar atmospheres and perform parameter studies varying the injected particle energy spectra. We find the atmospheric response is strongly dependent on the accelerated particle cutoff energy and spectral index.

  4. A Unified Computational Model for Solar and Stellar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Joel C.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-08-01

    We present a unified computational framework that can be used to describe impulsive flares on the Sun and on dMe stars. The models assume that the flare impulsive phase is caused by a beam of charged particles that is accelerated in the corona and propagates downward depositing energy and momentum along the way. This rapidly heats the lower stellar atmosphere causing it to explosively expand and dramatically brighten. Our models consist of flux tubes that extend from the sub-photosphere into the corona. We simulate how flare-accelerated charged particles propagate down one-dimensional flux tubes and heat the stellar atmosphere using the Fokker-Planck kinetic theory. Detailed radiative transfer is included so that model predictions can be directly compared with observations. The flux of flare-accelerated particles drives return currents which additionally heat the stellar atmosphere. These effects are also included in our models. We examine the impact of the flare-accelerated particle beams on model solar and dMe stellar atmospheres and perform parameter studies varying the injected particle energy spectra. We find the atmospheric response is strongly dependent on the accelerated particle cutoff energy and spectral index.

  5. A Unified Model of Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucinska-Church, M.; Church, M.

    2014-07-01

    We present a unified physical model of Low Mass X-ray Binaries explaining the basic Atoll and Z-track types of source. In all LMXB with luminosity above 1-2.10^{37} erg/s, we have a new fundamental result that the temperature of the Comptonizing ADC corona equals that of the neutron star, i.e. there is thermal equilibrium. This equilibrium explains the properties of the basic Banana State of Atoll sources. Below this luminosity, equilibrium breaks down, T_ADC rising towards 100 keV by an unknown heating mechanism, explaining the Island State. Above 5.10^{37} erg/s flaring begins in the GX-Atolls which we show is unstable nuclear burning. Above 1.10^{38} erg/s, LMXB are seen as Z-track sources. Flaring in these and the GX-Atolls occurs when the mass accretion rate to the neutron star falls to the critical value for unstable nuclear burning on the star. Below 2.10^{37} erg/s, a different unstable burning: X-ray bursting, takes over. We show that the Normal Branch of the Z-track consists simply of increasing mass accretion rate, as is the Banana State in Atolls. In the Horizontal Branch, a measured, strongly increasing radiation pressure of the neutron star disrupts the inner disk launching the relativistic jets seen on this branch.

  6. Unified Dark Matter scalar field models with fast transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bruni, Marco; Piattella, Oliver F.; Pietrobon, Davide E-mail: marco.bruni@port.ac.uk E-mail: davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the general properties of Unified Dark Matter (UDM) scalar field models with Lagrangians with a non-canonical kinetic term, looking specifically for models that can produce a fast transition between an early Einstein-de Sitter CDM-like era and a later Dark Energy like phase, similarly to the barotropic fluid UDM models in JCAP01(2010)014. However, while the background evolution can be very similar in the two cases, the perturbations are naturally adiabatic in fluid models, while in the scalar field case they are necessarily non-adiabatic. The new approach to building UDM Lagrangians proposed here allows to escape the common problem of the fine-tuning of the parameters which plague many UDM models. We analyse the properties of perturbations in our model, focusing on the the evolution of the effective speed of sound and that of the Jeans length. With this insight, we can set theoretical constraints on the parameters of the model, predicting sufficient conditions for the model to be viable. An interesting feature of our models is that what can be interpreted as w{sub DE} can be < −1 without violating the null energy conditions.

  7. Paint and Click: Unified Interactions for Image Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Summa, B.; Gooch, A. A.; Scorzelli, G.; Pascucci, V.

    2015-06-22

    Image boundaries are a fundamental component of many interactive digital photography techniques, enabling applications such as segmentation, panoramas, and seamless image composition. Interactions for image boundaries often rely on two complementary but separate approaches: editing via painting or clicking constraints. In this work, we provide a novel, unified approach for interactive editing of pairwise image boundaries that combines the ease of painting with the direct control of constraints. Rather than a sequential coupling, this new formulation allows full use of both interactions simultaneously, giving users unprecedented flexibility for fast boundary editing. To enable this new approach, we provide technical advancements. In particular, we detail a reformulation of image boundaries as a problem of finding cycles, expanding and correcting limitations of the previous work. Our new formulation provides boundary solutions for painted regions with performance on par with state-of-the-art specialized, paint-only techniques. In addition, we provide instantaneous exploration of the boundary solution space with user constraints. Finally, we provide examples of common graphics applications impacted by our new approach.

  8. Optimal pulse design in quantum control: A unified computational method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jr-Shin; Ruths, Justin; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Many key aspects of control of quantum systems involve manipulating a large quantum ensemble exhibiting variation in the value of parameters characterizing the system dynamics. Developing electromagnetic pulses to produce a desired evolution in the presence of such variation is a fundamental and challenging problem in this research area. We present such robust pulse designs as an optimal control problem of a continuum of bilinear systems with a common control function. We map this control problem of infinite dimension to a problem of polynomial approximation employing tools from geometric control theory. We then adopt this new notion and develop a unified computational method for optimal pulse design using ideas from pseudospectral approximations, by which a continuous-time optimal control problem of pulse design can be discretized to a constrained optimization problem with spectral accuracy. Furthermore, this is a highly flexible and efficient numerical method that requires low order of discretization and yields inherently smooth solutions. We demonstrate this method by designing effective broadband π/2 and π pulses with reduced rf energy and pulse duration, which show significant sensitivity enhancement at the edge of the spectrum over conventional pulses in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy experiments. PMID:21245345

  9. Unified active and reactive power modulation of HVDC transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, C. E.; Pohl, R. V.

    1981-11-01

    The power modulation of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system for stabilization of an ac/dc network was investigated. It was found that simultaneous modulation of both dc current and voltage was more effective than just current modulation by itself, since the dc voltage modulation could be used to minimize the reactive power changes resulting from a change of the dc current. This helps stabilize the ac busbar voltages at the converters, which reduces undesirable load flow changes to voltage dependent ac loads, thus improving the effectiveness of the dc power modulation. This unified modulation control concept was evaluated by means of digital computer studies as well as a special purpose HVDC simulator. Several combined ac/dc power transmission systems were synthesized for testing of different modulation controller concepts. An optimum controller design incorporating a linear quadratic control algorithm with full state feedback was first studied. This provided a basis for comparison of suboptimal controller designs utilizing reduced state feedback and a Kalman filter state reconstruction technique.

  10. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three ‘flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The ‘composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design. PMID:27910848

  11. A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Benjamin Z; Wang, Ying-Ping; Vitousek, Peter M; Field, Christopher B

    2008-07-17

    Dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is widely recognized as an important process in controlling ecosystem responses to global environmental change, both today and in the past; however, significant discrepancies exist between theory and observations of patterns of N(2) fixation across major sectors of the land biosphere. A question remains as to why symbiotic N(2)-fixing plants are more abundant in vast areas of the tropics than in many of the mature forests that seem to be nitrogen-limited in the temperate and boreal zones. Here we present a unifying framework for terrestrial N(2) fixation that can explain the geographic occurrence of N(2) fixers across diverse biomes and at the global scale. By examining trade-offs inherent in plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus capture, we find a clear advantage to symbiotic N(2) fixers in phosphorus-limited tropical savannas and lowland tropical forests. The ability of N(2) fixers to invest nitrogen into phosphorus acquisition seems vital to sustained N(2) fixation in phosphorus-limited tropical ecosystems. In contrast, modern-day temperatures seem to constrain N(2) fixation rates and N(2)-fixing species from mature forests in the high latitudes. We propose that an analysis that couples biogeochemical cycling and biophysical mechanisms is sufficient to explain the principal geographical patterns of symbiotic N(2) fixation on land, thus providing a basis for predicting the response of nutrient-limited ecosystems to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO(2).

  12. Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.

  13. A unifying framework for quantifying the nature of animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Potts, Jonathan R; Mokross, Karl; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-07-06

    Collective phenomena, whereby agent-agent interactions determine spatial patterns, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, movement and space use are also greatly influenced by the interactions between animals and their environment. Despite both types of interaction fundamentally influencing animal behaviour, there has hitherto been no unifying framework for the models proposed in both areas. Here, we construct a general method for inferring population-level spatial patterns from underlying individual movement and interaction processes, a key ingredient in building a statistical mechanics for ecological systems. We show that resource selection functions, as well as several examples of collective motion models, arise as special cases of our framework, thus bringing together resource selection analysis and collective animal behaviour into a single theory. In particular, we focus on combining the various mechanistic models of territorial interactions in the literature with step selection functions, by incorporating interactions into the step selection framework and demonstrating how to derive territorial patterns from the resulting models. We demonstrate the efficacy of our model by application to a population of insectivore birds in the Amazon rainforest.

  14. The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Ho, Luis C

    2014-09-11

    Quasars are rapidly accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of massive galaxies. They display a broad range of properties across all wavelengths, reflecting the diversity in the physical conditions of the regions close to the central engine. These properties, however, are not random, but form well-defined trends. The dominant trend is known as 'Eigenvector 1', in which many properties correlate with the strength of optical iron and [O III] emission. The main physical driver of Eigenvector 1 has long been suspected to be the quasar luminosity normalized by the mass of the hole (the 'Eddington ratio'), which is an important parameter of the black hole accretion process. But a definitive proof has been missing. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals that the Eddington ratio indeed drives Eigenvector 1. We also find that orientation plays a significant role in determining the observed kinematics of the gas in the broad-line region, implying a flattened, disk-like geometry for the fast-moving clouds close to the black hole. Our results show that most of the diversity of quasar phenomenology can be unified using two simple quantities: Eddington ratio and orientation.

  15. A Unified Computational Model for Solar and Stellar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Joel C.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified computational framework that can be used to describe impulsive flares on the Sun and on dMe stars. The models assume that the flare impulsive phase is caused by a beam of charged particles that is accelerated in the corona and propagates downward depositing energy and momentum along the way. This rapidly heats the lower stellar atmosphere causing it to explosively expand and dramatically brighten. Our models consist of flux tubes that extend from the sub-photosphere into the corona. We simulate how flare-accelerated charged particles propagate down one-dimensional flux tubes and heat the stellar atmosphere using the Fokker-Planck kinetic theory. Detailed radiative transfer is included so that model predictions can be directly compared with observations. The flux of flare-accelerated particles drives return currents which additionally heat the stellar atmosphere. These effects are also included in our models. We examine the impact of the flare-accelerated particle beams on model solar and dMe stellar atmospheres and perform parameter studies varying the injected particle energy spectra. We find the atmospheric response is strongly dependent on the accelerated particle cutoff energy and spectral index.

  16. Hybrid parallel programming with MPI and Unified Parallel C.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, J.; Balaji, P.; Lusk, E.; Sadayappan, P.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; The Ohio State Univ.

    2010-01-01

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is one of the most widely used programming models for parallel computing. However, the amount of memory available to an MPI process is limited by the amount of local memory within a compute node. Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC) are growing in popularity because of their ability to provide a shared global address space that spans the memories of multiple compute nodes. However, taking advantage of UPC can require a large recoding effort for existing parallel applications. In this paper, we explore a new hybrid parallel programming model that combines MPI and UPC. This model allows MPI programmers incremental access to a greater amount of memory, enabling memory-constrained MPI codes to process larger data sets. In addition, the hybrid model offers UPC programmers an opportunity to create static UPC groups that are connected over MPI. As we demonstrate, the use of such groups can significantly improve the scalability of locality-constrained UPC codes. This paper presents a detailed description of the hybrid model and demonstrates its effectiveness in two applications: a random access benchmark and the Barnes-Hut cosmological simulation. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid model can greatly enhance performance; using hybrid UPC groups that span two cluster nodes, RA performance increases by a factor of 1.33 and using groups that span four cluster nodes, Barnes-Hut experiences a twofold speedup at the expense of a 2% increase in code size.

  17. Binary choices in small and large groups: A unified model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischi, Gian-Italo; Merlone, Ugo

    2010-02-01

    Two different ways to model the diffusion of alternative choices within a population of individuals in the presence of social externalities are known in the literature. While Galam’s model of rumors spreading considers a majority rule for interactions in several groups, Schelling considers individuals interacting in one large group, with payoff functions that describe how collective choices influence individual preferences. We incorporate these two approaches into a unified general discrete-time dynamic model for studying individual interactions in variously sized groups. We first illustrate how the two original models can be obtained as particular cases of the more general model we propose, then we show how several other situations can be analyzed. The model we propose goes beyond a theoretical exercise as it allows modeling situations which are relevant in economic and social systems. We consider also other aspects such as the propensity to switch choices and the behavioral momentum, and show how they may affect the dynamics of the whole population.

  18. Unifying time evolution and optimization with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haegeman, Jutho; Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We show that the time-dependent variational principle provides a unifying framework for time-evolution methods and optimization methods in the context of matrix product states. In particular, we introduce a new integration scheme for studying time evolution, which can cope with arbitrary Hamiltonians, including those with long-range interactions. Rather than a Suzuki-Trotter splitting of the Hamiltonian, which is the idea behind the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method or time-evolving block decimation, our method is based on splitting the projector onto the matrix product state tangent space as it appears in the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. We discuss how the resulting algorithm resembles the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for finding ground states so closely that it can be implemented by changing just a few lines of code and it inherits the same stability and efficiency. In particular, our method is compatible with any Hamiltonian for which ground-state DMRG can be implemented efficiently. In fact, DMRG is obtained as a special case of our scheme for imaginary time evolution with infinite time step.

  19. Unifying roles for regulatory T cells and inflammation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, Susan E.; Rao, Varada P.; Olipitz, Werner; Taylor, Christie L.; Jackson, Erin A.; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lee, Chung-Wei; Horwitz, Bruce H.; Fox, James G.; Ge, Zhongming; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2014-01-01

    Activities of CD4+ regulatory (TREG) cells restore immune homeostasis during chronic inflammatory disorders. Roles for TREG cells in inflammation-associated cancers, however, are paradoxical. It is widely believed that TREG function in cancer mainly to suppress protective anticancer responses. However, we demonstrate here that TREG cells also function to reduce cancer risk throughout the body by efficiently downregulating inflammation arising from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Building on a “hygiene hypothesis” model in which GI infections lead to changes in TREG that reduce immune-mediated diseases, here we show that gut bacteria-triggered TREG may function to inhibit cancer even in extraintestinal sites. Ability of bacteria-stimulated TREG to suppress cancer depends on interleukin (IL)-10, which serves to maintain immune homeostasis within bowel and support a protective antiinflammatory TREG phenotype. However, under proinflammatory conditions, TREG may fail to provide antiinflammatory protection and instead contribute to a T helper (Th)-17-driven procarcinogenic process; a cancer state that is reversible by downregulation of inflammation. Consequently, hygienic individuals with a weakened IL-10 and TREG-mediated inhibitory loop are highly susceptible to the carcinogenic consequences of elevated IL-6 and IL-17 and show more frequent inflammation-associated cancers. Taken together, these data unify seemingly divergent disease processes such as autoimmunity and cancer and help explain the paradox of TREG and inflammation in cancer. Enhancing protective TREG functions may promote healthful longevity and significantly reduce risk of cancer. PMID:19795459

  20. Synthetic Biology: A Unifying View and Review Using Analog Circuits.

    PubMed

    Teo, Jonathan J Y; Woo, Sung Sik; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    We review the field of synthetic biology from an analog circuits and analog computation perspective, focusing on circuits that have been built in living cells. This perspective is well suited to pictorially, symbolically, and quantitatively representing the nonlinear, dynamic, and stochastic (noisy) ordinary and partial differential equations that rigorously describe the molecular circuits of synthetic biology. This perspective enables us to construct a canonical analog circuit schematic that helps unify and review the operation of many fundamental circuits that have been built in synthetic biology at the DNA, RNA, protein, and small-molecule levels over nearly two decades. We review 17 circuits in the literature as particular examples of feedforward and feedback analog circuits that arise from special topological cases of the canonical analog circuit schematic. Digital circuit operation of these circuits represents a special case of saturated analog circuit behavior and is automatically incorporated as well. Many issues that have prevented synthetic biology from scaling are naturally represented in analog circuit schematics. Furthermore, the deep similarity between the Boltzmann thermodynamic equations that describe noisy electronic current flow in subthreshold transistors and noisy molecular flux in biochemical reactions has helped map analog circuit motifs in electronics to analog circuit motifs in cells and vice versa via a `cytomorphic' approach. Thus, a body of knowledge in analog electronic circuit design, analysis, simulation, and implementation may also be useful in the robust and efficient design of molecular circuits in synthetic biology, helping it to scale to more complex circuits in the future.

  1. Superaromatics: The key to a unified cosmic dust theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Lawrence R.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of Superaromatics, the key to a unified cosmic dust theory, was constructed by analyzing several thousand astronomical features covering every major aspect of astrophysics and astrochemistry relating to dust. To insure consistency between disciplines, the logical structure of the conclusions in each field was checked rather than accepting the current consensus. No substantial contradictory features are known to the author. The analysis falls into seven major parts: (1) kinetics of grain formation and destruction; (2) optical spectra of the interstellar medium (ISM); (3) meteorite interplanetary dust particle (IPD) chemistry; (4) structure and chemistry of the interstellar medium arising from surface catalysis; (6) dynamics of circumstellar and interstellar dust clouds, including galactic morphology; and (7) the chemistry and physics of previously unidentified compounds. Only tentative conclusions are presented here. The principle conclusion is that quantum mechanics as it is normally formulated is incomplete. The probable cause is that it is formulated with complex numbers rather than the more fundamental quaternion system. The manifestation in astrochemistry is that the most stable compounds are superaromatic and exotic enough to confound most classical analysis.

  2. Unified limiting form of graviton radiation at extreme energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Colferai, Dimitri; Coradeschi, Francesco; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We derive the limiting form of graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at trans-Planckian energies (E ≫MP) and small deflection angles. We show that—owing to the graviton's spin 2—such a limiting form unifies the soft and Regge regimes of emission, by covering a broad angular range, from forward fragmentation to the deeply central region. The single-exchange emission amplitudes have a nice expression in terms of the transformation phases of helicity amplitudes under rotations. As a result, the multiple-exchange emission amplitudes can be resummed via an impact parameter b -space factorization theorem that takes into account all coherence effects. We then see the emergence of an energy spectrum of the emitted radiation which, being tuned on ℏ/R ˜MP2/E ≪MP, is reminiscent of Hawking's radiation. Such a spectrum is much softer than the one naïvely expected for increasing input energies and neatly solves a potential energy crisis. Furthermore, by including rescattering corrections in the (quantum) factorization formula, we are able to recover the classical limit and find the corresponding quantum corrections. Perspectives for the extrapolation of such limiting radiation towards the classical collapse regime (where b is of the order of the gravitational radius R ) are also discussed.

  3. A unified model of the standard genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Eberto R.

    2017-01-01

    The Rodin–Ohno (RO) and the Delarue models divide the table of the genetic code into two classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs I and II) with recognition from the minor or major groove sides of the tRNA acceptor stem, respectively. These models are asymmetric but they are biologically meaningful. On the other hand, the standard genetic code (SGC) can be derived from the primeval RNY code (R stands for purines, Y for pyrimidines and N any of them). In this work, the RO-model is derived by means of group actions, namely, symmetries represented by automorphisms, assuming that the SGC originated from a primeval RNY code. It turns out that the RO-model is symmetric in a six-dimensional (6D) hypercube. Conversely, using the same automorphisms, we show that the RO-model can lead to the SGC. In addition, the asymmetric Delarue model becomes symmetric by means of quotient group operations. We formulate isometric functions that convert the class aaRS I into the class aaRS II and vice versa. We show that the four polar requirement categories display a symmetrical arrangement in our 6D hypercube. Altogether these results cannot be attained, neither in two nor in three dimensions. We discuss the present unified 6D algebraic model, which is compatible with both the SGC (based upon the primeval RNY code) and the RO-model.

  4. A unified concept of idiopathic orofacial pain: clinical features.

    PubMed

    Woda, A; Pionchon, P

    1999-01-01

    The main features of atypical facial pain, stomatodynia, atypical odontalgia, and masticatory muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are compared in this article, which included a search of articles indexed in MEDLINE. The fact that their terminology has been the subject of many debates can be considered a consequence of taxonomic difficulties and uncertainties. Epidemiologic studies indicate marked female predominance for all types of idiopathic orofacial pain. There is also a difference in the age of maximal prevalence between masticatory muscle and TMJ disorders and the other entities. The clinical presentations display several symptoms in common. Pain is oral, perioral, or facial and does not follow a nervous pathway. It has been present for the last 4 to 6 months or has returned periodically in the same form over a period of several months or years. The pain is continuous, has no major paroxysmal character, and is present throughout all or part of the day. It is generally absent during sleep. Clinical, radiographic, or laboratory examination does not reveal any obvious organic cause of pain. There is also a frequent presence of certain psychologic factors, personality traits, or life events. Based on these shared characteristics, a unified concept is proposed. Each of these entities belongs to a group of idiopathic orofacial pain and could be expressed in either the jaws, the buccal mucosa, the teeth, the masticatory muscles, or the TMJ.

  5. Unified phase variables of relative degree two for human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Dario J; Gregg, Robert D; Villarreal, Dario J; Gregg, Robert D; Gregg, Robert D; Villarreal, Dario J

    2016-08-01

    A starting point to achieve stable locomotion is synchronizing the leg joint kinematics during the gait cycle. Some biped robots parameterize a nonlinear controller (e.g., input-output feedback linearization) whose main objective is to track specific kinematic trajectories as a function of a single mechanical variable (i.e., a phase variable) in order to allow the robot to walk. A phase variable capable of parameterizing the entire gait cycle, the hip phase angle, has been used to control wearable robots and was recently shown to provide a robust representation of the phase of human gait. However, this unified phase variable relies on hip velocity, which is difficult to measure in real-time and prevents the use of derivative corrections in phase-based controllers for wearable robots. One derivative of this phase variable yields accelerations (i.e., the equations of motion), so the system is said to be relative degree-one. This means that there are states of the system that cannot be controlled. The goal of this paper is to offer relative degree-two alternatives to the hip phase angle and examine their robustness for parameterizing human gait.

  6. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the ph ysical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.

  7. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems. In addition, high - resolution (spatial. 2km, and temporal, I minute) visualization showing the model results will be presented.

  8. Unified framework for quasispecies evolution and stochastic quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we provide a unified framework for quasispecies evolution and stochastic quantization. We map the biological evolution described by the quasispecies equation to the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of particles undergoing a creation-annihilation process. We show that this mapping identifies a natural decomposition of the probability that an individual has a certain genotype into eigenfunctions of the evolutionary operator. This alternative approach to study the quasispecies equation allows for a generalization of the Fisher theorem equivalent to the Price equation. According to this relation the average fitness of an asexual population increases with time proportional to the variance of the eigenvalues of the evolutionary operator. Moreover, from the present alternative formulation of stochastic quantization a novel scenario emerges to be compared with existing approaches. The evolution of an ensemble of particles undergoing diffusion and a creation-annihilation process is parametrized by a variable β that we call the inverse temperature of the stochastic dynamics. We find that the evolution equation at high temperatures is simply related to the Schrödinger equation, but at low temperature it strongly deviates from it. In the presence of additional noise in scattering processes between the particles, the evolution reaches a steady state described by the Bose-Einstein statistics.

  9. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Birkan; Verma, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities) of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery).

  10. Quantification of causal couplings via dynamical effects: a unifying perspective.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Dmitry A

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative characterization of causal couplings from time series is crucial in studies of complex systems of different origin. Various statistical tools for that exist and new ones are still being developed with a tendency to creating a single, universal, model-free quantifier of coupling strength. However, a clear and generally applicable way of interpreting such universal characteristics is lacking. This work suggests a general conceptual framework for causal coupling quantification, which is based on state space models and extends the concepts of virtual interventions and dynamical causal effects. Namely, two basic kinds of interventions (state space and parametric) and effects (orbital or transient and stationary or limit) are introduced, giving four families of coupling characteristics. The framework provides a unifying view of apparently different well-established measures and allows us to introduce new characteristics, always with a definite "intervention-effect" interpretation. It is shown that diverse characteristics cannot be reduced to any single coupling strength quantifier and their interpretation is inevitably model based. The proposed set of dynamical causal effect measures quantifies different aspects of "how the coupling manifests itself in the dynamics," reformulating the very question about the "causal coupling strength."

  11. Incremental and unifying modelling formalism for biological interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Yartseva, Anastasia; Klaudel, Hanna; Devillers, Raymond; Képès, François

    2007-01-01

    Background An appropriate choice of the modeling formalism from the broad range of existing ones may be crucial for efficiently describing and analyzing biological systems. Results We propose a new unifying and incremental formalism for the representation and modeling of biological interaction networks. This formalism allows automated translations into other formalisms, thus enabling a thorough study of the dynamic properties of a biological system. As a first illustration, we propose a translation into the R. Thomas' multivalued logical formalism which provides a possible semantics; a methodology for constructing such models is presented on a classical benchmark: the λ phage genetic switch. We also show how to extract from our model a classical ODE description of the dynamics of a system. Conclusion This approach provides an additional level of description between the biological and mathematical ones. It yields, on the one hand, a knowledge expression in a form which is intuitive for biologists and, on the other hand, its representation in a formal and structured way. PMID:17996051

  12. HUDU: The Hanford Unified Dose Utility computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.

    1991-02-01

    The Hanford Unified Dose Utility (HUDU) computer program was developed to provide rapid initial assessment of radiological emergency situations. The HUDU code uses a straight-line Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the transport of radionuclides released from an accident site. For dose points on the plume centerline, it calculates internal doses due to inhalation and external doses due to exposure to the plume. The program incorporates a number of features unique to the Hanford Site (operated by the US Department of Energy), including a library of source terms derived from various facilities' safety analysis reports. The HUDU code was designed to run on an IBM-PC or compatible personal computer. The user interface was designed for fast and easy operation with minimal user training. The theoretical basis and mathematical models used in the HUDU computer code are described, as are the computer code itself and the data libraries used. Detailed instructions for operating the code are also included. Appendices to the report contain descriptions of the program modules, listings of HUDU's data library, and descriptions of the verification tests that were run as part of the code development. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Toward a unifying taxonomy and definition for meditation

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Jonathan D.; Newberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the norm of fabricatIng new terminology from a first-person perspective. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on the historically well-established and commonly accepted third-person paradigm of Affect and Cognition, borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation which clearly distinguishes “method” from “state” and is conceptualized as a dynamic process which is inclusive of six related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings. PMID:24312060

  14. A UNIFIED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, Joel C.; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-08-10

    We present a unified computational framework that can be used to describe impulsive flares on the Sun and on dMe stars. The models assume that the flare impulsive phase is caused by a beam of charged particles that is accelerated in the corona and propagates downward depositing energy and momentum along the way. This rapidly heats the lower stellar atmosphere causing it to explosively expand and dramatically brighten. Our models consist of flux tubes that extend from the sub-photosphere into the corona. We simulate how flare-accelerated charged particles propagate down one-dimensional flux tubes and heat the stellar atmosphere using the Fokker–Planck kinetic theory. Detailed radiative transfer is included so that model predictions can be directly compared with observations. The flux of flare-accelerated particles drives return currents which additionally heat the stellar atmosphere. These effects are also included in our models. We examine the impact of the flare-accelerated particle beams on model solar and dMe stellar atmospheres and perform parameter studies varying the injected particle energy spectra. We find the atmospheric response is strongly dependent on the accelerated particle cutoff energy and spectral index.

  15. A unified model of the standard genetic code.

    PubMed

    José, Marco V; Zamudio, Gabriel S; Morgado, Eberto R

    2017-03-01

    The Rodin-Ohno (RO) and the Delarue models divide the table of the genetic code into two classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs I and II) with recognition from the minor or major groove sides of the tRNA acceptor stem, respectively. These models are asymmetric but they are biologically meaningful. On the other hand, the standard genetic code (SGC) can be derived from the primeval RNY code (R stands for purines, Y for pyrimidines and N any of them). In this work, the RO-model is derived by means of group actions, namely, symmetries represented by automorphisms, assuming that the SGC originated from a primeval RNY code. It turns out that the RO-model is symmetric in a six-dimensional (6D) hypercube. Conversely, using the same automorphisms, we show that the RO-model can lead to the SGC. In addition, the asymmetric Delarue model becomes symmetric by means of quotient group operations. We formulate isometric functions that convert the class aaRS I into the class aaRS II and vice versa. We show that the four polar requirement categories display a symmetrical arrangement in our 6D hypercube. Altogether these results cannot be attained, neither in two nor in three dimensions. We discuss the present unified 6D algebraic model, which is compatible with both the SGC (based upon the primeval RNY code) and the RO-model.

  16. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  17. Research and development of a unified approach to operations scheduling for electric power under uncertainty. Technical progress report, June 1979-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a unified approach for operations schedulng in electric power systems that explicitly takes into account sources of uncertainty present at all levels in this problem. This objective requires formulating the operations scheduling problem as a single, integrated problem, and developing solution methodologies that start from this integrated formulation and progress to subproblem solution methods that are consistent with it. Progress for the first year of the project is reported. Information is included on: problem definition; time-scale decomposition; stochastic optimization of both parallel and series reservoir systems; stochastic production simulation; maintenance scheduling and nuclear refueling; and short-term resource scheduling. (LCL)

  18. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project…

  19. A UNIFIED KINETIC APPROACH TO BINARY NUCLEATION. (R826768)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Towards a unified taxonomy of health indicators: academic health centers and communities working together to improve population health.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton Mickey; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B; Strelnick, A Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health.

  1. Unified Description of Scattering and Propagation FY14 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    propagation and scattering in continental shelf and slope environments in the 50-4000 Hz band. This includes both the physics of the seabed and the...physical mechanisms on continental shelf and slope environments. The knowledge of such statistics and their relationship to the physics of the propagation...may be useful for sonar applications in continental shelf and slope environments. RELATED PROJECTS Related research projects include understanding

  2. On superconformal projective hypermultiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.

    2007-12-01

    Building on the five-dimensional constructions in hep-th/0601177, we provide a unified description of four-dimensional Script N = 2 superconformal off-shell multiplets in projective superspace, including a realization in terms of Script N = 1 superfields. In particular, superconformal polar multiplets are consistently defined for the first time. We present new 4D Script N = 2 superconformal sigma-models described by polar multiplets. Such sigma-models realize general superconformal couplings in projective superspace, but involve an infinite tale of auxiliary Script N = 1 superfields. The auxiliaries should be eliminated by solving infinitely many algebraic nonlinear equations, and this is a nontrivial technical problem. We argue that the latter can be avoided by making use of supersymmetry considerations. All information about the resulting superconformal model (and hence the associated hyperkähler cone) is encoded in the so-called canonical coordinate system for a Kähler metric, which was introduced by Bochner and Calabi in the late 1940s.

  3. 77 FR 8002 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... February 13, 2012 Part XV Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board Semiannual Regulatory...; ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Ch. XI Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board....

  4. 78 FR 44311 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... July 23, 2013 Part XV Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board Semiannual Regulatory...; ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Ch. XI Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board....

  5. Certified Unified Program Agency (CUPA): A local agency perspective on permit consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    On September 20, 1993, Governor Wilson signed into law SB 1082, introduced and sponsored by Senator Calderon. This bill requires among other things, the Secretary for Environmental Protection, by January 1, 1996, to adopt implementing regulations and implement a Unified Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials Management Regulatory Program. The Unified Program is a merger of the administration of six existing programs relating to hazardous material and hazardous waste management which are currently implemented by state and local governments. Proposed emergency regulations are currently being promulgated by the California Health and Safety Code, wherby the Secretary of Cal-EPA establishes and administers certification requirements for local agencies to carry out the elements of the Unified Program. This report describes the elements of the Unified Program.

  6. 76 FR 53640 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  7. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  8. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate...

  9. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  10. 77 FR 25384 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  11. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  12. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  13. 77 FR 71109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD). (1) The following specified portions...

  14. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations,...

  15. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  16. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  17. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  18. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  19. 77 FR 35327 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  20. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  1. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  2. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  3. 78 FR 71708 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  4. 78 FR 77773 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  5. 78 FR 1622 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... January 8, 2013 Part XIV Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board Semiannual Regulatory...; ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Ch. XI Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board....

  6. Assessing the Utility of Work Team Theory in a Unified Command Environment at Catastrophic Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    OF WORK TEAM THEORY IN A UNIFIED COMMAND ENVIRONMENT AT CATASTROPHIC INCIDENTS by Douglas R. Templeton March 2005 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Assessing the Utility of Work Team Theory in a Unified Command Environment at...absence of team skills instruction as part of a national training curriculum. The current curriculum teaches technical skills and ICS role

  7. Unifying constructal theory of tree roots, canopies and forests.

    PubMed

    Bejan, A; Lorente, S; Lee, J

    2008-10-07

    Here, we show that the most basic features of tree and forest architecture can be put on a unifying theoretical basis, which is provided by the constructal law. Key is the integrative approach to understanding the emergence of "designedness" in nature. Trees and forests are viewed as integral components (along with dendritic river basins, aerodynamic raindrops, and atmospheric and oceanic circulation) of the much greater global architecture that facilitates the cyclical flow of water in nature (Fig. 1) and the flow of stresses between wind and ground. Theoretical features derived in this paper are: the tapered shape of the root and longitudinally uniform diameter and density of internal flow tubes, the near-conical shape of tree trunks and branches, the proportionality between tree length and wood mass raised to 1/3, the proportionality between total water mass flow rate and tree length, the proportionality between the tree flow conductance and the tree length scale raised to a power between 1 and 2, the existence of forest floor plans that maximize ground-air flow access, the proportionality between the length scale of the tree and its rank raised to a power between -1 and -1/2, and the inverse proportionality between the tree size and number of trees of the same size. This paper further shows that there exists an optimal ratio of leaf volume divided by total tree volume, trees of the same size must have a larger wood volume fraction in windy climates, and larger trees must pack more wood per unit of tree volume than smaller trees. Comparisons with empirical correlations and formulas based on ad hoc models are provided. This theory predicts classical notions such as Leonardo's rule, Huber's rule, Zipf's distribution, and the Fibonacci sequence. The difference between modeling (description) and theory (prediction) is brought into evidence.

  8. A Unified Model of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, A.; Rakov, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first stroke in a cloud-to-ground lightning discharge is thought to follow (or be initiated by) the preliminary breakdown process which often produces a train of relatively large microsecond-scale electric field pulses. This process is poorly understood and rarely modeled. Each lightning stroke is composed of a downward leader process and an upward return-stroke process, which are usually modeled separately. We present a unified engineering model for computing the electric field produced by a sequence of preliminary breakdown, stepped leader, and return stroke processes, serving to transport negative charge to ground. We assume that a negatively-charged channel extends downward in a stepped fashion through the relatively-high-field region between the main negative and lower positive charge centers and then through the relatively-low-field region below the lower positive charge center. A relatively-high-field region is also assumed to exist near ground. The preliminary breakdown pulse train is assumed to be generated when the negatively-charged channel interacts with the lower positive charge region. At each step, an equivalent current source is activated at the lower extremity of the channel, resulting in a step current wave that propagates upward along the channel. The leader deposits net negative charge onto the channel. Once the stepped leader attaches to ground (upward connecting leader is presently neglected), an upward-propagating return stroke is initiated, which neutralizes the charge deposited by the leader along the channel. We examine the effect of various model parameters, such as step length and current propagation speed, on model-predicted electric fields. We also compare the computed fields with pertinent measurements available in the literature.

  9. Etiology of inflammatory bowel disease: A unified hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaofa

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), emerged and dramatically increased for about a century. Despite extensive research, its cause remains regarded as unknown. About a decade ago, a series of findings made me suspect that saccharin may be a key causative factor for IBD, through its inhibition on gut bacteria and the resultant impaired inactivation of digestive proteases and over digestion of the mucus layer and gut barrier (the Bacteria-Protease-Mucus-Barrier hypothesis). It explained many puzzles in IBD such as its emergence and temporal changes in last century. Recently I further found evidence suggesting sucralose may be also linked to IBD through a similar mechanism as saccharin and have contributed to the recent worldwide increase of IBD. This new hypothesis suggests that UC and CD are just two symptoms of the same morbidity, rather than two different diseases. They are both caused by a weakening in gut barrier and only differ in that UC is mainly due to increased infiltration of gut bacteria and the resultant recruitment of neutrophils and formation of crypt abscess, while CD is mainly due to increased infiltration of antigens and particles from gut lumen and the resultant recruitment of macrophages and formation of granulomas. It explained the delayed appearance but accelerated increase of CD over UC and many other phenomena. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of a unified hypothesis regarding the etiology of IBD, including the cause and mechanism of IBD, as well as the relationship between UC and CD. PMID:22553395

  10. Unified molecular field theory for collinear and noncollinear Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    DOE PAGES

    Johnston, David C.

    2015-02-27

    In this study, a unified molecular field theory (MFT) is presented that applies to both collinear and planar noncollinear Heisenberg antiferromagnets (AFs) on the same footing. The spins in the system are assumed to be identical and crystallographically equivalent. This formulation allows calculations of the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility χ versus temperature T below the AF ordering temperature TN to be carried out for arbitrary Heisenberg exchange interactions Jij between arbitrary neighbors j of a given spin i without recourse to magnetic sublattices. The Weiss temperature θp in the Curie-Weiss law is written in terms of the Jij values and TNmore » in terms of the Jij values and an assumed AF structure. Other magnetic and thermal properties are then expressed in terms of quantities easily accessible from experiment as laws of corresponding states for a given spin S. For collinear ordering these properties are the reduced temperature t=T/TN, the ratio f = θp/TN, and S. For planar noncollinear helical or cycloidal ordering, an additional parameter is the wave vector of the helix or cycloid. The MFT is also applicable to AFs with other AF structures. The MFT predicts that χ(T ≤ TN) of noncollinear 120° spin structures on triangular lattices is isotropic and independent of S and T and thus clarifies the origin of this universally observed behavior. The high-field magnetization and heat capacity for fields applied perpendicular to the ordering axis (collinear AFs) and ordering plane (planar noncollinear AFs) are also calculated and expressed for both types of AF structures as laws of corresponding states for a given S, and the reduced perpendicular field versus reduced temperature phase diagram is constructed.« less

  11. Unified molecular field theory for collinear and noncollinear Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, David C.

    2015-02-27

    In this study, a unified molecular field theory (MFT) is presented that applies to both collinear and planar noncollinear Heisenberg antiferromagnets (AFs) on the same footing. The spins in the system are assumed to be identical and crystallographically equivalent. This formulation allows calculations of the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility χ versus temperature T below the AF ordering temperature TN to be carried out for arbitrary Heisenberg exchange interactions Jij between arbitrary neighbors j of a given spin i without recourse to magnetic sublattices. The Weiss temperature θp in the Curie-Weiss law is written in terms of the Jij values and TN in terms of the Jij values and an assumed AF structure. Other magnetic and thermal properties are then expressed in terms of quantities easily accessible from experiment as laws of corresponding states for a given spin S. For collinear ordering these properties are the reduced temperature t=T/TN, the ratio f = θp/TN, and S. For planar noncollinear helical or cycloidal ordering, an additional parameter is the wave vector of the helix or cycloid. The MFT is also applicable to AFs with other AF structures. The MFT predicts that χ(T ≤ TN) of noncollinear 120° spin structures on triangular lattices is isotropic and independent of S and T and thus clarifies the origin of this universally observed behavior. The high-field magnetization and heat capacity for fields applied perpendicular to the ordering axis (collinear AFs) and ordering plane (planar noncollinear AFs) are also calculated and expressed for both types of AF structures as laws of corresponding states for a given S, and the reduced perpendicular field versus reduced temperature phase diagram is constructed.

  12. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analysis: A unified multipoint approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Daly, M.J.; Reeve-Daly, M.P.; Lander, E.S.

    1996-06-01

    In complex disease studies, it is crucial to perform multipoint linkage analysis with many markers and to use robust nonparametric methods that take account of all pedigree information. Currently available methods fall short in both regards. In this paper, we describe how to extract complete multipoint inheritance information from general pedigrees of moderate size. This information is captured in the multipoint inheritance distribution, which provides a framework for a unified approach to both parametric and nonparametric methods of linkage analysis. Specifically, the approach includes the following: (1) Rapid exact computation of multipoint LOD scores involving dozens of highly polymorphic markers, even in the presence of loops and missing data. (2) Nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis, a powerful new approach to pedigree analysis. We show that NPL is robust to uncertainty about mode of inheritance, is much more powerful than commonly used nonparametric methods, and loses little power relative to parametric linkage analysis. NPL thus appears to be the method of choice for pedigree studies of complex traits. (3) Information-content mapping, which measures the fraction of the total inheritance information extracted by the available marker data and points out the regions in which typing additional markers is most useful. (4) Maximum-likelihood reconstruction of many-marker haplotypes, even in pedigrees with missing data. We have implemented NPL analysis, LOD-score computation, information-content mapping, and haplotype reconstruction in a new computer package, GENEHUNTER. The package allows efficient multipoint analysis of pedigree data to be performed rapidly in a single user-friendly environment. 34 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A Unified Low-Elevation-Angle Scintillation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Cheung, K.-M.; Ho, C.

    2011-05-01

    Enabling communications at very low elevation angles can lengthen the duration of a tracking pass between a satellite and a ground station, which in turn can increase the amount of data return and possibly reduce the number of required supporting ground station tracking passes. Link performance, especially at very low angles and high frequencies, depends heavily on terrain, atmosphere, and weather conditions. Among the different contributions to attenuation, scintillation fading plays a very significant role and can impair the performance of the link. It is therefore necessary to accurately model the overall impact to the link due to scintillation fading. The current International Telecommunication Union ITU-R P.618-10 Recommendation describes three scintillation loss models as a function of elevation angle and percentage of time for which the loss exceeds a certain threshold. Implementation of the recommendation resulted in the uncovering of several issues. Particularly, it was identified that (i) iterative solutions to an implicit nonlinear exponential model, in some cases, are not guaranteed to exist, (ii) there is a discontinuity in fading values between models at the cross-over elevation angle, (iii) at certain low elevation angles scintillation from the shallow fade model generates unrealistically small losses, and (iv) for elevation angles lying between 4 and 5 deg, there are two applicable scintillation models that yield conflicting values. In this article, we develop a new approach to unify the different fading models within the current ITU recommendation and fully remove the discrepancies. We further validated our models with ITU-adopted scintillation data measured at Goonhilly, Great Britain, and data from several recent NASA Space Shuttle launches. This improved model was provisionally approved at the ITU International Meeting in Italy, November 2010, and is being evaluated by the ITU members for adoption into the next-version ITU Recommendation.

  14. Interacting topological insulator and emergent grand unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the Pati-Salam grand unified theory [J. C. Pati and A. Salam, Phys. Rev. D 10, 275 (1974), 10.1103/PhysRevD.10.275], we study (4 +1 )d topological insulators with SU (4 ) ×SU (2) 1×SU (2) 2 symmetry, whose (3 +1 )d boundary has 16 flavors of left-chiral fermions, which form representations (4 ,2 ,1 ) and (4 ¯,1 ,2 ) . The key result we obtain is that, without any interaction, this topological insulator has a Z classification, namely, any quadratic fermion mass operator at the (3 +1 )d boundary is prohibited by the symmetries listed above; while under interaction, this system becomes trivial, namely, its (3 +1 )d boundary can be gapped out by a properly designed short-range interaction without generating nonzero vacuum expectation value of any fermion bilinear mass, or in other words, its (3 +1 )d boundary can be driven into a "strongly-coupled symmetric gapped (SCSG) phase." Based on this observation, we propose that after coupling the system to a dynamical SU (4 ) ×SU (2) 1×SU (2) 2 lattice gauge field, the Pati-Salam GUT can be fully regularized as the boundary states of a (4 +1 )d topological insulator with a thin fourth spatial dimension, the thin fourth dimension makes the entire system generically a (3 +1 )d system. The mirror sector on the opposite boundary will not interfere with the desired GUT, because the mirror sector is driven to the SCSG phase by a carefully designed interaction and is hence decoupled from the GUT.

  15. Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model.

    PubMed

    Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs

  16. A Unified Theory of the Formation of Galactic Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, V. L.; Polyachenko, E. V.

    2003-07-01

    We give arguments for a basically unified formation mechanism of slow (Lynden-Bell) and fast (common) galactic bars. This mechanism is based on an instability that is akin to the well-known instability of radial orbits and is produced by the mutual attraction and alignment of precessing stellar orbits (so far, only the formation of slow bars has been explained in this way). We present a general theory of the low-frequency modes in a disk that consists of orbits precessing at different angular velocities. The problem of determining these modes is reduced to integral equations of moderately complex structure. The characteristic pattern angular velocities Omega_p of the low-frequency modes are of the order of the mean orbital precession angular velocity . Bar modes are also among the low-frequency modes; while Omega_p is approximately equal to for slow bars, Omega_p for fast bars can appreciably exceed even the maximum orbital precession angular velocity in the disk Omega_pr(max) (however, it remains of the order of these precession angular velocities). The possibility of such an excess of Omega_p over Omega_pr(max) is associated with the effect of "repelling" orbits. The latter tend to move in a direction opposite to the direction in which they are pushed. We analyze the pattern of orbital precession in potentials typical of galactic disks. We note that the maximum radius of an "attracting" circular orbit r_c can serve as a reasonable estimate of the bar length l_b. Such an estimate is in good agreement with the available results of N-body simulations.

  17. Unified Field Theoretical Models from Generalized Affine Geometries II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2011-06-01

    The space-time structure of the new Unified Field Theory presented in previous reference (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 49:1288-1301, 2010) is analyzed from its SL(2C) underlying structure in order to make precise the notion of minimal coupling. To this end, the framework is the language of tensors and particularly differential forms and the condition a priory of the existence of a potential for the torsion is relaxed. We shown trough exact cosmological solutions from this model, where the geometry is Euclidean R⊗ O 3˜ R⊗ SU(2), the relation between the space-time geometry and the structure of the gauge group. Precisely this relation is directly connected with the relation of the spin and torsion fields. The solution of this model is explicitly compared with our previous ones and we find that: (i) the torsion is not identified directly with the Yang Mills type strength field, (ii) there exists a compatibility condition connected with the identification of the gauge group with the geometric structure of the space-time: this fact lead the identification between derivatives of the scale factor a( τ) with the components of the torsion in order to allows the Hosoya-Ogura ansatz (namely, the alignment of the isospin with the frame geometry of the space-time), (iii) this compatibility condition precisely mark the fact that local gauge covariance, coordinate independence and arbitrary space time geometries are harmonious concepts and (iv) of two possible structures of the torsion the "tratorial" form (the only one studied here) forbids wormhole configurations, leading only, cosmological instanton space-time in eternal expansion.

  18. A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Wei, G W

    2014-05-15

    We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge-Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge-Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes.

  19. A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan; Wei, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge–Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge–Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge–Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. PMID:25382889

  20. Geo-Seas - building a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Schaap, D.; Graham, C.; Geo-Seas Consortium Partners

    2010-12-01

    A significant barrier to marine geoscientific research in Europe is the lack of standardised marine geological and geophysical data and data products which could potentially facilitate multidisciplinary marine research extending across national and international boundaries. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations as well as between countries. This makes the direct use of primary data very difficult and also hampers use of the data to produce integrated multidisciplinary data products and services. Marine geological and geophysical data includes raw observational and analytical data acquired from sea bed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc), multibeam and sidescan sonar surveys as well as derived data products such as seafloor maps. All of these data types are required in order to produce a complete interpretation of seafloor geology, an essential component of integrated multidisciplinary ocean science. Geo-Seas is an European Union-funded three year project which started in May 2009. The project has the overall objective to build and deploy a unified e-infrastructure which will facilitate the sharing of marine geoscientific data using agreed standards and harmonised format within Europe. This will result in a major improvement for researchers, stake holders and policy makers wanting to identify, locate and access marine geological and geophysical data and data products held by the 26 geological surveys and research institutes across Europe which will form the nodes for the Geo-Seas infrastructure. Geo-Seas is currently building on the work already done by the existing SeaDataNet project which provides a data management infrastructure for oceanographic data. By adopting and adapting