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Sample records for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase epsps

  1. Phosphate closes the solution structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Júlio C; Pereira, José H; Vasconcelos, Igor B; dos Santos, Giovanni C; Olivieri, Johnny R; Ramos, Carlos H I; Palma, Mário S; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2006-08-15

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase catalyses the sixth step of the shikimate pathway that is responsible for synthesizing aromatic compounds and is absent in mammals, which makes it a potential target for drugs development against microbial diseases. Here, we report the phosphate binding effects at the structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This enzyme is formed by two similar domains that close on each other induced by ligand binding, showing the occurrence of a large conformation change. We have monitored the phosphate binding effects using analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle X-ray scattering and, circular dichroism techniques. The low resolution results showed that the enzyme in the presence of phosphate clearly presented a more compact structure. Thermal-induced unfolding experiments followed by circular dichroism suggested that phosphate rigidified the enzyme. Summarizing, these data suggested that the phosphate itself is able to induce conformational change resulting in the closure movement in the M. tuberculosis 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

  2. In silico peptide prediction for antibody generation to recognize 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Marani, Mariela M; Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Camperi, Silvia A; Leite, José Roberto de Souza Almeida

    2015-03-01

    For the prospective immunorecognition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) as a biomarker protein expressed by transgenic soybean, an extensive in silico evaluation of the referred protein was performed. The main objective of this study was the selection of a set of peptides that could function as potential immunogens for the production of novel antibodies against CP4-EPSPS protein. For this purpose, the protein was in silico cleaved with trypsin/chymotrypsin and the resultant peptides were extensively analyzed for further selection of the best candidates for antibody production. The analysis enabled the successful proposal of four peptides with potential immunogenicity for their future use as screening biomarkers of genetically modified organisms. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to select and define potential linear epitopes for the immunization of animals and, subsequently, to generate adequate antibodies for CP4-EPSPS recognition. The present work will be followed by the synthesis of the candidate peptides to be incubated in animals for antibody generation and potential applicability for the development of an immunosensor for CP4-EPSPS detection.

  3. Plastid-expressed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes provide high level glyphosate tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ye, G N; Hajdukiewicz, P T; Broyles, D; Rodriguez, D; Xu, C W; Nehra, N; Staub, J M

    2001-02-01

    Plastid transformation (transplastomic) technology has several potential advantages for biotechnological applications including the use of unmodified prokaryotic genes for engineering, potential high-level gene expression and gene containment due to maternal inheritance in most crop plants. However, the efficacy of a plastid-encoded trait may change depending on plastid number and tissue type. We report a feasibility study in tobacco plastids to achieve high-level herbicide resistance in both vegetative tissues and reproductive organs. We chose to test glyphosate resistance via over-expression in plastids of tolerant forms of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Immunological, enzymatic and whole-plant assays were used to prove the efficacy of three different prokaryotic (Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Bacillus) EPSPS genes. Using the Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS as a model we identified translational control sequences that direct a 10,000-fold range of protein accumulation (to >10% total soluble protein in leaves). Plastid-expressed EPSPS could provide very high levels of glyphosate resistance, although levels of resistance in vegetative and reproductive tissues differed depending on EPSPS accumulation levels, and correlated to the plastid abundance in these tissues. Paradoxically, higher levels of plastid-expressed EPSPS protein accumulation were apparently required for efficacy than from a similar nuclear-encoded gene. Nevertheless, the demonstration of high-level glyphosate tolerance in vegetative and reproductive organs using transplastomic technology provides a necessary step for transfer of this technology to other crop species.

  4. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass. Identification of a mutation in the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Baerson, Scott R; Rodriguez, Damian J; Tran, Minhtien; Feng, Yongmei; Biest, Nancy A; Dill, Gerald M

    2002-07-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD(50) value approximately 2- to 4-fold greater than the sensitive biotype collected from the same region. A comparison of the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity by glyphosate in extracts prepared from the resistant (R) and sensitive (S) biotypes revealed an approximately 5-fold higher IC(50)(glyphosate) for the (R) biotype. Sequence comparisons of the predicted EPSPS mature protein coding regions from both biotypes revealed four single-nucleotide differences, two of which result in amino acid changes. One of these changes, a proline to serine substitution at position 106 in the (R) biotype, corresponds to a substitution previously identified in a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. Kinetic data generated for the recombinant enzymes suggests that the second substitution identified in the (R) EPSPS does not contribute significantly to its reduced glyphosate sensitivity. Escherichia coli aroA- (EPSPS deficient) strains expressing the mature EPSPS enzyme from the (R) biotype exhibited an approximately 3-fold increase in glyphosate tolerance relative to strains expressing the mature EPSPS from the (S) biotype. These results provide the first evidence for an altered EPSPS enzyme as an underlying component of evolved glyphosate resistance in any plant species.

  5. Mutation by DNA shuffling of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Malus domestica for improved glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xu, Hu; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Hong-Juan; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-09-01

    A new 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Malus domestica (MdEPSPS) was cloned and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify an EPSPS gene appropriate for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants. However, wild-type MdEPSPS is not suitable for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants because of its poor glyphosate resistance. Thus, we performed DNA shuffling on MdEPSPS, and one highly glyphosate-resistant mutant with mutations in eight amino acids (N63D, N86S, T101A, A187T, D230G, H317R, Y399R and C413A.) was identified after five rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Among the eight amino acid substitutions on this mutant, only two residue changes (T101A and A187T) were identified by site-directed mutagenesis as essential and additive in altering glyphosate resistance, which was further confirmed by kinetic analyses. The single-site A187T mutation has also never been previously reported as an important residue for glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, transgenic rice was used to confirm the potential of MdEPSPS mutant in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  6. Nucleotide variability in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Chong, J L; Wickneswari, R; Ismail, B S; Salmijah, S

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the results of the partial DNA sequence analysis of the 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn from Peninsular Malaysia. Sequencing results revealed point mutation at nucleotide position 875 in the R biotypes of Bidor, Chaah and Temerloh. In the Chaah R population, substitution of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) resulted in the change of threonine (Thr106) to proline (Pro106) and from C to thymidine (T) in the Bidor R population, leading to serine (Ser106) from Pro106. As for the Temerloh R, C was substituted by T resulting in the change of Pro106 to Ser106. A new mutation previously undetected in the Temerloh R was revealed with C being substituted with A, resulting in the change of Pro106 to Thr106 indicating multiple founding events rather than to the spread of a single resistant allele. There was no point mutation recorded at nucleotide position 875 previously demonstrated to play a pivotal role in conferring glyphosate resistance to E. indica for the Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor, Melaka R populations. Thus, there may be another resistance mechanism yet undiscovered in the resistant Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor and Melaka populations.

  7. Identification of a Glyphosate-Resistant Mutant of Rice 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-Phosphate Synthase Using a Directed Evolution Strategy1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Xu, Honglin; Wei, Xiaoli; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wei, Liping; Gong, Weimin; Wang, Yongqin; Zhu, Zhen

    2006-01-01

    5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway and is targeted by the wide-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Here, we describe the use of a selection system based on directed evolution to select glyphosate-resistant mutants of EPSPS. Using this system, the rice (Oryza sativa) EPSPS gene, mutagenized by Error-Prone polymerase chain reaction, was introduced into an EPSPS-deficient Escherichia coli strain, AB2829, and transformants were selected on minimal medium by functional complementation. Three mutants with high glyphosate resistance were identified in three independent glyphosate selection experiments. Each mutant contained a C317→T transition within the EPSPS coding sequence, causing a change of proline-106 to leucine (P106L) in the protein sequence. Glyphosate resistance assays indicated a 3-fold increase in glyphosate resistance of E. coli expressing the P106L mutant. Affinity of the P106L mutant for glyphosate and phosphoenolpyruvate was decreased about 70-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively, compared to wild-type EPSPS. Analysis based on a kinetic model demonstrates that the P106L mutant has a high glyphosate resistance while retaining relatively high catalytic efficiency at low phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations. A mathematical model derived from the Michaelis-Menten equation was used to characterize the effect of expression level and selection conditions on kinetic (Ki and Km) variation of the mutants. This prediction suggests that the expression level is an important aspect of the selection system. Furthermore, glyphosate resistance of the P106L mutant was confirmed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), demonstrating the potential for using the P106L mutant in transgenic crops. PMID:16361526

  8. Transgenic tobacco simultaneously overexpressing glyphosate N-acetyltransferase and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase are more resistant to glyphosate than those containing one gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunjun; Cao, Gaoyi; Chen, Rongrong; Zhang, Shengxue; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2015-08-01

    5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and glyphosate N-acetyltransferase (GAT) can detoxify glyphosate by alleviating the suppression of shikimate pathway. In this study, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing AM79 aroA, GAT, and both of them, respectively, to evaluate whether overexpression of both genes could confer transgenic plants with higher glyphosate resistance. The transgenic plants harboring GAT or AM79 aroA, respectively, showed good glyphosate resistance. As expected, the hybrid plants containing both GAT and AM79 aroA exhibited improved glyphosate resistance than the transgenic plants overexpressing only a single gene. When grown on media with high concentration of glyphosate, seedlings containing a single gene were severely inhibited, whereas plants expressing both genes were affected less. When transgenic plants grown in the greenhouse were sprayed with glyphosate, less damage was observed for the plants containing both genes. Metabolomics analysis showed that transgenic plants containing two genes could maintain the metabolism balance better than those containing one gene after glyphosate treatment. Glyphosate treatment did not lead to a huge increase of shikimate contents of tobacco leaves in transgenic plants overexpressing two genes, whereas significant increase of shikimate contents in transgenic plants containing only a single gene was observed. These results demonstrated that pyramiding both aroA and GAT in transgenic plants can enhance glyphosate resistance, and this strategy can be used for the development of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops.

  9. Evolution of a Double Amino Acid Substitution in the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase in Eleusine indica Conferring High-Level Glyphosate Resistance1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R. Douglas; Powles, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I + P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. PMID:25717039

  10. Evolution of a double amino acid substitution in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Eleusine indica conferring high-level glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R Douglas; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I+P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action.

  11. Physical Mapping of Amplified Copies of the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene in Glyphosate-Resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Andrew; Varanasi, Vijay K; Danilova, Tatiana V; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nakka, Sridevi; Peterson, Dallas E; Tranel, Patrick J; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S; Jugulam, Mithila

    2017-02-01

    Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-P synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A tuberculatus using fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis mapped the EPSPS gene to pericentromeric regions of two homologous chromosomes in glyphosate sensitive A tuberculatus In glyphosate-resistant plants, a cluster of EPSPS genes on the pericentromeric region on one pair of homologous chromosomes was detected. Intriguingly, two highly glyphosate-resistant plants harbored an additional chromosome with several EPSPS copies besides the native chromosome pair with EPSPS copies. These results suggest that the initial event of EPSPS gene duplication may have occurred because of unequal recombination mediated by repetitive DNA. Subsequently, gene amplification may have resulted via several other mechanisms, such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletion/insertion, transposon-mediated dispersion, or possibly by interspecific hybridization. This report illustrates the physical mapping of amplified EPSPS copies in A tuberculatus.

  12. The expressed protein in glyphosate-tolerant soybean, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, is rapidly digested in vitro and is not toxic to acutely gavaged mice.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L A; Bailey, M R; Naylor, M W; Ream, J E; Hammond, B G; Nida, D L; Burnette, B L; Nickson, T E; Mitsky, T A; Taylor, M L; Fuchs, R L; Padgette, S R

    1996-03-01

    The safety of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase enzyme derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) was assessed. CP4 EPSPS is the only protein introduced by genetic manipulation that is expressed in glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, which are being developed to provide new weed-control options for farmers. Expression of this protein in plants imparts high levels of glyphosate tolerance. The safety of CP4 EPSPS was ascertained by evaluating both physical and functional characteristics. CP4 EPSPS degrades readily in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, suggesting that this protein will be degraded in the mammalian digestive tract upon ingestion as a component of food or feed, There were no deleterious effects due to the acute administration of CP4 EPSPS to mice by gavage at a high dosage of 572 mg/kg body wt, which exceeds 1000-fold tha anticipated consumption level of food products potentially containing CP4 EPSPS protein. CP4 EPSPS does not pose any important allergen concerns because this protein does not possess characteristics typical of allergenic proteins. These data, in combination with seed compositional analysis and animal feeding studies, support the conclusion that glyphosate-tolerant soybean are as safe and nutritious as traditional soybeans currently being marketed.

  13. Structure and topological symmetry of the glyphosate target 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase: a distinctive protein fold.

    PubMed Central

    Stallings, W C; Abdel-Meguid, S S; Lim, L W; Shieh, H S; Dayringer, H E; Leimgruber, N K; Stegeman, R A; Anderson, K S; Sikorski, J A; Padgette, S R; Kishore, G M

    1991-01-01

    5-enol-Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP synthase; phosphoenolpyruvate:3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.19) is an enzyme on the pathway toward the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria and is the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from Escherichia coli has been determined by crystallographic techniques. The polypeptide backbone chain was traced by examination of an electron density map calculated at 3-A resolution. The two-domain structure has a distinctive fold and appears to be formed by 6-fold replication of a protein folding unit comprising two parallel helices and a four-stranded sheet. Each domain is formed from three of these units, which are related by an approximate threefold symmetry axis; in each domain three of the helices are completely buried by a surface formed from the three beta-sheets and solvent-accessible faces of the other three helices. The domains are related by an approximate dyad, but in the present crystals the molecule does not display pseudo-symmetry related to the symmetry of point group 32 because its approximate threefold axes are almost normal. A possible relation between the three-dimensional structure of the protein and the linear sequence of its gene will be described. The topological threefold symmetry and orientation of each of the two observed globular domains may direct the binding of substrates and inhibitors by a helix macrodipole effect and implies that the active site is located near the interdomain crossover segments. The structure also suggests a rationale for the glyphosate tolerance conferred by sequence alterations. Images PMID:11607190

  14. Evidence for a reactive gamma-carboxyl group (Glu-418) at the herbicide glyphosate binding site of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Q K

    1988-08-25

    Incubation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, a target for the nonselective herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide in the presence of glycine ethyl ester resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzyme activity. The inactivation followed pseudo-first order kinetics, with a second order rate constant of 2.2 M-1 min-1 at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C. The inactivation is prevented by preincubation of the enzyme with a combination of the substrate shikimate 3-phosphate plus glyphosate, but not by shikimate 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate, or glyphosate alone. Increasing the concentration of glyphosate during preincubation resulted in decreasing the rate of inactivation of the enzyme. Complete inactivation of the enzyme required the modification of 4 carboxyl groups per molecule of the enzyme. However, statistical analysis of the residual activity and the extent of modification showed that among the 4 modifiable carboxyl groups, only 1 is critical for activity. Tryptic mapping of the enzyme modified in the absence of shikimate 3-phosphate and glyphosate by reverse phase chromatography resulted in the isolation of a [14C]glycine ethyl ester-containing peptide that was absent in the enzyme modified in the presence of shikimate 3-phosphate and glyphosate. By amino acid sequencing of this labeled peptide, the modified critical carboxyl group was identified as Glu-418. The above results suggest that Glu-418 is the most accessible reactive carboxyl group under these conditions and is located at or close to the glyphosate binding site.

  15. Physical Mapping of Amplified Copies of the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene in Glyphosate-Resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Andrew; Varanasi, Vijay K.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nakka, Sridevi; Peterson, Dallas E.; Friebe, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A. tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-P synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A. tuberculatus using fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis mapped the EPSPS gene to pericentromeric regions of two homologous chromosomes in glyphosate sensitive A. tuberculatus. In glyphosate-resistant plants, a cluster of EPSPS genes on the pericentromeric region on one pair of homologous chromosomes was detected. Intriguingly, two highly glyphosate-resistant plants harbored an additional chromosome with several EPSPS copies besides the native chromosome pair with EPSPS copies. These results suggest that the initial event of EPSPS gene duplication may have occurred because of unequal recombination mediated by repetitive DNA. Subsequently, gene amplification may have resulted via several other mechanisms, such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletion/insertion, transposon-mediated dispersion, or possibly by interspecific hybridization. This report illustrates the physical mapping of amplified EPSPS copies in A. tuberculatus. PMID:27956489

  16. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the homoeologous EPSP Synthase genes of allohexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the sixth and penultimate enzyme in the shikimate biosynthesis pathway. The EPSPS genes of allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) have not been well characterized. Herein, the three homoeologous copies of the wheat EPSPS gen...

  17. Distinguishing between weedy Amaranthus species based on intron one sequences from the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization between Amaranthus species and the potential for herbicide resistance to be transferred by hybridization are of growing concern in the weed science community. It is important to confirm suspect hybrid populations early to develop an effective control strategy. With this in mind, a PC...

  18. Glyphosate inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthease from suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.L.; Gaines, C.G.; Jensen, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    Treatment of isogenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris Speg, et Comes with glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) led to elevated levels of intracellular shikimate (364-fold increase by 1.0 millimolar glyphosate). In the presence of glyphosate, it is likely that most molecules of shikimate originate from the action of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase-Mn since this isozyme, in contrast to the DAHP synthase-Co isozyme, is insensitive to inhibition by glyphosate. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.19) from N. silvestris was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of glyphosate and possessed a single inhibitor binding site. Rigorous kinetic studies of EPSP synthase required resolution from the multiple phosphatase activities present in crude extracts, a result achieved by ion-exchange column chromatography. Although EPSP synthase exhibited a broad pH profile (50% of maximal activity between pH 6.2 and 8.5), sensitivity to glyphosate increased dramatically with increasing pH within this range. In accordance with these data and the pK/sub a/ values of glyphosate, it is likely that the ionic form of glyphosate inhibiting EPSP synthase is COO/sup -/CH/sub 2/NH/sub 2//sup +/CH/sub 2/PO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, and that a completely ionized phosphono group is essential for inhibition. At pH 7.0, inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphoenolpyruvate (K/sub i/ = 1.25 micromolar) and uncompetitive with respect to shikimate-3-P (K/sub i/ = 18.3 micromolar). All data were consistent with a mechanism of inhibition in which glyphosate competes with PEP for binding to an (enzyme:shikimate-3-P) complex and ultimately forms the dead-end complex of (enzyme:shikimate-3-P:glyphosate). 36 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  19. Identification of genetic elements associated with EPSPS gene amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed populations can have high genetic plasticity and rapid responses to environmental selection pressures. For example, 100-fold amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene evolved to confer resistance to glyphosate, the world's most important herbicide, in the wee...

  20. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of a novel class II 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase from the deep-sea bacterium Alcanivorax sp. L27.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Yi, Licong; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Lili; Shao, Zongze; Liu, Ziduo

    2014-09-01

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway in microorganisms and plants, which catalyzes the formation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) from shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). In this study, a novel AroA-encoding gene was identified from the deep sea bacterium Alcanivorax sp. L27 through screening the genomic library and termed as AroAA.sp. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that AroAA.sp (1317 bp and 438 amino acids) is a class II AroA. This enzyme exhibited considerable activity between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0 and notable activity at low temperatures. The KM for PEP and IC50 [glyphosate] values (the concentration of glyphosate that inhibited enzyme activity by 50%) of AroAA.sp were 78 μM and 1.5 mM, respectively. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the G100A mutant had a 30-fold increase in the IC50 [glyphosate] value; while the L105P mutant showed only 20% catalytic activity compared to wild-type AroAA.sp. The specific activity of the wild-type AroAA.sp, the G100A mutant and the L105P mutant were 7.78 U/mg, 7.26 U/mg and 1.76 U/mg, respectively. This is the first report showing that the G100A mutant of AroA displays considerably improved glyphosate resistance and demonstrates that Leu105 is essential for the enzyme's activity.

  1. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  2. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass. Identification of a Mutation in the Target Enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD50 value approxima...

  3. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-12

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system.

  4. EPSPS Gene Copy Number and Whole-Plant Glyphosate Resistance Level in Kochia scoparia.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Todd A; Barker, Abigail L; Patterson, Eric L; Westra, Philip; Westra, Eric P; Wilson, Robert G; Jha, Prashant; Kumar, Vipan; Kniss, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Kochia scoparia has evolved in dryland chemical fallow systems throughout North America and the mechanism of resistance involves 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene duplication. Agricultural fields in four states were surveyed for K. scoparia in 2013 and tested for glyphosate-resistance level and EPSPS gene copy number. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in K. scoparia populations collected from sugarbeet fields in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and Montana. Glyphosate resistance was also confirmed in K. scoparia accessions collected from wheat-fallow fields in Montana. All GR samples had increased EPSPS gene copy number, with median population values up to 11 from sugarbeet fields and up to 13 in Montana wheat-fallow fields. The results indicate that glyphosate susceptibility can be accurately diagnosed using EPSPS gene copy number.

  5. EPSPS Gene Copy Number and Whole-Plant Glyphosate Resistance Level in Kochia scoparia

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Barker, Abigail L.; Patterson, Eric L.; Westra, Philip; Westra, Eric P.; Wilson, Robert G.; Jha, Prashant; Kumar, Vipan

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Kochia scoparia has evolved in dryland chemical fallow systems throughout North America and the mechanism of resistance involves 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene duplication. Agricultural fields in four states were surveyed for K. scoparia in 2013 and tested for glyphosate-resistance level and EPSPS gene copy number. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in K. scoparia populations collected from sugarbeet fields in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and Montana. Glyphosate resistance was also confirmed in K. scoparia accessions collected from wheat-fallow fields in Montana. All GR samples had increased EPSPS gene copy number, with median population values up to 11 from sugarbeet fields and up to 13 in Montana wheat-fallow fields. The results indicate that glyphosate susceptibility can be accurately diagnosed using EPSPS gene copy number. PMID:27992501

  6. Identification of Genetic Elements Associated with EPSPS Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Wright, Alice A.; Molin, William T.; Lorentz, Lothar; Riggins, Chance W.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Beffa, Roland; Westra, Philip; Powles, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Weed populations can have high genetic plasticity and rapid responses to environmental selection pressures. For example, 100-fold amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene evolved in the weed species Amaranthus palmeri to confer resistance to glyphosate, the world’s most important herbicide. However, the gene amplification mechanism is unknown. We sequenced the EPSPS gene and genomic regions flanking EPSPS loci in A. palmeri, and searched for mobile genetic elements or repetitive sequences. The EPSPS gene was 10,229 bp, containing 8 exons and 7 introns. The gene amplification likely proceeded through a DNA-mediated mechanism, as introns exist in the amplified gene copies and the entire amplified sequence is at least 30 kb in length. Our data support the presence of two EPSPS loci in susceptible (S) A. palmeri, and that only one of these was amplified in glyphosate-resistant (R) A. palmeri. The EPSPS gene amplification event likely occurred recently, as no sequence polymorphisms were found within introns of amplified EPSPS copies from R individuals. Sequences with homology to miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) were identified next to EPSPS gene copies only in R individuals. Additionally, a putative Activator (Ac) transposase and a repetitive sequence region were associated with amplified EPSPS genes. The mechanism controlling this DNA-mediated amplification remains unknown. Further investigation is necessary to determine if the gene amplification may have proceeded via DNA transposon-mediated replication, and/or unequal recombination between different genomic regions resulting in replication of the EPSPS gene. PMID:23762434

  7. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela N; Pan, Zhiqiang; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K; Baldwin, Brian S; Shaw, David R; Dayan, Franck E

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses contain higher 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene copy numbers than the S population. EPSPS expression, EPSPS enzyme activity, EPSPS protein quantity, and level of resistance to glyphosate correlated positively with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Transfer of resistance was more influenced by the female than the male parent in spite of the fact that the multiple copies of EPSPS are amplified in the nuclear genome. This led us to hypothesize that this perplexing pattern of inheritance may result from apomictic seed production in A. palmeri. We confirmed that reproductively isolated R and S female plants produced seeds, indicating that A. palmeri can produce seeds both sexually and apomictically (facultative apomixis). This apomictic trait accounts for the low copy number inheritance in the Female-S × Male-R offsprings. Apomixis may also enhance the stability of the glyphosate resistance trait in the R populations in the absence of reproductive partners.

  8. Generation of insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant rice by introduction of a T-DNA containing two Bt insecticidal genes and an EPSPS gene*

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Qi-chao; LIU, Ming-hong; ZHANG, Xian-wen; LIN, Chao-yang; ZHANG, Qing; SHEN, Zhi-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance have been two of the most important traits in the genetic improvement of various crops. In this study, two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal genes, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ig, and a modified glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene (G10) were combined into a single transferred DNA (T-DNA) fragment and introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transgenic line with single-copy T-DNA insertion named GAI-14 was found to be highly resistant to striped stem borer and rice leaf roller, and tolerant to glyphosate. Analysis of T-DNA border sequence suggested that the transgenes were inserted at the chromosome 3 and appeared to have not interrupted any known or putative genes. A field trial observed no significant difference in the basic agronomic traits between GAI-14 and the recipient rice. PMID:26465130

  9. Mass spectrometric detection of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya and maize.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Mireia Fernández; Fraser, Paul D; Patel, Raj K P; Halket, John M; Bramley, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    The potential of protein fractionation hyphenated to mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and characterize the transgenic protein present in Roundup Ready soya and maize has been investigated. Genetically modified (GM) soya and maize contain the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens CP4, which confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The GM soya and maize proteomes were fractionated by gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) prior to MS. This facilitated detection of a tryptic peptide map of CP4 EPSPS by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (nanoESI-QTOF) MS. Subsequently, sequence information from the CP4 EPSPS tryptic peptides was obtained by nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS. The identification was accomplished in 0.9% GM soya seeds, which is the current EU threshold for food-labeling requirements.

  10. Collaborative trial validation studies of real-time PCR-based GMO screening methods for detection of the bar gene and the ctp2-cp4epsps construct.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Lutz; Brünen-Nieweler, Claudia; Nemeth, Anne; Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-10-14

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based screening methods targeting genetic elements commonly used in genetically modified (GM) plants are important tools for the detection of GM materials in food, feed, and seed samples. To expand and harmonize the screening capability of enforcement laboratories, the German Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety conducted collaborative trials for interlaboratory validation of real-time PCR methods for detection of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and a construct containing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens sp. strain CP4 (ctp2-cp4epsps), respectively. To assess the limit of detection, precision, and accuracy of the methods, laboratories had to analyze two sets of 18 coded genomic DNA samples of events LLRice62 and MS8 with the bar method and NK603 and GT73 with the ctp2-cp4epsps method at analyte levels of 0, 0.02, and 0.1% GM content, respectively. In addition, standard DNAs were provided to the laboratories to generate calibration curves for copy number quantification of the bar and ctp2-cp4epsps target sequences present in the test samples. The study design and the results obtained are discussed with respect to the difficult issue of developing general guidelines and concepts for the collaborative trial validation of qualitative PCR screening methods.

  11. Reevaluating glyphosate as a transition-state inhibitor of EPSP synthase: identification of an EPSP synthase.EPSP.glyphosate ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Sammons, R D; Gruys, K J; Anderson, K S; Johnson, K A; Sikorski, J A

    1995-05-16

    Numerous studies have confirmed that glyphosate forms a tight ternary complex with EPSP synthase and shikimate 3-phosphate. It has been proposed [Anton, D., Hedstrom, L., Fish, S., & Abeles, R. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 5903-5908; Steinrücken, H. C., & Amrhein, N. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 143, 351-357] that in this complex glyphosate functions as a transition-state analog of the putative phosphoenolpyruvoyl oxonium ion. For this to be true, glyphosate must occupy the space in the enzyme active site that is normally associated with PEP and, through turnover, the carboxyvinyl group of the product EPSP. According to this model, one would predict that, in the reverse EPSP synthase reaction with EPSP and phosphate as substrates, there should be little if any interaction of glyphosate with enzyme or enzyme.substrate complexes. In contrast to this expectation, rapid gel filtration experiments provided direct evidence that glyphosate could be trapped on the enzyme in the presence of EPSP to form a ternary complex of EPSPS.EPSP.glyphosate. The experimentally determined stoichiometry for this complex, 0.62 equiv of glyphosate/mole of EPSPS, is similar to that found for the EPSPS.S3P.glyphosate ternary complex (0.66). This direct binding result was corroborated and quantitated by fluorescence titration experiments which demonstrated that glyphosate forms a reasonably tight (Kd = 56 +/- 1 microM) ternary complex with enzyme and EPSP. This finding was further verified, and its impact on substrate turnover analyzed, by steady-state kinetics. Glyphosate was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor versus EPSP with Kii(app) = 54 +/- 2 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Expression of CP4 EPSPS in microspores and tapetum cells of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is critical for male reproductive development in response to late-stage glyphosate applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chia Sophia; Hubmeier, Christopher; Tran, Minhtien; Martens, Amy; Cerny, R Eric; Sammons, R Doug; CaJacob, Claire

    2006-09-01

    Plants expressing Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) are known to be resistant to glyphosate, a potent herbicide that inhibits the activity of the endogenous plant EPSPS. The RR1445 transgenic cotton line (current commercial line for Roundup Ready Cotton) was generated using the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) 35S promoter to drive the expression of the CP4 EPSPS gene, and has excellent vegetative tolerance to glyphosate. However, with high glyphosate application rates at developmental stages later than the four-leaf stage (late-stage applications: applications that are inconsistent with the Roundup labels), RR1445 shows male sterility. Another transgenic cotton line, RR60, was generated using the FMV 35S promoter and the Arabidopsis elongation factor-1alpha promoter (AtEF1alpha) for the expression of CP4 EPSPS. RR60 has excellent vegetative and reproductive tolerance to applications of glyphosate at all developmental stages. Histochemical analyses were conducted to examine the male reproductive development at the cellular level of these cotton lines in response to glyphosate applications, and to investigate the correlation between glyphosate injury and the expression of CP4 EPSPS in male reproductive tissues. The expression of CP4 EPSPS in RR60 was found to be strong in all male reproductive cell types. Conversely, CP4 EPSPS expression in RR1445 was low in pollen mother cells, male gametophytes and tapetum, three crucial male reproductive cell types. Our results indicate that the FMV 35S promoter, although expressing strongly in most vegetative tissues in plants, has extremely low activity in these cell types.

  13. Development of an innovative immunoassay for CP4EPSPS and Cry1AB genetically modified protein detection and quantification.

    PubMed

    Ermolli, M; Prospero, A; Balla, B; Querci, M; Mazzeo, A; Van Den Eede, G

    2006-09-01

    An innovative immunoassay, called enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) Reverse, based on a new conformation of the solid phase, was developed. The solid support was expressly designed to be immersed directly in liquid samples to detect the presence of protein targets. Its application is proposed in those cases where a large number of samples have to be screened simultaneously or when the simultaneous detection of different proteins is required. As a first application, a quantitative immunoassay for Cry1AB protein in genetically modified maize was optimized. The method was tested using genetically modified organism concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were determined as 0.0056 and 0.0168 (expressed as the percentage of genetically modified organisms content), respectively. A qualitative multiplex assay to assess the presence of two genetically modified proteins simultaneously was also established for the case of the Cry1AB and the CP4EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in genetically modified maize and soy, respectively.

  14. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  15. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  16. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  17. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  18. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  19. Gene Amplification Is A Mechanism For Rapid Weed Evolution To Herbicide Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the U.S. and other parts of the world following the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops were created by introduction of a modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, the herbicide target site. Increased use of ...

  20. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in cloned Amaranthus palmeri plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (GA) possesses multiple copies of the target site, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) of this herbicide. Cloned plants of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi (MS) were compared with GA populations using le...

  1. Observation by sup 13 C NMR of the EPSP synthase tetrahedral intermediate bound to the enzyme active site

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.S.; Sammons, R.D.; Leo, G.C.; Sikorski, J.A. ); Benesi, A.J.; Johnson, K.A. )

    1990-02-13

    Direct observation of the tetrahedral intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction pathway was provided by {sup 13}C NMR by examining the species bound to the enzyme active site under internal equilibrium conditions and using (2-{sup 13}C)PEP as a spectroscopic probe. The tetrahedral center of the intermediate bound to the enzyme gave a unique signal appearing at 104 ppm. Separate signals were observed for free EPSP and EPSP bound to the enzyme in a ternary complex with phosphate. These peak assignments account for the quantitation of the species bound to the enzyme and liberated upon quenching with either triethylamine or base. A comparison of quenching with acid, base, or triethylamine was conducted. After long times of incubation during the NMR measurement, a signal at 107 ppm appeared. The compound giving rise to this resonance was isolated and identified as an EPSP ketal. The rate of formation of the EPSP ketal was very slow establishing that it is a side product of the normal enzymatic reaction. To look for additional signals that might arise from a covalent adduct which has been postulated to arise from reaction of enzyme with PEP, and NMR experiment was performed with an analogue of S3P lacking the 4- and 5-hydroxyl groups. All of these results reaffirm identification of the tetrahedral species as the only observable intermediate in the EPSP synthase reaction.

  2. An EPSP synthase inhibitor joining shikimate 3-phosphate with glyphosate: synthesis and ligand binding studies.

    PubMed

    Marzabadi, M R; Gruys, K J; Pansegrau, P D; Walker, M C; Yuen, H K; Sikorski, J A

    1996-04-02

    A novel EPSP synthase inhibitor 4 has been designed and synthesized to probe the configurational details of glyphosate recognition in its herbicidal ternary complex with enzyme and shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P). A kinetic evaluation of the new 3-dephospho analog 12, as well as calorimetric and (31)P NMR spectroscopic studies of enzyme-bound 4, now provides a more precise quantitative definition for the molecular interactions of 4 with this enzyme. The very poor binding, relative to 4, displayed by the 3-dephospho analog 12 is indicative that 4 has a specific interaction with the S3P site. A comparison of Ki(calc) for 12 versus the Ki(app) for 4 indicates that the 3-phosphate group in 4 contributes about 4.8 kcal/mol to binding. This compares well with the 5.2 kcal/mol which the 3-phosphate group in S3P contributes to binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that 4 binds to free enzyme with an observed Kd of 0.53 +/- 0.04 microM. As such, 4 binds only 3-fold weaker than glyphosate and about 150-fold better than N-methylglyphosate. Consequently, 4 represents the most potent N-alkylglyphosate derivative identified to date. However, the resulting thermodynamic binding parameters clearly demonstrate that the formation of EPSPS x 4 is entropy driven like S3P. The binding characteristics of 4 are fully consistent with a primary interaction localized at the S3P subsite. Furthermore, (31)P NMR studies of enzyme-bound 4 confirm the expected interaction at the shikimate 3-phosphate site. However, the chemical shift observed for the phosphonate signal of EPSPS x 4 is in the opposite direction than that observed previously when glyphosate binds with enzyme and S3P. Therefore, when 4 occupies the S3P binding site, there is incomplete overlap at the glyphosate phosphonate subsite. As a glyphosate analog inhibitor, the potency of 4 most likely arises from predominant interactions which occur outside the normal glyphosate binding site. Consequently, 4 is best described

  3. A novel 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase transgene for glyphosate resistance stimulates growth and fecundity in weedy rice (Oryza sativa) without herbicide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao; Xu, Ting; Si, Hong Jiang; Cai, Xing Xing; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Snow, Allison A; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2014-04-01

    Understanding evolutionary interactions among crops and weeds can facilitate effective weed management. For example, gene flow from crops to their wild or weedy relatives can lead to rapid evolution in recipient populations. In rice (Oryza sativa), transgenic herbicide resistance is expected to spread to conspecific weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) via hybridization. Here, we studied fitness effects of transgenic over-expression of a native 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene developed to confer glyphosate resistance in rice. Controlling for genetic background, we examined physiological traits and field performance of crop-weed hybrid lineages that segregated for the presence or absence of this novel epsps transgene. Surprisingly, we found that transgenic F2 crop-weed hybrids produced 48-125% more seeds per plant than nontransgenic controls in monoculture- and mixed-planting designs without glyphosate application. Transgenic plants also had greater EPSPS protein levels, tryptophan concentrations, photosynthetic rates, and per cent seed germination compared with nontransgenic controls. Our findings suggest that over-expression of a native rice epsps gene can lead to fitness advantages, even without exposure to glyphosate. We hypothesize that over-expressed epsps may be useful to breeders and, if deployed, could result in fitness benefits in weedy relatives following transgene introgression.

  4. A novel 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase transgene for glyphosate resistance stimulates growth and fecundity in weedy rice (Oryza sativa) without herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao; Xu, Ting; Si, Hong Jiang; Cai, Xing Xing; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Snow, Allison A; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding evolutionary interactions among crops and weeds can facilitate effective weed management. For example, gene flow from crops to their wild or weedy relatives can lead to rapid evolution in recipient populations. In rice (Oryza sativa), transgenic herbicide resistance is expected to spread to conspecific weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) via hybridization. Here, we studied fitness effects of transgenic over-expression of a native 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene developed to confer glyphosate resistance in rice. Controlling for genetic background, we examined physiological traits and field performance of crop–weed hybrid lineages that segregated for the presence or absence of this novel epsps transgene. Surprisingly, we found that transgenic F2 crop–weed hybrids produced 48–125% more seeds per plant than nontransgenic controls in monoculture- and mixed-planting designs without glyphosate application. Transgenic plants also had greater EPSPS protein levels, tryptophan concentrations, photosynthetic rates, and per cent seed germination compared with nontransgenic controls. Our findings suggest that over-expression of a native rice epsps gene can lead to fitness advantages, even without exposure to glyphosate. We hypothesize that over-expressed epsps may be useful to breeders and, if deployed, could result in fitness benefits in weedy relatives following transgene introgression. PMID:23905647

  5. Reduction of EPSP synthase in transgenic wild turnip (Brassica rapa) weed via suppression of aroA.

    PubMed

    Kahrizi, Danial

    2014-12-01

    EPSPS is coded with the aroA gene, a key enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step of shikimate pathway. The current study focuses on the suppression of aroA gene in weedy Brassica rapa. For this purpose B. rapa was transformed with double-stranded RNA interference construct designed to silence aroA gene. This developed in a significant decline in EPSPS (about 72 %) in T0 and T1 plants. In order to study the gene flow, the B. rapa control and B. napus plants were pollinated with T0 B. rapa. Results showed that in the next generation of challenging plants, the pollinated normal B. rapa showed the T1 symptoms and performance. Statistical analysis of data showed that knocking down of aroA will lead to a weakness and decreasing in investigated morphological, physiological and phonological characteristics. Meanwhile pollinated B. napus plant species have been not fertilized by T0 B. rapa. To conclude current result is the first evidence of aroA gene inhibition induces a high decrease in EPSPS protein in B. rapa. Also this result provides a basis for the future investigation in order to controlling B. rapa via molecular approach along with agronomical, biological and chemical methods regarding environmental considerations.

  6. Functional characterization of aroA from Rhizobium leguminosarum with significant glyphosate tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, Bo; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Glyphosate is the active component of the top-selling herbicide, the phytotoxicity of which is due to its inhibition of the shikimic acid pathway. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway. Glyphosate tolerance in plants can be achieved by the expression of a glyphosate-insensitive aroA gene (EPSPS). In this study, we used a PCR-based two-step DNA synthesis method to synthesize a new aroA gene (aroAR. leguminosarum) from Rhizobium leguminosarum. In vitro glyphosate sensitivity assays showed that aroAR. leguminosarum is glyphosate tolerant. The new gene was then expressed in E. coli and key kinetic values of the purified enzyme were determined. Furthermore, we transformed the aroA gene into Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. Transgenic Arabidopsis with the aroAR. leguminosarum gene was obtained to prove its potential use in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  7. Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Dafu; Bukun, Bekir; Chisholm, Stephen T.; Shaner, Dale L.; Nissen, Scott J.; Patzoldt, William L.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Grey, Timothy L.; Webster, Theodore M.; Vencill, William K.; Sammons, R. Douglas; Jiang, Jiming; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E.; Westra, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the United States and other parts of the world after the commercialization of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops have constitutive overexpression of a glyphosate-insensitive form of the herbicide target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Increased use of glyphosate over multiple years imposes selective genetic pressure on weed populations. We investigated recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri populations from Georgia, in comparison with normally sensitive populations. EPSPS enzyme activity from resistant and susceptible plants was equally inhibited by glyphosate, which led us to use quantitative PCR to measure relative copy numbers of the EPSPS gene. Genomes of resistant plants contained from 5-fold to more than 160-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than did genomes of susceptible plants. Quantitative RT-PCR on cDNA revealed that EPSPS expression was positively correlated with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Immunoblot analyses showed that increased EPSPS protein level also correlated with EPSPS genomic copy number. EPSPS gene amplification was heritable, correlated with resistance in pseudo-F2 populations, and is proposed to be the molecular basis of glyphosate resistance. FISH revealed that EPSPS genes were present on every chromosome and, therefore, gene amplification was likely not caused by unequal chromosome crossing over. This occurrence of gene amplification as an herbicide resistance mechanism in a naturally occurring weed population is particularly significant because it could threaten the sustainable use of glyphosate-resistant crop technology. PMID:20018685

  8. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  9. Molecular basis for the herbicide resistance of Roundup Ready crops.

    PubMed

    Funke, Todd; Han, Huijong; Healy-Fried, Martha L; Fischer, Markus; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2006-08-29

    The engineering of transgenic crops resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate has greatly improved agricultural efficiency worldwide. Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup, target the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, the functionality of which is absolutely required for the survival of plants. Roundup Ready plants carry the gene coding for a glyphosate-insensitive form of this enzyme, obtained from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4. Once incorporated into the plant genome, the gene product, CP4 EPSP synthase, confers crop resistance to glyphosate. Although widely used, the molecular basis for this glyphosate-resistance has remained obscure. We generated a synthetic gene coding for CP4 EPSP synthase and characterized the enzyme using kinetics and crystallography. The CP4 enzyme has unexpected kinetic and structural properties that render it unique among the known EPSP synthases. Glyphosate binds to the CP4 EPSP synthase in a condensed, noninhibitory conformation. Glyphosate sensitivity can be restored through a single-site mutation in the active site (Ala-100-Gly), allowing glyphosate to bind in its extended, inhibitory conformation.

  10. Mechanism of resistance of evolved glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri).

    PubMed

    Gaines, Todd A; Shaner, Dale L; Ward, Sarah M; Leach, Jan E; Preston, Christopher; Westra, Philip

    2011-06-08

    Evolved glyphosate resistance in weedy species represents a challenge for the continued success and utility of glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate functions by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The resistance mechanism was determined in a population of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (U.S.). Within this population, glyphosate resistance correlates with increases in (a) genomic copy number of EPSPS, (b) expression of the EPSPS transcript, (c) EPSPS protein level, and (d) EPSPS enzymatic activity. Dose response results from the resistant and an F(2) population suggest that between 30 and 50 EPSPS genomic copies are necessary to survive glyphosate rates between 0.5 and 1.0 kg ha(-1). These results further confirm the role of EPSPS gene amplification in conferring glyphosate resistance in this population of Palmer amaranth. Questions remain related to how the EPSPS amplification initially occurred and the occurrence of this mechanism in other Palmer amaranth populations and other glyphosate-resistant species.

  11. Real-Time PCR-Based Quantitation Method for the Genetically Modified Soybean Line GTS 40-3-2.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Kazumi; Takabatake, Reona; Mano, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real-time PCR-based method for quantitation of the relative amount of genetically modified (GM) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 [Roundup Ready(®) soybean (RRS)] contained in a batch. The method targets a taxon-specific soybean gene (lectin gene, Le1) and the specific DNA construct junction region between the Petunia hybrida chloroplast transit peptide sequence and the Agrobacterium 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (epsps) sequence present in GTS 40-3-2. The method employs plasmid pMulSL2 as a reference material in order to quantify the relative amount of GTS 40-3-2 in soybean samples using a conversion factor (Cf) equal to the ratio of the RRS-specific DNA to the taxon-specific DNA in representative genuine GTS 40-3-2 seeds.

  12. Screening of photosynthetic pigments for herbicidal activity with a new computational molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Chandran, Saravanan; Pal, Parimal; Berchmans, Sheela

    2013-12-01

    There is an immense interest among the researchers to identify new herbicides which are effective against the herbs without affecting the environment. In this work, photosynthetic pigments are used as the ligands to predict their herbicidal activity. The enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is a good target for the herbicides. Homology modeling of the target enzyme is done using Modeler 9.11 and the model is validated. Docking studies were performed with AutoDock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to the target. β-carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin have higher binding energies indicating the herbicidal activity of the pigments. This work reports a procedure to screen herbicides with computational molecular approach. These pigments will serve as potential bioherbicides in the future.

  13. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects.

  14. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the aroA gene of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Maskell, D J; Morrissey, P; Dougan, G

    1988-01-01

    The aroA locus of Bordetella pertussis, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase, has been cloned into Escherichia coli by using a cosmid vector. The gene is expressed in E. coli and complemented an E. coli aroA mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the B. pertussis aroA gene was determined and contains an open reading frame encoding 442 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase of 46,688. The amino acid sequence derived from the nucleotide sequence shows homology with the published amino acid sequences of aroA gene products of other microorganisms. PMID:2897356

  15. Lack of glyphosate resistance gene transfer from Roundup Ready soybean to Bradyrhizobium japonicum under field and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Isaza, Laura Arango; Opelt, Katja; Wagner, Tobias; Mattes, Elke; Bieber, Evi; Hatley, Elwood O; Roth, Greg; Sanjuán, Juan; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton; Ernst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center to determine the effect of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in combination with herbicide (Roundup) application on its endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. DNA of bacteroids from isolated nodules was analysed for the presence of the transgenic 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) DNA sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To further assess the likelihood that the EPSPS gene may be transferred from the Roundup Ready (RR) soybean to B. japonicum, we have examined the natural transformation efficiency of B. japonicum strain 110spc4. Analyses of nodules showed the presence of the transgenic EPSPS DNA sequence. In bacteroids that were isolated from nodules of transgenic soybean plants and then cultivated in the presence of glyphosate this sequence could not be detected. This indicates that no stable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the EPSPS gene had occurred under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, no natural transformation was detected in B. japonicum strain 110spc4 in the presence of various amounts of recombinant plasmid DNA. Our results indicate that no natural competence state exists in B. japonicum 110spc4. Results from field and laboratory studies indicate the lack of functional transfer of the CP4-EPSPS gene from glyphosate-tolerant soybean treated with glyphosate to root-associated B. japonicum.

  16. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties.

  17. Import of a precursor protein into chloroplasts is inhibited by the herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Della-Cioppa, G; Kishore, G M

    1988-05-01

    Import of the precursor to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (pEPSPS) into chloroplasts is inhibited by the herbicide glyphosate. Inhibition of import is maximal at glyphosate concentrations of >/=10 mum and occurs only when pEPSPS is present as a ternary complex of enzyme-shikimate-3-phosphate-glyphosate. Glyphosate alone had no effect on the import of pEPSPS since it is not known to interact with the enzyme in the absence of shikimate-3-phosphate. Experiments with wild-type and glyphosate-resistant mutant forms of pEPSPS show that inhibition of import is directly proportional to the binding constants for glyphosate. Inhibition of import is thus a direct consequence of glyphosate binding to the enzyme-shikimate-3-phosphate complex. The potential for non-specific effects of glyphosate on the chloroplast transport mechanism has been discounted by showing that import of another chloroplast-designated protein was unaffected by high concentrations of glyphosate and shikimate-3-phosphate. The mechanism of import inhibition by glyphosate is consistent with a precursor unfolding/refolding model.

  18. Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance.

  19. Quantification of genetically modified soya using strong anion exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Chih; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    Stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was applied to the quantification of genetically modified (GM) soya. The herbicide-resistant gene-related protein 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) was labeled using a dimethyl labeling reagent, formaldehyde-H2 or -D2. The identification and quantification of CP4 EPSPS was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The CP4 EPSPS protein was separated from high abundance proteins using strong anion exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the tryptic peptides from the samples and reference were labeled with formaldehyde-H2 and formaldehyde-D2, respectively. The two labeled pools were mixed and analyzed using MALDI-MS. The data showed a good correlation between the peak ratio of the H- and D-labeled peptides and the GM soya percentages at 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 %, with R (2) of 0.99. The labeling reagents are readily available. The labeling experiments and the detection procedures are simple. The approach is useful for the quantification of GM soya at a level as low as 0.5 %.

  20. A New Echeloned Poisson Series Processor (EPSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Tamara

    2001-07-01

    A specialized Echeloned Poisson Series Processor (EPSP) is proposed. It is a typical software for the implementation of analytical algorithms of Celestial Mechanics. EPSP is designed for manipulating long polynomial-trigonometric series with literal divisors. The coefficients of these echeloned series are the rational or floating-point numbers. The Keplerian processor and analytical generator of special celestial mechanics functions based on the EPSP are also developed.

  1. Construction of iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites with low nonspecific adsorption and strong quenching ability for competitive immunofluorescent detection of biomarkers in GM crops.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kaifei; Liu, Anran; Shangguan, Li; Mi, Li; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuanjian; Zhao, Yuewu; Li, Ying; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new immunofluorescent biosensor by utilizing a novel nanobody (Nb) and iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites for sensitive detection of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacdterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4-EPSPS), which considered as biomarkers of genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically, we prepared iron doped polyacrylic hydrazide modified reduced graphene nanocomposites (Fe@RGO/PAH) by in-situ polymerization approach and subsequent a one-pot reaction with hydrazine. The resulting Fe@RGO/PAH nanocomposites displayed low nonspecific adsorption to analytes (11% quenching caused by nonspecific adsorption) due to electrostatic, energetic and steric effect of the nanocomposites. After Nb immobilizing, the as-prepared Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs showed good selectivity and high quenching ability (92% quenching) in the presence of antigen (Ag) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified CdTe QDs (Ag/QDs@PEG), which is a nearly 4 fold than that of the unmodified GO in same condition. The high quenching ability of Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs can be used for detection of CP4-EPSPS based on competitive immunoassay with a linearly proportional concentration range of 5-100ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.34ng/mL. The good stability, reproducibility and specificity of the resulting immunofluorescent biosensor are demonstrated and might open a new window for investigation of fluorescent sensing with numerous multifunctional graphene based materials.

  2. Cropping practices modulate the impact of glyphosate on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere bacteria in agroecosystems of the semiarid prairie.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Min; Hamel, Chantal; Fernandez, Myriam R

    2012-08-01

    A growing body of evidence obtained from studies performed under controlled conditions suggests that glyphosate use can modify microbial community assemblages. However, few studies have examined the influence of glyphosate in agroecosystems. We examined 4 wheat-based production systems typical of the Canadian prairie over 2 years to answer the following question: Does preseeding of glyphosate impact soil rhizosphere microorganisms? If so, do cropping practices influence this impact? Glyphosate caused a shift in the species dominating the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in the rhizosphere, possibly through the modification of host plant physiology. Glyphosate stimulated rhizobacterial growth while having no influence on saprotrophic fungi, suggesting a greater abundance of glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in bacteria than in fungi. Glyphosate stimulated rhizosphere bacteria in pea but not in urea-fertilized durum wheat, which is consistent with inhibition of EPSPS tolerance to residual glyphosate through high ammonium levels. Mitigation of the effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere bacteria through tillage suggests a reduction in residual glyphosate activity through increased adsorption to soil binding sites upon soil mixing. The influence of glyphosate on Gram-negative bacteria was mitigated under drought conditions in 2007. Our experiment suggests that interactions between soil fertility, tillage, and cropping practices shape the influence of glyphosate use on rhizosphere microorganisms.

  3. Pollen-mediated gene flow from glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer): consequences for the dispersal of resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Debalin; Tyre, Andrew J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Gaines, Todd A.; Irmak, Suat; Knezevic, Stevan Z.; Lindquist, John L.; Jhala, Amit J.

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow is an important component in evolutionary biology; however, the role of gene flow in dispersal of herbicide-resistant alleles among weed populations is poorly understood. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to -susceptible (GS) common waterhemp using a concentric donor-receptor design. More than 130,000 common waterhemp plants were screened and 26,199 plants were confirmed resistant to glyphosate. Frequency of gene flow from all distances, directions, and years was estimated with a double exponential decay model using Generalized Nonlinear Model (package gnm) in R. PMGF declined by 50% at <3 m distance from the pollen source, whereas 90% reduction was found at 88 m (maximum) depending on the direction of the pollen-receptor blocks. Amplification of the target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), was identified as the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in parent biotype. The EPSPS gene amplification was heritable in common waterhemp and can be transferred via PMGF, and also correlated with glyphosate resistance in pseudo-F2 progeny. This is the first report of PMGF in GR common waterhemp and the results are critical in explaining the rapid dispersal of GR common waterhemp in Midwestern United States. PMID:28327669

  4. Strategies to improve low copy transgenic events in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize.

    PubMed

    Sivamani, Elumalai; Li, Xianggan; Nalapalli, Samson; Barron, Yoshimi; Prairie, Anna; Bradley, David; Doyle, Michele; Que, Qiudeng

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic plants containing low copy transgene insertion free of vector backbone are highly desired for many biotechnological applications. We have investigated two different strategies for increasing the percentage of low copy events in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments in maize. One of the strategies is to use a binary vector with two separate T-DNAs, one T-DNA containing an intact E.coli manA gene encoding phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) as selectable marker gene cassette and another T-DNA containing an RNAi cassette of PMI sequences. By using this strategy, low copy transgenic events containing the transgenes were increased from 43 to 60 % in maize. An alternate strategy is using selectable marker gene cassettes containing regulatory or coding sequences derived from essential plant genes such as 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) or MADS box transcription factor. In this paper we demonstrate that higher percentage of low copy transgenic events can be obtained in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation experiments using both strategies. We propose that the above two strategies can be used independently or in combination to increase transgenic events that contain low copy transgene insertion in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments.

  5. A built-in strategy to mitigate transgene spreading from genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement.

  6. A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Fengzhen; Lin, Chaoyang; Gao, Jianhua; Fang, Jun; Ding, Xiahui; Shen, Zhicheng; Xu, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement. PMID:24324711

  7. Compositional equivalence of insect-protected glyphosate-tolerant soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788 to conventional soybean extends across different world regions and multiple growing seasons.

    PubMed

    Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Oliveira, Wladecir S; Berger, Geraldo U; Tagliaferro, Fabio S

    2011-11-09

    The soybean product MON 87701 × MON 89788 expresses both the cry1Ac gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis and the cp4 epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4. Each biotechnology-derived trait confers specific benefits of insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance, respectively. The purpose of this study was to compare the composition of seed and forage from this combined-trait product to those of conventional soybean grown in geographically and climatically distinct regions. Field trials were conducted in the United States during the 2007 growing season, in Argentina during the 2007-2008 growing season, and in the northern and southern soybean regions of Brazil during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons. Results demonstrated that the compositional equivalence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 to the conventional soybean extended across all regions and growing seasons. Further evaluation of the data showed that natural variation (region and growing season) contributed more to compositional variability in soybean, particularly for such components as isoflavones, fatty acids, and vitamin E, than transgene insertion.

  8. Population genetics structure of glyphosate-resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers) does not support a single origin of the resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; de Haro, Luis Alejandro; Distefano, Ana J; Carolina Martínez, Maria; Lía, Verónica; Papa, Juan C; Olea, Ignacio; Tosto, Daniela; Esteban Hopp, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Single sequence repeats (SSR) developed for Sorghum bicolor were used to characterize the genetic distance of 46 different Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) accessions from Argentina some of which have evolved toward glyphosate resistance. Since Johnsongrass is an allotetraploid and only one subgenome is homologous to cultivated sorghum, some SSR loci amplified up to two alleles while others (presumably more conserved loci) amplified up to four alleles. Twelve SSR providing information of 24 loci representative of Johnsongrass genome were selected for genetic distance characterization. All of them were highly polymorphic, which was evidenced by the number of different alleles found in the samples studied, in some of them up to 20. UPGMA and Mantel analysis showed that Johnsongrass glyphosate-resistant accessions that belong to different geographic regions do not share similar genetic backgrounds. In contrast, they show closer similarity to their neighboring susceptible counterparts. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components using the clusters identified by K-means support the lack of a clear pattern of association among samples and resistance status or province of origin. Consequently, these results do not support a single genetic origin of glyphosate resistance. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene from glyphosate-resistant and susceptible accessions collected from different geographic origins showed that none presented expected mutations in aminoacid positions 101 and 106 which are diagnostic of target-site resistance mechanism. PMID:24223277

  9. Expression of an evolved engineered variant of a bacterial glycine oxidase leads to glyphosate resistance in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, A; Ferradini, N; Molla, G; Biagetti, E; Pollegioni, L; Veronesi, F; Rosellini, D

    2014-08-20

    The main strategy for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in plants is the overexpression of an herbicide insensitive, bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). A glyphosate resistance strategy based on the ability to degrade the herbicide can be useful to reduce glyphosate phytotoxicity to the crops. Here we present the characterization of glyphosate resistance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing a plant-optimized variant of glycine oxidase (GO) from Bacillus subtilis, evolved in vitro by a protein engineering approach to efficiently degrade glyphosate. Two constructs were used, one with (GO(TP+)) and one without (GO(TP-)) the pea rbcS plastid transit peptide. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed the stable integration of the transgene and the correct localization of the plastid-imported GO protein. Transgenic alfalfa plants were tested for glyphosate resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Two GO(TP+) lines showed moderate resistance to the herbicide in both conditions. Optimization of expression of this GO variant may allow to attain sufficient field resistance to glyphosate herbicides, thus providing a resistance strategy based on herbicide degradation.

  10. Relative stability of transgene DNA fragments from GM rapeseed in mixed ruminal cultures.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Alexander, Trevor W; John, S Jacob; Forster, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A

    2004-05-01

    The use of transgenic crops as feeds for ruminant animals has prompted study of the possible uptake of transgene fragments by ruminal micro-organisms and/or intestinal absorption of fragments surviving passage through the rumen. The persistence in buffered ruminal contents of seven different recombinant DNA fragments from GM rapeseed expressing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) transgene was tracked using PCR. Parental and transgenic (i.e. glyphosphate-tolerant; Roundup Ready, Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO, USA) rapeseed were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h as whole seeds, cracked seeds, rapeseed meal, and as pelleted, barley-based diets containing 65 g rapeseed meal/kg. The seven transgene fragments ranged from 179 to 527 bp and spanned the entire 1363 bp EPSPS transgene. A 180 bp ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit fragment and a 466 bp 16S rDNA fragment were used as controls for endogenous rapeseed DNA and bacterial DNA respectively. The limit of detection of the PCR assay, established using negative controls spiked with known quantities of DNA, was 12.5 pg. Production of gas and NH3 was monitored throughout the incubation and confirmed active in vitro fermentation. Bacterial DNA was detected in all sample types at all time points. Persistence patterns of endogenous (Rubisco) and recombinant (EPSPS) rapeseed DNA were inversely related to substrate digestibility (amplifiable for 48, 8 and 4 h in whole or cracked seeds, meal and diets respectively), but did not differ between parental and GM rapeseed, nor among fragments. Detection of fragments was representative of persistence of the whole transgene. No EPSPS fragments were amplifiable in microbial DNA, suggesting that transformation had not occurred during the 48 h incubation. Uptake of transgenic DNA fragments by ruminal bacteria is probably precluded or time-limited by rapid degradation of plant DNA upon plant cell lysis.

  11. Simultaneous Expression of PDH45 with EPSPS Gene Improves Salinity and Herbicide Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bharti; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Biswas, Dipul K; Sahoo, Ranjan K; Kunchge, Nandkumar S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the problem of salinity- and weed-induced crop losses, a multi-stress tolerant trait is need of the hour but a combinatorial view of such traits is not yet explored. The overexpression of PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45) and EPSPS (5-enoylpruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) genes have been reported to impart salinity and herbicide tolerance. Further, the understanding of mechanism and pathways utilized by PDH45 and EPSPS for salinity and herbicide tolerance will help to improve the crops of economical importance. In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of salinity and herbicide tolerance to check the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of tobacco transgenic plants. Collectively, the results showed that PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines display efficient tolerance to salinity stress, while PDH45+EPSPS transgenics showed tolerance to both the salinity and herbicide as compared to the control [wild type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants. The activities of the components of enzymatic antioxidant machinery were observed to be higher in the transgenic plants indicating the presence of an efficient antioxidant defense system which helps to cope with the stress-induced oxidative-damages. Photosynthetic parameters also showed significant increase in PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS overexpressing transgenic plants in comparison to WT, VC and EPSPS transgenic plants under salinity stress. Furthermore, PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS synergistically modulate the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid mediated signaling pathways for combating salinity stress. The findings of our study suggest that pyramiding of the PDH45 gene with EPSPS gene renders host plants tolerant to salinity and herbicide by enhancing the antioxidant machinery thus photosynthesis.

  12. Simultaneous Expression of PDH45 with EPSPS Gene Improves Salinity and Herbicide Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bharti; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Biswas, Dipul K.; Sahoo, Ranjan K.; Kunchge, Nandkumar S.; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the problem of salinity- and weed-induced crop losses, a multi-stress tolerant trait is need of the hour but a combinatorial view of such traits is not yet explored. The overexpression of PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45) and EPSPS (5-enoylpruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) genes have been reported to impart salinity and herbicide tolerance. Further, the understanding of mechanism and pathways utilized by PDH45 and EPSPS for salinity and herbicide tolerance will help to improve the crops of economical importance. In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of salinity and herbicide tolerance to check the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of tobacco transgenic plants. Collectively, the results showed that PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines display efficient tolerance to salinity stress, while PDH45+EPSPS transgenics showed tolerance to both the salinity and herbicide as compared to the control [wild type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants. The activities of the components of enzymatic antioxidant machinery were observed to be higher in the transgenic plants indicating the presence of an efficient antioxidant defense system which helps to cope with the stress-induced oxidative-damages. Photosynthetic parameters also showed significant increase in PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS overexpressing transgenic plants in comparison to WT, VC and EPSPS transgenic plants under salinity stress. Furthermore, PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS synergistically modulate the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid mediated signaling pathways for combating salinity stress. The findings of our study suggest that pyramiding of the PDH45 gene with EPSPS gene renders host plants tolerant to salinity and herbicide by enhancing the antioxidant machinery thus photosynthesis. PMID:28392794

  13. In-silico analysis and expression profiling implicate diverse role of EPSPS family genes in regulating developmental and metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The EPSPS, EC 2.5.1.19 (5-enolpyruvylshikimate −3-phosphate synthase) is considered as one of the crucial enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids and secondary metabolites in plants, fungi along with microorganisms. It is also proved as a specific target of broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Results On the basis of structure analysis, this EPSPS gene family comprises the presence of EPSPS I domain, which is highly conserved among different plant species. Here, we followed an in-silico approach to identify and characterize the EPSPS genes from different plant species. On the basis of their phylogeny and sequence conservation, we divided them in to two groups. Moreover, the interacting partners and co-expression data of the gene revealed the importance of this gene family in maintaining cellular and metabolic functions in the cell. The present study also highlighted the highest accumulation of EPSPS transcript in mature leaves followed by young leaves, shoot and roots of tobacco. In order to gain the more knowledge about gene family, we searched for the previously reported motifs and studied its structural importance on the basis of homology modelling. Conclusions The results presented here is a first detailed in-silico study to explore the role of EPSPS gene in forefront of different plant species. The results revealed a great deal for the diversification and conservation of EPSPS gene family across different plant species. Moreover, some of the EPSPS from different plant species may have a common evolutionary origin and may contain same conserved motifs with related and important molecular function. Most importantly, overall analysis of EPSPS gene elucidated its pivotal role in immense function within the plant, both in regulating plant growth as well its development throughout the life cycle of plant. Since EPSPS is a direct target of herbicide glyphosate, understanding its mechanism for regulating

  14. Composition of grain, forage, and processed fractions from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, is equivalent to that of conventional soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Lundry, Denise R; Ridley, William P; Meyer, Jiaying J; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy

    2008-06-25

    Developments in biotechnology and molecular-assisted breeding have led to the development of a second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788. The MON 89788 event was produced by direct transformation of a cp4 epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene cassette derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 into an elite soybean germplasm known for its superior agronomic characteristics and high yielding property. The purpose of this work was to assess whether the nutrient and antinutrient levels in seed and forage tissues of MON 89788 are comparable to those in the conventional soybean variety, A3244, which has background genetics similar to MON 89788 but does not contain the cp4 epsps gene cassette. Additional conventional soybean varieties currently in the marketplace were also included in the analysis to establish a range of natural variability for each analyte, where the range of variability is defined by a 99% tolerance interval for that particular analyte. Compositional analyses were conducted on forage, seed and four processed fractions from soybeans grown in ten sites across both the United States and Argentina during the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Forage samples were analyzed for levels of proximates (ash, fat, moisture, and protein) and fiber. Seed samples were analyzed for proximates, fiber, antinutrients, and vitamin E. Defatted, toasted (DT) meal was analyzed for proximates, fiber, amino acids, and antinutrients. Refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oil was analyzed for fatty acids and vitamin E. Protein isolate was analyzed for amino acids and moisture. Crude Lecithin was analyzed for phosphatides. Results of the comparisons indicate that MON 89788 is compositionally and nutritionally equivalent to conventional soybean varieties currently in commerce.

  15. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment of the fate of transgenic DNA in sheep fed Roundup Ready rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Trevor W; Reuter, Tim; Okine, Erasmus; Sharma, Ranjana; McAllister, Tim A

    2006-12-01

    Conventional and real-time PCR were used to detect transgenic DNA in digesta, faeces and blood collected from six ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep fed forage-based (F) or concentrate-based (C) diets containing 15% Roundup Ready (RR) rapeseed meal (n 3). The sheep were adapted for 14 d to F or C diets containing non-GM rapeseed, then fed the RR diets for 11 d. On day 12, they were switched back to non-GM diets for a further 11 d. Ruminal and duodenal fluids (RF, DF) and faecal samples were collected at 3 or 4 h intervals over the 4 d immediately following the last feeding of GM diets. DNA was isolated from whole RF and DF, from the cell-free supernatant fraction, and from culture fermentation liquid. Blood was collected on days 1, 5 and 9 of feeding the RR rapeseed meal. The 1363 bp 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase transgene (epsps) was quantifiable in whole RF and DF for up to 13 h, and a 108 bp epsps fragment for up to 29 h. Transgenic DNA was not detectable in faeces or blood, or in microbial DNA. Diet type (F v. C) did not affect (P>0.05) the quantity of transgenic DNA in digesta. More (P<0.05) transgenic DNA was detected in RF than in DF, but there was an interaction (P<0.05) between sample type and collection time. In supernatant fractions from RF and DF, three different fragments of transgenic DNA ranging in size from 62 to 420 bp were not amplifiable.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  17. Establishment of a system based on universal multiplex-PCR for screening genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-03-01

    The rapid development of many genetically modified (GM) crops in the past two decades makes it necessary to introduce an alternative strategy for routine screening and identification. In this study, we established a universal multiplex PCR detection system which will effectively reduce the number of reactions needed for sample identification. The PCR targets of this system include the six most frequently used transgenic elements: cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) terminator, the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene, the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 epsps) gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4, and the phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene. According to the AGBIOS database, the coverage of this detection system is 93% of commercial GM crops. This detection system could detect all certified reference materials (CRMs) at the 1.0% level. The correct combination of all the CRM amplicon patterns proved the specificity of this multiplex PCR system. Furthermore, the amplicon patterns of this multiplex PCR detection system could be used as an index of classification which will narrow the range of possible GM products. The simulation result of this multiplex PCR detection system on all commercialized 139 GM products in the AGBIOS database showed that the maximum number of PCR reactions needed to identify an unknown sample can be reduced to 13. In this study, we established a high-throughput multiplex PCR detection system with feasible sensitivity, specificity, and cost. By incorporating this detection system, the routine GM crop-detection process will meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the number of GM crops in the future.

  18. Taxonomic and life history bias in herbicide resistant weeds: implications for deployment of resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jodie S; Welles, Shana R; Silvera, Katia; Heap, Ian M; Heredia, Sylvia M; Martinez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Palenscar, Kai T; Sweet, Lynn C; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2013-01-01

    Evolved herbicide resistance (EHR) is an important agronomic problem and consequently a food security problem, as it jeopardizes herbicide effectiveness and increases the difficulty and cost of weed management. EHR in weeds was first reported in 1970 and the number of cases has accelerated dramatically over the last two decades. Despite 40 years of research on EHR, why some weeds evolve resistance and others do not is poorly understood. Here we ask whether weed species that have EHR are different from weeds in general. Comparing taxonomic and life history traits of weeds with EHR to a control group ("the world's worst weeds"), we found weeds with EHR significantly over-represented in certain plant families and having certain life history biases. In particular, resistance is overrepresented in Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae and Poaceae relative to all weeds, and annuality is ca. 1.5 times as frequent in weeds with EHR as in the control group. Also, for perennial EHR weeds, vegetative reproduction is only 60% as frequent as in the control group. We found the same trends for subsets of weeds with EHR to acetolactate synthase (ALS), photosystem II (PSII), and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase-inhibitor herbicides and with multiple resistance. As herbicide resistant crops (transgenic or not) are increasingly deployed in developing countries, the problems of EHR could increase in those countries as it has in the USA if the selecting herbicides are heavily applied and appropriate management strategies are not employed. Given our analysis, we make some predictions about additional species that might evolve resistance.

  19. Regulators of floral fragrance production and their target genes in petunia are not exclusively active in the epidermal cells of petals.

    PubMed

    Van Moerkercke, Alex; Galván-Ampudia, Carlos S; Verdonk, Julian C; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    In which cells of the flower volatile biosynthesis takes place is unclear. In rose and snapdragon, some enzymes of the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway have been shown to be present in the epidermal cells of petals. It is therefore generally believed that the production of these compounds occurs in these cells. However, whether the entire pathway is active in these cells and whether it is exclusively active in these cells remains to be proven. Cell-specific transcription factors activating these genes will determine in which cells they are expressed. In petunia, the transcription factor EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II (EOBII) activates the ODORANT1 (ODO1) promoter and the promoter of the biosynthetic gene isoeugenol synthase (IGS). The regulator ODO1 in turn activates the promoter of the shikimate gene 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Here the identification of a new target gene of ODO1, encoding an ABC transporter localized on the plasma membrane, PhABCG1, which is co-expressed with ODO1, is described. PhABCG1 expression is up-regulated in petals overexpressing ODO1 through activation of the PhABCG1 promoter. Interestingly, the ODO1, PhABCG1, and IGS promoters were active in petunia protoplasts originating from both epidermal and mesophyll cell layers of the petal, suggesting that the volatile phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway in petunia is active in these different cell types. Since volatile release occurs from epidermal cells, trafficking of (volatile) compounds between cell layers must be involved, but the exact function of PhABCG1 remains to be resolved.

  20. Postsynaptic membrane shifts during frequency potentiation of the hippocampal EPSP.

    PubMed

    Pitler, T A; Landfield, P W

    1987-10-01

    1. In some classes of central neurons, repetitive synaptic stimulation induces substantial changes in the postsynaptic membrane, in conjunction with robust frequency potentiation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). However, the nature and time course of these postsynaptic membrane shifts, or their possible contributions to EPSP frequency potentiation (e.g., by altering driving force or current pathways), have not been examined extensively. We therefore studied the simultaneous patterns of change in composite EPSP amplitude, postsynaptic input resistance (Rin), and postsynaptic membrane potential during a 4-min train of 10-Hz monosynaptic stimulation in CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices. Slices were maintained in media containing either control (4 mM) or high (6.5 mM) concentrations of K+. 2. Potentiation of the EPSP, hyperpolarization of the membrane, and a decline of Rin, all developed rapidly during 10-Hz synaptic stimulation; these responses reached maximal levels by 5-15 s of the stimulation train. In most cells, a membrane depolarization phase occurred between 15 and 45 s of stimulation, followed by rehyperpolarization by 1 min of stimulation. During the depolarization phase, both EPSP potentiation and the decline in Rin remained near maximal. No significant differences were seen as a function of K+ concentrations. 3. These results show that hyperpolarization is not invariably associated temporally with EPSP frequency potentiation. Moreover, if driving force and membrane conductance changes are assumed to be approximately similar in large dendrites and soma, then the increase in driving force due to membrane hyperpolarization was not sufficient to account for the three- and fourfold increases in EPSP amplitude seen during frequency potentiation. Further, based on similar assumptions and on dendritic models of EPSP attenuation, the decline in Rin should reduce EPSP amplitude at the dendritic synaptic site and, to a proportionately greater extent

  1. Compositions of forage and seed from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean MON 89788 and insect-protected soybean MON 87701 from Brazil are equivalent to those of conventional soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Hanson, Christy; Smith, Michelle; Sorbet, Roy; Zhu, Eddie; Ridley, William P

    2010-05-26

    Brazil has become one of the largest soybean producers. Two Monsanto Co. biotechnology-derived soybean products are designed to offer benefits in weed and pest management. These are second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, and insect-protected soybean, MON 87701. The second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788, contains the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps). MON 87701 contains the cry1Ac gene and expression of the Cry1Ac protein providing protection from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to determine whether the compositions of seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are comparable to those of conventional soybean grown in two geographically and climatically distinct regions in multiple replicated sites in Brazil during the 2007-2008 growing season. Overall, results demonstrated that the seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are compositionally equivalent to those of conventional soybean. Strikingly, the results also showed that differences in mean component values of forage and seed from the two controls grown in the different geographical regions were generally greater than that observed in test and control comparisons. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) of compositional data generated on MON 89788, MON 87701, and their respective region-specific controls provide a graphical illustration of how natural variation contributes more than biotechnology-driven genetic modification to compositional variability in soybean. Levels of isoflavones and fatty acids were particularly variable.

  2. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing combined trait insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x NK603), control, or conventional reference corn.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Lucas, D; Nemeth, M; Davis, S; Hartnell, G

    2007-09-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing lepidopteran-protected corn combined with glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x NK603) with those of broilers fed diets containing corn grain from the conventional control (similar genetic background to the test corn) and 6 conventional corn hybrids. It has been found that MON 89034 produces the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 insecticidal proteins that protect corn plants from feeding damage caused by European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and other lepidopteran insect pests. In addition, NK603 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. The traditional breeding of plants that express the individual traits produced MON 89034 x NK603. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 57% wt/wt corn grain) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 59% wt/wt corn grain) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). Weight at d 0 and 42, feed intake, feed conversion, and all measured carcass and meat quality parameters were not different (P > 0.05) for birds fed MON 89034 x NK603 and control corn diets. In addition, comparisons of the MON 89034 x NK603 diet to the population of the control and 6 reference corn diets showed no difference (P > 0.05) in any performance, carcass, or meat quality parameter measured. In conclusion, the diets containing MON 89034 x NK603 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing the control or conventional reference corn grain when fed to broilers.

  3. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  4. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  5. Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boerboom, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I{sub 50}s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I{sub 50}s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I{sub 50} of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I{sub 50} of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, {sup 14}C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min{sm bullet}mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81.

  6. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  7. EPSPs Measured in Proximal Dendritic Spines of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Acker, Corey D; Hoyos, Erika; Loew, Leslie M

    2016-01-01

    EPSPs occur when the neurotransmitter glutamate binds to postsynaptic receptors located on small pleomorphic membrane protrusions called dendritic spines. To transmit the synaptic signal, these potentials must travel through the spine neck and the dendritic tree to reach the soma. Due to their small size, the electrical behavior of spines and their ability to compartmentalize electrical signals has been very difficult to assess experimentally. In this study, we developed a method to perform simultaneous two-photon voltage-sensitive dye recording with two-photon glutamate uncaging in order to measure the characteristics (amplitude and duration) of uncaging-evoked EPSPs in single spines on the basal dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons in acute brain slices from CD1 control mice. We were able to record uncaging-evoked spine potentials that resembled miniature EPSPs at the soma from a wide range of spine morphologies. In proximal spines, these potentials averaged 13.0 mV (range, 6.5-30.8 mV; N = 20) for an average somatic EPSP of 0.59 mV, whereas the mean attenuation ratio (spine/soma) was found to be 25.3. Durations of spine EPSP waveforms were found to be 11.7 ms on average. Modeling studies demonstrate the important role that spine neck resistance (Rneck) plays in spine EPSP amplitudes. Simulations used to estimate Rneck by fits to voltage-sensitive dye measurements produced a mean of 179 MΩ (range, 23-420 MΩ; N = 19). Independent measurements based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of a cytosolic dye from spines of the same population of neurons produced a mean R eck estimate of 204 MΩ (range, 52-521 MΩ; N = 34).

  8. Determining whether transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein are detectable in muscle from swine fed Roundup Ready soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C; Kolwyck, D C; Kays, S B; Whetsell, A J; Surber, J B; Cromwell, G L; Lirette, R P; Glenn, K C

    2003-06-01

    Questions regarding the digestive fate of DNA and protein from transgenic feed have been raised in regard to human consumption and commercial trade of animal products (e.g., meat, milk, and eggs) from farm animals fed transgenic crops. Using highly sensitive, well-characterized analytical methods, pork loin samples were analyzed for the presence of fragments of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein from animals fed meal prepared from conventional or glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans. Pigs were fed diets containing 24, 19, and 14% RR or conventional soybean meal during grower, early-finisher, and late-finisher phases of growth, respectively, and longissimus muscle samples were collected (12 per treatment) after slaughter. Total DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed by PCR, followed by Southern blot hybridization for the presence of a 272-bp fragment of the cp4 epsps coding region (encoding the synthetic enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4) and a 198-bp fragment of the endogenous soybean gene le1 (encoding soy lectin). Using 1 microgram of input DNA per reaction, none of the extracted samples was positive for cp4 epsps or le1 at the limit of detection (LOD) for these PCR/Southern blot assays. The LOD for these assays was shown to be approximately one diploid genome equivalent of RR soybean DNA, even in the presence of 10 micrograms of pork genomic DNA. A 185-bp fragment of the porcine preprolactin (prl) gene, used as a positive control, was amplified from all samples showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Using a competitive immunoassay with an LOD of approximately 94 ng of CP4 EPSPS protein/g of pork muscle, neither the CP4 EPSPS protein nor the immunoreactive peptide fragments were detected in loin muscle homogenates from pigs fed RR soybean meal. Taken together, these results show that neither small fragments of transgenic DNA nor

  9. Multimodal distribution of amplitudes of miniature and spontaneous EPSPs recorded in rat trigeminal motoneurones.

    PubMed Central

    Min, M Y; Appenteng, K

    1996-01-01

    1. The whole-cell variant of the patch recording method has been used to obtain voltage recordings from trigeminal motoneurones in tissue slices (500 microns thick) taken from rats aged 8 days. Membrane properties (input resistance, membrane time constant and rheobase, i.e. threshold current required to elicit an action potential) of the motoneurones were determined and recordings made of the (untriggered) EPSP activity. 2. Untriggered EPSP activity was recorded in standard artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), ACSF with added tetrodotoxin (TTX) and in nominally Ca(2+)-free ACSF with added TTX. In each case the amplitude distributions of single EPSPs were peaky and could be fitted by a model consisting of the sum of equidistant Gaussians (n = 7/9 cells). In contrast, the amplitude distribution of the noise was always unimodal. 3. All EPSP activity recorded in the presence of TTX was abolished by addition of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2-3-dione (CNQX; 10 microM), suggesting the activity was all mediated by glutamate acting primarily at AMPA/kainate receptors. 4. In the majority of cases, there was no correlation between the amplitude of EPSPs underlying each Gaussian and the EPSP rise time but there was a positive correlation between the EPSP half-width and EPSP rise time. The rise times of EPSPs underlying the first, and all, fitted Gaussians were similar to that for the total sample of EPSPs in each motoneurone. Taken together, this suggests that the EPSPs underlying each Gaussian arise from inputs to different dendritic compartments, and that the range of compartments is similar for EPSPs underlying successive Gaussians. 5. Two conclusions are drawn. First, EPSPs of different dendritic origin have similar amplitudes at the soma. Second, the multimodal distribution of EPSP amplitudes recorded in the presence of TTX raises the possibility that individual boutons may contain multiple release sites, with each perhaps operating on a separate functional group of

  10. Transient sodium current at subthreshold voltages: activation by EPSP waveforms.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett C; Giessel, Andrew J; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Bean, Bruce P

    2012-09-20

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels carry large transient currents during action potentials and also "persistent" sodium current, a noninactivating TTX-sensitive current present at subthreshold voltages. We examined gating of subthreshold sodium current in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons, studied at 37°C with near-physiological ionic conditions. Unexpectedly, in both cell types small voltage steps at subthreshold voltages activated a substantial component of transient sodium current as well as persistent current. Subthreshold EPSP-like waveforms also activated a large component of transient sodium current, but IPSP-like waveforms engaged primarily persistent sodium current with only a small additional transient component. Activation of transient as well as persistent sodium current at subthreshold voltages produces amplification of EPSPs that is sensitive to the rate of depolarization and can help account for the dependence of spike threshold on depolarization rate, as previously observed in vivo.

  11. Transient sodium current at subthreshold voltages: activation by EPSP waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Brett C.; Giessel, Andrew J.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.; Bean, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels carry large transient currents during action potentials and also “persistent” sodium current, a non-inactivating TTX-sensitive current present at subthreshold voltages. We examined gating of subthreshold sodium current in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons, studied at 37 °C with near-physiological ionic conditions. Unexpectedly, in both cell types small voltage steps at subthreshold voltages activated a substantial component of transient sodium current as well as persistent current. Subthreshold EPSP-like waveforms also activated a large component of transient sodium current, but IPSP-like waveforms engaged primarily persistent sodium current with only a small additional transient component. Activation of transient as well as persistent sodium current at subthreshold voltages produces amplification of EPSPs that is sensitive to the rate of depolarization and can help account for the dependence of spike threshold on depolarization rate, as previously observed in vivo. PMID:22998875

  12. Interaction of baseline synaptic noise and Ia EPSPs: evidence for appreciable negative correlation under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Collins, W F; Mendell, L M; Rudomin, P

    1991-04-01

    1. In the anesthetized cat, simultaneous intracellular recordings from pairs of spinal motoneurons were undertaken to see whether the amplitude of single-fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in both cells fluctuated in a coordinated manner that would indicate correlative mechanisms at either pre- or post-synaptic level. Although these recordings revealed correlated fluctuations in the baseline, the single-fiber Ia/EPSPs recorded with the spike-triggered averaging technique exhibited no correlated fluctuations and, unexpectedly, virtually no increase in baseline variance associated with the EPSP. However, the fact that these experiments were carried out under conditions of high baseline synaptic noise (i.e., with muscle stretch) may have influenced the outcome because of interaction between EPSP and synaptic noise, and this possibility was evaluated explicitly. 2. A given connection was studied under low noise by electrically stimulating a single Ia fiber in the absence of muscle stretch. The same connection was analyzed under conditions of high noise by activating the fiber and all other stretch receptor afferents with muscle stretch and by using spike-triggered averaging to extract the EPSP. The differences in mean EPSP amplitude at a given connection under conditions of low noise and high noise were minimal. 3. Fluctuations in EPSP amplitude were then determined to see whether these were influenced by presence of baseline synaptic noise and whether the interaction was nonlinear. Two methods were used to measure EPSP fluctuations: measurement of the variance associated with the EPSP, and determination by the use of deconvolution methods of the discrete amplitude components associated with the EPSP. 4. An increase in baseline variance was observed during the EPSP evoked under low noise conditions at all six connections studied in this way. This increase disappeared at two of these connections when examined under high noise. This may help to explain the

  13. Differential effects of (-)-baclofen on Ia and descending monosynaptic EPSPs.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P; Enriquez, M

    1991-01-01

    1. In cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, population synaptic responses of motoneurons produced by stimulation of group I afferents were recorded from ventral roots with a sucrose gap or extracellularly from the motor pool. These responses were depressed, and often abolished, following the intravenous injection of 1-3 mg/kg of (-)-baclofen, a presumed GABAb agonist. 2. The monosynaptic population responses of motoneurons produced by stimulation of the ipsilateral ventromedial funiculus (VMF), the bulbar reticular formation or the vestibular nucleus, were also depressed following the administration of (-)-baclofen, but to a lesser degree than responses produced by stimulation of group I fibers. 3. Depression of the synaptic actions of Ia and of descending fibers following the administration of (-)-baclofen occurred without significant changes in the presynaptic volley recorded from the cord dorsum. However, in 3/4 experiments the intraspinally recorded Ia terminal potential was reduced following the injection of (-)-baclofen. The VMF terminal potentials were also depressed, but to a lesser degree. 4. Intracellular recordings from spinal motoneurons indicate that the (-)-baclofen-induced depression of the monosynaptic Ia- and VMF-EPSPs occurred without important changes in the time course of EPSP decay. This suggests that with the amounts used, postsynaptic changes were not contributing significantly to the EPSP depression. 5. It is suggested that (-)-baclofen depresses synaptic transmission probably by activation of GABAb receptors located at the intraspinal terminations of Ia and descending fibers. The lower sensitivity of VMF actions to (-)-baclofen would be accounted for by a relatively low density of baclofen receptors in descending fiber terminals.

  14. Functional characterization of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong; Sun, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Although a large number of AroA enzymes (EPSPS: 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been identified, cloned, and tested for glyphosate resistance, only two AroA variants, derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 and Zea mays, have been utilized to produce the commercial glyphosate-resistant crops. Here, we have used a PCR-based twostep DNA synthesis method to synthesize an aroA gene (aroAA. metalliredigens) from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens, encoding a new EPSPS. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis with the new aroAA. metalliredigens gene was obtained to confirm the potential of the novel aroA gene in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  15. Cloning and characterization of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Pantoea sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Cao, Y P

    2015-12-29

    The shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the target of the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate. A novel aroA gene encoding an EPSPS from Pantoea sp was identified and subcloned into the pET-28a vector to construct the recombinant pET-AroAPantoea sp plasmid. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that AroAPantoea sp is a class I AroA enzyme. When expressed in Escherichia coli, it conveyed high tolerance to glyphosate. AroAPantoea sp may be used to generate transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants.

  16. Eva Physiology, Systems, and Performance (EPSP) Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity performed by astronauts outside their space vehicle or habitat. EVA may be performed on orbit, such as outside the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station, or on a planetary surface such as Mars or on the moon. Astronauts wear a pressurized suit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications while they work in the harsh conditions of a microgravity environment. Exploration missions to the moon and Mars may last many days and will include many types of EVAs; exploration, science, construction and maintenance. The effectiveness and success of these EVA-filled missions is dependent on the ability to perform tasks efficiently. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) project will conduct a number of studies to understand human performance during EVA, from a molecular level to full-scale equipment and suit design aspects, with the aim of developing safe and efficient systems for Exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The EPSP project will 1) develop Exploration Mission EVA suit requirements for metabolic and thermal loading, optional center of gravity location, biomedical sensors, hydration, nutrition, and human biomedical interactions; 2) develop validated EVA prebreathe protocols that meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints while minimizing crew time and thus increasing EVA work efficiency; and 3) define exploration decompression sickness (DCS) risks, policy, and mission success statistics and develop a DCS risk definition report.

  17. Estimates of EPSP amplitude based on changes in motoneuron discharge rate and probability.

    PubMed

    Powers, Randall K; Türker, K S

    2010-10-01

    When motor units are discharging tonically, transient excitatory synaptic inputs produce an increase in the probability of spike occurrence and also increase the instantaneous discharge rate. Several researchers have proposed that these induced changes in discharge rate and probability can be used to estimate the amplitude of the underlying excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP). We tested two different methods of estimating EPSP amplitude by comparing the amplitude of simulated EPSPs with their effects on the discharge of rat hypoglossal motoneurons recorded in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation. The first estimation method (simplified-trajectory method) is based on the assumptions that the membrane potential trajectory between spikes can be approximated by a 10 mV post-spike hyperpolarization followed by a linear rise to the next spike and that EPSPs sum linearly with this trajectory. We hypothesized that this estimation method would not be accurate due to interspike variations in membrane conductance and firing threshold that are not included in the model and that an alternative method based on estimating the effective distance to threshold would provide more accurate estimates of EPSP amplitude. This second method (distance-to-threshold method) uses interspike interval statistics to estimate the effective distance to threshold throughout the interspike interval and incorporates this distance-to-threshold trajectory into a threshold-crossing model. We found that the first method systematically overestimated the amplitude of small (<5 mV) EPSPs and underestimated the amplitude of large (>5 mV EPSPs). For large EPSPs, the degree of underestimation increased with increasing background discharge rate. Estimates based on the second method were more accurate for small EPSPs than those based on the first model, but estimation errors were still large for large EPSPs. These errors were likely due to two factors: (1) the distance to threshold can only be

  18. Evaluation of stable isotope labelling strategies for the quantitation of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Mireia Fernández; Fraser, Paul D; Patel, Raj K P; Halket, John M; Bramley, Peter M

    2009-02-16

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops into the market has raised a general alertness relating to the control and safety of foods. The applicability of protein separation hyphenated to mass spectrometry to identify the bacterial enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein expressed in GM crops has been previously reported [M.F. Ocana, P.D. Fraser, R.K.P. Patel, J.M. Halket, P.M. Bramley, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21 (2007) 319.]. Herein, we investigate the suitability of two strategies that employ heavy stable isotopes, i.e. AQUA and iTRAQ, to quantify different levels of CP4 EPSPS in up to four GM preparations. Both quantification strategies showed potential to determine whether the presence of GM material is above the limits established by the European Union. The AQUA quantification procedure involved protein solubilisation/fractionation and subsequent separation using SDS-PAGE. A segment of the gel in which the protein of interest was located was excised, the stable isotope labeled peptide added at a known concentration and proteolytic digestion initiated. Following recovery of the peptides, on-line separation and detection using LC-MS was carried out. A similar approach was used for the iTRAQ workflow with the exception that proteins were digested in solution and generated tryptic peptides were chemically tagged. Both procedures demonstrated the potential for quantitative detection at 0.5% (w/w) GM soya which is a level below the current European Union's threshold for food-labelling. In this context, a comparison between the two procedures is provided within the present study.

  19. 17beta-Estradiol reduces excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude in rat basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Womble, Mark D; Andrew, James A; Crook, Joseph J

    2002-10-11

    We examined the actions of estrogen on excitatory synaptic transmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region involved in learning, emotions, and the effects of stress. Intracellular recordings of monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were obtained from BLA neurons in a slice preparation. Bath application of 17beta-estradiol (2 micro M) reduced EPSP amplitude by an average of 77%. This reduction was readily reversed by washing with control saline and was not mimicked by the inactive isomer 17 alpha-estradiol. Other passive and active properties of BLA neurons were unaffected by 17beta-estradiol. The observed EPSP reduction is in sharp contrast to the potentiation of EPSPs by estrogen observed in other brain regions.

  20. Presence of CP4-EPSPS component in roundup ready soybean-derived food products.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghong; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Changqing; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs.

  1. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  2. Ba2+- and bupivacaine-sensitive background K+ conductances mediate rapid EPSP attenuation in oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chu-Fang; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Weng, Ju-Yun; Lin, Yen-Chu; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Lien, Cheng-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Glutamatergic transmission onto oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) may regulate OPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. Dendritic integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) is critical for neuronal functions, and mechanisms regulating dendritic propagation and summation of EPSPs are well understood. However, little is known about EPSP attenuation and integration in OPCs. We developed realistic OPC models for synaptic integration, based on passive membrane responses of OPCs obtained by simultaneous dual whole-cell patch-pipette recordings. Compared with neurons, OPCs have a very low value of membrane resistivity, which is largely mediated by Ba(2+)- and bupivacaine-sensitive background K(+) conductances. The very low membrane resistivity not only leads to rapid EPSP attenuation along OPC processes but also sharpens EPSPs and narrows the temporal window for EPSP summation. Thus, background K(+) conductances regulate synaptic responses and integration in OPCs, thereby affecting activity-dependent neuronal control of OPC development and function.

  3. Group I extensor afferents evoke disynaptic EPSPs in cat hindlimb extensor motorneurones during fictive locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    Angel, M J; Guertin, P; Jiménez, T; McCrea, D A

    1996-01-01

    1. Intracellular recording from extensor motoneurones in paralysed decerebrate cats was used to examine the distribution of short-latency non-monosynaptic excitation by group I afferents during fictive locomotion produced by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR). 2. During the extension but not the flexion phase of fictive locomotion, stimulation of ankle extensor nerves at 1.2-2.0 times threshold evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurones innervating hip, knee and ankle extensors. Disynaptic EPSPs were also evoked by selective activation of group Ia muscle spindle afferents by muscle stretch. 3. The central latencies of these group I-evoked EPSPs (mean, 1.55 ms) suggest their mediation by a disynaptic pathway with a single interneurone interposed between extensor group I afferents and extensor motoneurones. Disynaptic EPSPs were also evoked during periods of spontaneous locomotion following the cessation of MLR stimulation. 4. Hip extensor motoneurones received disynaptic EPSPs during extension following stimulation of both homonymous and ankle extensor nerves. Stimulation of hip extensor nerves did not evoke disynaptic EPSPs in ankle extensor motoneurones. 5. The appearance of disynaptic EPSPs during extension appears to result from cyclic disinhibition of an unidentified population of excitatory spinal interneurones and not postsynaptic voltage-dependent conductances in motoneurones or phasic presynaptic inhibition of group I afferents during flexion. 6. The reorganization of group I reflexes during fictive locomotion includes the appearance of disynaptic excitation of hip, knee and ankle extensor motoneurones. This excitatory reflex is one of the mechanisms by which group I afferents can enhance extensor activity and increase force production during stance. PMID:8865080

  4. Miniature EPSPs and sensory encoding in the primary afferents of the vestibular lagena of the toadfish, Opsanus tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R.; Vautrin, J.; Highstein, S.

    1999-01-01

    The synaptic activity transmitted from vestibular hair cells of the lagena to primary afferent neurons was recorded in vitro using sharp, intracellular microelectrodes. At rest, the activity was composed of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) at frequencies from 5 to 20/s and action potentials (APs) at frequencies betwen 0 and 10/s. mEPSPs recorded from a single fiber displayed a large variability. For mEPSPs not triggering APs, amplitudes exhibited an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 0.323 and rise times an average CV of 0.516. APs were only triggered by mEPSPs with larger amplitudes (estimated 4-6 mV) and/or steeper maximum rate of rise (10.9 mV/ms, +/- 3.7 SD, n=4 experiments) compared to (3.50 mV/ms, +/-0.07 SD, n=6 experiments) for nontriggering mEPSPs. The smallest mEPSPs showed a fast rise time (0.99 ms between 10% and 90% of peak amplitude) and limited variability across fibers (CV:0.18) confirming that they were not attenuated signals, but rather represented single-transmitter discharges (TDs). The mEPSP amplitude and rise-time relationship suggests that many mEPSPs represented several, rather than a single pulse of secretion of TDs. According to the estimated overall TD frequency, the coincidence of TDs contributing to the same mEPSP were not statistically independent, indicating a positive interaction between TDs that is reminiscent of the way subminiature signals group to form miniature signals at the neuromuscular junction. Depending on the duration and intensity of efferent stimulation, a complete block of AP initiation occurred either immediately or after a delay of a few seconds. Efferent stimulation did not significantly change AP threshold level, but abruptly decreased mEPSP frequency to a near-complete block that followed the block of APs. Maximum mEPSP rate of rise decreased during, and recovered progressively after, efferent stimulation. After termination of efferent stimulation, mEPSP amplitude did not recover

  5. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16.

  6. ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Nelson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms.

  7. Selective shunting of the NMDA EPSP component by the slow afterhyperpolarization in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Sevilla, David; Fuenzalida, Marco; Porto Pazos, Ana B; Buño, Washington

    2007-05-01

    Pyramidal neuron dendrites express voltage-gated conductances that control synaptic integration and plasticity, but the contribution of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-mediated currents to dendritic function is not well understood. Using dendritic and somatic recordings in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro, we analyzed the changes induced by the slow Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-mediated afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) generated by bursts of action potentials on excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked at the apical dendrites by perforant path-Schaffer collateral stimulation. Both the amplitude and decay time constants of EPSPs (tau(EPSP)) were reduced by the sAHP in somatic recordings. In contrast, the dendritic EPSP amplitude remained unchanged, whereas tau(EPSP) was reduced. Temporal summation was reduced and spatial summation linearized by the sAHP. The amplitude of the isolated N-methyl-D-aspartate component of EPSPs (EPSP(NMDA)) was reduced, whereas tau(NMDA) was unaffected by the sAHP. In contrast, the sAHP did not modify the amplitude of the isolated EPSP(AMPA) but reduced tau(AMPA) both in dendritic and somatic recordings. These changes are attributable to a conductance increase that acted mainly via a selective "shunt" of EPSP(NMDA) because they were absent under voltage clamp, not present with imposed hyperpolarization simulating the sAHP, missing when the sAHP was inhibited with isoproterenol, and reduced under block of EPSP(NMDA). EPSPs generated at the basal dendrites were similarly modified by the sAHP, suggesting both a somatic and apical dendritic location of the sAHP channels. Therefore the sAHP may play a decisive role in the dendrites by regulating synaptic efficacy and temporal and spatial summation.

  8. Muscarinic activation of inwardly rectifying K+ conductance reduces EPSPs in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Thomas; Alzheimer, Christian

    2001-01-01

    To determine how acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the somatodendritic processing of EPSPs, we performed whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices and examined the effect of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol (CCh), on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) EPSPs, miniature EPSPs, and EPSP-like waveforms evoked by brief dendritic glutamate pulses (glutamate-evoked postsynaptic potentials, GPSPs). Although CCh is known to enhance the intrinsic excitability of the neuron in several ways, activation of atropine-sensitive (muscarinic) receptors on the apical dendrite or the soma of CA1 pyramidal cells consistently reduced the amplitude of EPSPs and GPSPs. Cholinergic inhibition of evoked and simulated EPSP waveforms displayed considerable voltage dependence, with the amplitude of the postsynaptic potentials progressively declining with membrane hyperpolarization indicating the involvement of an inwardly rectifying current. Extracellular Ba2+ (200 μm) and tertiapin (30 nm), a novel and selective blocker of G protein-activated, inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels, completely blocked the effect of CCh on GPSP amplitude. Muscarinic reduction of GPSPs was not sensitive to the M1 receptor-preferring antagonist, pirenzepine, but was suppressed by the M2 receptor-preferring antagonist, methoctramine, and by the allosteric M2 receptor antagonist, gallamine. In voltage-clamp recordings, CCh induced an ion current displaying inward rectification in the hyperpolarizing direction, which was identified as a GIRK current based on its sensitivity to low Ba2+ and tertiapin. Its pharmacological profile paralleled that of the cholinergic GPSP reduction. We link the observed reduction of postsynaptic potentials to the cholinergic activation of a GIRK conductance, which serves to partially shunt excitatory synaptic input. PMID:11533131

  9. EPSPs Measured in Proximal Dendritic Spines of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract EPSPs occur when the neurotransmitter glutamate binds to postsynaptic receptors located on small pleomorphic membrane protrusions called dendritic spines. To transmit the synaptic signal, these potentials must travel through the spine neck and the dendritic tree to reach the soma. Due to their small size, the electrical behavior of spines and their ability to compartmentalize electrical signals has been very difficult to assess experimentally. In this study, we developed a method to perform simultaneous two-photon voltage-sensitive dye recording with two-photon glutamate uncaging in order to measure the characteristics (amplitude and duration) of uncaging-evoked EPSPs in single spines on the basal dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons in acute brain slices from CD1 control mice. We were able to record uncaging-evoked spine potentials that resembled miniature EPSPs at the soma from a wide range of spine morphologies. In proximal spines, these potentials averaged 13.0 mV (range, 6.5–30.8 mV; N = 20) for an average somatic EPSP of 0.59 mV, whereas the mean attenuation ratio (spine/soma) was found to be 25.3. Durations of spine EPSP waveforms were found to be 11.7 ms on average. Modeling studies demonstrate the important role that spine neck resistance (Rneck) plays in spine EPSP amplitudes. Simulations used to estimate Rneck by fits to voltage-sensitive dye measurements produced a mean of 179 MΩ (range, 23–420 MΩ; N = 19). Independent measurements based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of a cytosolic dye from spines of the same population of neurons produced a mean Rneck estimate of 204 MΩ (range, 52–521 MΩ; N = 34). PMID:27257618

  10. Statistical computer model analysis of the reciprocal and recurrent inhibitions of the Ia-EPSP in α-motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Gradwohl, G; Grossman, Y

    2013-01-01

    We simulate the inhibition of Ia-glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) by preceding it with glycinergic recurrent (REN) and reciprocal (REC) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). The inhibition is evaluated in the presence of voltage-dependent conductances of sodium, delayed rectifier potassium, and slow potassium in five α-motoneurons (MNs). We distribute the channels along the neuronal dendrites using, alternatively, a density function of exponential rise (ER), exponential decay (ED), or a step function (ST). We examine the change in EPSP amplitude, the rate of rise (RR), and the time integral (TI) due to inhibition. The results yield six major conclusions. First, the EPSP peak and the kinetics depending on the time interval are either amplified or depressed by the REC and REN shunting inhibitions. Second, the mean EPSP peak, its TI, and RR inhibition of ST, ER, and ED distributions turn out to be similar for analogous ranges of G. Third, for identical G, the large variations in the parameters' values can be attributed to the sodium conductance step (g(Na_step)) and the active dendritic area. We find that small g(Na_step) on a few dendrites maintains the EPSP peak, its TI, and RR inhibition similar to the passive state, but high g(Na_step) on many dendrites decrease the inhibition and sometimes generates even an excitatory effect. Fourth, the MN's input resistance does not alter the efficacy of EPSP inhibition. Fifth, the REC and REN inhibitions slightly change the EPSP peak and its RR. However, EPSP TI is depressed by the REN inhibition more than the REC inhibition. Finally, only an inhibitory effect shows up during the EPSP TI inhibition, while there are both inhibitory and excitatory impacts on the EPSP peak and its RR.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, T; Jones, C; Charles, I; Dougan, G; Young, D

    1990-01-01

    The aroA gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned by complementation of an aroA mutant of Escherichia coli after lysogenization with a recombinant DNA library in the lambda gt11 vector. Detailed characterization of the M. tuberculosis aroA gene by nucleotide sequencing and by immunochemical analysis of the expressed product indicates that it encodes a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase that is structurally related to analogous enzymes from other bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. The potential use of the cloned gene in construction of genetically defined mutant strains of M. tuberculosis by gene replacement is proposed as a novel approach to the rational attenuation of mycobacterial pathogens and the possible development of new antimycobacterial vaccines. Images PMID:2123856

  12. The herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Malik, J; Barry, G; Kishore, G

    1989-03-01

    Glyphosate has broad spectrum herbicidal activity against a wide range of annual and perennial weeds. The environmental properties of this herbicide such as its soil immobility, rapid soil inactivation and soil biodegradation are outstanding. This herbicide is practically non-toxic to non-plant life forms such as aquatic and avian species, animals and man. Metabolism studies with pure bacterial cultures indicate that glyphosate is metabolized to either aminomethylphosphonate and glyoxylate or sarcosine and phosphate in most bacteria. The enzyme C-P lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond of phosphonates including glyphosate, appears to be complex, containing multiple subunits. Mode of action studies have demonstrated that glyphosate kills plants by inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. The status of our understanding of these aspects of glyphosate is reviewed.

  13. Monosynaptic EPSPs in cat lumbosacral motoneurones from group Ia afferents and fibres descending in the spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P J; Jack, J J; Kullmann, D M

    1989-01-01

    1. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were elicited in lumbosacral motoneurones of pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats by stimulating the ventral quadrants (VQ) of the thoracic spinal cord. These EPSPs were compared with monosynaptic EPSPs from small numbers of group Ia afferents, obtained by stimulating hindlimb muscle nerves with most of the dorsal roots severed. 2. EPSPs with average peak amplitude less than 1 mV were selected for fluctuation analysis. Three out of fourteen (21%) VQ EPSPs with peak voltage less than 150 mu V fluctuated in amplitude from trial to trial no more than could be accounted for by the background intracellular noise. Similarly, nine out of thirty-nine (23%) Ia EPSPs smaller than 150 mu V fluctuated to a comparable extent as the noise. These results are consistent with the view that there is little variation in the postsynaptic signal produced by an individual transmitter release event. 3. Of the EPSPs which did fluctuate more than the background noise, maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the fluctuation patterns of ten VQ and fourteen Ia EPSPs. This was achieved by assuming that synaptic signals sum linearly with noise, but without constraining the results to conform to a statistical description of transmitter release. The fluctuation of both VQ and Ia EPSPs was made up of discrete amplitudes separated by roughly equal increments, in accordance with the quantal hypothesis of synaptic transmission. 4. Fluctuation patterns were obtained simultaneously for VQ and Ia EPSPs in seven motoneurones. The amplitudes of the quanta, defined as the mean increments between discrete amplitudes, were correlated (r = 0.90), suggesting common postsynaptic mechanisms. 5. For most EPSPs the time course of the voltage transient could be used to estimate the electrical distance from the soma at which the synaptic current was injected. There was a comparable distribution for VQ and Ia EPSPs. For those in which a quantal analysis was performed

  14. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bracamonte, Enzo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ≥ Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 < Do-R4), medium-resistance accessions (Do-R3 < Cu-R2 < Do-R2) and high-resistance accessions (Do-R1 < Cu-R1). In addition, the resistance factor levels were similar to those found in the shikimic acid accumulation at 1000 μM of glyphosate (Cu-R1 ≥ Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 >> Cu-S ≥ Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (<9.32%) was degraded in both susceptible accessions at 96 h after treatment. There were significant differences between P. hysterophorus accessions in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with and without different glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 μmol μg−1 TSP protein min−1 basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025) accessions. The same trend

  15. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels.

    PubMed

    Bracamonte, Enzo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ≥ Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 < Do-R4), medium-resistance accessions (Do-R3 < Cu-R2 < Do-R2) and high-resistance accessions (Do-R1 < Cu-R1). In addition, the resistance factor levels were similar to those found in the shikimic acid accumulation at 1000 μM of glyphosate (Cu-R1 ≥ Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 > Cu-S ≥ Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (<9.32%) was degraded in both susceptible accessions at 96 h after treatment. There were significant differences between P. hysterophorus accessions in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with and without different glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 μmol μg(-1) TSP protein min(-1) basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025) accessions. The same trend was

  16. Amplitude normalization of dendritic EPSPs at the soma of binaural coincidence detector neurons of the medial superior olive.

    PubMed

    Winters, Bradley D; Jin, Shan-Xue; Ledford, Kenneth R; Golding, Nace L

    2017-02-17

    The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs is maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites. Similar results were obtained when excitatory synaptic transmission was eliminated in a low calcium solution and then restored at specific dendritic sites by pairing input stimulation and focal application of a higher calcium solution. We performed dual dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings to measure spontaneous EPSPs (sEPSPs) using a dual-channel template-matching algorithm and to separate out those events initiated at or distal to the dendritic recording location. Local dendritic sEPSP amplitudes increased sharply with distance from the soma (length constant, 53.6 μm), but their attenuation during propagation resulted in a uniform amplitude of ∼0.2 mV at the soma. The amplitude gradient of dendritic EPSPs was also apparent in responses to injections of identical simulated excitatory synaptic currents in the dendrites. Compartmental models support the view that these results extensively reflect the influence of dendritic cable properties. With relatively few excitatory axons innervating MSO neurons, the normalization of dendritic EPSPs at the soma would increase the importance of input timing vs. location during the processing of interaural time difference cues in vivoSIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe neurons of the medial superior olive analyze cues for sound localization by detecting the coincidence of binaural excitatory synaptic inputs distributed along the length of their dendrites. Previous

  17. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watrud, L.S.; Lee, E.H.; Fairbrother, A.; Burdick, C.; Reichman, J.R.; Bollman, M.; Storm, M.; King, G.; Van De Water, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.

  18. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; Lee, E Henry; Fairbrother, Anne; Burdick, Connie; Reichman, Jay R; Bollman, Mike; Storm, Marjorie; King, George; Van de Water, Peter K

    2004-10-05

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.

  19. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker

    PubMed Central

    Watrud, Lidia S.; Lee, E. Henry; Fairbrother, Anne; Burdick, Connie; Reichman, Jay R.; Bollman, Mike; Storm, Marjorie; King, George; Van de Water, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established. PMID:15448206

  20. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    PubMed

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  1. Glutamate-induced depression of EPSP-spike coupling in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons and modulation by adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alexandra L; Stone, Trevor W

    2010-04-01

    The presence of high concentrations of glutamate in the extracellular fluid following brain trauma or ischaemia may contribute substantially to subsequent impairments of neuronal function. In this study, glutamate was applied to hippocampal slices for several minutes, producing over-depolarization, which was reflected in an initial loss of evoked population potential size in the CA1 region. Orthodromic population spikes recovered only partially over the following 60 min, whereas antidromic spikes and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) showed greater recovery, implying a change in EPSP-spike coupling (E-S coupling), which was confirmed by intracellular recording from CA1 pyramidal cells. The recovery of EPSPs was enhanced further by dizocilpine, suggesting that the long-lasting glutamate-induced change in E-S coupling involves NMDA receptors. This was supported by experiments showing that when isolated NMDA-receptor-mediated EPSPs were studied in isolation, there was only partial recovery following glutamate, unlike the composite EPSPs. The recovery of orthodromic population spikes and NMDA-receptor-mediated EPSPs following glutamate was enhanced by the adenosine A1 receptor blocker DPCPX, the A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 or adenosine deaminase, associated with a loss of restoration to normal of the glutamate-induced E-S depression. The results indicate that the long-lasting depression of neuronal excitability following recovery from glutamate is associated with a depression of E-S coupling. This effect is partly dependent on activation of NMDA receptors, which modify adenosine release or the sensitivity of adenosine receptors. The results may have implications for the use of A1 and A2A receptor ligands as cognitive enhancers or neuroprotectants.

  2. Concerted action of target-site mutations and high EPSPS activity in glyphosate-resistant junglerice (Echinochloa colona) from California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is the most widely used non-selective herbicide and Echinochloa colona is an annual weed affecting field crops and orchards in California. A population carrying a glyphosate-resistance-endowing mutation in the EPSPS gene was found in the Northern Sacramento Valley. We used selfed lines ...

  3. Contribution of NMDA receptor-mediated component to the EPSP in mouse Schaffer collateral synapses under single pulse stimulation protocol.

    PubMed

    Neagu, Bogdan; Strominger, Norman L; Carpenter, David O

    2008-11-13

    The degree to which NMDA receptors contribute to hippocampal CA(1) stratum radiatum excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) is a matter of debate. This experiment was designed to resolve the issue by documenting and positively identifying the elements of the NMDA dependent component in the extracellularly recorded stratum radiatum CA(1) field potential under low stimulation conditions and in the presence of physiologic levels of Mg(2+). We show that EPSP generation consists of activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptor channels, which mediate distinct components of the recorded field potential. We propose that the EPSP is a combination of two waves rather than one, which sometimes has been attributed to the exclusive activation of AMPA channels. Our data suggest that the three recorded peaks signify different events. The first peak reflects the presynaptic volley while the other two represent the actual EPSP. The first peak of the EPSP is determined mainly by flow of ions through AMPA channels. The second peak most likely is determined by the concurrence of two phenomena: ionic flow through NMDA channels and the source corresponding to the sink generated at the cell bodies in the pyramidal layer. The NMDA dependent component was recorded when Mg(2+) was present in physiological concentrations. The presynaptic volley and second peak do not saturate over a 10-fold increase of the stimulation charge and their amplitudes are highly correlated. The first peak amplitude rapidly saturates. The sensitivity of the recorded signals is different, the first peak being the most sensitive (1.25-0.26 mV/nC). Isolation of NMDA dependent components under physiological conditions when using a single pulse low stimulation protocol would allow more precise investigations of the NMDA dependent forms of synaptic plasticity.

  4. Analysis of the interaction between the dendritic conductance density and activated area in modulating alpha-motoneuron EPSP: statistical computer model.

    PubMed

    Gradwohl, Gideon; Grossman, Yoram

    2008-06-01

    Five reconstructed alpha-motoneurons (MNs) are simulated under physiological and morphological realistic parameters. We compare the resulting excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of models, containing voltage-dependent channels on the dendrites, with the EPSP of a passive MN and an active soma and axon model. In our simulations, we apply three different distribution functions of the voltage-dependent channels on the dendrites: a step function (ST) with uniform spatial dispersion; an exponential decay (ED) function, with proximal to the soma high-density location; and an exponential rise (ER) with distally located conductance density. In all cases, the synaptic inputs are located as a gaussian function on the dendrites. Our simulations lead to eight key observations. (1) The presence of the voltage-dependent channels conductance (g(Active)) in the dendrites is vital for obtaining EPSP peak boosting. (2) The mean EPSP peaks of the ST, ER, and ED distributions are similar when the ranges of G (total conductance) are equal. (3) EPSP peak increases monotonically when the magnitude of g(Na_step) (maximal g(Na) at a particular run) is increased. (4) EPSP kinetics parameters were differentially affected; time integral was decreased monotonically with increased g(Na_step), but the rate of rise (the decay time was not analyzed) does not show clear relations. (5) The total G can be elevated by increasing the number of active dendrites; however, only a small active area of the dendritic tree is sufficient to get the maximal boosting. (6) The sometimes large variations in the parameters values for identical G depend on the g(Na_step) and active dendritic area. (7) High g(Na_step) in a few dendrites is more efficient in amplifying the EPSP peak than low g(Na_step) in many dendrites. (8) The EPSP peak is approximately linear with respect to the MNs' R(N) (input resistance).

  5. Tonic GABAA conductance decreases membrane time constant and increases EPSP-spike precision in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I; Xu, Chun; Song, Inseon; Doronin, Maxim; Wu, Yu-Wei; Walker, Matthew C; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Because of a complex dendritic structure, pyramidal neurons have a large membrane surface relative to other cells and so a large electrical capacitance and a large membrane time constant (τm). This results in slow depolarizations in response to excitatory synaptic inputs, and consequently increased and variable action potential latencies, which may be computationally undesirable. Tonic activation of GABAA receptors increases membrane conductance and thus regulates neuronal excitability by shunting inhibition. In addition, tonic increases in membrane conductance decrease the membrane time constant (τm), and improve the temporal fidelity of neuronal firing. Here we performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that bath application of 10μM GABA indeed decreases τm in these cells. GABA also decreased first spike latency and jitter (standard deviation of the latency) produced by current injection of 2 rheobases (500 ms). However, when larger current injections (3-6 rheobases) were used, GABA produced no significant effect on spike jitter, which was low. Using mathematical modeling we demonstrate that the tonic GABAA conductance decreases rise time, decay time and half-width of EPSPs in pyramidal neurons. A similar effect was observed on EPSP/IPSP pairs produced by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals: the EPSP part of the response became shorter after application of GABA. Consistent with the current injection data, a significant decrease in spike latency and jitter was obtained in cell attached recordings only at near-threshold stimulation (50% success rate, S50). When stimulation was increased to 2- or 3- times S50, GABA significantly affected neither spike latency nor spike jitter. Our results suggest that a decrease in τm associated with elevations in ambient GABA can improve EPSP-spike precision at near-threshold synaptic inputs.

  6. Effect of helium-neon laser on fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) of neurons in the isolated rat superior cervical ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Mo; Ping, He; Ning, Mo

    2002-06-01

    Single electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk elicits in the ganglion cells an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) or multiple EPSPs of varying latencies, among which a fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) is the main type of ganglionic transmission in the sympathetic neurons. In previous work, we studied the effects of Helium-Neon laser with wavelength 632.8 nm on membrane conductance of neurons with stable f- EPSP in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia. The aim of this study is to further measure the effect of Helium-Neon Laser with wavelength 632.8 nm on fast excitatory postsynaptic potential of postganglionic neurons in the isolated rate superior cervical ganglia by means of intracellular recording techniques. The neurons with fast excitatory postsynaptic potential were irradiated by different power densities (1 and 5 mW/cm2), pulse frequency of 1 Hz laser. Irradiated by the 2 mW/cm2 laser, the amplitude of the f-EPSP could augment (P<0.05) and even caused action potential (AP) at the end of the first 1-2 minute, the F-EPSP could descend and lasted for 3- 8 minutes later.

  7. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR, and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at fourfold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops. PMID:26528311

  8. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR, and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at fourfold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops.

  9. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  10. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  11. Kv4 potassium channels modulate hippocampal EPSP-spike potentiation and spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Truchet, Bruno; Manrique, Christine; Sreng, Leam; Chaillan, Franck A; Roman, François S; Mourre, Christiane

    2012-06-14

    Kv4 channels regulate the backpropagation of action potentials (b-AP) and have been implicated in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here we showed that blockade of Kv4 channels by the scorpion toxin AmmTX3 impaired reference memory in a radial maze task. In vivo, AmmTX3 intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion increased and stabilized the EPSP-spike (E-S) component of LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG), with no effect on basal transmission or short-term plasticity. This increase in E-S potentiation duration could result from the combination of an increase in excitability of DG granular cells with a reduction of GABAergic inhibition, leading to a strong reduction of input specificity. Radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to evaluate the amounts of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNA in brain structures at different stages of a spatial learning task in naive, pseudoconditioned, and conditioned rats. Significant differences in Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNA levels were observed between conditioned and pseudoconditioned rats. Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNA levels were transiently up-regulated in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, retrosplenial, and cingulate cortices during early stages of learning, suggesting an involvement in the switch from egocentric to allocentric strategies. Spatial learning performance was positively correlated with the levels of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 mRNAs in several of these brain structures. Altogether our findings suggest that Kv4 channels could increase the signal-to-noise ratio during information acquisition, thereby allowing a better encoding of the memory trace.

  12. EPSP-spike potentiation during primed burst-induced long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, A M; Ballerini, L; Passani, M B; Corradetti, R

    1994-10-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus exhibits EPSP-spike potentiation. This consists of an increase in population spike amplitude exceeding that predicted by EPSP potentiation alone. This phenomenon is apparently due to an increase in pyramidal cell excitability. Patterns of afferent stimuli which activate pyramidal cells to reproduce the theta rhythm observed in the hippocampus under physiological conditions, have been shown to induce LTP-like enhancement of synaptic responses in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of EPSP-spike potentiation and/or changes in pyramidal cell excitability during the long-term potentiation induced in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices by theta-like patterns of stimuli: the primed burst and the patterned stimulation. Using extracellular recording, a significant leftward shift in the EPSP-spike relationship was found 30 min after primed burst or patterned stimulation. The magnitude of EPSP-spike potentiation induced by patterned stimulation was similar to that produced by high-frequency stimulation. Both were significantly greater than that induced by a primed burst, indicating that only a subset of pyramidal cells were potentiated by this kind of afferent activation. Modifications in synaptic efficacy and cell excitability brought about by a primed burst were investigated in 25 intracellularly recorded pyramidal cells. Consistent with extracellular results, it was found that only 11 out of 25 neurons receiving a primed burst were potentiated. In these cells the increase in probability of firing action potentials elicited by synaptic activation with test shocks was accompanied by enhanced cell excitability, but not by an increase in EPSP slope. High-frequency stimulation delivered 40 min after a primed burst invariably increased the EPSP slope, the probability of firing upon synaptic stimulation, and the excitability of cells. The presence of

  13. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  14. Synaptic plasticity and the analysis of the field-EPSP as well as the population spike using separate recording electrodes in the dentate gyrus in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta U

    2009-10-30

    Commonly, synaptic plasticity events such as long-term potentiation (LTP) are investigated by using a stimulation electrode and a single, monopolar field recording electrode in the dentate gyrus in intact, freely moving rats. The recording electrode is mostly positioned in the granular cell layer, or the hilar region of the dentate gyrus, i.e. far away from the place of generation of monosynaptic postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP). Since LTP is a synaptic phenomenon and field recordings far away from the activated synapses do not guarantee a specific interpretation of the overlaid, mixture of complex potentials of several different electrical fields it is often difficult or even impossible to interpret the data obtained by such a single recording electrode. Therefore, at least a separate or two recording electrodes should be used to record the EPSP as well as the spike, respectively, ideally at their places of generation. Here, we describe a method by implanting a chronic bipolar recording electrode which fulfils the above requirements by recording the field-EPSP as well as the population spike at their places of generation and describe the time course of LTP measured using this "double-recording" electrode. We show that different tetanization protocols resulted in EPSP- or population spike-LTP but only if the potentials were recorded by electrodes positioned within adequate places of potential generation. Interestingly, the commonly used recording in the hilus of a distinct part of a potential, mistakenly analyzed as an "EPSP" did not reveal any LTP.

  15. Dexmedetomidine promotes the recovery of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Chang-Ju; Chung, Jun-Young; Yi, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Jang, Myung-Soo; Han, Jin-Hee

    2016-09-19

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2 adrenergic agonist, is an anesthetic and sedative agent, and is reported to exert neuroprotective effects after hypoxic ischemia. However, there are few studies on the electrophysiological effect of DEX in hippocampal slices under ischemic conditions. The effects of DEX on field potential in hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were evaluated. Hippocampal slices were prepared from rats, and the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded using the MED 64 system. Hypoxic-ischemia was induced by perfusion with glucose-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) bubbled with 95% N2 and 5% CO2, and hippocampal slices were perfused with DEX-added aCSF before, during, and after OGD induction. In the normal hippocampal slices, perfusion with 1 and 10μM DEX did not significantly decrease the normalized fEPSP amplitude, but 100μM DEX significantly reduced the fEPSP amplitude compared with its baseline control. The induction of OGD remarkably decreased the fEPSP amplitude, whereas the pre-, co-, and post-treatment of 10μM DEX gradually promoted recovery after washing out, and consequently the amplitude of fEPSP in DEX pre-, co-, and post-treated OGD slices were significantly higher than that in the untreated OGD slices at 10min and 60min after washing out. In particular, co-treatment with DEX conspicuously promoted the recovery of the fEPSP amplitude at the beginning of washing out. These results suggest the possibility of DEX as a therapeutic agent to prevent hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and promote functional recovery after ischemia.

  16. Mammalian ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michal; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-05-01

    In mammals, ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and an important signaling molecule, is synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), each of which synthesizes ceramides with distinct acyl chain lengths. There are a number of common biochemical features between the CerS, such as their catalytic mechanism, and their structure and intracellular localization. Different CerS also display remarkable differences in their biological properties, with each of them playing distinct roles in processes as diverse as cancer and tumor suppression, in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, in apoptosis, and in neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  18. Mechanisms of acetohydroxyacid synthases.

    PubMed

    Chipman, David M; Duggleby, Ronald G; Tittmann, Kai

    2005-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthases are thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent biosynthetic enzymes found in all autotrophic organisms. Over the past 4-5 years, their mechanisms have been clarified and illuminated by protein crystallography, engineered mutagenesis and detailed single-step kinetic analysis. Pairs of catalytic subunits form an intimate dimer containing two active sites, each of which lies across a dimer interface and involves both monomers. The ThDP adducts of pyruvate, acetaldehyde and the product acetohydroxyacids can be detected quantitatively after rapid quenching. Determination of the distribution of intermediates by NMR then makes it possible to calculate individual forward unimolecular rate constants. The enzyme is the target of several herbicides and structures of inhibitor-enzyme complexes explain the herbicide-enzyme interaction.

  19. Catalytic residues and an electrostatic sandwich that promote enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase (AroA) catalysis.

    PubMed

    Berti, Paul J; Chindemi, Paul

    2009-05-05

    Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSP synthase, AroA) catalyzes the sixth step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. It forms EPSP from shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in an addition/elimination reaction that proceeds through a tetrahedral intermediate. In spite of numerous mechanistic studies, the catalytic roles of specific amino acid residues remain an open question. Recent experimental evidence for cationic intermediates or cationic transition states, and a consideration of the catalytic imperative, have guided this study on the catalytic roles of Lys22 (K22), Asp313 (D313), and Glu341 (E341). Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics and protein stability studies showed that mutations of D313 and E341 caused k(cat) to decrease up to 30,000-fold and 76,000-fold, respectively, while the effects on K(M) were modest, never more than 40-fold. Thus, both are identified as catalytic residues. In an active site that is overwhelmingly positively charged, the D313 and E341 side chains are positioned to form an "electrostatic sandwich" around the positive charge at C2 in cationic intermediates/transition states, stabilizing them and thereby promoting catalysis. Mutation of K22 showed large effects on K(M,S3P) (100-fold), K(M,PEP) (>760-fold), and up to 120-fold on k(cat). Thus, K22 had roles in both substrate-binding and transition-state stabilization. These results support the identification of E341 and K22 as general acid/base catalytic residues.

  20. Bacterial glyphosate resistance conferred by overexpression of an E. coli membrane efflux transporter.

    PubMed

    Staub, Jeffrey M; Brand, Leslie; Tran, Minhtien; Kong, Yifei; Rogers, Stephen G

    2012-04-01

    Glyphosate herbicide-resistant crop plants, introduced commercially in 1994, now represent approximately 85% of the land area devoted to transgenic crops. Herbicide resistance in commercial glyphosate-resistant crops is due to expression of a variant form of a bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase with a significantly decreased binding affinity for glyphosate at the target site of the enzyme. As a result of widespread and recurrent glyphosate use, often as the only herbicide used for weed management, increasing numbers of weedy species have evolved resistance to glyphosate. Weed resistance is most often due to changes in herbicide translocation patterns, presumed to be through the activity of an as yet unidentified membrane transporter in plants. To provide insight into glyphosate resistance mechanisms and identify a potential glyphosate transporter, we screened Escherichia coli genomic DNA for alternate sources of glyphosate resistance genes. Our search identified a single non-target gene that, when overexpressed in E. coli and Pseudomonas, confers high-level glyphosate resistance. The gene, yhhS, encodes a predicted membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily involved in drug efflux. We report here that an alternative mode of glyphosate resistance in E. coli is due to reduced accumulation of glyphosate in cells that overexpress this membrane transporter and discuss the implications for potential alternative resistance mechanisms in other organisms such as plants.

  1. Phosphanilic Acid Inhibits Dihydropteroate Synthase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    dihydropteroate synthases of P. aeruginosa and E . coli were about equally susceptible to inhibition by PA. These results suggest that cells of P. aeruginosa...are more permeable to PA than cells of E . coli . Although a weak inhibitor, PA acted on dihydropteroate synthase in the same manner as the sulfonamides...with which PA is structurally related. Inhibition of E . coli by PA in a basal salts-glucose medium was prevented by p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). However

  2. Bacterial nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Crane, Brian R; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Patel, Bhumit A

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are multidomain metalloproteins first identified in mammals as being responsible for the synthesis of the wide-spread signaling and protective agent nitric oxide (NO). Over the past 10 years, prokaryotic proteins that are homologous to animal NOSs have been identified and characterized, both in terms of enzymology and biological function. Despite some interesting differences in cofactor utilization and redox partners, the bacterial enzymes are in many ways similar to their mammalian NOS (mNOS) counterparts and, as such, have provided insight into the structural and catalytic properties of the NOS family. In particular, spectroscopic studies of thermostable bacterial NOSs have revealed key oxyheme intermediates involved in the oxidation of substrate L-arginine (Arg) to product NO. The biological functions of some bacterial NOSs have only more recently come to light. These studies disclose new roles for NO in biology, such as taking part in toxin biosynthesis, protection against oxidative stress, and regulation of recovery from radiation damage.

  3. Postactivation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurons is reduced in both the G127X SOD1 model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, A; Lehnhoff, J; Moldovan, M; Grøndahl, L; Petersen, N C; Meehan, C F

    2015-08-01

    Postactivation depression (PActD) of Ia afferent excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in spinal motoneurons results in a long-lasting depression of the stretch reflex. This phenomenon (PActD) is of clinical interest as it has been shown to be reduced in a number of spastic disorders. Using in vivo intracellular recordings of Ia EPSPs in adult mice, we demonstrate that PActD in adult (100-220 days old) C57BL/6J mice is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that which has been observed in larger animals with respect to both the magnitude (with ∼20% depression of EPSPs at 0.5 ms after a train of stimuli) and the time course (returning to almost normal amplitudes by 5 ms after the train). This validates the use of mouse models to study PActD. Changes in such excitatory inputs to spinal motoneurons may have important implications for hyperreflexia and/or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the use of the G127X SOD1 mutant mouse, an ALS model with a prolonged asymptomatic phase and fulminant symptom onset, we observed that PActD is significantly reduced at both presymptomatic (16% depression) and symptomatic (17.3% depression) time points compared with aged-matched controls (22.4% depression). The PActD reduction was not markedly altered by symptom onset. Comparing these PActD changes at the EPSP with the known effect of the depression on the monosynaptic reflex, we conclude that this is likely to have a much larger effect on the reflex itself (a 20-40% difference). Nevertheless, it should also be accounted that in aged (580 day old) C57BL/6J mice there was also a reduction in PActD although, aging is not usually associated with spasticity.

  4. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  5. Neuroligin-1 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission, LTP and EPSP-spike coupling in the dentate gyrus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Peter; Vnencak, Matej; Krueger, Dilja D; Jungenitz, Tassilo; Brose, Nils; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

    2015-01-01

    Neuroligins are transmembrane cell adhesion proteins with a key role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Based on previous in vitro and ex vivo studies, neuroligin-1 (NL1) has been suggested to play a selective role in the function of glutamatergic synapses. However, the role of NL1 has not yet been investigated in the brain of live animals. We studied the effects of NL1-deficiency on synaptic transmission in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using field potential recordings evoked by perforant path stimulation in urethane-anesthetized NL1 knockout (KO) mice. We report that in NL1 KOs the activation of glutamatergic perforant path granule cell inputs resulted in reduced synaptic responses. In addition, NL1 KOs displayed impairment in long-term potentiation. Furthermore, field EPSP-population spike (E-S) coupling was greater in NL1 KO than WT mice and paired-pulse inhibition was reduced, indicating a compensatory rise of excitability in NL1 KO granule cells. Consistent with changes in excitatory transmission, NL1 KOs showed a significant reduction in hippocampal synaptosomal expression levels of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and NMDA receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B. Taken together, we provide first evidence that NL1 is essential for normal excitatory transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of intact animals. Our data provide insights into synaptic and circuit mechanisms of neuropsychiatric abnormalities such as learning deficits and autism.

  6. SIRT3 Deacetylates Ceramide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Novgorodov, Sergei A.; Riley, Christopher L.; Keffler, Jarryd A.; Yu, Jin; Kindy, Mark S.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Lombard, David B.; Gudz, Tatyana I.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the role of mitochondrial ceramide accumulation as a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury after stroke. Herein, we report that SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial ceramide biosynthesis via deacetylation of ceramide synthase (CerS) 1, 2, and 6. Reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CerS1, CerS2, and CerS6, but not CerS4, are associated with SIRT3 in cerebral mitochondria. Furthermore, CerS1, -2, and -6 are hyperacetylated in the mitochondria of SIRT3-null mice, and SIRT3 directly deacetylates the ceramide synthases in a NAD+-dependent manner that increases enzyme activity. Investigation of the SIRT3 role in mitochondrial response to brain ischemia/reperfusion (IR) showed that SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of ceramide synthases increased enzyme activity and ceramide accumulation after IR. Functional studies demonstrated that absence of SIRT3 rescued the IR-induced blockade of the electron transport chain at the level of complex III, attenuated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, and decreased reactive oxygen species generation and protein carbonyls in mitochondria. Importantly, Sirt3 gene ablation reduced the brain injury after IR. These data support the hypothesis that IR triggers SIRT3-dependent deacetylation of ceramide synthases and the elevation of ceramide, which could inhibit complex III, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and brain injury. The results of these studies highlight a novel mechanism of SIRT3 involvement in modulating mitochondrial ceramide biosynthesis and suggest an important role of SIRT3 in mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury after experimental stroke. PMID:26620563

  7. BDNF enhances dendritic Ca2+ signals evoked by coincident EPSPs and back-propagating action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    BDNF, a member of the neurotrophin family, is emerging as a key modulator of synaptic structure and function in the CNS. Due to the critical role of postsynaptic Ca2+ signals in dendritic development and synaptic plasticity, we tested whether long-term exposure to BDNF affects Ca2+ elevations evoked by coincident excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) in spiny dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons within hippocampal slice cultures. In control neurons, a train of 5 coincident EPSPs and bAPs evoked Ca2+ elevations in oblique radial branches of the main apical dendrite that were of similar amplitude than those evoked by a train of 5 bAPs alone. On the other hand, dendritic Ca2+ signals evoked by coincident EPSPs and bAPs were always larger than those triggered by bAPs in CA1 neurons exposed to BDNF for 48 h. This difference was not observed after blockade of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with D,L-APV, but only in BDNF-treated neurons, suggesting that Ca2+ signals in oblique radial dendrites include a synaptic NMDAR-dependent component. Co-treatment with the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor k-252a prevented the effect of BDNF on coincident dendritic Ca2+ signals, suggesting the involvement of neurotrophin Trk receptors. These results indicate that long-term exposure to BDNF enhances Ca2+ signaling during coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity in small spiny dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, representing a potential functional consequence of neurotrophin-mediated dendritic remodeling in developing neurons. PMID:16797499

  8. Acetohydroxyacid synthases: evolution, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadi; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase, a thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme, can condense either two pyruvate molecules to form acetolactate for synthesizing L-valine and L-leucine or pyruvate with 2-ketobutyrate to form acetohydroxybutyrate for synthesizing L-isoleucine. Because the key reaction catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase in the biosynthetic pathways of branched-chain amino acids exists in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria, but not in animals, acetohydroxyacid synthase becomes a potential target for developing novel herbicides and antimicrobial compounds. In this article, the evolution, structure, and catalytic mechanism of acetohydroxyacid synthase are summarized.

  9. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  10. Phosphorus-31, sup 15 N, and sup 13 C NMR of glyphosate: Comparison of pH titrations to the herbicidal dead-end complex with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Castellino, S.; Leo, G.C.; Sammons, R.D.; Sikorski, J.A. )

    1989-05-02

    The herbicidal dead-end ternary complex (E{sup S3P}{sub Glyph}) of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and the substrate shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) has been characterized by {sup 31}P, {sup 15}N, and {sup 13}C NMR. The NMR spectra of EPSPS-bound glyphosate show unique chemical shifts ({delta}) for each of the three nuclei. By {sup 31}P NMR, glyphosate in the dead-end complex is a distinct species 3.5 ppm downfield from free glyphosate. The {sup 13}C signal of glyphosate in the dead-end complex is shifted 4 ppm downfield from that of free glyphosate. The {sup 15}N signal for glyphosate (99%) in the dead-end complex is 5 ppm further downfield than that of any free zwitterionic species and 10 ppm downfield from that of the average free species at pH 10.1. The structures of each ionic state of glyphosate are modeled with force field calculations by using MacroModel. A correlation is made for the {sup 31}P {delta} and the C-P-O bond angle, and the {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N {delta} values are postulated to be related to C-C-O and C-N-C bond angles, respectively. The downfield {sup 31}P chemical shift perturbation for S3P in the EPSPS binary complex is consistent with ionization of the 3-phosphate of S3P upon binding. Comparison with the S3P {sup 31}P {delta} vs pH titration curve specifies predominantly the dianion of the 3-phosphate in the E{sup S3P} binary complex, while the E{sup S3P}{sub Glyph} complex indicates net protonation at the 3-phosphate. Chemical shift perturbations of this latter type may be explained by changes in the O-P-O bond angle.

  11. Polyester synthases: natural catalysts for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Bernd H A

    2003-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolyesters composed of hydroxy fatty acids, which represent a complex class of storage polyesters. They are synthesized by a wide range of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as by some Archaea, and are deposited as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions. Polyester synthases are the key enzymes of polyester biosynthesis and catalyse the conversion of (R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA thioesters to polyesters with the concomitant release of CoA. These soluble enzymes turn into amphipathic enzymes upon covalent catalysis of polyester-chain formation. A self-assembly process is initiated resulting in the formation of insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions with a phospholipid monolayer and covalently attached polyester synthases at the surface. Surface-attached polyester synthases show a marked increase in enzyme activity. These polyester synthases have only recently been biochemically characterized. An overview of these recent findings is provided. At present, 59 polyester synthase structural genes from 45 different bacteria have been cloned and the nucleotide sequences have been obtained. The multiple alignment of the primary structures of these polyester synthases show an overall identity of 8-96% with only eight strictly conserved amino acid residues. Polyester synthases can been assigned to four classes based on their substrate specificity and subunit composition. The current knowledge on the organization of the polyester synthase genes, and other genes encoding proteins related to PHA metabolism, is compiled. In addition, the primary structures of the 59 PHA synthases are aligned and analysed with respect to highly conserved amino acids, and biochemical features of polyester synthases are described. The proposed catalytic mechanism based on similarities to alpha/beta-hydrolases and mutational analysis is discussed. Different threading algorithms suggest that polyester synthases belong to the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, with

  12. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong

    2014-06-01

    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  13. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM3 synthase deficiency is characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with brain development. Within the first ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (2 links) ...

  15. Chitin synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Preeti M; Tupe, Santosh G; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2013-02-01

    Increased risk of fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients, emerging fungal pathogens, limited repertoire of antifungal drugs and resistance development against the drugs demands for development of new and effective antifungal agents. With greater knowledge of fungal metabolism efforts are being made to inhibit specific enzymes involved in different biochemical pathways for the development of antifungal drugs. Chitin synthase is one such promising target as it is absent in plants and mammals. Nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor is under clinical development. Chitin synthesis in fungi, chitin synthase as a target for antifungal agent development, different chitin synthase inhibitors isolated from natural sources, randomly synthesized and modified from nikkomycin and polyoxin are discussed in this review.

  16. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties. PMID:28355238

  17. Inhibitors of specific ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Susanne; Hartmann, Daniela; Fuchs, Sina; Birod, Kerstin; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Schreiber, Yannick; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine; Stark, Holger

    2012-02-01

    Ceramide synthases (CerSs) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ceramides and display a group of at least six different isoenzymes (CerS1-6). Ceramides itself are bioactive molecules. Ceramides with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer - C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinct roles in cell signaling. Therefore, the selective inhibition of specific CerSs which are responsible for the formation of a specific ceramide holds promise for a number of new clinical treatment strategies, e.g., cancer. Here, we identified four of hitherto unknown functional inhibitors of CerSs derived from the FTY720 (Fingolimod) lead structure and showed their inhibitory effectiveness by two in vitro CerS activity assays. Additionally, we tested the substances in two cell lines (HCT-116 and HeLa) with different ceramide patterns. In summary, the in vitro activity assays revealed out that ST1058 and ST1074 preferentially inhibit CerS2 and CerS4, while ST1072 inhibits most potently CerS4 and CerS6. Importantly, ST1060 inhibits predominately CerS2. First structure-activity relationships and the potential biological impact of these compounds are discussed.

  18. Malate synthase a membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Turley, R.B.; Hermerath, C.A.; Carrapico, F.; Trelease, R.N.

    1987-04-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is generally regarded as a peripheral membrane protein, and believed by some to be ontogenetically associated with ER. However, immuno- and cyto-chemical in situ localizations show MS throughout the matrix of cotton (and cucumber) glyoxysomes, not specifically near their boundary membranes, nor in ER. Only a maximum of 50% MS can be solubilized from cotton glyoxysomes with 1% Triton X-100, 2mM Zwittergen 14, or 10mM DOC +/- salts. Cotton MS does not incorporate /sup 3/H-glucosamine in vivo, nor does it react with Con A on columns or blots. Cotton MS banded with ER in sucrose gradients (20-40%) in Tricine after 3h, but not after 22h in Tricine or Hepes, or after 3h in Hepes or K-phosphate. Collectively the authors data are inconsistent with physiologically meaningful MS-membrane associations in ER or glyoxysomes. It appears that experimentally-induced aggregates of MS migrate in ER gradients and occur in isolated glyoxysomes. These data indicate that ER is not involved in synthesis or modification of cottonseed MS prior to its import into the glyoxysomal matrix.

  19. Identification of Genomic Insertion and Flanking Sequence of G2-EPSPS and GAT Transgenes in Soybean Using Whole Genome Sequencing Method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of sequence flanking exogenous fragment insertion is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO). In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) method. More than 22.4 Gb sequence data (∼21 × coverage) for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundaries of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector. The putative insertion loci and flanking sequences were further confirmed by PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis. All these analyses supported that exogenous T-DNA fragments were integrated in positions of Chr19: 50543767-50543792 and Chr17: 7980527-7980541 in these two transgenic lines. Identification of genomic insertion sites of G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes will facilitate the utilization of their glyphosate-tolerant traits in soybean breeding program. These results also demonstrated that WGS was a cost-effective and rapid method for identifying sites of T-DNA insertions and flanking sequences in soybean.

  20. Effect of the cp4-epsps gene on metal bioavailability in maize and soybean using bionic gastrointestinal tracts and ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Chen, Li-Hui; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Li, Yan-Cai

    2013-02-20

    The transformation and metabolism of dietary compounds are affected significantly by gut microbiota. Hence, gut microbiota are used to improve bionic gastrointestinal tracts. The effect of the cp4-epsps gene on metal bioavailability was proved by the comparison of the affinity-liposome metal content ratio (AMCR) in transgenic and conventional crops. The bioavailability of V, Mn, Co, Ga, Ag, Ba, and Pb in roundup ready soybean decreased significantly because the ratio of AMCR (R(AMCR)) in the transgenic crop and its corresponding conventional type ranged from 0.36 to 0.69. In roundup ready maize, metal bioavailability decreased for Li and Cr (i.e., R(AMCR) was 0.26 and 0.39, respectively) but increased for V, Co, and Pb (i.e., R(AMCR) was 1.48, 2.07, and 2.12, respectively). Compared with conventional crops, safe dosage and maximum consumption of roundup ready crops were 1.59 times for soybean and 0.78 times for maize.

  1. Identification of Genomic Insertion and Flanking Sequence of G2-EPSPS and GAT Transgenes in Soybean Using Whole Genome Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of sequence flanking exogenous fragment insertion is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO). In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) method. More than 22.4 Gb sequence data (∼21 × coverage) for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundaries of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector. The putative insertion loci and flanking sequences were further confirmed by PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis. All these analyses supported that exogenous T-DNA fragments were integrated in positions of Chr19: 50543767–50543792 and Chr17: 7980527–7980541 in these two transgenic lines. Identification of genomic insertion sites of G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes will facilitate the utilization of their glyphosate-tolerant traits in soybean breeding program. These results also demonstrated that WGS was a cost-effective and rapid method for identifying sites of T-DNA insertions and flanking sequences in soybean. PMID:27462336

  2. Identification of novel sesterterpene/triterpene synthase from Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tsutomu; Yamaga, Hiroaki; Kashima, Shoji; Murata, Yusuke; Shinada, Tetsuro; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-05-10

    Basic enzyme: The tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologue from the alkalophilic Bacillus clausii catalyses conversions of a geranylfarnesyl diphosphate and a hexaprenyl diphosphate into novel head-to-tail acyclic sesterterpene and triterpene. Tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologues represent a new family of terpene synthases that form not only sesquarterpene but also sesterterpene and triterpene.

  3. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  4. Lessons from 455 Fusarium polyketide synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities. The most studied SMs are toxic to animals and/or plants, alter plant growth, have beneficial pharmaceutical activities, and/or are brightly colored pigm...

  5. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  6. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  7. Gene Editing by Co-Transformation of TALEN and Chimeric RNA/DNA Oligonucleotides on the Rice OsEPSPS Gene and the Inheritance of Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mugui; Liu, Yujun; Zhang, Cuicui; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Xin; Wang, Liangchao; Wang, Wenyi; Chen, Hao; Wei, Chuchu; Ye, Xiufen; Li, Xinyuan; Tu, Jumin

    2015-01-01

    Although several site-specific nucleases (SSNs), such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas, have emerged as powerful tools for targeted gene editing in many organisms, to date, gene targeting (GT) in plants remains a formidable challenge. In the present study, we attempted to substitute a single base in situ on the rice OsEPSPS gene by co-transformation of TALEN with chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides (COs), including different strand composition such as RNA/DNA (C1) or DNA/RNA (C2) but contained the same target base to be substituted. In contrast to zero GT event obtained by the co-transformation of TALEN with homologous recombination plasmid (HRP), we obtained one mutant showing target base substitution although accompanied by undesired deletion of 12 bases downstream the target site from the co-transformation of TALEN and C1. In addition to this typical event, we also obtained 16 mutants with different length of base deletions around the target site among 105 calli lines derived from transformation of TALEN alone (4/19) as well as co-transformation of TELAN with either HRP (5/30) or C1 (2/25) or C2 (5/31). Further analysis demonstrated that the homozygous gene-edited mutants without foreign gene insertion could be obtained in one generation. The induced mutations in transgenic generation were also capable to pass to the next generation stably. However, the genotypes of mutants did not segregate normally in T1 population, probably due to lethal mutations. Phenotypic assessments in T1 generation showed that the heterozygous plants with either one or three bases deletion on target sequence, called d1 and d3, were more sensitive to glyphosate and the heterozygous d1 plants had significantly lower seed-setting rate than wild-type. PMID:25856577

  8. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in multiple myeloma risk.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carmen S P; Ortega, Manoela M; Ozelo, Margareth C; Araujo, Renato C; De Souza, Cármino A; Lorand-Metze, Irene; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; Costa, Fernando F

    2008-03-01

    We tested whether the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, the methionine synthase gene, MTR A2756G, the methionine synthase reductase gene, MTRR A66G, and the thymidylate synthase gene, TYMS 2R-->3R, involved in folate and methionine metabolism, altered the risk for multiple myeloma (MM). Genomic DNA from 123MM patients and 188 controls was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion for the polymorphism analyses. The frequency of the MTR 2756 AG plus GG genotype was higher in patients than in controls (39.8% versus 23.4%, P=0.001). Individual carriers of the variant allele G had a 2.31 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87)-fold increased risk for MM compared with others. In contrast, similar frequencies of the MTHFR, the MTRR and the TYMS genotypes were seen in patients and controls. These results suggest, for the first time, a role for the MTR A2756G polymorphism in MM risk in our country, but should be confirmed by large-scale epidemiological studies with patients and controls age matched.

  9. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants.

    PubMed

    Misako, Kato; Kouichi, Mizuno

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid present in high concentrations in tea and coffee and it is also found in a number of beverages such as coca cola. It is necessary to elucidate the caffeine biosynthetic pathway and to clone the genes related to the production of caffeine not only to determine the metabolism of the purine alkaloid but also to control the content of caffeine in tea and coffee. The available data support the operation of a xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway as the major route to caffeine. Since the caffeine biosynthetic pathway contains three S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation steps, N-methyltransferases play important roles. This review focuses on the enzymes and genes involved in the methylation of purine ring. Caffeine synthase, the SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was originally purified from young tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The isolated cDNA, termed TCS1, consists of 1,483 base pairs and encodes a protein of 369 amino acids. Subsequently, the homologous genes that encode caffeine biosynthetic enzymes from coffee (Coffea arabica) were isolated. The recombinant proteins are classified into the three types on the basis of their substrate specificity i.e. 7-methylxanthosine synthase, theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase. The predicted amino acid sequences of caffeine biosynthetic enzymes derived from C. arabica exhibit more than 80% homology with those of the clones and but show only 40% homology with TCS1 derived from C. sinensis. In addition, they share 40% homology with the amino acid sequences of salicylic carboxyl methyltransferase, benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase which belong to a family of motif B' methyltransferases which are novel plant methyltransferases with motif B' instead of motif B as the conserved region.

  10. Chrysanthemyl Diphosphate Synthase Operates in Planta as a Bifunctional Enzyme with Chrysanthemol Synthase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1′-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12–0.16 μg h−1 g−1 fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

  11. Structure of a modular polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Somnath; Whicher, Jonathan R.; Hansen, Douglas A.; Hale, Wendi A.; Chemler, Joseph A.; Congdon, Grady R.; Narayan, Alison R.; Håkansson, Kristina; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyketide natural products constitute a broad class of compounds with diverse structural features and biological activities. Their biosynthetic machinery, represented by type I polyketide synthases, has an architecture in which successive modules catalyze two-carbon linear extensions and keto group processing reactions on intermediates covalently tethered to carrier domains. We employed electron cryo-microscopy to visualize a full-length module and determine sub-nanometer resolution 3D reconstructions that revealed an unexpectedly different architecture compared to the homologous dimeric mammalian fatty acid synthase. A single reaction chamber provides access to all catalytic sites for the intra-module carrier domain. In contrast, the carrier from the preceding module uses a separate entrance outside the reaction chamber to deliver the upstream polyketide intermediate for subsequent extension and modification. This study reveals for the first time the structural basis for both intra-module and inter-module substrate transfer in polyketide synthases, and establishes a new model for molecular dissection of these multifunctional enzyme systems. PMID:24965652

  12. Threonine Synthase of Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. 6746

    PubMed Central

    Giovanelli, John; Veluthambi, K.; Thompson, Gregory A.; Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.

    1984-01-01

    Threonine synthase (TS) was purified approximately 40-fold from Lemna paucicostata, and some of its properties determined by use of a sensitive and specific assay. During the course of its purification, TS was separated from cystathionine γ-synthase, establishing the separate identity of these enzymes. Compared to cystathionine γ-synthase, TS is relatively insensitive to irreversible inhibition by propargylglycine (both in vitro and in vivo) and to gabaculine, vinylglycine, or cysteine in vitro. TS is highly specific for O-phospho-l-homoserine (OPH) and water (hydroxyl ion). Nucleophilic attack by hydroxyl ion is restricted to carbon-3 of OPH and proceeds sterospecifically to form threonine rather than allo-threonine. The Km for OPH, determined at saturating S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), is 2.2 to 6.9 micromolar, two orders of magnitude less than values reported for TS from other plant tissues. AdoMet markedly stimulates the enzyme in a reversible and cooperative manner, consistent with its proposed role in regulation of methionine biosynthesis. Cysteine (1 millimolar) caused a slight (26%) reversible inhibition of the enzyme. Activities of TS isolated from Lemna were inversely related to the methionine nutrition of the plants. Down-regulation of TS by methionine may help to limit the overproduction of threonine that could result from allosteric stimulation of the enzyme by AdoMet. No evidence was obtained for feedback inhibition, repression, or covalent modification of TS by threonine and/or isoleucine. PMID:16663833

  13. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  14. Progress towards clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the high degree of similarity between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and cortisol synthase (CYP11B1), the design of selective inhibitors of one or the other of these two enzymes was, at one time, thought to be impossible. Through development of novel enzyme screening assays and significant medicinal chemistry efforts, highly potent inhibitors of CYP11B2 have been identified with selectivities approaching 1000-fold between the two enzymes. Many of these molecules also possess selectivity against other steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP17A1 and CYP19A1) as well as hepatic drug metabolizing P450s. Though not as well developed or explored, inhibitors of CYP11B1, with selectivities approaching 50-fold, have also been identified. The therapeutic benefits of affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been well established with the therapeutically useful angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Data regarding the additional benefits of an aldosterone synthase inhibitor (ASi) are beginning to emerge from animal models and human clinical trials. Despite great promise and much progress, additional challenges still exist in the path towards development of a therapeutically useful ASi.

  15. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  16. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  17. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  18. Divinyl ether synthase gene, and protein and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  19. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  20. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: a new factor in cellulose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the recent identification of a novel component. CSI1, which encodes CESA interacting protein 1 (CSI1) in Arabidopsis. CSI1, as the first non-CESA proteins associated with cellulose synthase complexes, opens up many opportunities.

  1. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2016-01-01

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene–producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon–intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  2. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors.

  3. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthase by aspirin.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G J; Stanford, N; Majerus, P W

    1975-01-01

    When microsomes of sheep or bovine seminal vesicles are incubated with [acetyl-3H]aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), 200 Ci/mol, we observe acetylation of a single protein, as measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein has a molecular weight of 85,000 and corresponds to a similar acetylated protein found in the particulate fraction of aspirin-treated human platelets. The aspirin-mediated acetylation reaction proceeds with the same time course and at the same concentration as does the inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (cyclo-oxygenase) (EC 1.14.99.1; 8,11,14-eicosatrienoate, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase) by the drug. At 100 muM aspirin, 50% inhibition of prostaglandin synthase and 50% of maximal acetylation are observed after 15 min at 37 degrees. Furthermore, the substrate for cyclo-oxygenase, arachidonic acid, inhibits protein acetylation by aspirin at concentrations (50% inhibition at 10-30 muM) which correlate with the Michaelis constant of arachidonic acid as a substrate for cyclooxygenase. Arachidonic acid analogues and indomethacin inhibit the acetylation reaction in proportion to their effectiveness as cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. The results suggest that aspirin acts as an active-site acetylating agent for the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. This action of aspirin may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet action. PMID:810797

  4. Activities and regulation of peptidoglycan synthases.

    PubMed

    Egan, Alexander J F; Biboy, Jacob; van't Veer, Inge; Breukink, Eefjan; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-10-05

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component in the cell wall of nearly all bacteria, forming a continuous, mesh-like structure, called the sacculus, around the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from bursting by its turgor. Although PG synthases, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), have been studied for 70 years, useful in vitro assays for measuring their activities were established only recently, and these provided the first insights into the regulation of these enzymes. Here, we review the current knowledge on the glycosyltransferase and transpeptidase activities of PG synthases. We provide new data showing that the bifunctional PBP1A and PBP1B from Escherichia coli are active upon reconstitution into the membrane environment of proteoliposomes, and that these enzymes also exhibit DD-carboxypeptidase activity in certain conditions. Both novel features are relevant for their functioning within the cell. We also review recent data on the impact of protein-protein interactions and other factors on the activities of PBPs. As an example, we demonstrate a synergistic effect of multiple protein-protein interactions on the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1B, by its cognate lipoprotein activator LpoB and the essential cell division protein FtsN.

  5. Subcellular localization and regulation of coenzyme A synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Valovka, Taras; Fenton, Tim; Rebholz, Heike; Wang, Mong-Lien; Foxon, Richard; Lyzogubov, Valeriy; Usenko, Vasylij; Kyyamova, Ramziya; Gorbenko, Olena; Matsuka, Genadiy; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T

    2003-12-12

    CoA synthase mediates the last two steps in the sequence of enzymatic reactions, leading to CoA biosynthesis. We have recently identified cDNA for CoA synthase and demonstrated that it encodes a bifunctional enzyme possessing 4'-phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase and dephospho-CoA kinase activities. Molecular cloning of CoA synthase provided us with necessary tools to study subcellular localization and the regulation of this bifunctional enzyme. Transient expression studies and confocal microscopy allowed us to demonstrate that full-length CoA synthase is associated with the mitochondria, whereas the removal of the N-terminal region relocates the enzyme to the cytosol. In addition, we showed that the N-terminal sequence of CoA synthase (amino acids 1-29) exhibits a hydrophobic profile and targets green fluorescent protein exclusively to mitochondria. Further analysis, involving subcellular fractionation and limited proteolysis, indicated that CoA synthase is localized on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, which are the main components of the mitochondrial outer membrane, are potent activators of both enzymatic activities of CoA synthase in vitro. Taken together, these data provide the evidence that the final stages of CoA biosynthesis take place on mitochondria and the activity of CoA synthase is regulated by phospholipids.

  6. Argininosuccinate synthase: at the center of arginine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ricci J; Pendleton, Laura C; Eichler, Duane C

    2011-01-01

    The levels of L-arginine, a cationic, semi-essential amino acid, are often controlled within a cell at the level of local availability through biosynthesis. The importance of this temporal and spatial control of cellular L-arginine is highlighted by the tissue specific roles of argininosuccinate synthase (argininosuccinate synthetase) (EC 6.3.4.5), as the rate-limiting step in the conversion of L-citrulline to L-arginine. Since its discovery, the function of argininosuccinate synthase has been linked almost exclusively to hepatic urea production despite the fact that alternative pathways involving argininosuccinate synthase were defined, such as its role in providing arginine for creatine and for polyamine biosynthesis. However, it was the discovery of nitric oxide that meaningfully extended our understanding of the metabolic importance of non-hepatic argininosuccinate synthase. Indeed, our knowledge of the number of tissues that manage distinct pools of arginine under the control of argininosuccinate synthase has expanded significantly.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds.

  8. Ubiquitination and filamentous structure of cytidine triphosphate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Li-Mei; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chakraborty, Archan; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living organisms respond to nutrient availability by regulating the activity of metabolic enzymes. Therefore, the reversible post-translational modification of an enzyme is a common regulatory mechanism for energy conservation. Recently, cytidine-5′-triphosphate (CTP) synthase was discovered to form a filamentous structure that is evolutionarily conserved from flies to humans. Interestingly, induction of the formation of CTP synthase filament is responsive to starvation or glutamine depletion. However, the biological roles of this structure remain elusive. We have recently shown that ubiquitination regulates CTP synthase activity by promoting filament formation in Drosophila ovaries during endocycles. Intriguingly, although the ubiquitination process was required for filament formation induced by glutamine depletion, CTP synthase ubiquitination was found to be inversely correlated with filament formation in Drosophila and human cell lines. In this article, we discuss the putative dual roles of ubiquitination, as well as its physiological implications, in the regulation of CTP synthase structure. PMID:27116391

  9. Functional Contribution of Chorismate Synthase, Anthranilate Synthase, and Chorismate Mutase to Penetration Resistance in Barley-Powdery Mildew Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant processes resulting from primary or secondary metabolism have been hypothesized to contribute to defense against microbial attack. Barley chorismate synthase (HvCS), anthranilate synthase alpha subunit 2 (HvASa2) and chorismate mutase 1 (HvCM1) occupy pivotal branch-points downstream of the s...

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage.

    PubMed

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Komur, Baran; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  11. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  12. Conversion of anthranilate synthase into isochorismate synthase: implications for the evolution of chorismate-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Plach, Maximilian G; Löffler, Patrick; Merkl, Rainer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2015-09-14

    Chorismate-utilizing enzymes play a vital role in the biosynthesis of metabolites in plants as well as free-living and infectious microorganisms. Among these enzymes are the homologous primary metabolic anthranilate synthase (AS) and secondary metabolic isochorismate synthase (ICS). Both catalyze mechanistically related reactions by using ammonia and water as nucleophiles, respectively. We report that the nucleophile specificity of AS can be extended from ammonia to water by just two amino acid exchanges in a channel leading to the active site. The observed ICS/AS bifunctionality demonstrates that a secondary metabolic enzyme can readily evolve from a primary metabolic enzyme without requiring an initial gene duplication event. In a general sense, these findings add to our understanding how nature has used the structurally predetermined features of enzyme superfamilies to evolve new reactions.

  13. Identification of cystathionine γ-synthase and threonine synthase from Cicer arietinum and Lens culinaris.

    PubMed

    Morneau, Dominique J K; Jaworski, Allison F; Aitken, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    In plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) and threonine synthase (TS) compete for the branch-point metabolite O-phospho-L-homoserine. These enzymes are potential targets for metabolic engineering studies, aiming to alter the flux through the competing methionine and threonine biosynthetic pathways, with the goal of increasing methionine production. Although CGS and TS have been characterized in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana, little information is available on these enzymes in other, particularly plant, species. The functional CGS and TS coding sequences from the grain legumes Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Lens culinaris (lentil) identified in this study share approximately 80% amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding sequences from Glycine max. At least 7 active-site residues of grain legume CGS and TS are conserved in the model bacterial enzymes, including the catalytic base. Putative processing sites that remove the targeting sequence and result in functional TS were identified in the target species.

  14. Heterologous expression in Saccharopolyspora erythraea of a pentaketide synthase derived from the spinosyn polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christine J; Timoney, Máire C; Sheridan, Rose M; Kendrew, Steven G; Wilkinson, Barrie; Staunton, James C; Leadlay, Peter F

    2003-12-07

    A truncated version of the spinosyn polyketide synthase comprising the loading module and the first four extension modules fused to the erythromycin thioesterase domain was expressed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. A novel pentaketide lactone product was isolated, identifying cryptic steps of spinosyn biosynthesis and indicating the potential of this approach for the biosynthetic engineering of spinosyn analogues. A pathway for the formation of the tetracyclic spinosyn aglycone is proposed.

  15. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthases and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Sridhar, Arun; Györke, Sandor; Cardounel, Arturo J.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two NOS isoforms (1 and 3) are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of NOS 2 in multiple cell types in the myocardium. In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a role for NOS in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic approaches to reduce atrial fibrillation by modulation of NOS activity may be beneficial, although further investigation of this strategy is needed. PMID:22536189

  17. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T.C. Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T.; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S.; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO) - a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells. PMID:26390975

  18. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)--a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells.

  19. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Converts Benzophenone Synthase into Phenylpyrone Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Klundt, Tim; Bocola, Marco; Lütge, Maren; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Benzophenone metabolism provides a number of plant natural products with fascinating chemical structures and intriguing pharmacological activities. Formation of the carbon skeleton of benzophenone derivatives from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA is catalyzed by benzophenone synthase (BPS), a member of the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases. A point mutation in the active site cavity (T135L) transformed BPS into a functional phenylpyrone synthase (PPS). The dramatic change in both substrate and product specificities of BPS was rationalized by homology modeling. The mutation may open a new pocket that accommodates the phenyl moiety of the triketide intermediate but limits polyketide elongation to two reactions, resulting in phenylpyrone formation. 3-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA is the second best starter molecule for BPS but a poor substrate for PPS. The aryl moiety of the triketide intermediate may be trapped in the new pocket by hydrogen bond formation with the backbone, thereby acting as an inhibitor. PPS is a promising biotechnological tool for manipulating benzoate-primed biosynthetic pathways to produce novel compounds. PMID:19710020

  20. CLYBL is a polymorphic human enzyme with malate synthase and β-methylmalate synthase activity

    PubMed Central

    Strittmatter, Laura; Li, Yang; Nakatsuka, Nathan J.; Calvo, Sarah E.; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    CLYBL is a human mitochondrial enzyme of unknown function that is found in multiple eukaryotic taxa and conserved to bacteria. The protein is expressed in the mitochondria of all mammalian organs, with highest expression in brown fat and kidney. Approximately 5% of all humans harbor a premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL that has been associated with reduced levels of circulating vitamin B12. Using comparative genomics, we now show that CLYBL is strongly co-expressed with and co-evolved specifically with other components of the mitochondrial B12 pathway. We confirm that the premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL leads to a loss of protein expression. To elucidate the molecular function of CLYBL, we used comparative operon analysis, structural modeling and enzyme kinetics. We report that CLYBL encodes a malate/β-methylmalate synthase, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate, or glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to β-methylmalate. Malate synthases are best known for their established role in the glyoxylate shunt of plants and lower organisms and are traditionally described as not occurring in humans. The broader role of a malate/β-methylmalate synthase in human physiology and its mechanistic link to vitamin B12 metabolism remain unknown. PMID:24334609

  1. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  2. Purification and Characterization of Chorismate Synthase from Euglena gracilis 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andreas; van Afferden, Manfred; Windhofer, Volker; Bülow, Sven; Abel, Gernot; Schmid, Jürg; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    Chorismate synthase was purified 1200-fold from Euglena gracilis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme is in the range of 110 to 138 kilodaltons as judged by gel filtration. The molecular mass of the subunit was determined to be 41.7 kilodaltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified chorismate synthase is associated with an NADPH-dependent flavin mononucleotide reductase that provides in vivo the reduced flavin necessary for catalytic activity. In vitro, flavin reduction can be mediated by either dithionite or light. The enzyme obtained from E. gracilis was compared with chorismate synthases purified from a higher plant (Corydalis sempervirens), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a fungus (Neurospora crassa). These four chorismate synthases were found to be very similar in terms of cofactor specificity, kinetic properties, isoelectric points, and pH optima. All four enzymes react with polyclonal antisera directed against chorismate synthases from C. sempervirens and E. coli. The closely associated flavin mononucleotide reductase that is present in chorismate synthase preparations from E. gracilis and N. crassa is the main difference between those synthases and the monofunctional enzymes from C. sempervirens and E. coli. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668543

  3. Regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phospholipid precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, M A; Homann, M J; Bae-Lee, M S; Carman, G M

    1986-01-01

    The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells resulted in a reduction of membrane-associated phosphatidylserine synthase (CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.8) activity in cell extracts. The reduction of activity did not occur when inositol was absent from the growth medium. Under the growth conditions where a reduction of enzyme activity occurred, there was a corresponding qualitative reduction of enzyme subunit as determined by immunoblotting with antiserum raised against purified phosphatidylserine synthase. Water-soluble phospholipid precursors did not effect purified phosphatidylserine synthase activity. Phosphatidylserine synthase (activity and enzyme subunit) was not regulated by the availability of water-soluble phospholipid precursors in S. cerevisiae VAL2C(YEp CHO1) and the opi1 mutant. VAL2C(YEp CHO1) is a plasmid-bearing strain that over produces phosphatidylserine synthase activity, and the opi1 mutant is an inositol biosynthesis regulatory mutant. The results of this study suggest that the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase by the availability of phospholipid precursors occurs at the level of enzyme formation and not at the enzyme activity level. Furthermore, the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase is coupled to inositol synthesis. Images PMID:3023284

  4. Subcellular localization of the homocitrate synthase in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, O; Casqueiro, J; Steidl, S; Gutiérrez, S; Brakhage, A; Martín, J F

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the cellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and filamentous fungi of homocitrate synthase, the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway. The homocitrate synthase (HS) gene (lys1) of Penicillium chrysogenum was disrupted in three transformants (HS(-)) of the Wis 54-1255 pyrG strain. The three mutants named HS1(-), HS2(-) and HS3(-) all lacked homocitrate synthase activity and showed lysine auxotrophy, indicating that there is a single gene for homocitrate synthase in P. chrysogenum. The lys1 ORF was fused in frame to the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Homocitrate synthase-deficient mutants transformed with a plasmid containing the lys1-GFP fusion recovered prototrophy and showed similar levels of homocitrate synthase activity to the parental strain Wis 54-1255, indicating that the hybrid protein retains the biological function of wild-type homocitrate synthase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the HS-GFP fusion protein is maintained intact and does not release the GFP moiety. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the transformants showed that homocitrate synthase was mainly located in the cytoplasm in P. chrysogenum; in S. cerevisiae the enzyme is targeted to the nucleus. The control nuclear protein StuA was properly targeted to the nucleus when the StuA (targeting domain)-GFP hybrid protein was expressed in P. chrysogenum. The difference in localization of homocitrate synthase between P. chrysogenum and S. cerevisiae suggests that this protein may play a regulatory function, in addition to its catalytic function, in S. cerevisiae but not in P. chrysogenum.

  5. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  6. Geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase from Methanosarcina mazei: Different role, different evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Takuya; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2010-02-26

    The gene of (all-E) geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase that is responsible for the biosynthesis of methanophenazine, an electron carrier utilized for methanogenesis, was cloned from a methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Goe1. The properties of the recombinant enzyme and the results of phylogenetic analysis suggest that the enzyme is closely related to (all-E) prenyl diphosphate synthases that are responsible for the biosynthesis of respiratory quinones, rather than to the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids, including (all-E) geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase from a thermophilic archaeon.

  7. O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:22780198

  8. Development of a Triple Gene Cry1Ac-Cry2Ab-EPSPS Construct and Its Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana for Insect Resistance and Herbicide Tolerance in Plants.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Rubab Z; Asif, Muhammad; Saeed, Muhammad; Asad, Shaheen; Khatoon, Asia; Amin, Imran; Mukhtar, Zahid; Bashir, Aftab; Mansoor, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Insect pest complex, cotton leaf curl disease and weeds pose major threat to crop production worldwide, including Pakistan. To address these problems, in the present study a triple gene construct harboring Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, and EPSPS cassettes has been developed for plant specifically in cotton transformation against lepidopteron insect-pests and weeds. Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) was used as a model system for characterization of this triple gene construct. The construct has been assembled in plant expression vector and transformed in N. benthamiana. In six transgenic tobacco lines the integration of Cry1Ac-Cry2Ab-EPSPS in tobacco genome was checked by PCR, while successful protein expression of all the three genes was confirmed through immunostrip assay. Efficacy of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was evaluated through insect bioassay using armyworm (Spodoptera littoralis). These transgenic tobacco plants showed significant insect mortality as compared to control plants during insect bioassay. Three out of six tested transgenic lines L3, L5, and L9 exhibited 100% mortality of armyworm, while three other lines L1, L10, and L7 showed 86, 80, and 40% mortality, respectively. This construct can readily be used with confidence to transform cotton and other crops for the development of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant transgenic plants. The transgenic crop plants developed using this triple gene construct will provide an excellent germplasm resource for the breeders to improve their efficiency in developing stable homozygous lines as all the three genes being in a single T-DNA border will inherit together.

  9. Development of a Triple Gene Cry1Ac-Cry2Ab-EPSPS Construct and Its Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana for Insect Resistance and Herbicide Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rubab Z.; Asif, Muhammad; Saeed, Muhammad; Asad, Shaheen; Khatoon, Asia; Amin, Imran; Mukhtar, Zahid; Bashir, Aftab; Mansoor, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Insect pest complex, cotton leaf curl disease and weeds pose major threat to crop production worldwide, including Pakistan. To address these problems, in the present study a triple gene construct harboring Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, and EPSPS cassettes has been developed for plant specifically in cotton transformation against lepidopteron insect-pests and weeds. Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) was used as a model system for characterization of this triple gene construct. The construct has been assembled in plant expression vector and transformed in N. benthamiana. In six transgenic tobacco lines the integration of Cry1Ac-Cry2Ab-EPSPS in tobacco genome was checked by PCR, while successful protein expression of all the three genes was confirmed through immunostrip assay. Efficacy of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was evaluated through insect bioassay using armyworm (Spodoptera littoralis). These transgenic tobacco plants showed significant insect mortality as compared to control plants during insect bioassay. Three out of six tested transgenic lines L3, L5, and L9 exhibited 100% mortality of armyworm, while three other lines L1, L10, and L7 showed 86, 80, and 40% mortality, respectively. This construct can readily be used with confidence to transform cotton and other crops for the development of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant transgenic plants. The transgenic crop plants developed using this triple gene construct will provide an excellent germplasm resource for the breeders to improve their efficiency in developing stable homozygous lines as all the three genes being in a single T-DNA border will inherit together. PMID:28174591

  10. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase.

  11. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  12. Rare structural variants of human and murine uroporphyrinogen I synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, M.H.; Carter, M.L.C.

    1980-05-01

    An isoelectric focusing method for detection of structural variants of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen I synthase (porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3.1.8) in mammalian tissues has been developed. Mouse and human erythrocytes contain one or two major isozymes of uroporphyrinogen I synthase, respectively. Other tissues contain a set of more acidic isozymes that are encoded by the same structural gene as the erythrocyte isozymes. Mouse populations studied with this method were monomorphic for uroporphyrinogen I synthase, with the exception of one feral mouse population. The pedigree of a human family with a rare structural variant is consistent with autosomal linkage of the structural gene. This system provides a convenient isozyme marker for genetic studies and will facilitate determination of the chromosomal location of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase locus.

  13. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: an unusual riboflavin synthase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, S; Korn, S; Lottspeich, F; Bacher, A

    1997-01-01

    Riboflavin synthase was purified by a factor of about 1,500 from cell extract of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The enzyme had a specific activity of about 2,700 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, which is relatively low compared to those of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Amino acid sequences obtained after proteolytic cleavage had no similarity with known riboflavin synthases. The gene coding for riboflavin synthase (designated ribC) was subsequently cloned by marker rescue with a ribC mutant of Escherichia coli. The ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum specifies a protein of 153 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence agrees with the information gleaned from Edman degradation of the isolated protein and shows 67% identity with the sequence predicted for the unannotated reading frame MJ1184 of Methanococcus jannaschii. The ribC gene is adjacent to a cluster of four genes with similarity to the genes cbiMNQO of Salmonella typhimurium, which form part of the cob operon (this operon contains most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12). The amino acid sequence predicted by the ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum shows no similarity whatsoever to the sequences of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Most notably, the M. thermoautotrophicum protein does not show the internal sequence homology characteristic of eubacterial and yeast riboflavin synthases. The protein of M. thermoautotrophicum can be expressed efficiently in a recombinant E. coli strain. The specific activity of the purified, recombinant protein is 1,900 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C. In contrast to riboflavin synthases from eubacteria and fungi, the methanobacterial enzyme has an absolute requirement for magnesium ions. The 5' phosphate of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine does not act as a substrate. The findings suggest that riboflavin synthase has evolved independently in eubacteria and methanobacteria. PMID:9139911

  14. Alendronate is a specific, nanomolar inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J D; Bostedor, R G; Masarachia, P J; Reszka, A A; Rodan, G

    2000-01-01

    Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Recent findings suggest that alendronate and other N-containing bisphosphonates inhibit the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway and interfere with protein prenylation, as a result of reduced geranylgeranyl diphosphate levels. This study identified farnesyl disphosphate synthase as the mevalonate pathway enzyme inhibited by bisphosphonates. HPLC analysis of products from a liver cytosolic extract narrowed the potential targets for alendronate inhibition (IC(50) = 1700 nM) to isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Recombinant human farnesyl diphosphate synthase was inhibited by alendronate with an IC(50) of 460 nM (following 15 min preincubation). Alendronate did not inhibit isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase or GGPP synthase, partially purified from liver cytosol. Recombinant farnesyl diphosphate synthase was also inhibited by pamidronate (IC(50) = 500 nM) and risedronate (IC(50) = 3.9 nM), negligibly by etidronate (IC50 = 80 microM), and not at all by clodronate. In osteoclasts, alendronate inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]mevalonolactone into proteins of 18-25 kDa and into nonsaponifiable lipids, including sterols. These findings (i) identify farnesyl diphosphate synthase as the selective target of alendronate in the mevalonate pathway, (ii) show that this enzyme is inhibited by other N-containing bisphosphonates, such as risendronate, but not by clodronate, supporting a different mechanism of action for different bisphosphonates, and (iii) document in purified osteoclasts alendronate inhibition of prenylation and sterol biosynthesis.

  15. Human Isoprenoid Synthase Enzymes as Therapeutic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeok; Matralis, Alexios; Berghuis, Albert; Tsantrizos, Youla

    2014-07-01

    The complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids in the human body, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently, pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies.

  16. Human isoprenoid synthase enzymes as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeok; Matralis, Alexios N.; Berghuis, Albert M.; Tsantrizos, Youla S.

    2014-01-01

    In the human body, the complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins, and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP, and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies. PMID:25101260

  17. Concerted versus Stepwise Mechanism in Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes the intracellular de novo formation of thymidylate (a DNA building block) in most living organisms, making it a common target for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the rate-limiting hydride transfer step in TSase catalysis: a stepwise mechanism in which the hydride transfer precedes the cleavage of the covalent bond between the enzymatic cysteine and the product and a mechanism where both happen concertedly. Striking similarities between the enzyme-bound enolate intermediates formed in the initial and final step of the reaction supported the first mechanism, while QM/MM calculations favored the concerted mechanism. Here, we experimentally test these two possibilities using secondary kinetic isotope effect (KIE), mutagenesis study, and primary KIEs. The findings support the concerted mechanism and demonstrate the critical role of an active site arginine in substrate binding, activation of enzymatic nucleophile, and the hydride transfer studied here. The elucidation of this reduction/substitution sheds light on the critical catalytic step in TSase and may aid future drug or biomimetic catalyst design. PMID:24949852

  18. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Møller, M

    1996-10-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased intracellular content of cGMP. The role of cGMP in pineal metabolism, however, is still enigmatic. Using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the presence of NOS has been confirmed in the pineal gland of some species. In the rat and especially in the sheep, NOS is located in nerve fibres innervating the gland. These nerve fibres also contain the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and are probably of parasympathetic origin. In cell cultures and tissue sections NOS immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in pinealocytes of the rat and bovine but not in the sheep. Finally, NOS is also present in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the pineal gland. Accordingly, in the mammalian pineal gland, NO is synthesized in both presynaptic nerve fibers and pinealocytes, as well as in blood vessels. However, the anatomical location of NO synthesis varies considerably among species. NO released in the pineal gland, might influence both the pineal metabolism and the blood flow of the gland.

  19. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  20. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in the myocard.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, I B; Schulze, W; Karczewski, P; Kostic, M M; Wallukat, G; Morwinski, R; Krause, E G; Müller, J; Paul, M; Slezak, J; Luft, F C; Haller, H

    2001-01-01

    Recognition of significance of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in cardiovascular regulations has led to intensive research and development of therapies focused on NOS as potential therapeutic targets. However, the NOS isoform profile of cardiac tissue and subcellular localization of NOS isoforms remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of an inducible NOS isoform (NOS2) in cardiomyocytes. Employing a novel immunocytochemical technique of a catalyzed reporter deposition system with tyramide and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry complemented with Western blotting and RT-PCR, we detected NOS2 both in rat neonatal and adult cultured cardiomyocytes and in the normal myocard of adult rats as well as in the human myocard of patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. NOS2 was targeted predominantly to a particulate component of the cardiomyocyte--along contractile fibers, in the plasma membrane including T-tubules, as well as in the nuclear envelope, mitochondria and Golgi complex. Our results point to an involvement of NOS2 in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and contradict to the notion that NOS2 is expressed in cardiac tissue only in response to various physiological and pathogenic factors. NOS2 targeting to mitochondria and contractile fibers suggests a relationship of NO with contractile function and energy production in the cardiac muscle.

  2. Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors: antibacterial drug leads.

    PubMed

    Sinko, William; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Feixas, Ferran; Cox, Courtney L; Mitchell, Douglas A; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-07-10

    There is a significant need for new antibiotics due to the rise in drug resistance. Drugs such as methicillin and vancomycin target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have now arisen and are of major concern. Inhibitors acting on new targets in cell wall biosynthesis are thus of particular interest since they might also restore sensitivity to existing drugs, and the cis-prenyl transferase undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), essential for lipid I, lipid II, and thus, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, is one such target. We used 12 UPPS crystal structures to validate virtual screening models and then assayed 100 virtual hits (from 450,000 compounds) against UPPS from S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The most promising inhibitors (IC50 ∼2 μM, Ki ∼300 nM) had activity against MRSA, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp. with MIC or IC50 values in the 0.25-4 μg/mL range. Moreover, one compound (1), a rhodanine with close structural similarity to the commercial diabetes drug epalrestat, exhibited good activity as well as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.1 with methicillin against the community-acquired MRSA USA300 strain, indicating strong synergism.

  3. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A.; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure–activity–relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme–inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  4. Structure of Leishmania major cysteine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Paul K.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Ramos, Tania; Müller, Sylke; Coombs, Graham H.; Hunter, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine biosynthesis is a potential target for drug development against parasitic Leishmania species; these protozoa are responsible for a range of serious diseases. To improve understanding of this aspect of Leishmania biology, a crystallographic and biochemical study of L. major cysteine synthase has been undertaken, seeking to understand its structure, enzyme activity and modes of inhibition. Active enzyme was purified, assayed and crystallized in an orthorhombic form with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data extending to 1.8 Å resolution were measured and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. A fragment of γ-poly-d-glutamic acid, a constituent of the crystallization mixture, was bound in the enzyme active site. Although a d-­glutamate tetrapeptide had insignificant inhibitory activity, the enzyme was competitively inhibited (K i = 4 µM) by DYVI, a peptide based on the C-­terminus of the partner serine acetyltransferase with which the enzyme forms a complex. The structure surprisingly revealed that the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate had been lost during crystallization. PMID:22750854

  5. Anthranilate synthase subunit organization in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Carminatti, C A; Oliveira, I L; Recouvreux, D O S; Antônio, R V; Porto, L M

    2008-09-16

    Tryptophan is an aromatic amino acid used for protein synthesis and cellular growth. Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 uses two tryptophan molecules to synthesize violacein, a secondary metabolite of pharmacological interest. The genome analysis of this bacterium revealed that the genes trpA-F and pabA-B encode the enzymes of the tryptophan pathway in which the first reaction is the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate by anthranilate synthase (AS), an enzyme complex. In the present study, the organization and structure of AS protein subunits from C. violaceum were analyzed using bioinformatics tools available on the Web. We showed by calculating molecular masses that AS in C. violaceum is composed of alpha (TrpE) and beta (PabA) subunits. This is in agreement with values determined experimentally. Catalytic and regulatory sites of the AS subunits were identified. The TrpE and PabA subunits contribute to the catalytic site while the TrpE subunit is involved in the allosteric site. Protein models for the TrpE and PabA subunits were built by restraint-based homology modeling using AS enzyme, chains A and B, from Salmonella typhimurium (PDB ID 1I1Q).

  6. Effect of chronologic age on induction of cystathionine synthase, uroporphyrinogen I synthase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gartler, S M; Hornung, S K; Motulsky, A G

    1981-01-01

    The activities of cystathionine synthase [L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine), EC 4.2.1.22], uroporphyrinogen I synthase [porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3.1.8], and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49) have been measured in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes of young and old human subjects. A significant decrease in activity with age was observed for cystathionine synthase and uroporphyrinogen I synthase but not for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These changes could not be related to declining phytohemagglutinin response with aging. Age-related decreases in activity of some enzymes may be relevant for an understanding of the biology of aging. False assignment of heterozygosity, and even homozygosity, for certain genetic disorders, such as homocystinuria, may result when low enzyme levels are detected in the lymphocytes of older people. PMID:6940198

  7. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology.

  8. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase and cycloartenol synthase from Siraitia grosvenorii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Tang, Qi; Mo, Changming; Bai, Longhua; Tu, Dongping; Ma, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Mogrosides and steroid saponins are tetracyclic triterpenoids found in Siraitia grosvenorii. Squalene synthase (SQS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are key enzymes in triterpenoid and steroid biosynthesis. In this study, full-length cDNAs of SgSQS and SgCAS were cloned by a rapid amplification of cDNA-ends with polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. The SgSQS cDNA has a 1254 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 417 amino acids, and the SgCAS cDNA contains a 2298 bp ORF encoding 765 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the deduced SgSQS protein has two transmembrane regions in the C-terminal. Both SgSQS and SgCAS have significantly higher levels in fruits than in other tissues, suggesting that steroids and mogrosides are competitors for the same precursors in fruits. Combined in silico prediction and subcellular localization, experiments in tobacco indicated that SgSQS was probably in the cytoplasm or on the cytoskeleton, and SgCAS was likely located in the nucleus or cytosol. These results will provide a foundation for further study of SgSQS and SgCAS gene functions in S. grosvenorii, and may facilitate improvements in mogroside content in fruit by regulating gene expression.

  9. Binding modes of zaragozic acid A to human squalene synthase and staphylococcal dehydrosqualene synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-I; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Chang, Wei-Jung; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2012-05-25

    Zaragozic acids (ZAs) belong to a family of fungal metabolites with nanomolar inhibitory activity toward squalene synthase (SQS). The enzyme catalyzes the committed step of sterol synthesis and has attracted attention as a potential target for antilipogenic and antiinfective therapies. Here, we have determined the structure of ZA-A complexed with human SQS. ZA-A binding induces a local conformational change in the substrate binding site, and its C-6 acyl group also extends over to the cofactor binding cavity. In addition, ZA-A effectively inhibits a homologous bacterial enzyme, dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), which synthesizes the precursor of staphyloxanthin in Staphylococcus aureus to cope with oxidative stress. Size reduction at Tyr(248) in CrtM further increases the ZA-A binding affinity, and it reveals a similar overall inhibitor binding mode to that of human SQS/ZA-A except for the C-6 acyl group. These structures pave the way for further improving selectivity and development of a new generation of anticholesterolemic and antimicrobial inhibitors.

  10. Identification of a Dolabellane Type Diterpene Synthase and other Root-Expressed Diterpene Synthases in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Jia, Meirong; Huh, Jung-Hyun; Muchlinski, Andrew; Peters, Reuben J.; Tholl, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi). The enzyme TPS20 produces a macrocyclic dolabellane diterpene alcohol and a dolabellane-related diterpene olefin named dolathaliatriene with a so far unknown C6-C11 bicyclic scaffold besides several minor olefin products. The TPS20 compounds occur in all tissues of Cvi but are absent in the Col ecotype because of deletion and substitution mutations in the Col TPS20 sequence. The primary TPS20 diterpene products retard the growth of the root rot pathogen Pythium irregulare but only at concentrations exceeding those in planta. Together, our results demonstrate that divergence and pseudogenization in the Arabidopsis TPS gene family allow for structural plasticity in diterpene profiles of above- and belowground tissues. PMID:27933080

  11. The rice ent-KAURENE SYNTHASE LIKE 2 encodes a functional ent-beyerene synthase.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Daisuke; Ito, Akira; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Imai, Ryozo

    2015-05-08

    The rice genome contains a family of kaurene synthase-like (OsKSL) genes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of various diterpenoids, including gibberellins and phytoalexins. While many OsKSL genes have been functionally characterized, the functionality of OsKSL2 is still unclear and it has been proposed to be a pseudogene. Here, we found that OsKSL2 is drastically induced in roots by methyl jasmonate treatment and we successfully isolated a full-length cDNA for OsKSL2. Sequence analysis of the OsKSL2 cDNA revealed that the open reading frame of OsKSL2 is mispredicted in the two major rice genome databases, IRGSP-RAP and MSU-RGAP. In vitro conversion assay indicated that recombinant OsKSL2 catalyzes the cyclization of ent-CDP into ent-beyerene as a major and ent-kaurene as a minor product. ent-Beyerene is an antimicrobial compound and OsKSL2 is induced by methyl jasmonate; these data suggest that OsKSL2 is a functional ent-beyerene synthase that is involved in defense mechanisms in rice roots.

  12. Modulation of ceramide synthase activity via dimerization.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Elad L; Kelly, Samuel; Merrill, Alfred H; Futerman, Anthony H

    2012-06-15

    Ceramide, the backbone of all sphingolipids, is synthesized by a family of ceramide synthases (CerS) that each use acyl-CoAs of defined chain length for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base. CerS mRNA expression and enzymatic activity do not always correlate with the sphingolipid acyl chain composition of a particular tissue, suggesting post-translational mechanism(s) of regulation of CerS activity. We now demonstrate that CerS activity can be modulated by dimer formation. Under suitable conditions, high M(r) CerS complexes can be detected by Western blotting, and various CerS co-immunoprecipitate. CerS5 activity is inhibited in a dominant-negative fashion by co-expression with catalytically inactive CerS5, and CerS2 activity is enhanced by co-expression with a catalytically active form of CerS5 or CerS6. In a constitutive heterodimer comprising CerS5 and CerS2, the activity of CerS2 depends on the catalytic activity of CerS5. Finally, CerS dimers are formed upon rapid stimulation of ceramide synthesis by curcumin. Together, these data demonstrate that ceramide synthesis can be regulated by the formation of CerS dimers and suggest a novel way to generate the acyl chain composition of ceramide (and downstream sphingolipids), which may depend on the interaction of CerS with each other.

  13. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, W K; Cooper, C E; Knowles, R G

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated. PMID:11463332

  14. Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H.; Kubicki, James D.; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a six-stranded β-sheet, five α-helices, and conserved motifs similar to those required for catalysis in other GT-2 glycosyltransferases. Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose–synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. Most of these mutation sites are near the predicted catalytic region, and the confluence of other mutation sites supports the existence of previously undefined functional nodes within the catalytic core of CESA. Overall, the predicted tertiary structure provides a platform for the biochemical engineering of plant CESAs. PMID:23592721

  15. Nitric oxide synthase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Xu, K Y; Huso, D L; Dawson, T M; Bredt, D S; Becker, L C

    1999-01-19

    NO. is a free radical that modulates heart function and metabolism. We report that a neuronal-type NO synthase (NOS) is located on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane vesicles and that endogenous NO. produced by SR-associated NOS inhibits SR Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+-dependent biochemical conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline was observed from isolated rabbit cardiac SR vesicles in the presence of NOS substrates and cofactors. Endogenous NO. was generated from the vesicles and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping measurements. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated labeling of cardiac SR vesicles by using anti-neuronal NOS (nNOS), but not anti-endothelial NOS (eNOS) or anti-inducible NOS (iNOS) antibodies, whereas skeletal muscle SR vesicles had no nNOS immunoreactivity. The nNOS immunoreactivity also displayed a pattern consistent with SR localization in confocal micrographs of sections of human myocardium. Western blotting demonstrated that cardiac SR NOS is larger than brain NOS (160 vs. 155 kDa). No immunodetection was observed in cardiac SR vesicles from nNOS knockout mice or with an anti-nNOS mu antibody, suggesting the possibility of a new nNOS-type isoform. 45Ca uptake by cardiac SR vesicles, catalyzed by Ca2+-ATPase, was inhibited by NO. produced endogenously from cardiac SR NOS, and 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, completely prevented this inhibition. These results suggest that a cardiac muscle nNOS isoform is located on SR of cardiac myocytes, where it may respond to intracellular Ca2+ concentration and modulate SR Ca2+ ion active transport in the heart.

  16. Nitric oxide synthase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai Y.; Huso, David L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Bredt, David S.; Becker, Lewis C.

    1999-01-01

    NO⋅ is a free radical that modulates heart function and metabolism. We report that a neuronal-type NO synthase (NOS) is located on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane vesicles and that endogenous NO⋅ produced by SR-associated NOS inhibits SR Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+-dependent biochemical conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline was observed from isolated rabbit cardiac SR vesicles in the presence of NOS substrates and cofactors. Endogenous NO⋅ was generated from the vesicles and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping measurements. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated labeling of cardiac SR vesicles by using anti-neuronal NOS (nNOS), but not anti-endothelial NOS (eNOS) or anti-inducible NOS (iNOS) antibodies, whereas skeletal muscle SR vesicles had no nNOS immunoreactivity. The nNOS immunoreactivity also displayed a pattern consistent with SR localization in confocal micrographs of sections of human myocardium. Western blotting demonstrated that cardiac SR NOS is larger than brain NOS (160 vs. 155 kDa). No immunodetection was observed in cardiac SR vesicles from nNOS knockout mice or with an anti-nNOSμ antibody, suggesting the possibility of a new nNOS-type isoform. 45Ca uptake by cardiac SR vesicles, catalyzed by Ca2+-ATPase, was inhibited by NO⋅ produced endogenously from cardiac SR NOS, and 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, completely prevented this inhibition. These results suggest that a cardiac muscle nNOS isoform is located on SR of cardiac myocytes, where it may respond to intracellular Ca2+ concentration and modulate SR Ca2+ ion active transport in the heart. PMID:9892689

  17. In vivo enzyme immobilization by use of engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2006-03-01

    This study demonstrated that engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases can be employed as molecular tools to covalently immobilize enzymes at the PHA granule surface. The beta-galactosidase was fused to the N terminus of the class II PHA synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The open reading frame was confirmed to encode the complete fusion protein by T7 promoter-dependent overexpression. Restoration of PHA biosynthesis in the PHA-negative mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed a PHA synthase function of the fusion protein. PHA granules were isolated and showed beta-galactosidase activity. PHA granule attached proteins were analyzed and confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, the beta-galactosidase-PHA synthase fusion protein was detectable at a high copy number at the PHA granule, compared with PHA synthase alone, which was barely detectable at PHA granules. Localization of the beta-galactosidase at the PHA granule surface was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using anti-beta-galactosidase antibodies. Treatment of these beta-galactosidase-PHA granules with urea suggested a covalent binding of the beta-galactosidase-PHA synthase to the PHA granule. The immobilized beta-galactosidase was enzymologically characterized, suggesting a Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. A Km of 630 microM and a Vmax of 17.6 nmol/min for orthonitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate was obtained. The immobilized beta-galactosidase was stable for at least several months under various storage conditions. This study demonstrated that protein engineering of PHA synthase enables the manufacture of PHA granules with covalently attached enzymes, suggesting an application in recycling of biocatalysts, such as in fine-chemical production.

  18. Expression and characterization of glycogen synthase kinase-3 mutants and their effect on glycogen synthase activity in intact cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Finkelman, H; Argast, G M; Foord, O; Fischer, E H; Krebs, E G

    1996-01-01

    In these studies we expressed and characterized wild-type (WT) GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) and its mutants, and examined their physiological effect on glycogen synthase activity. The GSK-3 mutants included mutation at serine-9 either to alanine (S9A) or glutamic acid (S9E) and an inactive mutant, K85,86MA. Expression of WT and the various mutants in a cell-free system indicated that S9A and S9E exhibit increased kinase activity as compared with WT. Subsequently, 293 cells were transiently transfected with WT GSK-3 and mutants. Cells expressing the S9A mutant exhibited higher kinase activity (2.6-fold of control cells) as compared with cells expressing WT and S9E (1.8- and 2.0-fold, respectively, of control cells). Combined, these results suggest serine-9 as a key regulatory site of GSK-3 inactivation, and indicate that glutamic acid cannot mimic the function of the phosphorylated residue. The GSK-3-expressing cell system enabled us to examine whether GSK-3 can induce changes in the endogenous glycogen synthase activity. A decrease in glycogen synthase activity (50%) was observed in cells expressing the S9A mutant. Similarly, glycogen synthase activity was suppressed in cells expressing WT and the S9E mutant (20-30%, respectively). These studies indicate that activation of GSK-3 is sufficient to inhibit glycogen synthase in intact cells, and provide evidence supporting a physiological role for GSK-3 in regulating glycogen synthase and glycogen metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8816781

  19. Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase in cultured human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, H; Howard, B V; Kosmakos, F C; Fields, R M; Craig, J W; Bennett, P H; Larner, J

    1980-10-01

    The effect of insulin on glycogen synthase activity in human diploid fibroblasts has been studied. As little as 2 X 10(-10) M insulin increased the glycogen synthase / activity without changing the total activity. Stimulation occurred within 5 min and became maximal in 30 min. A half-maximal increase of / activity was achieved at 3 X 10(-9) M insulin. Glucose starvation increased the magnitude of response of glycogen synthase to insulin but did not change the insulin concentration necessary to give a half-maximal stimulation. Glucose increased the basal level of / activity in human diploid fibroblasts; the effect of insulin was additive. During in vitro senescence the total glycogen synthase activity declined, but the concentration of insulin that produced a half-maximal stimulation remained unchanged. These data indicate that regulation of glycogen synthase activity in human diploid fibroblasts is responsive to physiologic insulin levels and that the system provides a useful model for the in vitro study of insulin sensitivity.

  20. Heterologous expression of an active chitin synthase from Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Lugo, Holjes; Sánchez-Arreguín, Alejandro; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2016-12-01

    Chitin synthases are highly important enzymes in nature, where they synthesize structural components in species belonging to different eukaryotic kingdoms, including kingdom Fungi. Unfortunately, their structure and the molecular mechanism of synthesis of their microfibrilar product remain largely unknown, probably because no fungal active chitin synthases have been isolated, possibly due to their extreme hydrophobicity. In this study we have turned to the heterologous expression of the transcript from a small chitin synthase of Rhizopus oryzae (RO3G_00942, Chs1) in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was active, but accumulated mostly in inclusion bodies. High concentrations of arginine or urea solubilized the enzyme, but their dilution led to its denaturation and precipitation. Nevertheless, use of urea permitted the purification of small amounts of the enzyme. The properties of Chs1 (Km, optimum temperature and pH, effect of GlcNAc) were abnormal, probably because it lacks the hydrophobic transmembrane regions characteristic of chitin synthases. The product of the enzyme showed that, contrasting with chitin made by membrane-bound Chs's and chitosomes, was only partially in the form of short microfibrils of low crystallinity. This approach may lead to future developments to obtain active chitin synthases that permit understanding their molecular mechanism of activity, and microfibril assembly.

  1. ATP synthases: cellular nanomotors characterized by LILBID mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jan; Sokolova, Lucie; Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B.; Krulwich, Terry A.; Morgner, Nina; Wittig, Ilka; Schägger, Hermann; Meier, Thomas; Brutschy, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes is still a methodological challenge due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the species and the fact that all subunits are bound non-covalently together. The present study with the novel laser induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) reports on the determination of the subunit composition of the F1Fo-ATP synthase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, that of both bovine heart and, for the first time, of human heart mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthases. Under selected buffer conditions the mass of the intact F1Fo-ATP synthase of B. pseudofirmus OF4 could be measured, allowing the analysis of complex subunit stoichiometry. The agreement with theoretical masses derived from sequence databases is very good. A comparison of the ATP synthase subunit composition of 5 different ATPases reveals differences in the complexity of eukaryotic and bacterial ATP synthases. However, whereas the overall construction of eukaryotic enzymes is more complex than the bacterial ones, functionally important subunits are conserved among all ATPases. PMID:20820587

  2. Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    Two distinct Bacillus subtilis genes (citA and citZ) were found to encode citrate synthase isozymes that catalyze the first step of the Krebs cycle. The citA gene was cloned by genetic complementation of an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant strain (W620) and was in a monocistronic transcriptional unit. A divergently transcribed gene, citR, could encode a protein with strong similarity to the bacterial LysR family of regulatory proteins. A null mutation in citA had little effect on citrate synthase enzyme activity or sporulation. The residual citrate synthase activity was purified from a citA null mutant strain, and the partial amino acid sequence for the purified protein (CitZ) was determined. The citZ gene was cloned from B. subtilis chromosomal DNA by using a PCR-generated probe synthesized with oligonucleotide primers derived from the partial amino acid sequence of purified CitZ. The citZ gene proved to be the first gene in a tricistronic cluster that also included citC (coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) and citH (coding for malate dehydrogenase). A mutation in citZ caused a substantial loss of citrate synthase enzyme activity, glutamate auxotrophy, and a defect in sporulation.

  3. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Sean; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Fungi are a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites and mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) are especially known for the synthesis of numerous bioactive and often cytotoxic sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolites. Compared to the large number of sesquiterpene synthases identified in plants, less than a handful of unique sesquiterpene synthases have been described from fungi. Here we describe the functional characterization of six sesquiterpene synthases (Cop1 to Cop6) and two terpene oxidizing cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (Cox1 and Cox2) from Coprinus cinereus. The genes were cloned and, except for cop5, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cop1 and Cop2 each synthesize germacrene A as the major product. Cop3 was identified as a α-muurolene synthase, an enzyme that has not been described previously, while Cop4 synthesizes δ-cadinene as its major product. Cop6 was originally annotated as a trichodiene synthase homolog, but instead was found to catalyze highly specific the synthesis of α-cuprenene. Co-expression of cop6 and the two monooxygenase genes next to it yields oxygenated α-cuprenene derivatives, including cuparophenol, suggesting that these genes encode the enzymes for the biosynthesis of antimicrobial quinone sesquiterpenoids (known as lagopodins) that were previously isolated from C. cinereus and other Coprinus species. PMID:19400802

  4. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus.

    PubMed

    Agger, Sean; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2009-06-01

    Fungi are a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites, and mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) are especially known for the synthesis of numerous bioactive and often cytotoxic sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolites. Compared with the large number of sesquiterpene synthases identified in plants, less than a handful of unique sesquiterpene synthases have been described from fungi. Here we describe the functional characterization of six sesquiterpene synthases (Cop1 to Cop6) and two terpene-oxidizing cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (Cox1 and Cox2) from Coprinus cinereus. The genes were cloned and, except for cop5, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cop1 and Cop2 each synthesize germacrene A as the major product. Cop3 was identified as an alpha-muurolene synthase, an enzyme that has not been described previously, while Cop4 synthesizes delta-cadinene as its major product. Cop6 was originally annotated as a trichodiene synthase homologue but instead was found to catalyse the highly specific synthesis of alpha-cuprenene. Coexpression of cop6 and the two monooxygenase genes next to it yields oxygenated alpha-cuprenene derivatives, including cuparophenol, suggesting that these genes encode the enzymes for the biosynthesis of antimicrobial quinone sesquiterpenoids (known as lagopodins) that were previously isolated from C. cinereus and other Coprinus species.

  5. Methionine synthase and thymidylate synthase gene polymorphisms and colorectal adenoma risk: the self defense forces study.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Shinichiro; Morita, Makiko; Hamachi, Tadamichi; Tabata, Shinji; Abe, Hiroshi; Tajima, Osamu; Uezono, Kousaku; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kono, Suminori

    2012-10-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated associations of functional genetic polymorphisms of methionine synthase (MTR), MTR reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TS) with colorectal adenomas. The study subjects were 455 cases of colorectal adenomas and 1052 controls with no polyp at colonoscopy. Genotypes were determined for MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G and two polymorphisms in the TS gene, 28-bp tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter enhancer region (TSER) and 6-bp deletion polymorphism at position 1494 in the 3' untranslated region (TS 1494del6). We also examined the alcohol-genotype and gene-gene interactions on adenoma risk. The GG genotype of MTR A2756G was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas; odds ratios for AG and GG versus AA genotype were 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.26) and 1.72 (1.04-2.82), respectively. The increase in the risk associated with MTR 2756GG genotype was evident in men with high alcohol consumption (≥30 mL/d), but not in those with low alcohol consumption (interaction P = 0.03). Men who were homozygous for the TSER double-repeat allele had a slightly decreased risk of colorectal adenomas as compared with those homozygous for the TSER triple-repeat allele. Neither MTRR A66G nor TS 1494del6 was associated with colorectal adenomas. There was no measurable interaction either between MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G or between TSER and TS 1494del6. MTR A2756G appears to be associated with colorectal adenoma risk differently according to alcohol consumption. The MTR-catalyzed reaction may play an important role in the development of colorectal adenomas.

  6. Bornyl-diphosphate synthase from Lavandula angustifolia: A major monoterpene synthase involved in essential oil quality.

    PubMed

    Despinasse, Yolande; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Antonczak, Serge; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Jullien, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products. Molecular modeling of the enzyme's active site suggests that the carbocation intermediates are more stable in LaBPPS than in SoBPPS leading probably to a lower efficiency of LaBPPS to convert GPP into BPP. Quantitative RT-PCR performed from leaves and flowers at different development stages of L. angustifolia samples show a clear correlation between transcript level of LaBPPS and accumulation of borneol/camphor, suggesting that LaBPPS is mainly responsible of in vivo biosynthesis of borneol/camphor in fine lavender. A phylogenetic analysis of terpene synthases (TPS) pointed out the basal position of LaBPPS in the TPSb clade, suggesting that LaBPPS could be an ancestor of others lavender TPSb. Finally, borneol could be one of the first monoterpenes to be synthesized in the Lavandula subgenus. Knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies to improve the lavender oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding. Accession numbers: LaBPPS: KM015221.

  7. Kinetic characteristics of nitric oxide synthase from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, R G; Palacios, M; Palmer, R M; Moncada, S

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and guanylate cyclase stimulation was used to characterize the kinetics of the NO synthase from rat forebrain and of some inhibitors of this enzyme. The NO synthase had an absolute requirement for L-arginine and NADPH and did not require any other cofactors. The enzyme had a Vmax. of 42 pmol of NO formed.min-1.mg of protein-1 and a Km for L-arginine of 8.4 microM. Three analogues of L-arginine, namely NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine inhibited the brain NO synthase. All three compounds were competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki values of 0.7, 0.4 and 1.2 microM respectively. PMID:1695842

  8. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  9. Synthase-dependent exopolysaccharide secretion in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, J.C.; Howell, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis and export of bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides is known to occur through several distinct mechanisms. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of several proteins in synthase-dependent polysaccharide secretion systems have identified key conserved components of this pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. These components include an inner-membrane-embedded polysaccharide synthase, a periplasmic tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing scaffold protein, and an outer-membrane β-barrel porin. There is also increasing evidence that many synthase-dependent systems are post-translationally regulated by the bacterial second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Here, we compare these core proteins in the context of the alginate, cellulose, and poly-β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) secretion systems. PMID:23117123

  10. The hyaluronate synthase from a eukaryotic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Klewes, L; Turley, E A; Prehm, P

    1993-01-01

    The hyaluronate synthase complex was identified in plasma membranes from B6 cells. It contained two subunits of molecular masses 52 kDa and 60 kDa which bound the precursor UDP-GlcA in digitonin solution and partitioned into the aqueous phase, together with nascent hyaluronate upon Triton X-114 phase separation. The 52 kDa protein cross-reacted with poly- and monoclonal antibodies raised against the streptococcal hyaluronate synthase and the 60 kDa protein was recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against a hyaluronate receptor. The 52 kDa protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography with monoclonal anti-hyaluronate synthase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8457208

  11. SbnG, a Citrate Synthase in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kobylarz, Marek J.; Grigg, Jason C.; Sheldon, Jessica R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production. PMID:25336653

  12. Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

    2011-09-10

    Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi.

  13. Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase in liver. A physiological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, F Q; Gannon, M C

    1993-06-25

    Glycogen synthase catalyzes the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from UDP-glucose to the terminal branch of the glycogen molecule and is considered to be the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. However, under ideal assay conditions, i.e. 37 degrees C with saturating concentrations of UDP-glucose and the activator, glucose-6-P, the maximal catalytic activity of glycogen synthase was only 78% of the in vivo glycogen synthetic rate. Using concentrations of UDP-glucose and glucose-6-P likely to be present in vivo, the rate was only approximately 30%. This prompted us to reassess a possible role of allosteric effectors on synthase activity. Glycogen synthase was assayed at 37 degrees C using dilute, pH 7.0, buffered extracts, initial rate conditions, and UDP-glucose and glucose-6-P concentrations, which approximate those calculated to be present in total liver cell water. Several allosteric effectors were tested. Magnesium and AMP had little effect on activity. Pi, ADP, ATP, and UTP inhibited activity. When a combination of effectors were added at concentrations approximating those present in cell water, synthase activity could account for only 2% of the glycogen synthetic rate. Thus, although allosteric effectors are likely to be playing a major role in regulating synthase enzymic activity in liver cells, to date, a metabolite that can stimulate activity and/or overcome nucleotide inhibition has yet to be identified. If such a metabolite cannot be identified, an additional or alternative pathway for glycogen synthesis must be considered.

  14. Brucella spp. lumazine synthase: a novel antigen delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Rosas, Gabriela; Meneses, Gabriela; Laplagne, Diego; Ainciart, Natalia; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Fragoso, Gladis; Goldbaum, Fernando A

    2005-04-15

    Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) was evaluated as a protein carrier to improve antigen delivery of KETc1, one of the peptides of the anti-cysticercosis vaccine. KETc1 becomes antigenic, preserved its immunogenicity and its protective capacity when expressed as a recombinant chimeric protein using Brucella spp. lumazine synthase. KETc1 and BLS-KETc1 were not MHC H-2(d), H-2(k) nor H-2(b) haplotype-restricted albeit KETc1 is preferentially presented in the H-2(b) haplotype. These findings support that BLS is a potent new delivery system for the improvement of subunit vaccines.

  15. Molecular aspects of beta-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) catalysis.

    PubMed

    von Wettstein-Knowles, P; Olsen, J; Arnvig Mcguire, K; Larsen, S

    2000-12-01

    Crystal structure data for Escherichia coli beta-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) I with C(10) and C(12) fatty acid substrates bound in conjunction with results from mutagenizing residues in the active site leads to a model for catalysis. Differences from and similarities to the other Claisen enzymes carrying out decarboxylations reveal two catalytic mechanisms, one for KAS I and KAS II, the other for KAS III and chalcone synthase. A comparison of the structures of KAS I and KAS II does not reveal the basis of chain-length specificity. The structures of the Arabidopsis thaliana KAS family are compared.

  16. Engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides: manipulation of chalcone synthase.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikuro; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2006-02-02

    [reaction: see text]. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase catalyzing condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with three molecules of malonyl-CoA. Surprisingly, it was demonstrated that S338V mutant of Scutellaria baicalensis CHS produced octaketides SEK4/SEK4b from eight molecules of malonyl-CoA. Further, the octaketides-forming activity was dramatically increased in a CHS triple mutant (T197G/G256L/S338T). The functional conversion is based on the simple steric modulation of a chemically inert residue lining the active-site cavity.

  17. Analysis of the cercosporin polyketide synthase CTB1 reveals a new fungal thioesterase function

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Adam G.; Vagstad, Anna L.; Belecki, Katherine; Scheerer, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    The polyketide synthase CTB1 is demonstrated to catalyze pyrone formation thereby expanding the known biosynthetic repertoire of thioesterase domains in iterative, non-reducing polyketide synthases. PMID:23108075

  18. Benzophenone Synthase and Chalcone Synthase Accumulate in the Mesophyll of Hypericum perforatum Leaves at Different Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Belkheir, Asma K; Gaid, Mariam; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The active medicinal constituents in Hypericum perforatum, used to treat depression and skin irritation, include flavonoids and xanthones. The carbon skeletons of these compounds are formed by chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS), respectively. Polyclonal antisera were raised against the polyketide synthases from Hypericum androsaemum and their IgG fractions were isolated. Immunoblotting and immunotitration were used to test the IgGs for crossreactivity and monospecificity in H. perforatum leaf protein extract. Immunofluorescence localization revealed that both CHS and BPS are located in the mesophyll. The maximum fluorescence levels were observed in approx. 0.5 and 1 cm long leaves, respectively. The fluorescence intensity observed for CHS significantly exceeded that for BPS. Using histochemical staining, flavonoids were detected in the mesophyll, indicating that the sites of biosynthesis and accumulation coincide. Our results help understand the biosynthesis and underlying regulation of active H. perforatum constituents.

  19. Benzophenone Synthase and Chalcone Synthase Accumulate in the Mesophyll of Hypericum perforatum Leaves at Different Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Belkheir, Asma K.; Gaid, Mariam; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The active medicinal constituents in Hypericum perforatum, used to treat depression and skin irritation, include flavonoids and xanthones. The carbon skeletons of these compounds are formed by chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS), respectively. Polyclonal antisera were raised against the polyketide synthases from Hypericum androsaemum and their IgG fractions were isolated. Immunoblotting and immunotitration were used to test the IgGs for crossreactivity and monospecificity in H. perforatum leaf protein extract. Immunofluorescence localization revealed that both CHS and BPS are located in the mesophyll. The maximum fluorescence levels were observed in approx. 0.5 and 1 cm long leaves, respectively. The fluorescence intensity observed for CHS significantly exceeded that for BPS. Using histochemical staining, flavonoids were detected in the mesophyll, indicating that the sites of biosynthesis and accumulation coincide. Our results help understand the biosynthesis and underlying regulation of active H. perforatum constituents. PMID:27446151

  20. Enzymatic proof for the identity of the S-sulfocysteine synthase and cysteine synthase B of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, T; Iwahashi, H; Eguchi, Y

    1984-01-01

    S-Sulfocysteine synthase was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 to homogeneous form with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of this enzyme was determined to be ca. 55,000. The enzyme consisted of two identically sized subunits, and it contained one pyridoxal phosphate per subunit. The enzyme catalyzed the biosynthesis of cysteine or S-methylcysteine from sulfide or methanethiol and O-acetylserine, respectively, in addition to the formation of S-sulfocysteine from thiosulfate and O-acetylserine. The enzyme is identical to cysteine synthase B. The intracellular level of this enzyme was regulated by lesser extents of the same factors as those effective for cysteine synthase A. Images PMID:6373737

  1. The Remarkable Character of Porphobilinogen Synthase.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eileen K

    2016-11-15

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), also known as 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of all tetrapyrroles, which function in respiration, photosynthesis, and methanogenesis. Throughout evolution, PBGS adapted to a diversity of cellular niches and evolved to use an unusual variety of metal ions both for catalytic function and to control protein multimerization. With regard to the active site, some PBGSs require Zn(2+); a subset of those, including human PBGS, contain a constellation of cysteine residues that acts as a sink for the environmental toxin Pb(2+). PBGSs that do not require the soft metal ion Zn(2+) at the active site instead are suspected of using the hard metal Mg(2+). The most unexpected property of the PBGS family of enzymes is a dissociative allosteric mechanism that utilizes an equilibrium of architecturally and functionally distinct protein assemblies. The high-activity assembly is an octamer in which intersubunit interactions modulate active-site lid motion. This octamer can dissociate to dimer, the dimer can undergo a hinge twist, and the twisted dimer can assemble to a low-activity hexamer. The hexamer does not have the intersubunit interactions required to stabilize a closed conformation of the active site lid. PBGS active site chemistry benefits from a closed lid because porphobilinogen biosynthesis includes Schiff base formation, which requires deprotonated lysine amino groups. N-terminal and C-terminal sequence extensions dictate whether a specific species of PBGS can sample the hexameric assembly. The bulk of species (nearly all except animals and yeasts) use Mg(2+) as an allosteric activator. Mg(2+) functions allosterically by binding to an intersubunit interface that is present in the octamer but absent in the hexamer. This conformational selection allosteric mechanism is purported to be essential to avoid the untimely accumulation of phototoxic chlorophyll precursors in plants. For those PBGSs that do

  2. Characterization of spermidine synthase and spermine synthase--The polyamine-synthetic enzymes that induce early flowering in Gentiana triflora.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Fujita, Kohei; Tasaki, Keisuke; Higuchi, Atsumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2015-08-07

    Polyamines are essential for several living processes in plants. However, regulatory mechanisms of polyamines in herbaceous perennial are almost unknown. Here, we identified homologs of two Arabidopsis polyamine-synthetic enzymes, spermidine synthase (SPDS) and spermine synthase (SPMS) denoted as GtSPDS and GtSPMS, from the gentian plant, Gentiana triflora. Our results showed that recombinant proteins of GtSPDS and GtSPMS possessed SPDS and SPMS activities, respectively. The expression levels of GtSPDS and GtSPMS increased transiently during vegetative to reproductive growth phase and overexpression of the genes hastened flowering, suggesting that these genes are involved in flowering induction in gentian plants.

  3. Benzophenone synthase and chalcone synthase from Hypericum androsaemum cell cultures: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and site-directed mutagenesis of two polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benye; Falkenstein-Paul, Hildegard; Schmidt, Werner; Beerhues, Ludger

    2003-06-01

    Benzophenone derivatives, such as polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones, are biologically active secondary metabolites. The formation of their C13 skeleton is catalyzed by benzophenone synthase (BPS; EC 2.3.1.151) that has been cloned from cell cultures of Hypericum androsaemum. BPS is a novel member of the superfamily of plant polyketide synthases (PKSs), also termed type III PKSs, with 53-63% amino acid sequence identity. Heterologously expressed BPS was a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 42.8 kDa. Its preferred starter substrate was benzoyl-CoA that was stepwise condensed with three malonyl-CoAs to give 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone. BPS did not accept activated cinnamic acids as starter molecules. In contrast, recombinant chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74) from the same cell cultures preferentially used 4-coumaroyl-CoA and also converted CoA esters of benzoic acids. The enzyme shared 60.1% amino acid sequence identity with BPS. In a phylogenetic tree, the two PKSs occurred in different clusters. One cluster was formed by CHSs including the one from H. androsaemum. BPS grouped together with the PKSs that functionally differ from CHS. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids shaping the initiation/elongation cavity of CHS yielded a triple mutant (L263M/F265Y/S338G) that preferred benzoyl-CoA over 4-coumaroyl-CoA.

  4. The polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results.

  5. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

  6. Isoelectric focusing of wound-induced tomato ACC synthase

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.A.; Kende, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Several techniques of electrofocusing have been used to determine whether 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase isolated from wounded tomato pericarp tissue exists in different isoforms, each with its characteristic isoelectric point (pI). The pI of the native enzyme was found to be 6.0 {plus minus} 0.2. When radiolabeled, denatured ACC synthase was electrofocused by non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis (NEpHGE), the enzyme separated into four discernible spots which, upon reaching equilibrium, ranged in pI from 6.6 to 6.9. Immunopurified ACC synthase from four tomato cultivars (Duke, Cornell, Mountain Pride and Pik Red) migrated in each case as a 50-kDa protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). We propose that native ACC synthase in extracts of tomato pericarp tissue exists in one single form and that the charge heterogeneities observed upon electrofocusing of denatured enzyme result from modifications of preexisting protein.

  7. Substituted 2-aminopyridines as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, W K; Caldwell, C G; Chen, P; Durette, P L; Esser, C K; Lanza, T J; Kopka, I E; Guthikonda, R; Shah, S K; MacCoss, M; Chabin, R M; Fletcher, D; Grant, S K; Green, B G; Humes, J L; Kelly, T M; Luell, S; Meurer, R; Moore, V; Pacholok, S G; Pavia, T; Williams, H R; Wong, K K

    2000-09-04

    A series of substituted 2-aminopyridines was prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of human nitric oxide synthases (NOS). 4,6-Disubstitution enhanced both potency and specificity for the inducible NOS with the most potent compound having an IC50 of 28 nM.

  8. Mammalian fatty acid synthase: closure on a textbook mechanism?

    PubMed

    Leadlay, Peter; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2003-02-01

    Mammalian fatty acid synthase is a classic example of a chain-building multienzyme. A cornerstone of its mechanism has been the obligatory collaboration of two identical subunits, with fatty acyl intermediates transferring between them. Now, fresh evidence has upset this view.

  9. Biosynthesis of polyketides by trans-AT polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, Eric J N; Piel, Jörn

    2016-02-01

    This review discusses the biosynthesis of natural products that are generated by trans-AT polyketide synthases, a family of catalytically versatile enzymes that represents one of the major group of proteins involved in the production of bioactive polyketides. The article includes 609 references and covers the literature from 2009 through June 2015.

  10. Biosynthesis of polyketides by trans-AT polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jörn

    2010-07-01

    This review discusses the biosynthesis of natural products that are generated by trans-AT polyketide synthases, a family of catalytically versatile enzymes that have recently been recognized as one of the major group of proteins involved in the production of bioactive polyketides. 436 references are cited.

  11. Insight into Biochemical Characterization of Plant Sesquiterpene Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Manczak, Tom; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    A fast and reproducible protocol was established for enzymatic characterization of plant sesquiterpene synthases that can incorporate radioactivity in their products. The method utilizes the 96-well format in conjunction with cluster tubes and enables processing of >200 samples a day. Along with reduced reagent usage, it allows further reduction in the use of radioactive isotopes and flammable organic solvents. The sesquiterpene synthases previously characterized were expressed in yeast, and the plant-derived Thapsia garganica kunzeaol synthase TgTPS2 was tested in this method. KM for TgTPS2 was found to be 0.55 μM; the turnover number, kcat, was found to be 0.29 s−1, kcat for TgTPS2 is in agreement with that of terpene synthases of other plants, and kcat/KM was found to be 0.53 s−1 μM−1 for TgTPS2. The kinetic parameters were in agreement with previously published data. PMID:27721652

  12. Genetics Home Reference: N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of reactions that occurs in liver cells. This cycle processes excess nitrogen, generated when protein is used by the body, to make a compound called urea that is excreted by the kidneys. The ... cycle. In people with N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency , N- ...

  13. Mechanism-oriented redesign of an isomaltulose synthase to an isomelezitose synthase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Görl, Julian; Timm, Malte; Seibel, Jürgen

    2012-01-02

    An isomelezitose synthase was redesigned out of the sucrose isomerase from Protaminobacter rubrum for the synthesis of isomelezitose (6-O(F)-glucosylsucrose), a potential nutraceutical. The variants F297A, F297P, R333K, F321A_F319A and E428D catalyze the formation of isomelezitose in up to 70 % yield.

  14. Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas C Carpita

    2009-04-20

    Five specific objectives of this project are to develop strategies to identify the genes that encode the catalytic components of "mixed-linkage" (1→3),(1→4)-beta-D-glucans in grasses, to determine the protein components of the synthase complex, and determine the biochemical mechanism of synthesis. We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility. We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes.

  15. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  16. Isolation and functional characterization of a τ-cadinol synthase, a new sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Frédéric; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Legrand, Sylvain; Petit, Cécile; Benabdelkader, Tarek; Poirot, Kévin; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-β-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a τ-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). τ-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum γ-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum δ-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of τ-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-β-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender.

  17. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D80DQFD and N218DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H218O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-2H2]FDP and (R)-[1-2H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were

  18. Kinetic mechanism of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase I.

    PubMed

    Gold, A M

    1980-08-05

    The kinetic mechanism of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase I was investigated by determining isotope-exchange rates at chemical equilibrium between uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and glycogen and between UDPG and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP). The rates were followed simultaneously by use of UDPG labeled with 14C in the glucose moiety and with 3H in the uracil group. They were found to be independent of the concentrations of glycogen and the UDPG-UDP pair, averaging 6 X 10(-9) mol min-1 mg-1, with a ratio of UDPG-glycogen exchange to UDPG-UDP exchange of 0.85-0.95. The conclusion is that glycogen synthase has a rapid equilibrium random bi bi mechanism. The previously reported slow activation of glycogen-free synthase in the presence of glycogen was examined kinetically. The activation rate appears to be independent of glycogen concentration over a wide range, while the maximum activation is related to the third or fourth root of the glycogen concentration. This suggest that the slow bimolecular reaction mechanism proposed for human polymorphonuclear leucocyte glycogen synthase I [Sølling, H., & Esmann, V. (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 81, 129] does not apply to rabbit muscle synthase I. The rate of exchange of glycogen molecules in the complex between glycogen and rabbit muscle synthase I under conditions where the enzyme is catalytically active was estimated by a novel method. The enzyme-glycogen complex was treated with [glucose-14C]UDPG and glycogen of different molecular weight. The distribution of isotope between the two forms of glycogen was determined after their separation by agarose gel chromatography. A rate constant of 0.3 min-1 was estimated for the exchange. It can be calculated, on the basis of the specific activity of the enzyme (20 mumol min-1 mg-1) and its action pattern, that hundreds of individual chains in the glycogen molecule must be available to the enzyme during the average lifetime of the complex. A mechanism is proposed for this process.

  19. Ectopic expression of ceramide synthase 2 in neurons suppresses neurodegeneration induced by ceramide synthase 1 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Spassieva, Stefka D.; Ji, Xiaojie; Liu, Ye; Gable, Kenneth; Bielawski, Jacek; Dunn, Teresa M.; Bieberich, Erhard; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids exhibit extreme functional and chemical diversity that is in part determined by their hydrophobic moiety, ceramide. In mammals, the fatty acyl chain length variation of ceramides is determined by six (dihydro)ceramide synthase (CerS) isoforms. Previously, we and others showed that mutations in the major neuron-specific CerS1, which synthesizes 18-carbon fatty acyl (C18) ceramide, cause elevation of long-chain base (LCB) substrates and decrease in C18 ceramide and derivatives in the brain, leading to neurodegeneration in mice and myoclonus epilepsy with dementia in humans. Whether LCB elevation or C18 ceramide reduction leads to neurodegeneration is unclear. Here, we ectopically expressed CerS2, a nonneuronal CerS producing C22–C24 ceramides, in neurons of Cers1-deficient mice. Surprisingly, the Cers1 mutant pathology was almost completely suppressed. Because CerS2 cannot replenish C18 ceramide, the rescue is likely a result of LCB reduction. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that only LCBs, the substrates common for all of the CerS isoforms, but not ceramides and complex sphingolipids, were restored to the wild-type levels in the Cers2-rescued Cers1 mutant mouse brains. Furthermore, LCBs induced neurite fragmentation in cultured neurons at concentrations corresponding to the elevated levels in the CerS1-deficient brain. The strong association of LCB levels with neuronal survival both in vivo and in vitro suggests high-level accumulation of LCBs is a possible underlying cause of the CerS1 deficiency-induced neuronal death. PMID:27162368

  20. Deficiency of sphingomyelin synthase-1 but not sphingomyelin synthase-2 causes hearing impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-Hong; Takemoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Ken; Luo, Huan; Nishimura, Masataka; Yano, Masato; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Okazaki, Toshiro; Oike, Yuichi; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-08-15

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is a sphingolipid reported to function as a structural component of plasma membranes and to participate in signal transduction. The role of SM metabolism in the process of hearing remains controversial. Here, we examined the role of SM synthase (SMS), which is subcategorized into the family members SMS1 and SMS2, in auditory function. Measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) revealed hearing impairment in SMS1−/− mice in a low frequency range (4–16 kHz). As a possible mechanism of this impairment, we found that the stria vascularis (SV) in these mice exhibited atrophy and disorganized marginal cells. Consequently, SMS1−/− mice exhibited significantly smaller endocochlear potentials (EPs). As a possible mechanism for EP reduction, we found altered expression patterns and a reduced level of KCNQ1 channel protein in the SV of SMS1−/− mice. These mice also exhibited reduced levels of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Quantitative comparison of the SV atrophy, KCNQ1 expression, and outer hair cell density at the cochlear apical and basal turns revealed no location dependence, but more macrophage invasion into the SV was observed in the apical region than the basal region, suggesting a role of cochlear location-dependent oxidative stress in producing the frequency dependence of hearing loss in SMS1−/− mice. Elevated ABR thresholds, decreased EPs, and abnormal KCNQ1 expression patterns in SMS1−/− mice were all found to be progressive with age. Mice lacking SMS2, however, exhibited neither detectable hearing loss nor changes in their EPs. Taken together, our results suggest that hearing impairments occur in SMS1−/− but not SMS2−/− mice. Defects in the SV with subsequent reductions in EPs together with hair cell dysfunction may account, at least partially, for hearing impairments in SMS1−/− mice.

  1. Structure of isochorismate synthase DhbC from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Domagalski, M J; Tkaczuk, K L; Chruszcz, M; Skarina, T; Onopriyenko, O; Cymborowski, M; Grabowski, M; Savchenko, A; Minor, W

    2013-09-01

    The isochorismate synthase DhbC from Bacillus anthracis is essential for the biosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin by this pathogenic bacterium. The structure of the selenomethionine-substituted protein was determined to 2.4 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. B. anthracis DhbC bears the strongest resemblance to the Escherichia coli isochorismate synthase EntC, which is involved in the biosynthesis of another siderophore, namely enterobactin. Both proteins adopt the characteristic fold of other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of various products, including siderophores, menaquinone and tryptophan. The conservation of the active-site residues, as well as their spatial arrangement, suggests that these enzymes share a common Mg(2+)-dependent catalytic mechanism.

  2. Defining the Product Chemical Space of Monoterpenoid Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Boxue; Poulter, C. Dale; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases create diverse carbon skeletons by catalyzing complex carbocation rearrangements, making them particularly challenging for enzyme function prediction. To begin to address this challenge, we have developed a computational approach for the systematic enumeration of terpenoid carbocations. Application of this approach allows us to systematically define a nearly complete chemical space for the potential carbon skeletons of products from monoterpenoid synthases. Specifically, 18758 carbocations were generated, which we cluster into 74 cyclic skeletons. Five of the 74 skeletons are found in known natural products; some of the others are plausible for new functions, either in nature or engineered. This work systematizes the description of function for this class of enzymes, and provides a basis for predicting functions of uncharacterized enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first computational study to explore the complete product chemical space of this important class of enzymes. PMID:27517297

  3. Structure of isochorismate synthase DhbC from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Domagalski, M. J.; Tkaczuk, K. L.; Chruszcz, M.; Skarina, T.; Onopriyenko, O.; Cymborowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Savchenko, A.; Minor, W.

    2013-01-01

    The isochorismate synthase DhbC from Bacillus anthracis is essential for the biosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin by this pathogenic bacterium. The structure of the selenomethionine-substituted protein was determined to 2.4 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. B. anthracis DhbC bears the strongest resemblance to the Escherichia coli isochorismate synthase EntC, which is involved in the biosynthesis of another siderophore, namely enterobactin. Both proteins adopt the characteristic fold of other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of various products, including siderophores, menaquinone and tryptophan. The conservation of the active-site residues, as well as their spatial arrangement, suggests that these enzymes share a common Mg2+-dependent catalytic mechanism. PMID:23989140

  4. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    DOEpatents

    Pichersky, Eran

    1998-01-01

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed.

  5. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton.

  6. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    DOEpatents

    Pichersky, E.

    1998-12-15

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. 5 figs.

  7. Piriformospora indica requires kaurene synthase activity for successful plant colonization.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xi; Ma, Chaoyang; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2016-05-01

    Ent-kaurene (KS) synthases and ent-kaurene-like (KSL) synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins and/or gibberellins which play a role in plant immunity and development. The relationship between expression of five synthase genes (HvKSL1, HvKS2, HvKS4, HvKS5, HvKSL4) and plant colonization by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica was assessed in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The KS gene family is differently up-regulated at 1, 3 and 7 day after P. indica inoculation. By comparison, the HvKSL4 gene expression pattern is more significantly affected by UV irradiation and P. indica colonization. The characterizations of two silencing lines (HvKSL1-RNAi, HvKSL4-RNAi) also were analyzed. HvKSL1-RNAi and HvKSL4-RNAi lines in the first generation lead to less dark green leaves and slower plant development. Further, reduced spikelet fertility in progenies of RNAi plants heterozygous for HvKSL1 were observed, but not for HvKSL4. T2 generation of HvKSL1-RNAi line showed semi-dwarf phenotype while the wild type phenotype could be restored by applying GA3. Silencing of HvKSL4 and HvKSL1 resulted in reduced colonization by P. indica especially in the HvKSL1-RNAi line. These results probably suggest the presence of two ent-KS synthase in barley, one (HvKSL1) that participates in the biosynthesis of GAs and another (HvKSL4) that is involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins.

  8. Screening for latent acute intermittent porphyria: the value of measuring both leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-1-synthase activities.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; Moore, M R; Thompson, G G; Goldberg, A

    1982-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of haem biosynthesis characterised by reduced activity of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-1-(URO) synthase and compensatory increased activity of the rate controlling enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) synthase. Subjects with the disorder should be identified as they are at risk of developing severe porphyric attacks if exposed to a variety of drugs or chemicals. We have assessed the value of measuring the activities of ALA synthase and URO synthase in peripheral blood cells as a means of identifying latent cases in affected families. In AIP subjects, ALA synthase activity was increased and URO synthase decreased compared to controls, through there was considerable overlap between the two groups when either enzyme was examined alone. When both enzymes were examined together, all but one of the 19 AIP patients had both increased ALA synthase activity (greater than 250 nmol ALA/g protein/h) and reduced URO synthase activity (less than 25.1 nmol URO/l RBC/h), whereas none of the 62 controls showed this enzyme pattern. Examination of 35 asymptomatic first degree blood relatives of AIP patients showed that 17 (49%) had the porphyric enzyme pattern with no sex bias. The combined study of these two enzymes permits accurate detection of latent cases of AIP and confirms its autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:7120315

  9. Iterative Polyketide Biosynthesis by Modular Polyketide Synthases in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haotong; Du, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Modular polyketide synthases (type I PKSs) in bacteria are responsible for synthesizing a significant percentage of bioactive natural products. This group of synthases has a characteristic modular organization, and each module within a PKS carries out one cycle of polyketide chain elongation; thus each module is “non-iterative” in function. It was possible to predict the basic structure of a polyketide product from the module organization of the PKSs, since there generally existed a co-linearity between the number of modules and the number of chain elongations. However, more and more bacterial modular PKSs fail to conform to the “canonical rules”, and a particularly noteworthy group of non-canonical PKSs is the bacterial iterative type I PKSs. This review covers recent examples of iteratively-used modular PKSs in bacteria. These non-canonical PKSs give rise to a large array of natural products with impressive structural diversity. The molecular mechanism behind the iterations is often unclear, presenting a new challenge to the rational engineering of these PKSs with the goal of generating new natural products. Structural elucidation of these synthase complexes and better understanding of potential PKS-PKS interactions as well as PKS-substrate recognition may provide new prospects and inspirations for the discovery and engineering of new bioactive polyketides. PMID:26549236

  10. The Spatial Distribution of Sucrose Synthase Isozymes in Barley.

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, J.; Carbonero, P.

    1997-01-01

    The sucrose (Suc) synthase enzyme purified from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots is a homotetramer that is composed of 90-kD type 1 Suc synthase (SS1) subunits. Km values for Suc and UDP were 30 mM and 5 [mu]M, respectively. This enzyme can also utilize ADP at 25% of the UDP rate. Anti-SS1 polyclonal antibodies, which recognized both SS1 and type 2 Suc synthase (SS2) (88-kD) subunits, and antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide, LANGSTDNNFV, which were specific for SS2, were used to study the spatial distribution of these subunits by immunoblot analysis and immunolocalization. Both SS1 and SS2 were abundantly expressed in endosperm, where they polymerize to form the five possible homo- and heterotetramers. Only SS1 homotetramers were detected in young leaves, where they appeared exclusively in phloem cells, and in roots, where expression was associated with cap cells and the vascular bundle. In the seed both SS1 and SS2 were present in endosperm, but only SS1 was apparent in the chalazal region, the nucellar projection, and the vascular bundle. The physiological implications for the difference in expression patterns observed are discussed with respect to the maize (Zea mays L.) model. PMID:12223688

  11. [Progress and application prospects of glutamine synthase in plants].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wanjun; Xing, Guofang; Niu, Xulong; Dou, Chen; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrient elements for plants and a major limiting factor in plant growth and crop productivity. Glutamine synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the nitrogen assimilation and recycling in plants. So far, members of the glutamine synthase gene family have been characterized in many plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, and maize. Reports show that GS are involved in the growth and development of plants, in particular its role in seed production. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent, which are probably derived from the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of GS genes. In this review, we outlined studies on GS gene classification, QTL mapping, the relationship between GS genes and plant growth with nitrogen and the distribution characters, the biological functions of GS genes, as well as expression control at different regulation levels. In addition, we summarized the application prospects of glutamine synthetase genes in enhancing plant growth and yield by improving the nitrogen use efficiency. The prospects were presented on the improvement of nitrogen utility efficiency in crops and plant nitrogen status diagnosis on the basis of glutamine synthase gene regulation.

  12. The structural basis of Erwinia rhapontici isomaltulose synthase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Feng, Xiaohai; Wang, Renxiao; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Jiahai

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose isomerase NX-5 from Erwiniarhapontici efficiently catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to isomaltulose (main product) and trehalulose (by-product). To investigate the molecular mechanism controlling sucrose isomer formation, we determined the crystal structures of native NX-5 and its mutant complexes E295Q/sucrose and D241A/glucose at 1.70 Å, 1.70 Å and 2.00 Å, respectively. The overall structure and active site architecture of NX-5 resemble those of other reported sucrose isomerases. Strikingly, the substrate binding mode of NX-5 is also similar to that of trehalulose synthase from Pseudomonasmesoacidophila MX-45 (MutB). Detailed structural analysis revealed the catalytic RXDRX motif and the adjacent 10-residue loop of NX-5 and isomaltulose synthase PalI from Klebsiella sp. LX3 adopt a distinct orientation from those of trehalulose synthases. Mutations of the loop region of NX-5 resulted in significant changes of the product ratio between isomaltulose and trehalulose. The molecular dynamics simulation data supported the product specificity of NX-5 towards isomaltulose and the role of the loop(330-339) in NX-5 catalysis. This work should prove useful for the engineering of sucrose isomerase for industrial carbohydrate biotransformations.

  13. The Structural Basis of Erwinia rhapontici Isomaltulose Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Feng, Xiaohai; Wang, Renxiao; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Jiahai

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose isomerase NX-5 from Erwiniarhapontici efficiently catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to isomaltulose (main product) and trehalulose (by-product). To investigate the molecular mechanism controlling sucrose isomer formation, we determined the crystal structures of native NX-5 and its mutant complexes E295Q/sucrose and D241A/glucose at 1.70 Å, 1.70 Å and 2.00 Å, respectively. The overall structure and active site architecture of NX-5 resemble those of other reported sucrose isomerases. Strikingly, the substrate binding mode of NX-5 is also similar to that of trehalulose synthase from Pseudomonasmesoacidophila MX-45 (MutB). Detailed structural analysis revealed the catalytic RXDRX motif and the adjacent 10-residue loop of NX-5 and isomaltulose synthase PalI from Klebsiella sp. LX3 adopt a distinct orientation from those of trehalulose synthases. Mutations of the loop region of NX-5 resulted in significant changes of the product ratio between isomaltulose and trehalulose. The molecular dynamics simulation data supported the product specificity of NX-5 towards isomaltulose and the role of the loop330-339 in NX-5 catalysis. This work should prove useful for the engineering of sucrose isomerase for industrial carbohydrate biotransformations. PMID:24069347

  14. Effect of calcofluor white on chitin synthases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, C; Valdivieso, M H; Ribas, J C; Durán, A

    1988-01-01

    The growths of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type strain and another strain containing a disrupted structural gene for chitin synthase (chs1::URA3), defective in chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) but showing a new chitin synthase activity (Chs2), were affected by Calcofluor. To be effective, the interaction of Calcofluor with growing cells had to occur at around pH 6. Treatment of growing cells from these strains with the fluorochrome led to an increase in the total levels of Chs1 and Chs2 activities measured on permeabilized cells. During treatment, basal levels (activities expressed in the absence of exogenous proteolytic activation) of Chs1 and Chs2 increased nine- and fourfold, respectively, through a mechanism dependent on protein synthesis, since the effect was abolished by cycloheximide. During alpha-factor treatment, both Chs1 and Chs2 levels increased; however, as opposed to what occurred during the mitotic cell cycle, there was no further increase in Chs1 or Chs2 activities by Calcofluor treatment. Images PMID:2965145

  15. Mechanism of Action and Inhibition of dehydrosqualene Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    F Lin; C Liu; Y Liu; Y Zhang; K Wang; W Jeng; T Ko; R Cao; A Wang; E Oldfield

    2011-12-31

    'Head-to-head' terpene synthases catalyze the first committed steps in sterol and carotenoid biosynthesis: the condensation of two isoprenoid diphosphates to form cyclopropylcarbinyl diphosphates, followed by ring opening. Here, we report the structures of Staphylococcus aureus dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM) complexed with its reaction intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP), the dehydrosqualene (DHS) product, as well as a series of inhibitors. The results indicate that, on initial diphosphate loss, the primary carbocation so formed bends down into the interior of the protein to react with C2,3 double bond in the prenyl acceptor to form PSPP, with the lower two-thirds of both PSPP chains occupying essentially the same positions as found in the two farnesyl chains in the substrates. The second-half reaction is then initiated by the PSPP diphosphate returning back to the Mg{sup 2+} cluster for ionization, with the resultant DHS so formed being trapped in a surface pocket. This mechanism is supported by the observation that cationic inhibitors (of interest as antiinfectives) bind with their positive charge located in the same region as the cyclopropyl carbinyl group; that S-thiolo-diphosphates only inhibit when in the allylic site; activity results on 11 mutants show that both DXXXD conserved domains are essential for PSPP ionization; and the observation that head-to-tail isoprenoid synthases as well as terpene cyclases have ionization and alkene-donor sites which spatially overlap those found in CrtM.

  16. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Fiona Jenkins, Huw T.; Griffiths, Samuel C.; Byrne, Robert T.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer.

  17. Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2016-02-23

    Cellulose microfibrils are pseudocrystalline arrays of cellulose chains that are synthesized by cellulose synthases. The enzymes are organized into large membrane-embedded complexes in which each enzyme likely synthesizes and secretes a β-(1→4) glucan. The relationship between the organization of the enzymes in these complexes and cellulose crystallization has not been explored. To better understand this relationship, we used atomic force microscopy to visualize cellulose microfibril formation from nickel-film-immobilized bacterial cellulose synthase enzymes (BcsA-Bs), which in standard solution only form amorphous cellulose from monomeric BcsA-B complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques show that surface-tethered BcsA-Bs synthesize highly crystalline cellulose II in the presence of UDP-Glc, the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP, as well as magnesium. The cellulose II cross section/diameter and the crystal size and crystallinity depend on the surface density of tethered enzymes as well as the overall concentration of substrates. Our results provide the correlation between cellulose microfibril formation and the spatial organization of cellulose synthases.

  18. Multi-Substrate Terpene Synthases: Their Occurrence and Physiological Significance

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-01-01

    Terpene synthases are responsible for synthesis of a large number of terpenes in plants using substrates provided by two distinct metabolic pathways, the mevalonate-dependent pathway that is located in cytosol and has been suggested to be responsible for synthesis of sesquiterpenes (C15), and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway located in plastids and suggested to be responsible for the synthesis of hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), and diterpenes (C20). Recent advances in characterization of genes and enzymes responsible for substrate and end product biosynthesis as well as efforts in metabolic engineering have demonstrated existence of a number of multi-substrate terpene synthases. This review summarizes the progress in the characterization of such multi-substrate terpene synthases and suggests that the presence of multi-substrate use might have been significantly underestimated. Multi-substrate use could lead to important changes in terpene product profiles upon substrate profile changes under perturbation of metabolism in stressed plants as well as under certain developmental stages. We therefore argue that multi-substrate use can be significant under physiological conditions and can result in complicate modifications in terpene profiles. PMID:27462341

  19. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (−)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (−)-α-zingiberene and (−)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase. PMID:23272109

  20. Two branches of the lupeol synthase gene in the molecular evolution of plant oxidosqualene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, M; Zhang, H; Endo, A; Shishikura, K; Kushiro, T; Ebizuka, Y

    1999-11-01

    Two new triterpene synthase cDNAs, named as OEW and TRW, were cloned from olive leaves (Olea europaea) and from dandelion roots (Taraxacum officinale), respectively, by the PCR method with primers designed from the conserved sequences found in the known oxidosqualene cyclases. Their ORFs consisted of 2274 bp nucleotides and coded for 758 amino acid long polypeptides. They shared high sequence identity (78%) to each other, while they showed only about 60% identities to the known triterpene synthases LUPI (lupeol synthase clone from Arabidopsis thaliana) and PNY (beta-amyrin synthase clone from Panax ginseng) at amino acid level. To determine the enzyme functions of the translates, they were expressed in an ERG7 deficient yeast mutant. Accumulation of lupeol in the cells of yeast transformants proved both of these clones code for lupeol synthase proteins. An EST (expression sequence tag) clone isolated from Medicago truncatula roots as a homologue of cycloartenol synthase gene, exhibits high sequence identity (75-77%) to these two lupeol synthase cDNAs, suggesting it to be another lupeol synthase clone. Comparatively low identity (approximately 57%) of LUP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana to either one of these clones leaves LUP1 as a distinct clone among lupeol synthases. From these sequence comparisons, now we propose that two branches of lupeol synthase gene have been generated in higher plants during the course of evolution.

  1. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses and have evolved complex strategies to cope with these stresses. For example, plant cells endocytose plasma membrane material under stress and subsequently recycle it back when the stress conditions are relieved. Cellulose biosynthesis is a tightly regulated process that is performed by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes (CSCs). However, the regulatory mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis under abiotic stress has not been well explored. In this study, we show that small CESA compartments (SmaCCs) or microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartments (MASCs) are critical for fast recovery of CSCs to the plasma membrane after stress is relieved in Arabidopsis thaliana. This SmaCC/MASC-mediated fast recovery of CSCs is dependent on CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 (CSI1), a protein previously known to represent the link between CSCs and cortical microtubules. Independently, AP2M, a core component in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, plays a role in the formation of SmaCCs/MASCs. Together, our study establishes a model in which CSI1-dependent SmaCCs/MASCs are formed through a process that involves endocytosis, which represents an important mechanism for plants to quickly regulate cellulose synthesis under abiotic stress. PMID:26443667

  2. 4-Hydroxy-2-pyrone formation by chalcone and stilbene synthase with nonphysiological substrates.

    PubMed

    Zuurbier, K W; Leser, J; Berger, T; Hofte, A J; Schröder, G; Verpoorte, R; Schröder, J

    1998-12-01

    Valerophenone synthase (VPS) is a polyketide synthase that catalyzes the formation of the phloroglucinol derivatives in the synthesis of the bitter acids in hop (Humulus lupulus). The reaction uses isovaleryl-CoA or isobutyryl-CoA, but otherwise it is identical to that of the chalcone synthase in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our study showed that chalcone synthase can perform the function of VPS, but not perfectly, because the majority of the reactions terminated after two condensation reactions (products: 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone derivatives). The same experiments with stilbene synthase yielded exclusively the 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone derivatives, not the products expected from three condensation reactions. The results are discussed in the context of the functional diversity and evolution in the family of CHS-related polyketide synthases.

  3. A stable organic free radical in anaerobic benzylsuccinate synthase of Azoarcus sp. strain T.

    PubMed

    Krieger, C J; Roseboom, W; Albracht, S P; Spormann, A M

    2001-04-20

    The novel enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase initiates anaerobic toluene metabolism by catalyzing the addition of toluene to fumarate, forming benzylsuccinate. Based primarily on its sequence similarity to the glycyl radical enzymes, pyruvate formate-lyase and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase, benzylsuccinate synthase was speculated to be a glycyl radical enzyme. In this report we use EPR spectroscopy to demonstrate for the first time that active benzylsuccinate synthase from the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain T harbors an oxygen-sensitive stable organic free radical. The EPR signal of the radical was centered at g = 2.0021 and was characterized by a major 2-fold splitting of about 1.5 millitesla. The strong similarities between the EPR signal of the benzylsuccinate synthase radical and that of the glycyl radicals of pyruvate formate-lyase and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase provide evidence that the benzylsuccinate synthase radical is located on a glycine residue, presumably glycine 828 in Azoarcus sp. strain T benzylsuccinate synthase.

  4. Purification, Structure and Properties of Escherichia coli tRNA Pseudouridine Synthase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    RD-8193 9" PURIFICATION STRUCTURE AMD PROPERTIES OF ESCNERICHIA 11 COLI TRt4A PSEUDOURIDINE SYNTHASE 1(U) CALIFORNIA UNY OAKLAND NAVAL BIOSCIENCES...Keywo rd S: tN Pseudou ridine Synthase 1, Escherichia Cal i, 03 Plasmid, 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number...The RNA modification enzyme, tRNA pseudouridine synthase I (PSUI) has been isolated in 95% purity from an Escherichia coli strain harboring a

  5. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase in Prostate Cancer by Orlistat, a Novel Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    C.W. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors: new directions for oncology. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs (2007) 16(11): 1817-29 (Invited Review...acid synthase inhibitors: new directions for oncology. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs (2007) 16(11): 1817-29 (Invited Review) Abstracts...Kuhajda FP: Fatty-acid synthase and human cancer: new perspectives on its role in tumor biology. Nutrition 2000, 16:202-208. 3. Smith S: The animal fatty

  6. Effect of ions of potassium and lithium on NO synthase expression in the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kovzun, E I; Lukashenya, O S; Pushkarev, V M; Mikosha, A S; Tron'ko, N D

    2014-01-01

    The expression of endothelial and inducible NO synthase in the human adrenal glands was studied under a change in the concentration of K(+), which plays a regulatory role in aldosterone secretion. K(+) ions stimulated the expression of both isoforms of NO synthase in the human adrenal cortex. A stimulatory effect of K(+) on NO synthase is probably related to activation of the calmodulin system and potassium-induced translocation of protein kinase C. Lithium produced n inhibitory effect on both isoforms of NO synthase, which suggests that protein kinase C serves a major regulator of expression in the human adrenal glands.

  7. Molecular Diversity of Terpene Synthases in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xun; Jiang, Zuodong; Jia, Qidong; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2016-01-01

    Marchantia polymorpha is a basal terrestrial land plant, which like most liverworts accumulates structurally diverse terpenes believed to serve in deterring disease and herbivory. Previous studies have suggested that the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, present in evolutionarily diverged plants, are also operative in liverworts. However, the genes and enzymes responsible for the chemical diversity of terpenes have yet to be described. In this study, we resorted to a HMMER search tool to identify 17 putative terpene synthase genes from M. polymorpha transcriptomes. Functional characterization identified four diterpene synthase genes phylogenetically related to those found in diverged plants and nine rather unusual monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase-like genes. The presence of separate monofunctional diterpene synthases for ent-copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene biosynthesis is similar to orthologs found in vascular plants, pushing the date of the underlying gene duplication and neofunctionalization of the ancestral diterpene synthase gene family to >400 million years ago. By contrast, the mono- and sesquiterpene synthases represent a distinct class of enzymes, not related to previously described plant terpene synthases and only distantly so to microbial-type terpene synthases. The absence of a Mg2+ binding, aspartate-rich, DDXXD motif places these enzymes in a noncanonical family of terpene synthases. PMID:27650333

  8. Mechanistic studies on class I polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: class I and III synthases share a similar catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jia, Y; Yuan, W; Wodzinska, J; Park, C; Sinskey, A J; Stubbe, J

    2001-01-30

    The Class I and III polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthases from Ralstonia eutropha and Chromatium vinosum, respectively, catalyze the polymerization of beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (HBCoA) to generate PHB. These synthases have different molecular weights, subunit composition, and kinetic properties. Recent studies with the C. vinosum synthase suggested that it is structurally homologous to bacterial lipases and allowed identification of active site residues important for catalysis [Jia, Y., Kappock, T. J., Frick, T., Sinskey, A. J., and Stubbe, J. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 3927-3936]. Sequence alignments between the Class I and III synthases revealed similar residues in the R. eutropha synthase. Site-directed mutants of these residues were prepared and examined using HBCoA and a terminally saturated trimer of HBCoA (sT-CoA) as probes. These studies reveal that the R. eutropha synthase possesses an essential catalytic dyad (C319-H508) in which the C319 is involved in covalent catalysis. A conserved Asp, D480, was shown not to be required for acylation of C319 by sT-CoA and is proposed to function as a general base catalyst to activate the hydroxyl of HBCoA for ester formation. Studies of the [(3)H]sT-CoA with wild-type and mutant synthases reveal that 0.5 equiv of radiolabel is covalently bound per monomer of synthase, suggesting that a dimeric form of the enzyme is involved in elongation. These studies, in conjunction with search algorithms for secondary structure, suggest that the Class I and III synthases are mechanistically similar and structurally homologous, despite their physical and kinetic differences.

  9. Phytochelatin synthase genes from Arabidopsis and the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Ha, S B; Smith, A P; Howden, R; Dietrich, W M; Bugg, S; O'Connell, M J; Goldsbrough, P B; Cobbett, C S

    1999-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs), a family of heavy metal-inducible peptides important in the detoxification of heavy metals, have been identified in plants and some microorganisms, including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but not in animals. PCs are synthesized enzymatically from glutathione (GSH) by PC synthase in the presence of heavy metal ions. In Arabidopsis, the CAD1 gene, identified by using Cd-sensitive, PC-deficient cad1 mutants, has been proposed to encode PC synthase. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have isolated the CAD1 gene. Database searches identified a homologous gene in S. pombe, and a mutant with a targeted deletion of this gene was also Cd sensitive and PC deficient. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing a CAD1 cDNA or the S. pombe gene catalyzing GSH-dependent, heavy metal-activated synthesis of PCs in vitro demonstrated that both genes encode PC synthase activity. Both enzymes were activated by a range of metal ions. In contrast, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that expression of the CAD1 mRNA is not influenced by the presence of Cd. A comparison of the two predicted amino acid sequences revealed a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is presumed to be the catalytic domain, and a variable C-terminal region containing multiple Cys residues, which is proposed to be involved in activation of the enzyme by metal ions. Interestingly, a similar gene was identified in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that PCs may also be expressed in some animal species. PMID:10368185

  10. Assembly Line Polyketide Synthases: Mechanistic Insights and Unsolved Problems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two hallmarks of assembly line polyketide synthases have motivated an interest in these unusual multienzyme systems, their stereospecificity and their capacity for directional biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding the mechanistic origins of these two remarkable features, using the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase as a prototype. Of the 10 stereocenters in 6-deoxyerythronolide B, the stereochemistry of nine carbon atoms is directly set by ketoreductase domains, which catalyze epimerization and/or diastereospecific reduction reactions. The 10th stereocenter is established by the sequential action of three enzymatic domains. Thus, the problem has been reduced to a challenge in mainstream enzymology, where fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of the structural basis for this exquisite stereochemical control by relatively well-defined active sites. In contrast, testable mechanistic hypotheses for the phenomenon of vectorial biosynthesis are only just beginning to emerge. Starting from an elegant theoretical framework for understanding coupled vectorial processes in biology [Jencks, W. P. (1980) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 51, 75–106], we present a simple model that can explain assembly line polyketide biosynthesis as a coupled vectorial process. Our model, which highlights the important role of domain–domain interactions, not only is consistent with recent observations but also is amenable to further experimental verification and refinement. Ultimately, a definitive view of the coordinated motions within and between polyketide synthase modules will require a combination of structural, kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational tools and could be one of the most exciting frontiers in 21st Century enzymology. PMID:24779441

  11. Synthesis of antifungal glucan synthase inhibitors from enfumafungin.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yong-Li; Gauthier, Donald R; Shi, Yao-Jun; McLaughlin, Mark; Chung, John Y L; Dagneau, Philippe; Marcune, Benjamin; Krska, Shane W; Ball, Richard G; Reamer, Robert A; Yasuda, Nobuyoshi

    2012-04-06

    An efficient, new, and scalable semisynthesis of glucan synthase inhibitors 1 and 2 from the fermentation product enfumafungin 3 is described. The highlights of the synthesis include a high-yielding ether bond-forming reaction between a bulky sulfamidate 17 and alcohol 4 and a remarkably chemoselective, improved palladium(II)-mediated Corey-Yu allylic oxidation at the highly congested C-12 position of the enfumafungin core. Multi-hundred gram quantities of the target drug candidates 1 and 2 were prepared, in 12 linear steps with 25% isolated yield and 13 linear steps with 22% isolated yield, respectively.

  12. Modified Deacetylcephalosporin C Synthase for the Biotransformation of Semisynthetic Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nataraj; Ganesan, Sadhasivam; Rajasekaran, Padma; Rajendran, Lingeshwaran; Teddu, Sivaprasad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deacetylcephalosporin C synthase (DACS), a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase synthesized by Streptomyces clavuligerus, transforms an inert methyl group of deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC) into an active hydroxyl group of deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC) during the biosynthesis of cephalosporin. It is a step which is chemically difficult to accomplish, but its development by use of an enzymatic method with DACS can facilitate a cost-effective technology for the manufacture of semisynthetic cephalosporin intermediates such as 7-amino-cephalosporanic acid (7ACA) and hydroxymethyl-7-amino-cephalosporanic acid (HACA) from cephalosporin G. As the native enzyme showed negligible activity toward cephalosporin G, an unnatural and less expensive substrate analogue, directed-evolution strategies such as random, semirational, rational, and computational methods were used for systematic engineering of DACS for improved activity. In comparison to the native enzyme, several variants with improved catalytic efficiency were found. The enzyme was stable for several days and is expressed in soluble form at high levels with significantly higher kcat/Km values. The efficacy and industrial scalability of one of the selected variants, CefFGOS, were demonstrated in a process showing complete bioconversion of 18 g/liter of cephalosporin G into deacetylcephalosporin G (DAG) in about 80 min and showed reproducible results at higher substrate concentrations as well. DAG could be converted completely into HACA in about 30 min by a subsequent reaction, thus facilitating scalability toward commercialization. The experimental findings with several mutants were also used to rationalize the functional conformation deduced from homology modeling, and this led to the disclosure of critical regions involved in the catalysis of DACS. IMPORTANCE 7ACA and HACA serve as core intermediates for the manufacture of several semisynthetic cephalosporins. As they are expensive, a cost-effective enzyme

  13. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  14. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of a polyadenylate synthase from Megavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Jeudy, Sandra; Bertaux, Lionel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is also the most complex virus sequenced to date, with a 1.26 Mb double-stranded DNA genome encoding 1120 genes. The two viruses share common regulatory elements such as a peculiar palindrome governing the termination/polyadenylation of viral transcripts. They also share a predicted polyadenylate synthase that presents a higher than average percentage of residue conservation. The Megavirus enzyme Mg561 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A 2.24 Å resolution MAD data set was recorded from a single crystal on the ID29 beamline at the ESRF. PMID:23295487

  15. Structural and functional characterization of Staphylococcus aureus dihydrodipicolinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Girish, Tavarekere S; Sharma, Eshita; Gopal, B

    2008-08-20

    Lysine biosynthesis is crucial for cell-wall formation in bacteria. Enzymes involved in lysine biosynthesis are thus potential targets for anti-microbial therapeutics. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first step of this pathway. Unlike its homologues, Staphylococcus aureus DHDPS is a dimer both in solution and in the crystal and is not feedback inhibited by lysine. The crystal structure of S. aureus DHDPS in the free and substrate bound forms provides a structural rationale for its catalytic mechanism. The structure also reveals unique conformational features of the S. aureus enzyme that could be crucial for the design of specific non-competitive inhibitors.

  16. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  17. Fine structure analysis of Salmonella typhimurium glutamate synthase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Madonna, M J; Fuchs, R L; Brenchley, J E

    1985-01-01

    Glutamate synthase activity is required for the growth of Salmonella typhimurium on media containing a growth-rate-limiting nitrogen source. Mutations that alter glutamate synthase activity had been identified in the gltB gene, but it was not known which of the two nonidentical subunits of the enzyme was altered. To examine the gene-protein relationship of the glt region, two nonsense mutations were identified and used to demonstrate that gltB encodes the large subunit of the enzyme. Six strains with independent Mu cts d1 (lac bla) insertions were isolated, from which a collection of deletion mutations was obtained. The deletions were transduced with the nonsense mutations and 38 other glt point mutations to construct a fine-structure genetic map. Chromosome mobilization studies, mediated by Hfr derivatives of Mu cts d1 lysogens, showed that gltB is transcribed in a clockwise direction, as shown in the S. typhimurium linkage map. Studies of the polar effects of three Mu cts d1 insertions indicated that the gene for the small subunit maps clockwise to gltB and that the two genes are cotranscribed to form a glt operon. Images PMID:3881392

  18. Eugenol synthase genes in floral scent variation in Gymnadenia species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok K; Schauvinhold, Ines; Pichersky, Eran; Schiestl, Florian P

    2014-12-01

    Floral signaling, especially through floral scent, is often highly complex, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary causes of this complexity. In this study, we focused on the evolution of "floral scent genes" and the associated changes in their functions in three closely related orchid species of the genus Gymnadenia. We developed a benchmark repertoire of 2,571 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Gymnadenia odoratissima. For the functional characterization and evolutionary analysis, we focused on eugenol synthase, as eugenol is a widespread and important scent compound. We obtained complete coding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of two copies of putative eugenol synthase genes in each of the three species. The proteins encoded by these cDNAs were characterized by expression and testing for activity in Escherichia coli. While G. odoratissima and Gymnadenia conopsea enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of eugenol only, the Gymnadenia densiflora proteins synthesize eugenol, as well as a smaller amount of isoeugenol. Finally, we showed that the eugenol and isoeugenol producing gene copies of G. densiflora are evolutionarily derived from the ancestral genes of the other species producing only eugenol. The evolutionary switch from production of one to two compounds evolved under relaxed purifying selection. In conclusion, our study shows the molecular bases of eugenol and isoeugenol production and suggests that an evolutionary transition in a single gene can lead to an increased complexity in floral scent emitted by plants.

  19. [Cloning, expression and charaterization of chalcone synthase from Saussurea medusa].

    PubMed

    Xia, Fang; Li, Houhua; Fu, Chunxiang; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xu, Yanjun; Zhao, Dexiu

    2011-09-01

    A fragment of chalcone synthase gene (SmCHS) was cloned from the cDNA library constructed in Saussurea medusa. The full-length cDNA sequence of SmCHS was obtained by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the full length of SmCHS was 1313 bp, containing an open reading frame (1170 bp) encoding 389 amino acids. The molecular weight of the protein was estimated to be 43 kDa. The prokaryotic expression plasmids pET28a(+)-SmCHS was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for expression. SDS-PAGE indicated that the fusion protein was expressed partially in soluble form after induction by IPTG. The recombinant protein was collected and purified by Ni-NTA affinity column. The enzymatic activity assay of the purified recombinant protein showed that the fusion protein had chalcone synthase activity. It could catalyze the condensation of a 4-coumaroyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs to produce naringenin chalcone.

  20. Manipulation of pulmonary prostacyclin synthase expression prevents murine lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Keith, Robert L; Miller, York E; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Moore, Mark D; Gesell, Tracy L; Gao, Bifeng; Malkinson, Alvin M; Golpon, Heiko A; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Geraci, Mark W

    2002-02-01

    Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity decreases eicosanoid production and prevents lung cancer in animal models. Prostaglandin (PG) I(2) (PGI(2), prostacyclin) is a PGH(2) metabolite with anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antimetastatic properties. The instability of PGI(2) has limited its evaluation in animal models of cancer. We hypothesized that pulmonary overexpression of prostacyclin synthase may prevent the development of murine lung tumors. Transgenic mice with selective pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overexpression were exposed to two distinct carcinogenesis protocols: an initiation/promotion model and a simple carcinogen model. The transgenic mice exhibited significantly reduced lung tumor multiplicity (tumor number) in proportion to transgene expression, a dose-response effect. Moreover, the highest expressing mice demonstrated reduced tumor incidence. To investigate the mechanism for protection, we evaluated PG levels and inflammatory responses. At the time of sacrifice following one carcinogenesis model, the transgenics exhibited only an increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), not a decrease in PGE(2). Thus, elevated PGI(2) levels and not decreased PGE(2) levels appear to be necessary for the chemopreventive effects. When exposed to a single dose of butylated hydroxytoluene, transgenic mice exhibited a survival advantage; however, reduction in alveolar inflammatory response was not observed. These studies demonstrate that manipulation of PG metabolism downstream from COX produces even more profound lung cancer reduction than COX inhibition alone and could be the basis for new approaches to understanding the pathogenesis and prevention of lung cancer.

  1. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, Anna; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vincent C; Passi, Alberto

    2009-10-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in eukaryotic cells and addressed the question of HAS activity during intracellular protein trafficking. We prepared three cellular fractions: plasma membrane, cytosol (containing membrane proteins mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi), and nuclei. After incubation with UDP-sugar precursors, newly synthesized HA was quantified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides and high performance liquid chromatography. This new method measured HAS activity not only in the plasma membrane fraction but also in the cytosolic membranes. This new technique was used to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbeliferone, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin 1beta, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and tunicamycin on HAS activities. We found that HAS activity can be modulated by post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in HAS activity in the cytosolic membrane fraction after tunicamycin treatment. Since this compound is known to induce HA cable structures, this result links HAS activity alteration with the capability of the cell to promote HA cable formation.

  2. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Seldin, M.F.

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  3. The Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rabender, Christopher S.; Alam, Asim; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Cardnell, Robert J.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Graves, Paul; Zweit, Jamal; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2015-01-01

    Here evidence suggests that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) of tumor cells, in contrast to normal tissues, synthesize predominantly superoxide and peroxynitrite. Based on HPLC analysis, the underlying mechanism for this uncoupling is a reduced tetrahydrobiopterin: dihydrobiopterin ratio (BH4:BH2) found in breast, colorectal, epidermoid and head and neck tumors compared to normal tissues. Increasing BH4:BH2 and reconstitution of coupled NOS activity in breast cancer cells with the BH4 salvage pathway precursor, sepiapterin, causes significant shifts in downstream signaling including increased cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity, decreased β-catenin expression and TCF4 promoter activity, and reduced NF-κB promoter activity. Sepiapterin inhibited breast tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo as measured by clonogenic assay, Ki67 staining and 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). In summary, using diverse tumor types, it is demonstrated that the BH4:BH2 ratio is lower in tumor tissues and as a consequence nitric oxide synthase activity generates more peroxynitrite and superoxide anion than nitric oxide resulting in important tumor growth promoting and anti-apoptotic signaling properties. Implications The synthetic BH4, Kuvan®, is used to elevate BH4:BH2 in some phenylketonuria patients and to treat diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction suggesting a novel, testable approach for correcting an abnormality of tumor metabolism to control tumor growth. PMID:25724429

  4. In vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian; Krucewicz, Katarzyna; Beeren, Sophie R.; Rydhal, Maja G.; Yoshimura, Yayoi; Striebeck, Alexander; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Willats, William G. T.; Palcic, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates. PMID:26858729

  5. Cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases active in bacterial cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Banzhaf, Manuel; van den Berg van Saparoea, Bart; Terrak, Mohammed; Fraipont, Claudine; Egan, Alexander; Philippe, Jules; Zapun, André; Breukink, Eefjan; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2012-07-01

    Growth of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan sacculus requires the co-ordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and cell morphogenesis proteins, but the details of these interactions are largely unknown. We now show that the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan glycosyltrasferase-transpeptidase PBP1A interacts with the cell elongation-specific transpeptidase PBP2 in vitro and in the cell. Cells lacking PBP1A are thinner and initiate cell division later in the cell cycle. PBP1A localizes mainly to the cylindrical wall of the cell, supporting its role in cell elongation. Our in vitro peptidoglycan synthesis assays provide novel insights into the cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases with different activities. PBP2 stimulates the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1A, and PBP1A and PBP2 cooperate to attach newly synthesized peptidoglycan to sacculi. PBP2 has peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity in the presence of active PBP1A. Our data also provide a possible explanation for the depletion of lipid II precursors in penicillin-treated cells.

  6. IPC synthase as a useful target for antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yuichi; Sakoh, Hiroki; Yamada, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase is a common and essential enzyme in fungi and plants, which catalyzes the transfer of phosphoinositol to the C-1 hydroxy of ceramide to produce IPC. This reaction is a key step in fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, therefore the enzyme is a potential target for the development of nontoxic therapeutic antifungal agents. Natural products with a desired biological activity, aureobasidin A (AbA), khafrefungin, and galbonolide A, have been reported. AbA, a cyclic depsipeptide containing 8 amino acids and a hydroxyl acid, is a broad spectrum antifungal with strong activity against many pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and some Aspergillus spp. Khafrefungin, an aldonic acid ester with a C22 long alkyl chain, has antifungal activity against C. albicans, Cr. Neoformans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Galbonolide A is a 14-membered macrolide with fungicidal activity against clinically important strains, and is especially potent against Cr. neoformans. These classes of natural products are potent and specific antifungal agents. We review current progress in the development of IPC synthase inhibitors with antifungal activities, and present structure-activity relationships (SAR), physicochemical and structural properties, and synthetic methodology for chemical modification.

  7. Stereochemical course of enzyme-catalyzed aminopropyl transfer: spermidine synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Kullberg, D.W.; Orr, G.R.; Coward, J.K.

    1986-05-01

    The R and S enantionmers of S-adenosyl-3-(/sup 2/H)3-(methylthio)-1-propylamine (decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine), previously synthesized in this laboratory, were incubated with (1,4-/sup 2/H/sub 4/)-putrescine in the presence of spermidine synthase from E. coli. The resulting chiral (/sup 2/H/sub 5/)spermidines were isolated and converted to their N/sub 1/,N/sub 7/-dibocspermidine-N/sub 4/-(1S,4R)-camphanamides. The derivatives were analyzed by 500 MHz /sup 1/H-NMR and the configuration of the chiral center assigned by correlation with the spectra of synthetic chiral (/sup 2/H/sub 3/)dibocspermidine camphanamide standards. The enzyme-catalyzed aminopropyl transfer was shown to occur with net retention of configuration, indicative of a double-displacement mechanism. This result concurs with that of a previous steady-state kinetics study of spermidine synthase isolated from E. coli, but contradicts the single-displacement mechanism suggested by a stereochemical analysis of chiral spermidines biosynthesized in E. coli treated with chirally deuterated methionines. It also indicates that this aminopropyltransferase is mechanistically distinct from the methyltransferases, which have been shown to act via a single-displacement mechanism (net inversion at -CH/sub 3/) in all cases studied to date.

  8. An uncultivated crenarchaeota contains functional bacteriochlorophyll a synthase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Wang, Fengping; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yanping; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Xiao, Xiang

    2009-01-01

    A fosmid clone 37F10 containing an archaeal 16S rRNA gene was screened out from a metagenomic library of Pearl River sediment, southern China. Sequence analysis of the 35 kb inserted fragment of 37F10 found that it contains a single 16S rRNA gene belonging to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) and 36 open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF (orf11) encodes putative bacteriochlorophyll a synthase (bchG) gene. Bacteriochlorophyll a synthase gene has never been reported in a member of the domain Archaea, in accordance with the fact that no (bacterio)-chlorophyll has ever been detected in any cultivated archaea. The putative archaeal bchG (named as ar-bchG) was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was found to be capable of synthesizing bacteriochlorophyll a by esterification of bacteriochlorophyllide a with phytyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis clearly indicates that the ar-bchG diverges before the bacterial bchGs. Our results for the first time demonstrate that a key and functional enzyme for bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis does exist in Archaea.

  9. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase modulators: a patent review (2006 - 2010)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuting; McKenna, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Farnesyl pyrophosphosphate synthase (FPPS (also known as farnesyl diphosphate synthase, FDPS)) is one of the key enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway and as such is widely expressed. FPPS modulators, specifically FPPS inhibitors, are useful in treating a number of diseases, including bone related disorders characterized by excessive bone resorption e.g. osteoporosis, cancer metathesis to bone and infectious diseases caused by certain parasites. Areas covered This review covers structures and applications of novel FPPS modulators described in the patent literature from 2006 to 2010. Patents disclosing new formulations and uses of existing FPPS inhibitors are also reviewed. Thirty-three patents retrieved from the USPTO, EP and WIPO databases are examined with the goal of defining current trends in drug discovery related to FPPS inhibition, and its therapeutic effects. Expert opinion Bisphosphonates continue to dominate in this area, although other types of modulator are making their appearance. Remarkable for their high bone mineral affinity, bisphosphonates are structural mimics of the dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) substrate of FPPS, and constitute the major type of FPPS inhibitor currently used in the clinic for treatment of bone-related diseases. Lipophilic bisphosphonates and new classes of non-bisphosphonate FPPS inhibitors (salicylic acid and quinoline derivatives) have been introduced as possible alternatives for treatment of soft tissue diseases, such as some cancers. Novel formulations, fluorescent diagnostic probes and new therapeutic applications of existing FPPS inhibitors are also areas of significant patent activity, demonstrating growing recognition of the versatility and underdeveloped potential of these drugs. PMID:21702715

  10. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Fiona; Jenkins, Huw T.; Griffiths, Samuel C.; Byrne, Robert T.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr_rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer. PMID:26143927

  11. Tryptophan synthase: a multienzyme complex with an intramolecular tunnel.

    PubMed

    Miles, E W

    2001-01-01

    Tryptophan synthase is a classic enzyme that channels a metabolic intermediate, indole. The crystal structure of the tryptophan synthase alpha2beta2 complex from Salmonella typhimurium revealed for the first time the architecture of a multienzyme complex and the presence of an intramolecular tunnel. This remarkable hydrophobic tunnel provides a likely passageway for indole from the active site of the alpha subunit, where it is produced, to the active site of the beta subunit, where it reacts with L-serine to form L-tryptophan in a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent reaction. Rapid kinetic studies of the wild type enzyme and of channel-impaired mutant enzymes provide strong evidence for the proposed channeling mechanism. Structures of a series of enzyme-substrate intermediates at the alpha and beta active sites are elucidating enzyme mechanisms and dynamics. These structural results are providing a fascinating picture of loops opening and closing, of domain movements, and of conformational changes in the indole tunnel. Solution studies provide further evidence for ligand-induced conformational changes that send signals between the alpha and beta subunits. The combined results show that the switching of the enzyme between open and closed conformations couples the catalytic reactions at the alpha and beta active sites and prevents the escape of indole.

  12. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis.

  13. Cloricromene inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Zingarelli, B; Carnuccio, R; Di Rosa, M

    1993-10-19

    The effect of cloricromene, a coumarin derivative, was investigated on the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) synthase induction in intact aortas from endotoxin shocked rats and in the murine macrophage cell line J774. Rings of thoracic aortas from lipopolysaccharide (4 mg/kg, i.v.)-shocked rats, contracted with phenylephrine, showed a progressive decrease in tone, that was of a greater magnitude than that of aortas from naive rats. Moreover, a decreased response to the constrictor effect of phenylephrine was observed in aortas from shocked rats. In vivo treatment with cloricromene (2 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before lipopolysaccharide administration partially prevented the loss in tone of aortic rings and improved their reactivity to phenylephrine. Murine J774 macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml) produced significant amounts of nitrites (NO2-; 28.2 +/- 3.5 nmol/10(6) cells per 24 h). Cloricromene (2, 20 or 200 microM) added to the cells concomitantly with lipopolysaccharide inhibited NO2- production in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum inhibition (84.0 +/- 8.0%) was observed when cloricromene (200 microM) was added to the cells 6 h before lipopolysaccharide, whereas it was ineffective when given 6 h after endotoxin. These results demonstrate that cloricromene inhibits the expression but not the activity of the inducible NO synthase.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) gene.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Abjal Pasha; Alsaeed, Abbas H; Sultana, Asma

    2012-01-01

    The uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) enzyme (also known as hydroxymethylbilane hydrolyase) catalyzes the cyclization of hydroxymethylbilane to uroporphyrinogen III during heme biosynthesis. A deficiency of this enzyme is associated with the very rare Gunther's disease or congenital erythropoietic porphyria, an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism. The current study investigated the possible role of UROS (Homo sapiens [EC: 4.2.1.75; 265 aa; 1371 bp mRNA; Entrez Pubmed ref NP_000366.1, NM_000375.2]) in evolution by studying the phylogenetic relationship and divergence of this gene using computational methods. The UROS protein sequences from various taxa were retrieved from GenBank database and were compared using Clustal-W (multiple sequence alignment) with defaults and a first-pass phylogenetic tree was built using neighbor-joining method as in DELTA BLAST 2.2.27+ version. A total of 163 BLAST hits were found for the uroporphyrinogen III synthase query sequence and these hits showed putative conserved domain, HemD superfamily (as on 14(th) Nov 2012). We then narrowed down the search by manually deleting the proteins which were not UROS sequences and sequences belonging to phyla other than Chordata were deleted. A repeat phylogenetic analysis of 39 taxa was performed using PhyML and TreeDyn software to confirm that UROS is a highly conserved protein with approximately 85% conserved sequences in almost all chordate taxons emphasizing its importance in heme synthesis.

  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase as a possible target in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2014-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasodilator produced by vascular endothelium. Its enzymatic formation is derived from three different synthases: neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) synthases. While relatively small amounts of NO produced by eNOS are important to cardiovascular homeostasis, high NO levels produced associated with iNOS activity may have detrimental consequences to the cardiovascular system and contribute to hypertension. In this article, we reviewed current literature and found mounting evidence indicating that increased iNOS expression and activity contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its complications. Excessive amounts of NO produced by iNOS up-regulation can react with superoxide anions forming peroxynitrite, thereby promoting nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, abnormal iNOS activity can up-regulate arginase activity, allowing it to compete with eNOS for L-arginine, thereby resulting in reduced NO bioavailability. This may also lead to eNOS uncoupling with enhanced production of superoxide anions instead of NO. All these alterations mediated by iNOS apparently contribute to hypertension and its complications. We also reviewed current evidence showing the effects of iNOS inhibitors on different animal models of hypertension. iNOS inhibition apparently exerts antihypertensive effects, decreases oxidative and nitrosative stress, and improves vascular function. Together, these studies highlight the possibility that iNOS is a potential pharmacological target in hypertension.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    The Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes citA and citZ were repressed during early exponential growth phase in nutrient broth medium and were induced as cells reached the end of exponential phase. Both genes were also induced by treatment of cells with the drug decoyinine. After induction, the steady-state level of citZ mRNA was about five times higher than that of citA mRNA. At least some of the citZ transcripts read through into the isocitrate dehydrogenase (citC) gene. Transcription from an apparent promoter site located near the 3' end of the citZ gene also contributed to expression of citC. In minimal medium, citA transcription was about 6-fold lower when glucose was the sole carbon source than it was when succinate was the carbon source. Expression of the citZ gene was repressed 2-fold by glucose and 10-fold when glucose and glutamate were present simultaneously. This latter synergistic repression is similar to the effect of glucose and glutamate on steady-state citrate synthase enzyme activity. CitR, a protein of the LysR family, appeared to be a repressor of citA but not of citZ.

  17. Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Roach, Peter J.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2010-11-22

    Regulation of the storage of glycogen, one of the major energy reserves, is of utmost metabolic importance. In eukaryotes, this regulation is accomplished through glucose-6-phosphate levels and protein phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatases and glucose-6-phosphate binding. We determined the crystal structures corresponding to the basal activity state and glucose-6-phosphate activated state of yeast glycogen synthase-2. The enzyme is assembled into an unusual tetramer by an insertion unique to the eukaryotic enzymes, and this subunit interface is rearranged by the binding of glucose-6-phosphate, which frees the active site cleft and facilitates catalysis. Using both mutagenesis and intein-mediated phospho-peptide ligation experiments, we demonstrate that the enzyme's response to glucose-6-phosphate is controlled by Arg583 and Arg587, while four additional arginine residues present within the same regulatory helix regulate the response to phosphorylation.

  18. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase from Xanthomonas campestris homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Dashuang Caldovic, Ljubica; Jin, Zhongmin; Yu, Xiaolin; Qu, Qiuhao; Roth, Lauren; Morizono, Hiroki; Hathout, Yetrib; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2006-12-01

    Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase from X. campestris homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthase are reported. A novel N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase bifunctional enzyme of arginine biosynthesis that was homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthases was identified in Xanthomonas campestris. The protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 134.60, c = 192.11 Å, and diffract to about 3.0 Å resolution. Selenomethionine-substituted recombinant protein was produced and selenomethionine substitution was verified by mass spectroscopy. Multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) data were collected at three wavelengths at SER-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Structure determination is under way using the MAD phasing method.

  19. Characterization of a chitin synthase encoding gene and effect of diflubenzuron in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene (CHS) from cDNA of Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glyc...

  20. Molecular cloning of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from senescing carnation flower petals.

    PubMed

    Park, K Y; Drory, A; Woodson, W R

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides based on the sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase from tomato were used to prime the synthesis and amplification of a 337 bp tomato ACC synthase cDNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This PCR product was used to screen a cDNA library prepared from mRNA isolated from senescing carnation flower petals. Two cDNA clones were isolated which represented the same mRNA. The longer of the two clones (CARACC3) contained a 1950 bp insert with a single open reading frame of 516 amino acids encoding a protein of 58 kDa. The predicted protein from the carnation ACC synthase cDNA was 61%, 61%, 64%, and 51% identical to the deduced proteins from zucchini squash, winter squash, tomato, and apple, respectively. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of at least a second gene in carnation which hybridized to CARACC3 under conditions of low stringency. ACC synthase mRNA accumulates during senescence of carnation flower petals concomitant with the increase in ethylene production and ACC synthase enzyme activity. Ethylene induced the accumulation of ACC synthase mRNA in presenescent petals. Wound-induced ethylene production in leaves was not associated with an increase in ACC synthase mRNA represented by CARACC3. These results indicate that CARACC3 represents an ACC synthase transcript involved in autocatalytic ethylene production in senescing flower petals.

  1. Helical arrays of U-shaped ATP synthase dimers form tubular cristae in ciliate mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mühleip, Alexander W.; Joos, Friederike; Wigge, Christoph; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Davies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    F1Fo-ATP synthases are universal energy-converting membrane protein complexes that synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. In mitochondria of yeast and mammals, the ATP synthase forms V-shaped dimers, which assemble into rows along the highly curved ridges of lamellar cristae. Using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging, we have determined the in situ structure and organization of the mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. The ATP synthase forms U-shaped dimers with parallel monomers. Each complex has a prominent intracrista domain, which links the c-ring of one monomer to the peripheral stalk of the other. Close interaction of intracrista domains in adjacent dimers results in the formation of helical ATP synthase dimer arrays, which differ from the loose dimer rows in all other organisms observed so far. The parameters of the helical arrays match those of the cristae tubes, suggesting the unique features of the P. tetraurelia ATP synthase are directly responsible for generating the helical tubular cristae. We conclude that despite major structural differences between ATP synthase dimers of ciliates and other eukaryotes, the formation of ATP synthase dimer rows is a universal feature of mitochondria and a fundamental determinant of cristae morphology. PMID:27402755

  2. Studies on 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase using chorismate mutase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Birck, M R; Husain, A; Sheflyan, G Y; Ganem, B; Woodard, R W

    2001-11-05

    The proposed cyclic mechanism of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase and the mechanism of chorismate mutase share certain structural and electronic similarities. In this report, we examine several inhibitors of chorismate mutase for their efficacy against KDO 8-P synthase.

  3. Starter unit specificity directs genome mining of polyketide synthase pathways in fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Search of the protein database with the aflatoxin pathway polyketide synthase (PKS) revealed putative PKSs in the pathogenic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii that could require partnerships with a pair of fatty acid synthase (FAS) subunits for the biosynthesis of fatty acid-poly...

  4. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...

  5. Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase.

  6. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of cis-Polyprenyl Diphosphate Synthase from the Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    PubMed Central

    Hemmi, Hisashi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru; Nishino, Tokuzo

    2001-01-01

    cis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosyl carrier lipid in most organisms. However, only little is known about this enzyme of archaea. In this report, we isolated the gene of cis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, and characterized the recombinant enzyme. PMID:11114943

  7. [The influence of inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthases on experimental hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Krushinskiĭ, A L; Kuzenkov, V S; D'iakonova, V E; Reutov, V P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To study the effect of inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthase on the development of hemorrhagic stroke in rats Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) without adaptation to hypoxia and with short-term adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and methods. Ninety rats were included in the study. Experiments with short-term adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia were performed on 48 rats. The inhibitor of inducible NO-synthase (aminoguanidine, "Sigma") or the inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase (7-nitroindasol, "Sigma") were injected in dosage 2.5 mg/100g intraperitoneally. Results. Selective inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthase had a protective effect on stress injuries in KM rats. The inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase was more effective than the inhibitor of inducible NO-synthase in the experiments without adaptation to hypoxia. Markedly greater protective effect was achieved by the simultaneous introduction of inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthase. The greatest protective effect in the development of stress damage in rats of KM was observed in short-term adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia with simultaneous introduction of both inhibitors. Conclusions. It can be assumed that an excessive amount of NO produced by neuronal and inducible NO-synthases during the acoustic exposure in KM rats leads to stress damage. Use of selective inhibitors reduce the excess NO synthesis and the development of audiogenic stress damage caused by hemorrhagic stroke.

  8. Characterization of the cDNA and gene coding for the biotin synthase of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, L M; Yu, F; Wurtele, E S; Nikolau, B J

    1996-01-01

    Biotin, an essential cofactor, is synthesized de novo only by plants and some microbes. An Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag that shows sequence similarity to the carboxyl end of biotin synthase from Escherichia coli was used to isolate a near-full-length cDNA. This cDNA was shown to code for the Arabidopsis biotin synthase by its ability to complement a bioB mutant of E. coli. Site-specific mutagenesis indicates that residue threonine-173, which is highly conserved in biotin synthases, is important for catalytic competence of the enzyme. The primary sequence of the Arabidopsis biotin synthase is most similar to biotin synthases from E. coli, Serratia marcescens, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (about 50% sequence identity) and more distantly related to the Bacillus sphaericus enzyme (33% sequence identity). The primary sequence of the amino terminus of the Arabidopsis biotin synthase may represent an organelle-targeting transit peptide. The single Arabidopsis gene coding for biotin synthase, BIO2, was isolated and sequenced. The biotin synthase coding sequence is interrupted by five introns. The gene sequence upstream of the translation start site has several unusual features, including imperfect palindromes and polypyrimidine sequences, which may function in the transcriptional regulation of the BIO2 gene. PMID:8819873

  9. Rational conversion of substrate and product specificity in a Salvia monoterpene synthase: structural insights into the evolution of terpene synthase function.

    PubMed

    Kampranis, Sotirios C; Ioannidis, Daphne; Purvis, Alan; Mahrez, Walid; Ninga, Ederina; Katerelos, Nikolaos A; Anssour, Samir; Dunwell, Jim M; Degenhardt, Jörg; Makris, Antonios M; Goodenough, Peter W; Johnson, Christopher B

    2007-06-01

    Terpene synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of the complex chemical defense arsenal of plants and microorganisms. How do these enzymes, which all appear to share a common terpene synthase fold, specify the many different products made almost entirely from one of only three substrates? Elucidation of the structure of 1,8-cineole synthase from Salvia fruticosa (Sf-CinS1) combined with analysis of functional and phylogenetic relationships of enzymes within Salvia species identified active-site residues responsible for product specificity. Thus, Sf-CinS1 was successfully converted to a sabinene synthase with a minimum number of rationally predicted substitutions, while identification of the Asn side chain essential for water activation introduced 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol activity to Salvia pomifera sabinene synthase. A major contribution to product specificity in Sf-CinS1 appears to come from a local deformation within one of the helices forming the active site. This deformation is observed in all other mono- or sesquiterpene structures available, pointing to a conserved mechanism. Moreover, a single amino acid substitution enlarged the active-site cavity enough to accommodate the larger farnesyl pyrophosphate substrate and led to the efficient synthesis of sesquiterpenes, while alternate single substitutions of this critical amino acid yielded five additional terpene synthases.

  10. Cloning and Characterization of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase from Mouse Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiao-Wen; Cho, Hearn J.; Calaycay, Jimmy; Mumford, Richard A.; Swiderek, Kristine M.; Lee, Terry D.; Ding, Aihao; Troso, Tiffany; Nathan, Carl

    1992-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) conveys a variety of messages between cells, including signals for vasorelaxation, neurotransmission, and cytotoxicity. In some endothelial cells and neurons, a constitutive NO synthase is activated transiently by agonists that elevate intracellular calcium concentrations and promote the binding of calmodulin. In contrast, in macrophages, NO synthase activity appears slowly after exposure of the cells to cytokines and bacterial products, is sustained, and functions independently of calcium and calmodulin. A monospecific antibody was used to clone complementary DNA that encoded two isoforms of NO synthase from immunologically activated mouse macrophages. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to confirm most of the amino acid sequence. Macrophage NO synthase differs extensively from cerebellar NO synthase. The macrophage enzyme is immunologically induced at the transcriptional level and closely resembles the enzyme in cytokine-treated tumor cells and inflammatory neutrophils.

  11. Molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of (E)-beta farnesene synthase from Citrus junos.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, T; Ito, M; Honda, G

    2001-10-01

    We cloned the gene of the acyclic sesquiterpene synthase, (E)-beta-farnesene synthase (CJFS) from Yuzu (Citrus junos, Rutaceae). The function of CJFS was elucidated by the preparation of recombinant protein and subsequent enzyme assay. CJFS consisted of 1867 nucleotides including 1680 bp of coding sequence encoding a protein of 560 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence possessed characteristic amino acid residues, such as the DDxxD motif, which are highly conserved among terpene synthases. This is the first report of the cloning of a terpene synthase from a Rutaceous plant. A possible reaction mechanism for terpene biosynthesis is also discussed on the basis of sequence comparison of CJFS with known sesquiterpene synthase genes.

  12. Expression, crystallization and structure elucidation of γ-terpinene synthase from Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kristin; Parthier, Christoph; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Geiger, Daniel; Muller, Yves A; Kreis, Wolfgang; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of γ-terpinene, a precursor of the phenolic isomers thymol and carvacrol found in the essential oil from Thymus sp., is attributed to the activitiy of γ-terpinene synthase (TPS). Purified γ-terpinene synthase from T. vulgaris (TvTPS), the Thymus species that is the most widely spread and of the greatest economical importance, is able to catalyze the enzymatic conversion of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to γ-terpinene. The crystal structure of recombinantly expressed and purified TvTPS is reported at 1.65 Å resolution, confirming the dimeric structure of the enzyme. The putative active site of TvTPS is deduced from its pronounced structural similarity to enzymes from other species of the Lamiaceae family involved in terpenoid biosynthesis: to (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase and 1,8-cineole synthase from Salvia sp. and to (4S)-limonene synthase from Mentha spicata.

  13. Evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Phalaenopsis orchids and other monocotyledons: identification of deoxyhypusine synthase, homospermidine synthase and related pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Nurhayati, Niknik; Gondé, Daniela; Ober, Dietrich

    2009-03-01

    In order to study the evolution of pathways of plant secondary metabolism, we use the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as a model system. PAs are regarded as part of the plant's constitutive defense against herbivores. Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis. The gene encoding HSS has been recruited from the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) from primary metabolism at least four times independently during angiosperm evolution. One of these recruitment occurred within the monocot lineage. We have used the PA-producing orchid Phalaenopsis to identify the cDNAs encoding HSS, DHS and the substrate protein for DHS, i.e., the precursor of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. A cDNA identified from maize was unequivocally characterized as DHS. From our study of Phalaenopsis, several pseudogenes emerged, of which one was shown to be a "processed pseudogene", and others to be transcribed. Sequence comparison of the HSS- and DHS-encoding sequences from this investigation with those of monocot species taken from the databases suggest that HSS and probably the ability to produce PAs is an old feature within the monocot lineage. This result is discussed with respect to the recent discovery of structural related PAs within grasses.

  14. A gene from the cellulose synthase-like C family encodes a β-1,4 glucan synthase

    PubMed Central

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Lerouxel, Olivier; Drakakaki, Georgia; Alonso, Ana P.; Liepman, Aaron H.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Raikhel, Natasha; Wilkerson, Curtis G.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the central role of xyloglucan (XyG) in plant cell wall structure and function, important details of its biosynthesis are not understood. To identify the gene(s) responsible for synthesizing the β-1,4 glucan backbone of XyG, we exploited a property of nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seed development. During the last stages of nasturtium seed maturation, a large amount of XyG is deposited as a reserve polysaccharide. A cDNA library was produced from mRNA isolated during the deposition of XyG, and partial sequences of 10,000 cDNA clones were determined. A single member of the C subfamily from the large family of cellulose synthase-like (CSL) genes was found to be overrepresented in the cDNA library. Heterologous expression of this gene in the yeast Pichia pastoris resulted in the production of a β-1,4 glucan, confirming that the CSLC protein has glucan synthase activity. The Arabidopsis CSLC4 gene, which is the gene with the highest sequence similarity to the nasturtium CSL gene, is coordinately expressed with other genes involved in XyG biosynthesis. These and other observations provide a compelling case that the CSLC gene family encode proteins that synthesize the XyG backbone. PMID:17488821

  15. Functional contribution of chorismate synthase, anthranilate synthase, and chorismate mutase to penetration resistance in barley-powdery mildew interactions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pingsha; Meng, Yan; Wise, Roger P

    2009-03-01

    Plant processes resulting from primary or secondary metabolism have been hypothesized to contribute to defense against microbial attack. Barley chorismate synthase (HvCS), anthranilate synthase alpha subunit 2 (HvASa2), and chorismate mutase 1 (HvCM1) occupy pivotal branch points downstream of the shikimate pathway leading to the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. Here, we provide functional evidence that these genes contribute to penetration resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Single-cell transient-induced gene silencing of HvCS and HvCM1 in mildew resistance locus a (Mla) compromised cells resulted in increased susceptibility. Correspondingly, overexpression of HvCS, HvASa2, and HvCM1 in lines carrying mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), a negative regulator of penetration resistance, significantly decreased susceptibility. Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of HvCS, HvASa2, and HvCM1 significantly increased B. graminis f. sp. hordei penetration into epidermal cells, followed by formation of haustoria and secondary hyphae. However, sporulation of B. graminis f. sp. hordei was not detected on the silenced host plants up to 3 weeks after inoculation. Taken together, these results establish a previously unrecognized role for the influence of HvCS, HvASa2, and HvCM1 on penetration resistance and on the rate of B. graminis f. sp. hordei development in Mla-mediated, barley-powdery mildew interactions.

  16. Interaction between DAHP synthase and chorismate mutase endows new regulation on DAHP synthase activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan-Pan; Li, De-Feng; Liu, Di; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liu, Chang; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Previous research on Corynebacterium glutamicum revealed that 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DSCg, formerly DS2098) interacts with chorismate mutase (CMCg, formerly CM0819). In this study, we investigated the interaction by means of structure-guided mutation and enzymatic assays. Our results show that the interaction imparted a new mechanism for regulation of DAHP activity: In the absence of CMCg, DSCg activity was not regulated by prephenate, whereas in the presence of CMCg, prephenate markedly inhibited DSCg activity. Prephenate competed with the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate, and the inhibition constant (K i) was determined to be 0.945 mM. Modeling based on the structure of the complex formed between DAHP synthase and chorismate mutase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis predicted the interaction surfaces of the putative DSCg-CMCg complex. The amino acid residues and structural domains that contributed to the interaction surfaces were experimentally identified to be the (212)SPAGARYE(219) sequence of DSCg and the (60)SGGTR(64) loop and C-terminus ((97)RGKLG(101)) of CMCg.

  17. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  18. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  19. Functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase in the Salvia miltiorrhiza gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Tong, Yuru; Cheng, Qiqing; Hu, Yating; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Jian; Teng, Zhongqiu; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2016-03-14

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine for its roots and rhizomes. Its bioactive diterpenoid tanshinones have been reported to have many pharmaceutical activities, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Previous studies found four different diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways from the universal diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) in S. miltiorrhiza. Here, we describe the functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SmCPSent), kaurene synthase (SmKS) and kaurene oxidase (SmKO) in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway. SmCPSent catalyzes the cyclization of GGPP to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), which is converted to ent-kaurene by SmKS. Then, SmKO catalyzes the three-step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. Our results show that the fused enzyme SmKS-SmCPSent increases ent-kaurene production by several fold compared with separate expression of SmCPSent and SmKS in yeast strains. In this study, we clarify the GA biosynthetic pathway from GGPP to ent-kaurenoic acid and provide a foundation for further characterization of the subsequent enzymes involved in this pathway. These insights may allow for better growth and the improved accumulation of bioactive tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza through the regulation of the expression of these genes during developmental processes.

  20. Functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase in the Salvia miltiorrhiza gibberellin biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ping; Tong, Yuru; Cheng, Qiqing; Hu, Yating; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Jian; Teng, Zhongqiu; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine for its roots and rhizomes. Its bioactive diterpenoid tanshinones have been reported to have many pharmaceutical activities, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Previous studies found four different diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways from the universal diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) in S. miltiorrhiza. Here, we describe the functional characterization of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SmCPSent), kaurene synthase (SmKS) and kaurene oxidase (SmKO) in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway. SmCPSent catalyzes the cyclization of GGPP to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), which is converted to ent-kaurene by SmKS. Then, SmKO catalyzes the three-step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. Our results show that the fused enzyme SmKS-SmCPSent increases ent-kaurene production by several fold compared with separate expression of SmCPSent and SmKS in yeast strains. In this study, we clarify the GA biosynthetic pathway from GGPP to ent-kaurenoic acid and provide a foundation for further characterization of the subsequent enzymes involved in this pathway. These insights may allow for better growth and the improved accumulation of bioactive tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza through the regulation of the expression of these genes during developmental processes. PMID:26971881

  1. Characterization and localization of phosphatidylglycerophosphate and phosphatidylserine synthases in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, C W; Steiner, F X; Carman, G M; Niederman, R A

    1989-01-01

    Catalytic properties and membrane associations of the phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) and phosphatidylserine (PS) synthases of Rhodobacter sphaeroides were examined to further characterize sites of phospholipid biosynthesis. In preparations of cytoplasmic membrane (CM) enriched in these activities, apparent Km values of PGP synthase were 90 microM for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and 60 microM for CDP-diacylglycerol; the apparent Km of PS synthase for L-serine was near 165 microM. Both enzymes required Triton X-100 with optimal PS synthase activity at a detergent/CDP-diacylglycerol (mol/mol) ratio of 7.5:1.0, while for optimal PGP synthase, a range of 10-50:1.0 was observed. Unlike the enzyme in Escherichia coli and several other Gram-negative bacteria, the PS synthase activity had a specific requirement for magnesium and was tightly associated with membranes rather than ribosomes in crude cell extracts. Sedimentation studies suggested that the PGP synthase was distributed uniformly over the CM in both chemoheterotrophically and photoheterotrophically grown cells, while the PS synthase was confined mainly to a vesicular CM fraction. Solubilized PGP synthase activity migrated as a single band with a pI value near 5.5 in a chromato-focusing column and 5.8 on isoelectric focusing; in the latter procedure, the pI was shifted to 5.3 in the presence of CDP-diacylglycerol. The PGP synthase activity gave rise to a single polypeptide band in lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 4 degrees C.

  2. Crystal structures capture three states in the catalytic cycle of a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) synthase.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amber Marie; Brown, William Clay; Harms, Etti; Smith, Janet L

    2015-02-27

    PLP synthase (PLPS) is a remarkable single-enzyme biosynthetic pathway that produces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) from glutamine, ribose 5-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The intact enzyme includes 12 synthase and 12 glutaminase subunits. PLP synthesis occurs in the synthase active site by a complicated mechanism involving at least two covalent intermediates at a catalytic lysine. The first intermediate forms with ribose 5-phosphate. The glutaminase subunit is a glutamine amidotransferase that hydrolyzes glutamine and channels ammonia to the synthase active site. Ammonia attack on the first covalent intermediate forms the second intermediate. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reacts with the second intermediate to form PLP. To investigate the mechanism of the synthase subunit, crystal structures were obtained for three intermediate states of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus intact PLPS or its synthase subunit. The structures capture the synthase active site at three distinct steps in its complicated catalytic cycle, provide insights into the elusive mechanism, and illustrate the coordinated motions within the synthase subunit that separate the catalytic states. In the intact PLPS with a Michaelis-like intermediate in the glutaminase active site, the first covalent intermediate of the synthase is fully sequestered within the enzyme by the ordering of a generally disordered 20-residue C-terminal tail. Following addition of ammonia, the synthase active site opens and admits the Lys-149 side chain, which participates in formation of the second intermediate and PLP. Roles are identified for conserved Asp-24 in the formation of the first intermediate and for conserved Arg-147 in the conversion of the first to the second intermediate.

  3. Protons, the thylakoid membrane, and the chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, W

    1989-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic theory, proton pumps and ATP synthases are coupled by lateral proton flow through aqueous phases. Three long-standing challenges to this concept, all of which have been loosely subsumed under 'localized coupling' in the literature, were examined in the light of experiments carried out with thylakoids: (1) Nearest neighbor interaction between pumps and ATP synthases. Considering the large distances between photosystem II and CFoCF1, in stacked thylakoids this is a priori absent. (2) Enhanced proton diffusion along the surface of the membrane. This could not be substantiated for the outer side of the thylakoid membrane. Even for the interface between pure lipid and water, two laboratories have reported the absence of enhanced diffusion. (3) Localized proton ducts in the membrane. Intramembrane domains that can transiently trap protons do exist in thylakoid membranes, but because of their limited storage capacity for protons, they probably do not matter for photophosphorylation under continuous light. Seemingly in favor of localized proton ducts is the failure of a supposedly permeant buffer to enhance the onset lag of photophosphorylation. However, it was found that failure of some buffers and the ability of others in this respect were correlated with their failure/ability to quench pH transients in the thylakoid lumen, as predicted by the chemiosmotic theory. It was shown that the chemiosmotic concept is a fair approximation, even for narrow aqueous phases, as in stacked thylakoids. These are approximately isopotential, and protons are taken in by the ATP synthase straight from the lumen. The molecular mechanism by which F0F1 ATPases couple proton flow to ATP synthesis is still unknown. The threefold structural symmetry of the headpiece that, probably, finds a corollary in the channel portion of these enzymes appeals to the common wisdom that structural symmetry causes functional symmetry. "Rotation catalysis" has been proposed. It is

  4. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3)-Targeted Therapy and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Mukesh K.; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with various key biological processes, including glucose regulation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, cell signaling, cellular transport, gene transcription, proliferation, and intracellular communication. Accordingly, GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and specifically targeted for both therapeutic and imaging applications by a large number of academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we review the structure, function, expression levels, and ligand-binding properties of GSK-3 and its connection to various diseases. A selected list of highly potent GSK-3 inhibitors, with IC50 <20 nM for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive inhibitors and IC50 <5 μM for non-ATP-competitive inhibitors, were analyzed for structure activity relationships. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of GSK-3 and its possible impact on therapy and imaging are also highlighted. Finally, a rational perspective and possible route to selective and effective GSK-3 inhibitors is discussed. PMID:26941849

  5. Catalysis and Sulfa Drug Resistance in Dihydropteroate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M. Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Lee, Richard E.; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W.

    2013-04-08

    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S{sub N}1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  6. The Interplay between Myc and CTP Synthase in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Gabriel N.; Grice, Stuart J.; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    CTP synthase (CTPsyn) is essential for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. It has been shown that CTPsyn is incorporated into a novel cytoplasmic structure which has been termed the cytoophidium. Here, we report that Myc regulates cytoophidium formation during Drosophila oogenesis. We have found that Myc protein levels correlate with cytoophidium abundance in follicle epithelia. Reducing Myc levels results in cytoophidium loss and small nuclear size in follicle cells, while overexpression of Myc increases the length of cytoophidia and the nuclear size of follicle cells. Ectopic expression of Myc induces cytoophidium formation in late stage follicle cells. Furthermore, knock-down of CTPsyn is sufficient to suppress the overgrowth phenotype induced by Myc overexpression, suggesting CTPsyn acts downstream of Myc and is required for Myc-mediated cell size control. Taken together, our data suggest a functional link between Myc, a renowned oncogene, and the essential nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme CTPsyn. PMID:26889675

  7. Catalysis and sulfa drug resistance in dihydropteroate synthase.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M; Lee, Richard E; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W

    2012-03-02

    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S(N)1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  8. Dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations in Pneumocystis and sulfa resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina; Atzori, Chiara; Benfield, Thomas; Miller, Robert; Rabodonirina, Meja; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik

    2004-10-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of illness and death in HIV-infected persons. Sulfa drugs, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and dapsone are mainstays of PCP treatment and prophylaxis. While prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of PCP, its use has raised concerns about development of resistant organisms. The inability to culture human Pneumocystis, Pneumocystis jirovecii, in a standardized culture system prevents routine susceptibility testing and detection of drug resistance. In other microorganisms, sulfa drug resistance has resulted from specific point mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Similar mutations have been observed in P. jirovecii. Studies have consistently demonstrated a significant association between the use of sulfa drugs for PCP prophylaxis and DHPS gene mutations. Whether these mutations confer resistance to TMP-SMX or dapsone plus trimethoprim for PCP treatment remains unclear. We review studies of DHPS mutations in P. jirovecii and summarize the evidence for resistance to sulfamethoxazole and dapsone.

  9. Sulfa use, dihydropteroate synthase mutations, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cheryl R; Poole, Charles; Kazanjian, Powel; Meshnick, Steven R

    2004-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the associations in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) patients between dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutations and sulfa or sulfone (sulfa) prophylaxis and between DHPS mutations and sulfa treatment outcome. Selection criteria included study populations composed entirely of PCP patients and mutation or treatment outcome results for all patients, regardless of exposure status. Based on 13 studies, the risk of developing DHPS mutations is higher for PCP patients receiving sulfa prophylaxis than for PCP patients not receiving sulfa prophylaxis (p < 0.001). Results are too heterogeneous (p < 0.001) to warrant a single summary effect estimate. Estimated effects are weaker after 1996 and stronger in studies that included multiple isolates per patient. Five studies examined treatment outcome. The effect of DHPS mutations on treatment outcome has not been well studied, and the few studies that have been conducted are inconsistent even as to the presence or absence of an association.

  10. Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 Is Essential for Male Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scherthan, Harry; Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Ford, Steven J.; Burton, Neal C.; Razansky, Daniel; Trümbach, Dietrich; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Tobias; Floss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids and the derived gangliosides have critical functions in spermatogenesis, thus mutations in genes involved in sphingolipid biogenesis are often associated with male infertility. We have generated a transgenic mouse line carrying an insertion in the sphingomyelin synthase gene Sms1, the enzyme which generates sphingomyelin species in the Golgi apparatus. We describe the spermatogenesis defect of Sms1-/- mice, which is characterized by sloughing of spermatocytes and spermatids, causing progressive infertility of male homozygotes. Lipid profiling revealed a reduction in several long chain unsaturated phosphatidylcholins, lysophosphatidylcholins and sphingolipids in the testes of mutants. Multi-Spectral Optoacoustic Tomography indicated blood-testis barrier dysfunction. A supplementary diet of the essential omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid diminished germ cell sloughing from the seminiferous epithelium and restored spermatogenesis and fertility in 50% of previously infertile mutants. Our findings indicate that SMS1 has a wider than anticipated role in testis polyunsaturated fatty acid homeostasis and for male fertility. PMID:27788151

  11. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232

  12. Structure-function analyses of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Noel, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) form a superfamily of biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of a plethora of polyketide-derived natural products important for ecological adaptations and the fitness of land plants. Moreover, tremendous interest in bioengineering of type III PKSs to produce high-value compounds is increasing. Compared to type I and type II PKSs, which form either large modular protein complexes or dissociable molecular assemblies, type III PKSs exist as smaller homodimeric proteins, technically more amenable for detailed quantitative biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. In this chapter, we summarize a collection of approaches, including bioinformatics, genetics, protein crystallography, in vitro biochemistry, and mutagenesis, together affording a comprehensive interrogation of the structure-function-evolutionary relationships in the plant type III PKS family.

  13. Natural and engineered production of taxadiene with taxadiene synthase.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh; Tang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Taxadiene synthase (TXS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of paclitaxel, an important anticancer compound. TXS catalyzes the conversion of the diterpene precursor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) into the diterpene taxadiene. Due to the importance of taxadiene in the overall biosynthetic pathway of paclitaxel biosynthesis, the enzyme TXS has been the subject of intense scientific and engineering investigations. The crystal structure of TXS was recently elucidated, thereby providing an atomic blueprint for future protein engineering efforts. Metabolic engineering of TXS for taxadiene product in different microbial and plant organisms have also been extensively performed, culminating in the high-titer production in Escherichia coli. Additional aspects of taxadiene production by TXS will be discussed in the review, including metabolic regulation in native host and possible production by endophytic fungal hosts.

  14. Nitric oxide synthase in plants: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Santolini, Jérôme; André, François; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Wendehenne, David

    2017-02-28

    Over the past twenty years, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important player in various plant physiological processes. Although many advances in the understanding of NO functions have been made, the question of how NO is produced in plants is still challenging. It is now generally accepted that the endogenous production of NO is mainly accomplished through the reduction of nitrite via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms which remain to be fully characterized. Furthermore, experimental arguments in favour of the existence of plant nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzymes have been reported. However, recent investigations revealed that land plants do not possess animal NOS-like enzymes while few algal species do. Phylogenetic and structural analyses reveals interesting features specific to algal NOS-like proteins.

  15. Commercial Herbicides Can Trigger the Oxidative Inactivation of Acetohydroxyacid Synthase.

    PubMed

    Lonhienne, Thierry; Nouwens, Amanda; Williams, Craig M; Fraser, James A; Lee, Yu-Ting; West, Nicholas P; Guddat, Luke W

    2016-03-18

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitors are highly successful commercial herbicides. New kinetic data show that the binding of these compounds leads to reversible accumulative inhibition of AHAS. Crystallographic data (to a resolution of 2.17 Å) for an AHAS-herbicide complex shows that closure of the active site occurs when the herbicidal inhibitor binds, thus preventing exchange with solvent. This feature combined with new kinetic data shows that molecular oxygen promotes an accumulative inhibition leading to the conclusion that the exceptional potency of these herbicides is augmented by subversion of an inherent oxygenase side reaction. The reactive oxygen species produced by this reaction are trapped in the active site, triggering oxidation reactions that ultimately lead to the alteration of the redox state of the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a feature that accounts for the observed reversible accumulative inhibition.

  16. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

  17. Plant diterpene synthases: exploring modularity and metabolic diversity for bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Plants produce thousands of diterpenoid natural products; some of which are of significant industrial value as biobased pharmaceuticals (taxol), fragrances (sclareol), food additives (steviosides), and commodity chemicals (diterpene resin acids). In nature, diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes are essential for generating diverse diterpene hydrocarbon scaffolds. While some diTPSs also form oxygenated compounds, more commonly, oxygenation is achieved by cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenases. Recent genome-, transcriptome-, and metabolome-guided gene discovery and enzyme characterization identified novel diTPS functions that form the core of complex modular pathway systems. Insights into diterpene metabolism may translate into the development of new bioengineered microbial and plant-based production systems.

  18. Human blood platelets lack nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reports on expression and functionality of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in human blood platelets and erythrocytes are contradictory. We used a specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect NOS activity in human platelets. The method measures simultaneously [(15)N]nitrite and [(15)N]nitrate formed from oxidized (15)N-labeled nitric oxide ((15)NO) upon its NOS-catalyzed formation from the substrate l-[guanidino-(15)N2]-arginine. Using this GC-MS assay, we did not detect functional NOS in non-stimulated platelets and in intact platelets activated by various agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin, or von Willebrand factor) or lysed platelets. l-[guanidino-nitro]-Arginine-inhibitable NOS activity was measured after addition of recombinant human endothelial NOS to lysed platelets. Previous and recent studies from our group challenge expression and functionality of NOS in human platelets and erythrocytes.

  19. Nonribosomal peptide synthesis in animals: the cyclodipeptide synthase of Nematostella.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Jérôme; Moutiez, Mireille; Li, Yan; Belin, Pascal; Lecoq, Alain; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Gondry, Muriel

    2011-11-23

    Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) are small enzymes structurally related to class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). They divert aminoacylated tRNAs from their canonical role in ribosomal protein synthesis, for cyclodipeptide formation. All the CDPSs experimentally characterized to date are bacterial. We show here that a predicted CDPS from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an active CDPS catalyzing the formation of various cyclodipeptides, preferentially containing tryptophan. Our findings demonstrate that eukaryotes encode active CDPSs and suggest that all CDPSs have a similar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like architecture and ping-pong mechanism. They also raise questions about the biological roles of the cyclodipeptides produced in bacteria and eukaryotes.

  20. CTP Synthase Is Required for Optic Lobe Homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tastan, Ömür Y.; Liu, Ji-Long

    2015-01-01

    CTP synthase (CTPsyn) is a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP. Several recent studies have shown that CTPsyn forms filamentous subcellular structures known as cytoophidia in bacteria, yeast, fruit flies and humans. However, it remains elusive whether and how CTPsyn and cytoophidia play a role during development. Here, we show that cytoophidia are abundant in the neuroepithelial stem cells in Drosophila optic lobes. Optic lobes are underdeveloped in CTPsyn mutants as well as in CTPsyn RNAi. Moreover, overexpressing CTPsyn impairs the development of optic lobes, specifically by blocking the transition from neuroepithelium to neuroblast. Taken together, our results indicate that CTPsyn is critical for optic lobe homeostasis in Drosophila. PMID:26059773

  1. Structural Studies of Pterin-Based Inhibitors of Dihydropteroate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Hevener, Kirk E.; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Qi, Jianjun; Kerr, Iain D.; Babaoglu, Kerim; Hurdle, Julian G.; Balakrishna, Kanya; White, Stephan W.; Lee, Richard E.

    2010-01-12

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is a key enzyme in bacterial folate synthesis and the target of the sulfonamide class of antibacterials. Resistance and toxicities associated with sulfonamides have led to a decrease in their clinical use. Compounds that bind to the pterin binding site of DHPS, as opposed to the p-amino benzoic acid (pABA) binding site targeted by the sulfonamide agents, are anticipated to bypass sulfonamide resistance. To identify such inhibitors and map the pterin binding pocket, we have performed virtual screening, synthetic, and structural studies using Bacillus anthracis DHPS. Several compounds with inhibitory activity have been identified, and crystal structures have been determined that show how the compounds engage the pterin site. The structural studies identify the key binding elements and have been used to generate a structure-activity based pharmacophore map that will facilitate the development of the next generation of DHPS inhibitors which specifically target the pterin site.

  2. The chloroplast ATP synthase: structural changes during catalysis.

    PubMed

    Richter, M L; Gao, F

    1996-10-01

    This article summarizes some of the evidence for the existence of light-driven structural changes in the epsilon and gamma subunits of the chloroplast ATP synthase. Formation of a transmembrane proton gradient results in: (1) a changed in the position of the epsilon subunit such that it becomes exposed to polyclonal antibodies and to reagents which selectively modify epsilon Lys109; (2) enhanced solvent accessibility of several sulfhydryl residues on the gamma subunit; and (3) release/exchange of tightly bound ADP from the enzyme. Theses and related experimental observations can, at least partially, be explained in terms of two different bound conformational states of the epsilon subunit. Evidence for structural changes in the enzyme which are driven by light or nucleotide binding is discussed with special reference to the popular rotational model for catalysis.

  3. Hyperactivity: glycogen synthase kinase-3 as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Mines, Marjelo A

    2013-05-15

    The diagnosis of hyperactivity-associated disorders has increased within the past few years. The prevalence of hyperactivity-associated disorders is indicative of the need to more fully understand the underlying causes and to develop improved therapeutic interventions. There is increasing evidence that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) mediates locomotor hyperactivity in a number of animal models, and therefore may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hyperactivity-associated behaviors. In this review, we discuss 1) the effect of manipulations of GSK3 in the absence of drugs and disorders on locomotor activity, 2) the role of GSK3 in drug-induced hyperactivity in rodents, and 3) regulation of locomotor activity by GSK3 in transgenic mouse models related to specific disorders. These studies link GSK3 regulation and activity to hyperactivity-associated behaviors and disease pathologies.

  4. Existence of nitric oxide synthase in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, B; Schweizer, F E; Ryan, T A; Nakane, M; Murad, F; Scheller, R H; Tsien, R W

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that nitric oxide (NO) serves as a key retrograde messenger during long-term potentiation at hippocampal synapses, linking induction of long-term potentiation in postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal cells to expression of long-term potentiation in presynaptic nerve terminals. However, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the proposed NO-generating enzyme, has not yet been detected in the appropriate postsynaptic cells. We here demonstrate specific NOS immunoreactivity in the CA1 region of hippocampal sections by using an antibody specific for NOS type I and relatively gentle methods of fixation. NOS immunoreactivity was found in dendrites and cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells also displayed specific immunostaining. Control experiments showed no staining with preimmune serum or immune serum that was blocked with purified NOS. These results demonstrate that CA1 pyramidal cells contain NOS, as required were NO involved in retrograde signaling during hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Images PMID:7510887

  5. Leishmania donovani Encodes a Functional Selenocysteinyl-tRNA Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Manhas, Reetika; Gowri, Venkatraman Subramanian; Madhubala, Rentala

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid, occurs on its transfer RNA (tRNA), tRNASec. tRNASec is initially aminoacylated with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase and the resulting seryl moiety is converted to phosphoserine by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase (PSTK) in eukaryotes. The selenium donor, selenophosphate is synthesized from selenide and ATP by selenophosphate synthetase. Selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) then uses the O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec and selenophosphate to form Sec-tRNASec in eukaryotes. Here, we report the characterization of selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase from Leishmania donovani. Kinetoplastid SepSecS enzymes are phylogenetically closer to worm SepSecS. LdSepSecS was found to exist as a tetramer. Leishmania SepSecS enzyme was found to be active and able to complement the ΔselA deletion in Escherichia coli JS1 strain only in the presence of archaeal PSTK, indicating the conserved nature of the PSTK-SepSecS pathway. LdSepSecS was found to localize in the cytoplasm of the parasite. Gene deletion studies indicate that Leishmania SepSecS is dispensable for the parasite survival. The parasite was found to encode three selenoproteins, which were only expressed in the presence of SepSecS. Selenoproteins of L. donovani are not required for the growth of the promastigotes. Auranofin, a known inhibitor of selenoprotein synthesis showed the same sensitivity toward the wild-type and null mutants suggesting its effect is not through binding to selenoproteins. The three-dimensional structural comparison indicates that human and Leishmania homologs are structurally highly similar but their association modes leading to tetramerization seem different. PMID:26586914

  6. The evolution of function in strictosidine synthase-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Michael A; Barber, Alan E; Giddings, Lesley-Ann; Caldwell, Jenna; O'Connor, Sarah E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2011-11-01

    The exponential growth of sequence data provides abundant information for the discovery of new enzyme reactions. Correctly annotating the functions of highly diverse proteins can be difficult, however, hindering use of this information. Global analysis of large superfamilies of related proteins is a powerful strategy for understanding the evolution of reactions by identifying catalytic commonalities and differences in reaction and substrate specificity, even when only a few members have been biochemically or structurally characterized. A comparison of >2500 sequences sharing the six-bladed β-propeller fold establishes sequence, structural, and functional links among the three subgroups of the functionally diverse N6P superfamily: the arylesterase-like and senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase/luciferin-regenerating enzyme-like (SGL) subgroups, representing enzymes that catalyze lactonase and related hydrolytic reactions, and the so-called strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) subgroup. Metal-coordinating residues were identified as broadly conserved in the active sites of all three subgroups except for a few proteins from the SSL subgroup, which have been experimentally determined to catalyze the quite different strictosidine synthase (SS) reaction, a metal-independent condensation reaction. Despite these differences, comparison of conserved catalytic features of the arylesterase-like and SGL enzymes with the SSs identified similar structural and mechanistic attributes between the hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by the former and the condensation reaction catalyzed by SS. The results also suggest that despite their annotations, the great majority of these >500 SSL sequences do not catalyze the SS reaction; rather, they likely catalyze hydrolytic reactions typical of the other two subgroups instead. This prediction was confirmed experimentally for one of these proteins.

  7. New insight into the catalytic properties of rice sucrose synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chiao; Hsiang, Erh-Chieh; Yang, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuS), which catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and uridine diphosphate (UDP) into fructose and UDP-glucose, is a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in higher plants. SuS belongs to family 4 of the glycosyltransferases (GT4) and contains an E-X7-E motif that is conserved in members of GT4 and two other GT families. To gain insight into the roles of this motif in rice sucrose synthase 3 (RSuS3), the two conserved glutamate residues (E678 and E686) in this motif and a phenylalanine residue (F680) that resides between the two glutamate residues were changed by site-directed mutagenesis. All mutant proteins maintained their tetrameric conformation. The mutants E686D and F680Y retained partial enzymatic activity and the mutants E678D, E678Q, F680S, and E686Q were inactive. Substrate binding assays indicated that UDP and fructose, respectively, were the leading substrates in the sucrose degradation and synthesis reactions of RSuS3. Mutations on E678, F680, and E686 affected the binding of fructose, but not of UDP. The results indicated that E678, F680, and E686 in the E-X7-E motif of RSuS3 are essential for the activity of the enzyme and the sequential binding of substrates. The sequential binding of the substrates implied that the reaction catalyzed by RSuS can be controlled by the availability of fructose and UDP, depending on the metabolic status of a tissue.

  8. Novel Nuclear Localization of Fatty Acid Synthase Correlates with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Allison A.; Rycyna, Kevin J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Datiri, Yeipyeng J.; Basudan, Ahmed M.; Sobek, Kathryn M.; Cummings, Jessica L.; Basse, Per H.; Bacich, Dean J.; O'Keefe, Denise S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase not only increases production of fatty acids in tumors but also contributes to the transformed phenotype by conferring growth and survival advantages. In addition, increased fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer correlates with poor prognosis, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are not completely understood. Because fatty acid synthase is expressed at low levels in normal cells, it is currently a major target for anticancer drug design. Fatty acid synthase is normally found in the cytosol; however, we have discovered that it also localizes to the nucleus in a subset of prostate cancer cells. Analysis of the fatty acid synthase protein sequence indicated the presence of a nuclear localization signal, and subcellular fractionation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of patient prostate tumor tissue and LNCaPs confirmed nuclear localization of this protein. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of prostate cancer tissue indicated that nuclear localization of fatty acid synthase correlates with Gleason grade, implicating a potentially novel role in prostate cancer progression. Possible clinical implications include improving the accuracy of prostate biopsies in the diagnosis of low- versus intermediate-risk prostate cancer and the uncovering of novel metabolic pathways for the therapeutic targeting of androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:24907642

  9. ATP synthase: a molecular therapeutic drug target for antimicrobial and antitumor peptides.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Okafor, Florence; Azim, Sofiya; Laughlin, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss the role of ATP synthase as a molecular drug target for natural and synthetic antimicrobial/ antitumor peptides. We start with an introduction of the universal nature of the ATP synthase enzyme and its role as a biological nanomotor. Significant structural features required for catalytic activity and motor functions of ATP synthase are described. Relevant details regarding the presence of ATP synthase on the surface of several animal cell types, where it is associated with multiple cellular processes making it a potential drug target with respect to antimicrobial peptides and other inhibitors such as dietary polyphenols, is also reviewed. ATP synthase is known to have about twelve discrete inhibitor binding sites including peptides and other inhibitors located at the interface of α/β subunits on the F(1) sector of the enzyme. Molecular interaction of peptides at the β DEELSEED site on ATP synthase is discussed with specific examples. An inhibitory effect of other natural/synthetic inhibitors on ATP is highlighted to explore the therapeutic roles played by peptides and other inhibitors. Lastly, the effect of peptides on the inhibition of the Escherichia coli model system through their action on ATP synthase is presented.

  10. Functional Characterization of Novel Sesquiterpene Synthases from Indian Sandalwood, Santalum album

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Daramwar, Pankaj P.; Krithika, Ramakrishnan; Pandreka, Avinash; Shankar, S. Shiva; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.

    2015-01-01

    Indian Sandalwood, Santalum album L. is highly valued for its fragrant heartwood oil and is dominated by a blend of sesquiterpenes. Sesquiterpenes are formed through cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), catalyzed by metal dependent terpene cyclases. This report describes the cloning and functional characterization of five genes, which encode two sesquisabinene synthases (SaSQS1, SaSQS2), bisabolene synthase (SaBS), santalene synthase (SaSS) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (SaFDS) using the transcriptome sequencing of S. album. Using Illumina next generation sequencing, 33.32 million high quality raw reads were generated, which were assembled into 84,094 unigenes with an average length of 494.17 bp. Based on the transcriptome sequencing, five sesquiterpene synthases SaFDS, SaSQS1, SaSQS2, SaBS and SaSS involved in the biosynthesis of FPP, sesquisabinene, β-bisabolene and santalenes, respectively, were cloned and functionally characterized. Novel sesquiterpene synthases (SaSQS1 and SaSQS2) were characterized as isoforms of sesquisabinene synthase with varying kinetic parameters and expression levels. Furthermore, the feasibility of microbial production of sesquisabinene from both the unigenes, SaSQS1 and SaSQS2 in non-optimized bacterial cell for the preparative scale production of sesquisabinene has been demonstrated. These results may pave the way for in vivo production of sandalwood sesquiterpenes in genetically tractable heterologous systems. PMID:25976282

  11. Submitochondrial localization, cell-free synthesis, and mitochondrial import of 2-isopropylmalate synthase of yeast.

    PubMed

    Hampsey, D M; Lewin, A S; Kohlhaw, G B

    1983-03-01

    2-Isopropylmalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.12) of yeast is a mitochondrial enzyme. We now provide evidence showing that a large part of the 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity that is associated with the mitochondria is located in the mitochondrial matrix. In vitro translation of total yeast RNA followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-2-isopropylmalate synthase antibody yields two polypeptides. The larger of these has an apparent molecular weight identical to that of purified 2-isopropylmalate synthase subunit (ca. 65,000). It is incorporated into isolated yeast mitochondria with no detectable change in molecular weight. The import requires energy. The smaller polypeptide migrates to a position corresponding to a molecular weight of 63,000-64,000. It is not taken up by mitochondria. Both polypeptides, which also can be obtained by immunoprecipitation of crude extracts, become labeled when in vitro translation is performed in the presence of N-formyl[35S]methionyl-tRNAf. Mutants with no detectable 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity are deficient in either one or both synthase-related polypeptides. These results are discussed in the light of recent evidence for two 2-isopropylmalate synthase-encoding genes in yeast.

  12. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Neuronal NADPH Diaphorase are Identical in Brain and Peripheral Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Ted M.; Bredt, David S.; Fotuhi, Majid; Hwang, Paul M.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1991-09-01

    NADPH diaphorase staining neurons, uniquely resistant to toxic insults and neurodegenerative disorders, have been colocalized with neurons in the brain and peripheral tissue containing nitric oxide synthase (EC 1.14.23.-), which generates nitric oxide (NO), a recently identified neuronal messenger molecule. In the corpus striatum and cerebral cortex, NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase staining are colocalized in medium to large aspiny neurons. These same neurons colocalize with somatostatin and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity. NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase staining are colocalized in the pedunculopontine nucleus with choline acetyltransferase-containing cells and are also colocalized in amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells of the retina, myenteric plexus neurons of the intestine, and ganglion cells of the adrenal medulla. Transfection of human kidney cells with NO synthase cDNA elicits NADPH diaphorase staining. The ratio of NO synthase to NADPH diaphorase staining in the transfected cells is the same as in neurons, indicating that NO synthase fully accounts for observed NADPH staining. The identity of neuronal NO synthase and NADPH diaphorase suggests a role for NO in modulating neurotoxicity.

  13. Domain loss has independently occurred multiple times in plant terpene synthase evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hillwig, Matthew L.; Xu, Meimei; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tiernan, Mollie S.; Wei, Gao; Cui, Guanghong; Huang, Luqi; Peters, Reuben J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The extensive family of plant terpene synthases (TPSs) generally has a bi-domain structure, yet phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that these evolved from larger diterpene synthases. In particular, that duplication of the diterpene synthase genes required for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis provided an early predecessor, whose loss of a ~220 amino acid “internal sequence element” (now recognized as the γ domain) gave rise to the precursor of modern mono- and sesqui-TPSs found in all higher plants. Intriguingly, TPSs are conserved by taxonomic relationships rather than function, demonstrating that such functional radiation has occurred both repeatedly and relatively recently, yet phylogenetic analyses assume that “internal/γ” domain loss represents a single evolutionary event. Here we provide evidence that such loss was not a singular event, but rather has occurred multiple times. Specifically, we provide an example of a bi-domain diterpene synthase, from Salvia miltiorrhiza, along with a sesquiterpene synthase from Triticum aestivum (wheat) that is not only closely related to diterpene synthases, but retains the ent-kaurene synthase activity relevant to the ancestral gibberellin metabolic function. Indeed, while the wheat sesquiterpene synthase clearly no longer contains the “internal/γ” domain, it is closely related to rice diterpene synthase genes that retain the ancestral tri-domain structure. Thus, these findings provide examples of key evolutionary intermediates underlying the bi-domain structure observed in the expansive plant TPS gene family, as well as indicating that “internal/γ” domain loss has independently occurred multiple times, highlighting the complex evolutionary history of this important enzymatic family. PMID:21999670

  14. F1F0-ATP synthases of alkaliphilic bacteria: lessons from their adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, David B.; Liu, Jun; Fujisawa, Makoto; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the ATP synthases of alkaliphilic bacteria and, in particular, those that successfully overcome the bioenergetic challenges of achieving robust H+-coupled ATP synthesis at external pH values > 10. At such pH values the protonmotive force, which is posited to provide the energetic driving force for ATP synthesis, is too low to account for the ATP synthesis observed. The protonmotive force is lowered at very high pH by the need to maintain a cytoplasmic pH well below the pH outside, which results in an energetically adverse pH gradient. Several anticipated solutions to this bioenergetic conundrum have been ruled out. Although the transmembrane sodium motive force is high under alkaline conditions, respiratory alkaliphilic bacteria do not use Na+-instead of H+-coupled ATP synthases. Nor do they offset the adverse pH gradient with a compensatory increase in the transmembrane electrical potential component of the protonmotive force. Moreover, studies of ATP synthase rotors indicate that alkaliphiles cannot fully resolve the energetic problem by using an ATP synthase with a large number of c-subunits in the synthase rotor ring. Increased attention now focuses on delocalized gradients near the membrane surface and H+ transfers to ATP synthases via membrane-associated microcircuits between the H+ pumping complexes and synthases. Microcircuits likely depend upon proximity of pumps and synthases, specific membrane properties and specific adaptations of the participating enzyme complexes. ATP synthesis in alkaliphiles depends upon alkaliphile-specific adaptations of the ATP synthase and there is also evidence for alkaliphile-specific adaptations of respiratory chain components. PMID:20193659

  15. Critical roles of soluble starch synthase SSIIIa and granule-bound starch synthase Waxy in synthesizing resistant starch in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongju; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Guifu; Meng, Xiangbing; Jing, Yanhui; Shu, Xiaoli; Kong, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Yu, Hong; Smith, Steven M.; Wu, Dianxing; Li, Jiayang

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human lifestyle and food consumption have resulted in a large increase in the incidence of type-2 diabetes, obesity, and colon disease, especially in Asia. These conditions are a growing threat to human health, but consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) can potentially reduce their incidence. Strategies to increase RS in rice are limited by a lack of knowledge of its molecular basis. Through map-based cloning of a RS locus in indica rice, we have identified a defective soluble starch synthase gene (SSIIIa) responsible for RS production and further showed that RS production is dependent on the high expression of the Waxya (Wxa) allele, which is prevalent in indica varieties. The resulting RS has modified granule structure; high amylose, lipid, and amylose–lipid complex; and altered physicochemical properties. This discovery provides an opportunity to increase RS content of cooked rice, especially in the indica varieties, which predominates in southern Asia. PMID:27791174

  16. Phylogenomic analysis of polyketide synthase genes in actinomycetes: structural analysis of KS domains and modules of polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Samreen; Ahmed, Mehboob; Hasnain, Shahida

    2012-01-01

    Polyketides are complex and diverse secondary metabolites, synthesised by large multifunctional enzymes, Polyketide Synthases (PKS). The phylogenomic analysis of β-ketosynthase (KS) domains and PKSs within actinomycetes suggests the contribution of point mutations, gene duplications, horizontal gene transfer and homologous recombination in the evolution of PKSs. PKS genealogy suggested the ancestral module structure with KS-AT-ACP domain composition. KS domains showed similar core and highly variable loop regions at the dimer interface, which seems to affect the selectivity of the primer unit. In PKS modules, the linker regions comprise a significant fraction of the module. The reducing domains (ketoreductase and dehydrogenase) protrude out from the central axis of the module and also responsible for extreme variability in the final products. Thus, phylogenomic and structural analysis of PKSs can assist in the artificial reprogramming of PKSs.

  17. Reduced expression of prostacyclin synthase and nitric oxide synthase in subcutaneous arteries of type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Safiah Mokhtar, Siti; M Vanhoutte, Paul; W S Leung, Susan; Imran Yusof, Mohd; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Azman; Zaharil Mat Saad, Arman; Suppian, Rapeah; Ghulam Rasool, Aida Hanum

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic endothelial dysfunction is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. In this study, we measured the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostacyclin synthase (PGIS), and prostacyclin receptor (IP) in subcutaneous arteries of type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Subcutaneous arteries were dissected from tissues from seven diabetics (4 males and 3 females) and seven non-diabetics (5 males and 2 females) aged between 18 to 65 years, who underwent lower limb surgical procedures. Diabetics had higher fasting blood glucose compared to non-diabetics, but there were no differences in blood pressure, body mass index and age. Patients were excluded if they had uncontrolled hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, renal or hepatic failure and tumor. The relative expression levels of eNOS, COX-1, COX-2, PGIS and IP receptor were determined by Western blotting analysis, normalized with the β-actin level. Increased expression of COX-2 was observed in subcutaneous arteries of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, whereas the expression levels of eNOS and PGIS were significantly lower in diabetics. There were no significant differences in expression levels of COX-1 and IP receptor between the two groups. Immunohistochemical study of subcutaneous arteries showed that the intensities of eNOS and PGIS staining were lower in diabetics, with higher COX-2 staining. In conclusion, type-2 diabetes is associated with higher COX-2 expression, but lower eNOS and PGIS expression in subcutaneous arteries. These alterations may lead to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and thus these proteins may be potential targets for protection against the microvascular complications of diabetes.

  18. The role of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and phytoene synthase gene family in citrus carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Gang; Wang, Chunyan; Song, Song; Fu, Xiumin; Azam, Muhammad; Grierson, Don; Xu, Changjie

    2013-10-01

    Three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthases (DXS) and three phytoene synthases (PSY) were identified in citrus, from Affymetrix GeneChip Citrus Genome Array, GenBank and public orange genome databases. Tissue-specific expression analysis of these genes was carried out on fruit peel and flesh, flower and leaf of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in order to determine their roles in carotenoid accumulation in different tissues. Expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 was highest in all test tissues, while that of CitDXS2 and CitPSY2 was lower, and that of CitDXS3 and CitPSY3 undetectable. The transcript profiles of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 paralleled carotenoid accumulation in flesh of Satsuma mandarin and orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) during fruit development, and CitPSY1 expression was also associated with carotenoid accumulation in peel, while the CitDXS1 transcript level was only weakly correlated with carotenoid accumulation in peel. Similar results were obtained following correlation analysis between expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 and carotenoid accumulation in peel and flesh of 16 citrus cultivars. These findings identify CitPSY1 and CitDXS1 as the main gene members controlling carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruit. Furthermore, chromoplasts were extracted from flesh tissue of these citrus, and chromoplasts of different shape (spindle or globular), different size, and color depth were observed in different cultivars, indicating chromoplast abundance, number per gram tissue, size and color depth were closely correlated with carotenoid content in most cultivars. The relationship between carotenoid biosynthesis and chromoplast development was discussed.

  19. Upregulation of Cysteine Synthase and Cystathionine β-Synthase Contributes to Leishmania braziliensis Survival under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Téllez, Jair; Romanha, Alvaro José; Steindel, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine metabolism is considered essential for the crucial maintenance of a reducing environment in trypanosomatids due to its importance as a precursor of trypanothione biosynthesis. Expression, activity, functional rescue, and overexpression of cysteine synthase (CS) and cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) were evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes under in vitro stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, or antimonial compounds. Our results demonstrate a stage-specific increase in the levels of protein expression and activity of L. braziliensis CS (LbrCS) and L. braziliensis CβS (LbrCβS), resulting in an increment of total thiol levels in response to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. The rescue of the CS activity in Trypanosoma rangeli, a trypanosome that does not perform cysteine biosynthesis de novo, resulted in increased rates of survival of epimastigotes expressing the LbrCS under stress conditions compared to those of wild-type parasites. We also found that the ability of L. braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes overexpressing LbrCS and LbrCβS to resist oxidative stress was significantly enhanced compared to that of nontransfected cells, resulting in a phenotype far more resistant to treatment with the pentavalent form of Sb in vitro. In conclusion, the upregulation of protein expression and increment of the levels of LbrCS and LbrCβS activity alter parasite resistance to antimonials and may influence the efficacy of antimony treatment of New World leishmaniasis. PMID:26033728

  20. Morphine-induced changes in cerebral and cerebellar nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Leza, J C; Lizasoain, I; San-Martín-Clark, O; Lorenzo, P

    1995-10-04

    The effect of acute and chronic morphine treatment on nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity (determined by the rate of conversion of [14C]arginine into [14C]citrulline) on mouse brain was studied. Acute morphine treatment induced an increased in Ca2+ -dependent NO synthase in cerebellum. This effect was blocked by coadministration with naloxone. Chronic morphine treatment (by s.c. pellet) also produced an increase in cerebellar NO synthase, with a maximum on the second day of implantation. No significant changes were found in frontal cortex and forebrain during acute or chronic morphine treatment. The relationship between opiate effects and the L-arginine: NO pathway is discussed.

  1. The fused TrpEG from Streptomyces venezuelae is an anthranilate synthase, not a 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate [corrected] (ADIC) synthase.

    PubMed

    Ashenafi, Meseret; Carrington, Renee; Collins, Alvin C; Byrnes, W Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The chloramphenicol producer Streptomyces venezuelae contains an enzyme, SvTrpEG, that has a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to the phenazine biosynthetic enzyme PhzE of certain species of Pseudomonas. PhzE has the sequence signature of an anthranilate synthase, but recent evidence indicates that it catalyzes the production of 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate [corrected] (ADIC), an intermediate in the two-step anthranilate synthase reaction, not anthranilate. In order to determine if SvTrpEG is likewise an ADIC synthase, we have cloned the gene for SvTrpEG, expressed the recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli, and purified the enzyme. Analysis of the SvTrpEG-catalyzed reaction mixture using UV-visible spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography shows that the product of the reaction is anthranilate, not ADIC. Our results therefore reveal that, despite its sequence similarity to PhzE, SvTrpEG is an anthranilate synthase, not an ADIC synthase.

  2. Impaired Wound Induction of 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) Synthase and Altered Stem Development in Transgenic Potato Plants Expressing a DAHP Synthase Antisense Construct.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. D.; Henstrand, J. M.; Handa, A. K.; Herrmann, K. M.; Weller, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cells were transformed with an antisense DNA construct encoding part of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 4.1.2.15), the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, to examine the role(s) of this protein in plant growth and development. Chimeric DNA constructs contained the transcript start site, the first exon, and part of the first intron of the shkA gene in antisense or sense orientations under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Some, but not all, of the transgenic plants expressing antisense DAHP synthase RNA showed reduced levels of wound-induced DAHP synthase enzyme activity, polypeptide, and mRNA 12 and 24 h after wounding. No alteration in the wound induction of DAHP synthase gene expression was observed in transgenic potato tubers containing the chimeric sense construct. Reduced steady-state levels of DAHP synthase mRNA were observed in stem and shoot tip tissue. Some plants with the chimeric antisense construct had reduced stem length, stem diameter, and reduced stem lignification. PMID:12228551

  3. Fo-driven Rotation in the ATP Synthase Direction against the Force of F1 ATPase in the FoF1 ATP Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James; Hudson, Jennifer; Hornung, Tassilo; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms rely on the FoF1 ATP synthase to maintain the non-equilibrium chemical gradient of ATP to ADP and phosphate that provides the primary energy source for cellular processes. How the Fo motor uses a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient to create clockwise torque that overcomes F1 ATPase-driven counterclockwise torque at high ATP is a major unresolved question. Using single FoF1 molecules embedded in lipid bilayer nanodiscs, we now report the observation of Fo-dependent rotation of the c10 ring in the ATP synthase (clockwise) direction against the counterclockwise force of ATPase-driven rotation that occurs upon formation of a leash with Fo stator subunit a. Mutational studies indicate that the leash is important for ATP synthase activity and support a mechanism in which residues aGlu-196 and cArg-50 participate in the cytoplasmic proton half-channel to promote leash formation. PMID:25713065

  4. Analysis of Two Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    PubMed Central

    Mongiardini, Elías J.; Pérez-Giménez, Julieta; Parisi, Gustavo; Lodeiro, Aníbal R.

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 has five polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaC) annotated in its genome: bll4360 (phaC1), bll6073 (phaC2), blr3732 (phaC3), blr2885 (phaC4), and bll4548 (phaC5). All these proteins possess the catalytic triad and conserved amino acid residues of polyester synthases and are distributed into four different PhaC classes. We obtained mutants in each of these paralogs and analyzed phaC gene expression and PHA production in liquid cultures. Despite the genetic redundancy, only phaC1 and phaC2 were expressed at significant rates, while PHA accumulation in stationary-phase cultures was impaired only in the ΔphaC1 mutant. Meanwhile, the ΔphaC2 mutant produced more PHA than the wild type under this condition, and surprisingly, the phaC3 transcript increased in the ΔphaC2 background. A double mutant, the ΔphaC2 ΔphaC3 mutant, consistently accumulated less PHA than the ΔphaC2 mutant. PHA accumulation in nodule bacteroids followed a pattern similar to that seen in liquid cultures, being prevented in the ΔphaC1 mutant and increased in the ΔphaC2 mutant in relation to the level in the wild type. Therefore, we used these mutants, together with a ΔphaC1 ΔphaC2 double mutant, to study the B. japonicum PHA requirements for survival, competition for nodulation, and plant growth promotion. All mutants, as well as the wild type, survived for 60 days in a carbon-free medium, regardless of their initial PHA contents. When competing for nodulation against the wild type in a 1:1 proportion, the ΔphaC1 and ΔphaC1 ΔphaC2 mutants occupied only 13 to 15% of the nodules, while the ΔphaC2 mutant occupied 81%, suggesting that the PHA polymer is required for successful competitiveness. However, the bacteroid content of PHA did not affect the shoot dry weight accumulation. PMID:23667236

  5. A close look at a ketosynthase from a trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Darren C.; Gay, Glen; Axelrod, Abram J.; Jenner, Matthew; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Kampa, Annette; Oldham, Neil J.; Piel, Jörn; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The recently discovered trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases catalyze the biosynthesis of a wide range of bioactive natural products in bacteria. Here we report the structure of the second ketosynthase from the bacillaene trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase. This 1.95 Å-resolution structure provides the highest resolution view available of a modular polyketide synthase ketosynthase and reveals a flanking subdomain that is homologous to an ordered linker in cis-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases. The structure of the cysteine-to-serine mutant of the ketosynthase acylated by its natural substrate provides high-resolution details of how a native polyketide intermediate is bound and helps explain the basis of ketosynthase substrate specificity. The substrate range of the ketosynthase was further investigated by mass spectrometry. PMID:24508341

  6. The leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple (Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh) contains potential fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ying-Hui; Cong, Jian-Ping; Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2009-02-01

    The present work focused on the kinetics of the inhibitory effects of the leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple, named Shan jingzi in China, on chicken liver fatty acid synthase. The results showed that this extract had much stronger inhibitory ability on fatty acid synthase than that from green teas described in many previous reports. The inhibitory ability of this extract is closely related to the extracting solvent, and the time of extraction was also an important influencing factor. The inhibitory types of this extract on diffeerent substrates of chicken liver fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH, were found to be noncompetitive, uncompetitive and mixed, respectively. The studies here shed a new light on the exploration for inhibitors of fatty acid synthase.

  7. In Silico Analysis of Sequence-Structure-Function Relationship of the Escherichia coli Methionine Synthase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Bhagabati, Puja; Sachan, Reena; Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Dwivedi, Vivek Dhar

    2015-12-01

    The molecular evolution of various metabolic pathways in the organisms can be employed for scrutinizing the molecular aspects behind origin of life. In the present study, we chiefly concerned about the sequence-structure-function relationship between the Escherichia coli methionine synthase and their respective animal homologs by in silico approach. Using homology prediction technique, it was observed that only 79 animal species showed similarity with the E. coli methionine synthase. Also, multiple sequence alignment depicted only 25 conserved patterns between the E. coli methionine synthase and their respective animal homologs. Based on that, Pfam analysis identified the protein families of 22 conserved patterns among the attained 25 conserved patterns. Furthermore, the 3D structure was generated by HHpred and evaluated by corresponding Ramachandran plot specifying 93% of the ϕ and ψ residues angles in the most ideal regions. Hence, the designed structure was established as a good quality model for the full length of E. coli methionine synthase.

  8. The enzyme NBAD-synthase plays diverse roles during the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Martín M; Schachter, Julieta; Berni, Jimena; Quesada-Allué, Luis A

    2010-01-01

    This report shows the biochemical characterization and life cycle-dependent expression of Drosophila melanogaster N-beta-alanyldopamine synthase (NBAD-synthase or Ebony protein). This enzyme not only catalyzes the synthesis of NBAD, the main sclerotization and pigmentation precursor of insect brown cuticles, but also plays a role in brain neurotransmitter metabolism. In addition to the epidermis expression our immunodetection experiments show the novel localization of NBAD-synthase in different regions of the adult brain, in the foregut of pharate adult and, surprisingly, in the epidermis of the trachea during embryogenesis. These results demonstrate that NBAD-synthase is a versatile enzyme involved in different, previously unknown, time- and tissue-dependent processes.

  9. Identification of amino acid networks governing catalysis in the closed complex of class I terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Schrepfer, Patrick; Buettner, Alexander; Goerner, Christian; Hertel, Michael; van Rijn, Jeaphianne; Wallrapp, Frank; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Sieber, Volker; Kourist, Robert; Brück, Thomas

    2016-02-23

    Class I terpene synthases generate the structural core of bioactive terpenoids. Deciphering structure-function relationships in the reactive closed complex and targeted engineering is hampered by highly dynamic carbocation rearrangements during catalysis. Available crystal structures, however, represent the open, catalytically inactive form or harbor nonproductive substrate analogs. Here, we present a catalytically relevant, closed conformation of taxadiene synthase (TXS), the model class I terpene synthase, which simulates the initial catalytic time point. In silico modeling of subsequent catalytic steps allowed unprecedented insights into the dynamic reaction cascades and promiscuity mechanisms of class I terpene synthases. This generally applicable methodology enables the active-site localization of carbocations and demonstrates the presence of an active-site base motif and its dominating role during catalysis. It additionally allowed in silico-designed targeted protein engineering that unlocked the path to alternate monocyclic and bicyclic synthons representing the basis of a myriad of bioactive terpenoids.

  10. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael

    2014-10-02

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets.

  11. Architecture of the polyketide synthase module: surprises from electron cryo-microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Janet L; Skiniotis, Georgios; Sherman, David H

    2015-01-01

    Modular polyketide synthases produce a vast array of bioactive molecules that are the basis of many highly valued pharmaceuticals. The biosynthesis of these compounds is based on ordered assembly lines of multi-domain modules, each extending and modifying a specific chain-elongation intermediate before transfer to the next module for further processing. The first 3D structures of a full polyketide synthase module in different functional states were obtained recently by electron cryo-microscopy. The unexpected module architecture revealed a striking evolutionary divergence of the polyketide synthase compared to its metazoan fatty acid synthase homolog, as well as remarkable conformational rearrangements dependent on its biochemical state during the full catalytic cycle. The design and dynamics of the module are highly optimized for both catalysis and fidelity in the construction of complex, biologically active natural products. PMID:25791608

  12. Structure and Function of Benzylsuccinate Synthase and Related Fumarate-Adding Glycyl Radical Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Heider, Johann; Szaleniec, Maciej; Martins, Berta M; Seyhan, Deniz; Buckel, Wolfgang; Golding, Bernard T

    2016-01-01

    The pathway of anaerobic toluene degradation is initiated by a remarkable radical-type enantiospecific addition of the chemically inert methyl group to the double bond of a fumarate cosubstrate to yield (R)-benzylsuccinate as the first intermediate, as catalyzed by the glycyl radical enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase. In recent years, it has become clear that benzylsuccinate synthase is the prototype enzyme of a much larger family of fumarate-adding enzymes, which play important roles in the anaerobic metabolism of further aromatic and even aliphatic hydrocarbons. We present an overview on the biochemical properties of benzylsuccinate synthase, as well as its recently solved structure, and present the results of an initial structure-based modeling study on the reaction mechanism. Moreover, we compare the structure of benzylsuccinate synthase with those predicted for different clades of fumarate-adding enzymes, in particular the paralogous enzymes converting p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene or n-alkanes.

  13. Bedaquiline Targets the ε Subunit of Mycobacterial F-ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Subhashri; Biukovic, Goran; Grüber, Gerhard; Dick, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The tuberculosis drug bedaquiline inhibits mycobacterial F-ATP synthase by binding to its c subunit. Using the purified ε subunit of the synthase and spectroscopy, we previously demonstrated that the drug interacts with this protein near its unique tryptophan residue. Here, we show that replacement of ε's tryptophan with alanine resulted in bedaquiline hypersusceptibility of the bacteria. Overexpression of the wild-type ε subunit caused resistance. These results suggest that the drug also targets the ε subunit.

  14. Bedaquiline Targets the ε Subunit of Mycobacterial F-ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Subhashri; Biukovic, Goran; Grüber, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The tuberculosis drug bedaquiline inhibits mycobacterial F-ATP synthase by binding to its c subunit. Using the purified ε subunit of the synthase and spectroscopy, we previously demonstrated that the drug interacts with this protein near its unique tryptophan residue. Here, we show that replacement of ε's tryptophan with alanine resulted in bedaquiline hypersusceptibility of the bacteria. Overexpression of the wild-type ε subunit caused resistance. These results suggest that the drug also targets the ε subunit. PMID:27620476

  15. ATP synthase superassemblies in animals and plants: two or more are better.

    PubMed

    Seelert, Holger; Dencher, Norbert A

    2011-09-01

    ATP synthases are part of the sophisticated cellular metabolic network and therefore multiple interactions have to be considered. As discussed in this review, ATP synthases form various supramolecular structures. These include dimers and homooligomeric species. But also interactions with other proteins, particularly those involved in energy conversion exist. The supramolecular assembly of the ATP synthase affects metabolism, organellar structure, diseases, ageing and vice versa. The most common approaches to isolate supercomplexes from native membranes by use of native electrophoresis or density gradients are introduced. On the one hand, isolated ATP synthase dimers and oligomers are employed for structural studies and elucidation of specific protein-protein interactions. On the other hand, native electrophoresis and other techniques serve as tool to trace changes of the supramolecular organisation depending on metabolic alterations. Upon analysing the structure, dimer-specific subunits can be identified as well as interactions with other proteins, for example, the adenine nucleotide translocator. In the organellar context, ATP synthase dimers and oligomers are involved in the formation of mitochondrial cristae. As a consequence, changes in the amount of such supercomplexes affect mitochondrial structure and function. Alterations in the cellular power plant have a strong impact on energy metabolism and ultimately play a significant role in pathophysiology. In plant systems, dimers of the ATP synthase have been also identified in chloroplasts. Similar to mammals, a correlation between metabolic changes and the amount of the chloroplast ATP synthase dimers exists. Therefore, this review focusses on the interplay between metabolism and supramolecular organisation of ATP synthase in different organisms.

  16. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Engage the Cell Death Program Through the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    any capacity. The goal of this proposal was two- fold. One was to determine the mechanism by which the ER might initiate death following FAS inhibition...acid synthase and human cancer: new perspectives on its role in tumor biology. Nutrition 2000;16:202–8. 8. Kuhajda FP, Jenner K, Wood FD, et al. Fatty...flexibility of the acyl carrier protein-thioesterase interdomain linker on functionality of the animal fatty acid synthase . Biochemistry 44, 4100–4107

  17. Enzymatic reactions by five chalcone synthase homologs from hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukio; Sano, Yukie; Kaneko, Takafumi; Abe, Ikuro; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Kazutoshi

    2004-05-01

    The enzyme activities encoded in five cDNAs for chalcone synthase (CHS) homologs from hop were investigated. Only valerophenone synthase (VPS) and CHS_H1 showed both naringenin-chalcone and phlorisovalerophenone forming activity. Narigenin-chalcone production by VPS was much lower than by CHS_H1. Therefore, it is highly possible that flavonoid depends mainly on CHS_H1, while bitter acid biosynthesis depends mainly on VPS and CHS_H1.

  18. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, Jens C; MacNevin, Gillian; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae) which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This

  19. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  20. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  1. Ozone stress induces the expression of ACC synthase in potato plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schlagnhaufer, C.D.; Arteca, R.N.; Pell, E.J. )

    1993-05-01

    When potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland) are subjected to oxone stress ethylene is emitted. Increases in ethylene production are often the result of increased expression of the enzyme ACC synthase. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone a cDNA encoding an ozone-induced ACC synthase. After treating potato plants with 300 ppb ozone for 4 h, RNA was extracted using a guanidinium isothiocyanate method. Using degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to several conserved regions of ACC synthase sequences reported from different plant tissues as primers, we were able to reverse transcribe the RNA and amplify a cDNA for ACC synthase. The clone is 1098 bp in length encoding for 386 amino acids comprising [approximately]80% of the protein. Computer analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that our clone is 50-70% homologous with ACC synthase genes cloned from other plant tissues. Using the cDNA as a probe in northern analysis we found that there is little or no expression in control tissue: however there is a large increase in the expression of the ACC synthase message in response to ozone treatment.

  2. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S. )

    1991-03-15

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate.

  3. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  4. Medicinal Chemistry of ATP Synthase: A Potential Drug Target of Dietary Polyphenols and Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial/antitumor peptides on ATP synthase. In the beginning general structural features highlighting catalytic and motor functions of ATP synthase will be described. Some details on the presence of ATP synthase on the surface of several animal cell types, where it is associated with multiple cellular processes making it an interesting drug target with respect to dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial peptides will also be reviewed. ATP synthase is known to have distinct polyphenol and peptide binding sites at the interface of α/β subunits. Molecular interaction of polyphenols and peptides with ATP synthase at their respective binding sites will be discussed. Binding and inhibition of other proteins or enzymes will also be covered so as to understand the therapeutic roles of both types of molecules. Lastly, the effects of polyphenols and peptides on the inhibition of Escherichia coli cell growth through their action on ATP synthase will also be presented. PMID:20586714

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glycogen synthase activity in 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.P.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Ross, R.; Krebs, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    Hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase, an enzyme that can be phosphorylated on multiple sites, is often associated with changes in its phosphorylation state. Enzyme activation is conventionally monitored by determining the synthase activity ratio ((activity in the absence of glucose 6-P)/(activity in the presence of glucose 6-P)). Insulin causes an activation of glycogen synthase with a concomitant decrease in its phosphate content. In a previous report, the authors showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the glycogen synthase activity ratio in Swiss 3T3 cells. The time and dose-dependency of this response was similar to that of insulin. Their recent results indicate that PDGF also stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Enzyme activation was maximal after 30 min. of incubation with PDGF; the time course observed was very similar to that with insulin and EGF. At 1 ng/ml (0.03nM), PDGF caused a maximal stimulation of 4-fold in synthase activity ratio. Half-maximal stimulation was observed at 0.2 ng/ml (6 pM). The time course of changes in enzyme activity ratio closely followed that of /sup 125/I-PDGF binding. The authors data suggest that PDGF, as well as EFG and insulin, may be important in regulating glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms.

  6. Investigation of potential glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors using pharmacophore mapping and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Dessalew, Nigus; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2006-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has attracted significant drug discovery attention in recent years. To investigate the identification of new potential glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, a pharmacophore mapping study was carried out using a set of 21 structurally diverse glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors. A hypothesis containing four features: two hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond donor and another hydrogen bond acceptor was found to be the best from the 10 common feature hypotheses produced by HipHop module of Catalyst. The best hypothesis has a high cost of 156.592 and higher best fit values were obtained for the 21 inhibitors using this best hypothesis than the other HipHop hypotheses. The best hypothesis was then used to screen electronically the NCI2000 database. The hits obtained were docked into glycogen synthase kinase-3beta active site. A total of five novel potential leads were proposed after: (i) visual examination of how well they dock into the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site, (ii) comparative analysis of their FlexX, G-Score, PMF-Score, ChemScore and D-Scores values, (iii) comparison of their best fit value with the known inhibitors and (iv) examination of the how the hits retain interactions with the important amino acid residues of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site.

  7. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  8. Cell wall polysaccharide synthases are located in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains in oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Briolay, Anne; Bouzenzana, Jamel; Guichardant, Michel; Deshayes, Christian; Sindt, Nicolas; Bessueille, Laurence; Bulone, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    The pathways responsible for cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis are vital in eukaryotic microorganisms. The corresponding synthases are potential targets of inhibitors such as fungicides. Despite their fundamental and economical importance, most polysaccharide synthases are not well characterized, and their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. With the example of Saprolegnia monoica as a model organism, we show that chitin and (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan synthases are located in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs) in oomycetes, a phylum that comprises some of the most devastating microorganisms in the agriculture and aquaculture industries. Interestingly, no cellulose synthase activity was detected in the DRMs. The purified DRMs exhibited similar biochemical features as lipid rafts from animal, plant, and yeast cells, although they contained some species-specific lipids. This report sheds light on the lipid environment of the (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan and chitin synthases, as well as on the sterol biosynthetic pathways in oomycetes. The results presented here are consistent with a function of lipid rafts in cell polarization and as platforms for sorting specific sets of proteins targeted to the plasma membrane, such as carbohydrate synthases. The involvement of DRMs in the biosynthesis of major cell wall polysaccharides in eukaryotic microorganisms suggests a function of lipid rafts in hyphal morphogenesis and tip growth.

  9. Genetic structure and regulation of isoprene synthase in Poplar (Populus spp.).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Claudia E; Possell, Malcolm; Nicholas Hewitt, C; Mullineaux, Philip M

    2010-07-01

    Isoprene is a volatile 5-carbon hydrocarbon derived from the chloroplastic methylerythritol 2-C-methyl-D: -erythritol 4-phosphate isoprenoid pathway. In plants, isoprene emission is controlled by the enzyme isoprene synthase; however, there is still relatively little known about the genetics and regulation of this enzyme. Isoprene synthase gene structure was analysed in three poplar species. It was found that genes encoding stromal isoprene synthase exist as a small gene family, the members of which encode virtually identical proteins and are differentially regulated. Accumulation of isoprene synthase protein is developmentally regulated, but does not differ between sun and shade leaves and does not increase when heat stress is applied. Our data suggest that, in mature leaves, isoprene emission rates are primarily determined by substrate (dimethylallyl diphosphate, DMADP) availability. In immature leaves, where isoprene synthase levels are variable, emission levels are also influenced by the amount of isoprene synthase protein. No thylakoid isoforms could be identified in Populus alba or in Salix babylonica. Together, these data show that control of isoprene emission at the genetic level is far more complicated than previously assumed.

  10. Citrate synthase encoded by the CIT2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is peroxisomal.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, A S; Hines, V; Small, G M

    1990-01-01

    The product of the CIT2 gene has the tripeptide SKL at its carboxyl terminus. This amino acid sequence has been shown to act as a peroxisomal targeting signal in mammalian cells. We examined the subcellular site of this extramitochondrial citrate synthase. Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown on oleate medium to induce peroxisome proliferation. A fraction containing membrane-enclosed vesicles and organelles was analyzed by sedimentation on density gradients. In wild-type cells, the major peak of citrate synthase activity was recovered in the mitochondrial fraction, but a second peak of activity cosedimented with peroxisomes. The peroxisomal activity, but not the mitochondrial activity, was inhibited by incubation at pH 8.1, a characteristic of the extramitochondrial citrate synthase encoded by the CIT2 gene. In a strain in which the CIT1 gene encoding mitochondrial citrate synthase had been disrupted, the major peak of citrate synthase activity was peroxisomal, and all of the activity was sensitive to incubation at pH 8.1. Yeast cells bearing a cit2 disruption were unable to mobilize stored lipids and did not form stable peroxisomes in oleate. We conclude that citrate synthase encoded by CIT2 is peroxisomal and participates in the glyoxylate cycle. Images PMID:2181273

  11. Hepatic overexpression of a constitutively active form of liver glycogen synthase improves glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ros, Susana; Zafra, Delia; Valles-Ortega, Jordi; García-Rocha, Mar; Forrow, Stephen; Domínguez, Jorge; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2010-11-26

    In this study, we tested the efficacy of increasing liver glycogen synthase to improve blood glucose homeostasis. The overexpression of wild-type liver glycogen synthase in rats had no effect on blood glucose homeostasis in either the fed or the fasted state. In contrast, the expression of a constitutively active mutant form of the enzyme caused a significant lowering of blood glucose in the former but not the latter state. Moreover, it markedly enhanced the clearance of blood glucose when fasted rats were challenged with a glucose load. Hepatic glycogen stores in rats overexpressing the activated mutant form of liver glycogen synthase were enhanced in the fed state and in response to an oral glucose load but showed a net decline during fasting. In order to test whether these effects were maintained during long term activation of liver glycogen synthase, we generated liver-specific transgenic mice expressing the constitutively active LGS form. These mice also showed an enhanced capacity to store glycogen in the fed state and an improved glucose tolerance when challenged with a glucose load. Thus, we conclude that the activation of liver glycogen synthase improves glucose tolerance in the fed state without compromising glycogenolysis in the postabsorptive state. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the activation of liver glycogen synthase may provide a potential strategy for improvement of glucose tolerance in the postprandial state.

  12. Product variability of the 'cineole cassette' monoterpene synthases of related Nicotiana species.

    PubMed

    Fähnrich, Anke; Krause, Katrin; Piechulla, Birgit

    2011-11-01

    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the 'cineole cassette' comprising 1,8-cineole, limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, and α-terpineol. We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes, which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this 'cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra. The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical. The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum. The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N. alata and N. langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the 'cineole cassette' monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana, N. suaveolens, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis, and Citrus unshiu. The terpineol synthases of N. alata and N. langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals. The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N. alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  13. The role of NO synthase isoforms in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Berezhnaya, E. V.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2015-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important second messenger, involved in the implementation of various cell functions. It regulates various physiological and pathological processes such as neurotransmission, cell responses to stress, and neurodegeneration. NO synthase is a family of enzymes that synthesize NO from L-arginine. The activity of different NOS isoforms depends both on endogenous and exogenous factors. In particular, it is modulated by oxidative stress, induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT). We have studied the possible role of NOS in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Antinecrotic and proapoptotic effects of NO on the glial cells were found using inhibitory analysis. We have shown the role of inducible NO synthase in photoinduced apoptosis and involvement of neuronal NO synthase in photoinduced necrosis of glial cells in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. The activation of NO synthase was evaluated using NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, a marker of neurons expressing the enzyme. The activation of NO synthase in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor was evaluated as a function of time after PDT. Photodynamic treatment induced transient increase in NO synthase activity and then slowly inhibited this enzyme.

  14. Discovery of two new inhibitors of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase by a chemical library screening.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Hervé; Boccara, Martine; Drujon, Thierry; Soulié, Marie-Christine; Guillou, Catherine; Dubois, Joëlle; Becker, Hubert F

    2013-09-01

    Chitin synthases polymerize UDP-GlcNAC to form chitin polymer, a key component of fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Furthermore, chitin synthases are desirable targets for fungicides since chitin is absent in plants and mammals. Two potent Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase inhibitors, 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-d-ribose (compound 1) and a 2,5-functionalized imidazole (compound 2) were identified by screening a chemical library. We adapted the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) test for chitin synthase activity detection to allow miniaturization and robotization of the screen. Both identified compounds inhibited chitin synthases in vitro with IC50 values of 1.8 and 10μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antifungal activity and were found to be active against B. cinerea BD90 strain with MIC values of 190 and 100μM, respectively. Finally, we discovered that both compounds confer resistance to plant leaves against the attack of the fungus by reducing the propagation of lesions by 37% and 23%, respectively. Based on the inhibitory properties found in different assays, compounds 1 and 2 can be considered as antifungal hit inhibitors of chitin synthase, allowing further optimization of their pharmacological profile to improve their antifungal properties.

  15. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A; Li, Huiying; Lim, Nathan; Chen, Steven; Huang, He; Xue, Fengtian; Tang, Wei; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-01-22

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial ( Holden , , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013 , 110 , 18127 ). Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Together, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.

  16. Structure-Based Design of Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial (Holden, , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2013, 110, 1812724145412). Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Together, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors. PMID:25522110

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors: Rescuers of cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    King, Margaret K.; Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Downey, Kimberlee; Jope, Richard S.; Beurel, Eléonore

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of cognitive processes is a devastating outcome of many diseases, injuries, and drugs affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Most often, very little can be done by available therapeutic interventions to improve cognitive functions. Here we review evidence that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) ameliorates cognitive deficits in a wide variety of animal models of CNS diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, traumatic brain injury, and others. GSK3 inhibitors also improve cognition following impairments caused by therapeutic interventions, such as cranial irradiation for brain tumors. These findings demonstrate that GSK3 inhibitors are able to ameliorate cognitive impairments caused by a diverse array of diseases, injury, and treatments. The improvements in impaired cognition instilled by administration of GSK3 inhibitors appear to involve a variety of different mechanisms, such as supporting long-term potentiation and diminishing long-term depression, promotion of neurogenesis, reduction of inflammation, and increasing a number of neuroprotective mechanisms. The potential for GSK3 inhibitors to repair cognitive deficits associated with many conditions warrants further investigation of their potential for therapeutic interventions, particularly considering the current dearth of treatments available to reduce loss of cognitive functions. PMID:23916593

  18. Nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, James G; Wehling-Henricks, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) that occurs in dystrophic muscle is the basis of numerous, complex and interacting features of the dystrophic pathology that affect not only muscle itself, but also influence the interaction of muscle with other tissues. Many mechanisms through which nNOS deficiency contributes to misregulation of muscle development, blood flow, fatigue, inflammation and fibrosis in dystrophic muscle have been identified, suggesting that normalization in NO production could greatly attenuate diverse aspects of the pathology of muscular dystrophy through multiple regulatory pathways. However, the relative importance of the loss of nNOS from the sarcolemma versus the importance of loss of total nNOS from dystrophic muscle remains unknown. Although most current evidence indicates that nNOS localization at the sarcolemma is not required to achieve NO-mediated reductions of pathology in muscular dystrophy, the question remains open concerning whether membrane localization would provide a more efficient rescue from features of the dystrophic phenotype. PMID:25194047

  19. Gelatinization temperature of rice explained by polymorphisms in starch synthase.

    PubMed

    Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J; Reinke, Russell F; Fitzgerald, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    The cooking quality of rice is associated with the starch gelatinization temperature (GT). Rice genotypes with low GT have probably been selected for their cooking quality by humans during domestication. We now report polymorphisms in starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) that explain the variation in rice starch GT. Sequence analysis of the eight exons of SSIIa identified significant polymorphism in only exon 8. These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 70 diverse genotypes of rice. Two SNPs could classify all 70 genotypes into either high GT or low GT types which differed in GT by 8 degrees C. 'A' rather than 'G' at base 2412 determined whether a methionine or valine was present at the corresponding amino acid residue in SSIIa, whilst two adjacent SNPs at bases 2543 and 2544 coded for either leucine (GC) or phenylalanine (TT). Rice varieties with high GT starch had a combination of valine and leucine at these residues. In contrast, rice varieties with low GT starch had a combination of either methionine and leucine or valine and phenylalanine at these same residues. At least two distinct polymorphisms have apparently been selected for their desirable cooking qualities in the domestication of rice.

  20. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in Vascular Physiology and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Eduardo D.; Rezende, Bruno A.; Cortes, Steyner F.; Lemos, Virginia S.

    2016-01-01

    The family of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) has significant importance in various physiological mechanisms and is also involved in many pathological processes. Three NOS isoforms have been identified: neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS 1), endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS 3), and an inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS 2). Both nNOS and eNOS are constitutively expressed. Classically, eNOS is considered the main isoform involved in the control of the vascular function. However, more recent studies have shown that nNOS is present in the vascular endothelium and importantly contributes to the maintenance of the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. In physiological conditions, besides nitric oxide (NO), nNOS also produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2•-) considered as key mediators in non-neuronal cells signaling. This mini-review highlights recent scientific releases on the role of nNOS in vascular homeostasis and cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:27313545

  1. Nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune myocarditis dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goren, N; Leiros, C P; Sterin-Borda, L; Borda, E

    1998-11-01

    This study reports the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in heart from autoimmune myocarditis mice associated with an alteration in their contractile behavior. By mean of the production of [U-14C]citrulline from [U-14C]arginine and immunoblot assay, the expression of iNOS was demonstrated in autoimmune atria that was normally absent. The iNOS activity decreased with administration of dexamethasone and in mice treated with monoclonal anti-interferon-gamma antibody (anti-IFN-gamma mAb). The inhibitors of protein kinase C activity (staurosporine) but not calcium/calmodulin (trifluoperazine) attenuated the iNOS activity. Moreover, autoimmune atria presented contractile alterations (lower values of dF/dt than control). The in vivo treatment with inhibitors of NOS activity or anti-IFN-gamma mAb or dexamethasone improved the contractile activity of autoimmune atria with no change in the contractility of normal atria. The results suggest that the infiltrative cells in myocarditis heart have a potential role in cardiac dysfunction by production of IFN-gamma and subsequent expression of iNOS, that in turn alter the contractile behavior of the heart. The data indicate that cytokines induced activation of L-arginine nitric oxide pathway in myocarditis atria leading to contractile dysfunction.

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Trajanovska, Sofie; Donald, John A

    2011-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by NO synthase (NOS) of which there are three isoforms: neuronal NOS (nNOS, nos1), inducible NOS (iNOS, nos2), and endothelial NOS (eNOS, nos3). This study utilised the genome of Xenopus tropicalis to sequence a nos3 cDNA and determine if eNOS protein is expressed in blood vessels. A nos3 cDNA was sequenced that encoded a 1177 amino acid protein called XteNOS, which showed closest sequence identity to mammalian eNOS protein. The X. tropicalis nos3 gene and eNOS protein were determined to be an orthologue of mammalian nos3 and eNOS using gene synteny and phylogenetic analyses, respectively. In X. tropicalis, nos3 mRNA expression was highest in lung and skeletal muscle and lower in the liver, gut, kidney, heart and brain. Western analysis of kidney protein using an affinity-purified anti-XteNOS produced a single band at 140kDa. Immunohistochemistry showed XteNOS immunoreactivity in the proximal tubule of the kidney and endocardium of the heart, but not in the endothelium of blood vessels. Thus, X. tropicalis has a nos3 gene that appears not to be expressed in the vascular endothelium.

  3. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase regulates mitochondrial matrix pH.

    PubMed

    Ghafourifar, P; Richter, C

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO) exerts a wide profile of its biological activities via regulation of respiration and respiration-dependent functions. The presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in mitochondria (mtNOS) was recently reported by us (Ghafourifar and Richter, FEBS Lett. 418, 291-296, 1997) and others (Giulivi et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11038-11043, 1998). Here we report that NO, provided by an NO donor as well as by mtNOS stimulation, regulates mitochondrial matrix pH, transmembrane potential and Ca2+ buffering capacity. Exogenously-added NO causes a dose-dependent matrix acidification. Also mtNOS stimulation, induced by loading mitochondria with Ca2+, causes mitochondrial matrix acidification and a drop in mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Inhibition of mtNOS's basal activity causes mitochondrial matrix alkalinization and provides a resistance to the sudden drop of mitochondrial transmembrane potential induced by mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. We conclude that mtNOS plays a critical role in regulating mitochondrial delta(pH).

  4. Calmodulin is a subunit of nitric oxide synthase from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in nitric oxide (NO) research is to understand how NO can act in some settings as a servoregulator and in others as a cytotoxin. To answer this, we have sought a molecular basis for the differential regulation of the two known types of NO synthase (NOS). Constitutive NOS's in endothelium and neurons are activated by agonist- induced elevation of Ca2+ and resultant binding of calmodulin (CaM). In contrast, NOS in macrophages does not require added Ca2+ or CaM, but is regulated instead by transcription. We show here that macrophage NOS contains, as a tightly bound subunit, a molecule with the immunologic reactivity, high performance liquid chromatography retention time, tryptic map, partial amino acid sequence, and exact molecular mass of CaM. In contrast to most CaM-dependent enzymes, macrophage NOS binds CaM tightly without a requirement for elevated Ca2+. This may explain why NOS that is independent of Ca2+ and elevated CaM appears to be activated simply by being synthesized. PMID:1380065

  5. Engineering the acyltransferase substrate specificity of assembly line polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Briana J; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-08-06

    Polyketide natural products act as a broad range of therapeutics, including antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents. This therapeutic diversity stems from the structural diversity of these small molecules, many of which are produced in an assembly line manner by modular polyketide synthases. The acyltransferase (AT) domains of these megasynthases are responsible for selection and incorporation of simple monomeric building blocks, and are thus responsible for a large amount of the resulting polyketide structural diversity. The substrate specificity of these domains is often targeted for engineering in the generation of novel, therapeutically active natural products. This review outlines recent developments that can be used in the successful engineering of these domains, including AT sequence and structural data, mechanistic insights and the production of a diverse pool of extender units. It also provides an overview of previous AT domain engineering attempts, and concludes with proposed engineering approaches that take advantage of current knowledge. These approaches may lead to successful production of biologically active 'unnatural' natural products.

  6. Human leucocytes in asthenozoospermic patients: endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression.

    PubMed

    Buldreghini, E; Hamada, A; Macrì, M L; Amoroso, S; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Agarwal, A; Balercia, G

    2014-12-01

    In a basic study at the Andrology Unit, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy, we evaluated the pattern of mRNA endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in human blood leucocytes isolated from normozoospermic fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile men to elucidate any pathogenic involvement in sperm cell motility. Forty infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia and 45 normozoospermic fertile donors, age-matched, were included. Semen parameters were evaluated, and expression analysis of mRNA was performed in human leucocytes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm volume, count, motility and morphology were determined, and eNOS expression and Western blotting analyses were performed. A positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of NO and the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. The mRNA of eNOS was more expressed in peripheral blood leucocytes isolated from asthenozoospermic infertile men versus those of fertile normozoospermic men (7.46 ± 0.38 versus 7.06 ± 0.56, P = 0.0355). A significant up-regulation of eNOS gene in peripheral blood leucocytes was 1.52-fold higher than that of fertile donors. It is concluded that eNOS expression and activity are enhanced in blood leucocytes in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    SciTech Connect

    Shams-Eldin, Hosam Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Niehus, Sebastian; Dorn, Caroline; Kimmel, Juergen; Azzouz, Nahid; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2008-06-06

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups.

  8. Conservation and Role of Electrostatics in Thymidylate Synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Divita; Skouloubris, Stephane; Briffotaux, Julien; Myllykallio, Hannu; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2015-11-01

    Conservation of function across families of orthologous enzymes is generally accompanied by conservation of their active site electrostatic potentials. To study the electrostatic conservation in the highly conserved essential enzyme, thymidylate synthase (TS), we conducted a systematic species-based comparison of the electrostatic potential in the vicinity of its active site. Whereas the electrostatics of the active site of TS are generally well conserved, the TSs from minimal organisms do not conform to the overall trend. Since the genomes of minimal organisms have a high thymidine content compared to other organisms, the observation of non-conserved electrostatics was surprising. Analysis of the symbiotic relationship between minimal organisms and their hosts, and the genetic completeness of the thymidine synthesis pathway suggested that TS from the minimal organism Wigglesworthia glossinidia (W.g.b.) must be active. Four residues in the vicinity of the active site of Escherichia coli TS were mutated individually and simultaneously to mimic the electrostatics of W.g.b TS. The measured activities of the E. coli TS mutants imply that conservation of electrostatics in the region of the active site is important for the activity of TS, and suggest that the W.g.b. TS has the minimal activity necessary to support replication of its reduced genome.

  9. Glutamate synthase in greening callus of Bouvardia ternifolia Schlecht.

    PubMed

    Murillo, E; Sánchez de Jiménez, E

    1985-04-01

    The distribution of the two glutamate-synthase (GOGAT) activities known to exist in higher plants (NADH dependent, EC 2.6.1.53; and ferredoxin dependent, EC 1.4.7.1) was studied in non-chlorophyllous and chlorophyllous cultured tissue as well as in young leaves of Bouvardia ternifolia. The NADH-GOGAT was present in all three tissues. Using a sucrose gradient we found it in both the soluble and the plastid fraction of non-chlorophyllous and chlorophyllous tissue, but exclusively in the chloroplast fraction of the leaves. Ferredoxin-GOGAT was found only in green tissues and was confined to the chloroplasts. Ferredoxin-GOGAT activity increased in parallel with the chlorophyll content of the callus during the greening process in Murashige-Skoog medium (nitrate and ammonium as the nitrogen sources), while NADH-GOGAT was not affected by the greening process in this medium. Furthermore, both activities were differentially affected by either nitrate or ammonium as the sole nitrogen source in the medium during this process. It is suggested that each GOGAT activity is a different entity or is differently regulated.

  10. Engineering the acyltransferase substrate specificity of assembly line polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Briana J.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide natural products act as a broad range of therapeutics, including antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents. This therapeutic diversity stems from the structural diversity of these small molecules, many of which are produced in an assembly line manner by modular polyketide synthases. The acyltransferase (AT) domains of these megasynthases are responsible for selection and incorporation of simple monomeric building blocks, and are thus responsible for a large amount of the resulting polyketide structural diversity. The substrate specificity of these domains is often targeted for engineering in the generation of novel, therapeutically active natural products. This review outlines recent developments that can be used in the successful engineering of these domains, including AT sequence and structural data, mechanistic insights and the production of a diverse pool of extender units. It also provides an overview of previous AT domain engineering attempts, and concludes with proposed engineering approaches that take advantage of current knowledge. These approaches may lead to successful production of biologically active ‘unnatural’ natural products. PMID:23720536

  11. Substrate Activation in Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate is a critical DNA nucleotide that has to be synthesized in cells de novo by all organisms. Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) catalyzes the final step in this de novo production of thymidylate in many human pathogens, but it is absent from humans. The FDTS reaction proceeds via a chemical route that is different from its human enzyme analogue, making FDTS a potential antimicrobial target. The chemical mechanism of FDTS is still not understood, and the two most recently proposed mechanisms involve reaction intermediates that are unusual in pyrimidine biosynthesis and biology in general. These mechanisms differ in the relative timing of the reaction of the flavin with the substrate. The consequence of this difference is significant: the intermediates are cationic in one case and neutral in the other, an important consideration in the construction of mechanism-based enzyme inhibitors. Here we test these mechanisms via chemical trapping of reaction intermediates, stopped-flow, and substrate hydrogen isotope exchange techniques. Our findings suggest that an initial activation of the pyrimidine substrate by reduced flavin is required for catalysis, and a revised mechanism is proposed on the basis of previous and new data. These findings and the newly proposed mechanism add an important piece to the puzzle of the mechanism of FDTS and suggest a new class of intermediates that, in the future, may serve as targets for mechanism-based design of FDTS-specific inhibitors. PMID:25025487

  12. The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koros, Eliza; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia

    2007-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta is recognized as a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme involved in the modulation of many aspects of neuronal function. Inhibitory control of GSK-3beta has been identified to be crucial for the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-mediated cell survival. Several lines of evidence converge in implicating abnormal GSK-3beta activity in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Preclinical evidence showing that both typical and atypical antipsychotics can indirectly inhibit the activity of GSK-3beta, has pointed to GSK-3beta as a possible therapeutic target for schizophrenia. It is well known that GSK-3beta can be indirectly inhibited via regulation of several intracellular signaling cascades, including the canonical Wnt, Reelin and tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk)-PI3K-Akt. Recently, direct inhibition of GSK-3beta has emerged as a possible option in the pharmacotherapy of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is, however, a number of issues that need to be considered regarding therapeutic utility of GSK-3beta inhibitors. This article reviews the evidence supporting the possible role of aberrant GSK-3beta in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and thus suggesting GSK-3beta to be a potential therapeutic target for this disorder.

  13. Mechanistic Analysis of Trehalose Synthase from Mycobacterium smegmatis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Pan, Yuan T.; He, Shouming; Lam, Michael; Brayer, Gary D.; Elbein, Alan D.; Withers, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of maltose and trehalose and has been shown recently to function primarily in the mobilization of trehalose as a glycogen precursor. Consequently, the mechanism of this intriguing isomerase is of both academic and potential pharmacological interest. TreS catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of α-aryl glucosides as well as α-glucosyl fluoride, thereby allowing facile, continuous assays. Reaction of TreS with 5-fluoroglycosyl fluorides results in the trapping of a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate consistent with TreS being a member of the retaining glycoside hydrolase family 13 enzyme family, thus likely following a two-step, double displacement mechanism. This trapped intermediate was subjected to protease digestion followed by LC-MS/MS analysis, and Asp230 was thereby identified as the catalytic nucleophile. The isomerization reaction was shown to be an intramolecular process by demonstration of the inability of TreS to incorporate isotope-labeled exogenous glucose into maltose or trehalose consistent with previous studies on other TreS enzymes. The absence of a secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effect and the general independence of kcat upon leaving group ability both point to a rate-determining conformational change, likely the opening and closing of the enzyme active site. PMID:21840994

  14. Ceramide synthases at the centre of sphingolipid metabolism and biology.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Thomas D; Hannun, Yusuf A; Obeid, Lina M

    2012-02-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism in metazoan cells consists of a complex interconnected web of numerous enzymes, metabolites and modes of regulation. At the centre of sphingolipid metabolism reside CerSs (ceramide synthases), a group of enzymes that catalyse the formation of ceramides from sphingoid base and acyl-CoA substrates. From a metabolic perspective, these enzymes occupy a unique niche in that they simultaneously regulate de novo sphingolipid synthesis and the recycling of free sphingosine produced from the degradation of pre-formed sphingolipids (salvage pathway). Six mammalian CerSs (CerS1-CerS6) have been identified. Unique characteristics have been described for each of these enzymes, but perhaps the most notable is the ability of individual CerS isoforms to produce ceramides with characteristic acyl-chain distributions. Through this control of acyl-chain length and perhaps in a compartment-specific manner, CerSs appear to regulate multiple aspects of sphingolipid-mediated cell and organismal biology. In the present review, we discuss the function of CerSs as critical regulators of sphingolipid metabolism, highlight their unique characteristics and explore the emerging roles of CerSs in regulating programmed cell death, cancer and many other aspects of biology.

  15. Expression of human hyaluronan synthases in response to external stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, A; Brinck, J; Briskin, M J; Spicer, A P; Heldin, P

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated the expression of mRNAs for hyaluronan synthase isoforms (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) in different cells in response to various stimuli. Human mesothelial cells, which synthesize large amounts of hyaluronan, express mRNAs encoding all three HAS isoforms, whereas their transformed counterparts, mesothelioma cells, which produce only minute amounts of hyaluronan, express only HAS3 mRNA. Human lung fibroblasts and the glioma cell line U-118 MG express only the HAS2 and HAS3 genes. The expression of the transcripts was higher in subconfluent than in confluent cultures and was well correlated with the production of hyaluronan by the cells. Stimulation of mesothelial cells with platelet-derived growth factor-BB induced an up-regulation of mRNA for HAS2 to a maximum after 6 h of stimulation; HAS1 and HAS3 genes were only induced slightly. Transforming growth factor-beta1 reduced HAS2 mRNA slightly, and hydrocortisone reduced it strongly, within 6 h of stimulation in mesothelial cell cultures but did not significantly affect the expression of mRNAs for HAS1 and HAS3. Induction of HAS1 and HAS2 protein levels in response to the stimuli above correlated with HAS transcript levels. Thus the expression of the three HAS isoforms is more prominent in growing cells than in resting cells and is differentially regulated by various stimuli suggesting distinct functional roles of the three proteins. PMID:10794710

  16. Structural basis for recognition of polyglutamyl folates by thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Kamb, A; Finer-Moore, J; Calvert, A H; Stroud, R M

    1992-10-20

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of thymidine. In vivo TS binds a polyglutamyl cofactor, polyglutamyl methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2-H4folate), which serves as a carbon donor. Glutamate residues on the cofactor contribute as much as 3.7 kcal to the interaction between the cofactor, substrate, and enzyme. Because many ligand/receptor interactions appear to be driven largely by hydrophobic forces, it is surprising that the addition of hydrophilic, soluble groups such as glutamates increases the affinity of the cofactor for TS. The structure of a polyglutamyl cofactor analog bound in ternary complex with deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) and Escherichia coli TS reveals how the polyglutamyl moiety is positioned in TS and accounts in a qualitative way for the binding contributions of the different individual glutamate residues. The polyglutamyl moiety is not rigidly fixed by its interaction with the protein except for the first glutamate residue nearest the p-aminobenzoic acid ring of folate. Each additional glutamate is progressively more disordered than the previous one in the chain. The position of the second and third glutamate residues on the protein surface suggests that the polyglutamyl binding site could be utilized by a new family of inhibitors that might fill the binding area more effectively than polyglutamate.

  17. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  18. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  19. Two Distinct Cardiolipin Synthases Operate in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Czolkoss, Simon; Fritz, Christiane; Hölzl, Georg; Aktas, Meriyem

    2016-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a universal component of energy generating membranes. In most bacteria, it is synthesized via the condensation of two molecules phosphatidylglycerol (PG) by phospholipase D-type cardiolipin synthases (PLD-type Cls). In the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens CL comprises up to 15% of all phospholipids in late stationary growth phase. A. tumefaciens harbors two genes, atu1630 (cls1) and atu2486 (cls2), coding for PLD-type Cls. Heterologous expression of either cls1 or cls2 in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of CL supporting involvement of their products in CL synthesis. Expression of cls1 and cls2 in A. tumefaciens is constitutive and irrespective of the growth phase. Membrane lipid profiling of A. tumefaciens mutants suggested that Cls2 is required for CL synthesis at early exponential growth whereas both Cls equally contribute to CL production at later growth stages. Contrary to many bacteria, which suffer from CL depletion, A. tumefaciens tolerates large changes in CL content since the CL-deficient cls1/cls2 double mutant showed no apparent defects in growth, stress tolerance, motility, biofilm formation, UV-stress and tumor formation on plants. PMID:27472399

  20. Inhibition of Prostaglandin D Synthase Suppresses Muscular Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohri, Ikuko; Aritake, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Hidetoshi; Sato, Yo; Kamauchi, Shinya; Nagata, Nanae; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Taniike, Masako; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal muscle wasting disease that is characterized by a deficiency in the protein dystrophin. Previously, we reported that the expression of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) appeared in necrotic muscle fibers from patients with either Duchenne muscular dystrophy or polymyositis. HPGDS is responsible for the production of the inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin D2. In this paper, we validated the hypothesis that HPGDS has a role in the etiology of muscular necrosis. We investigated the expression of HPGDS/ prostaglandin D2 signaling using two different mouse models of muscle necrosis, that is, bupivacaine-induced muscle necrosis and the mdx mouse, which has a genetic muscular dystrophy. We treated each mouse model with the HPGDS-specific inhibitor, HQL-79, and measured both necrotic muscle volume and selected cytokine mRNA levels. We confirmed that HPGDS expression was induced in necrotic muscle fibers in both bupivacaine-injected muscle and mdx mice. After administration of HQL-79, necrotic muscle volume was significantly decreased in both mouse models. Additionally, mRNA levels of both CD11b and transforming growth factor β1 were significantly lower in HQL-79-treated mdx mice than in vehicle-treated animals. We also demonstrated that HQL-79 suppressed prostaglandin D2 production and improved muscle strength in the mdx mouse. Our results show that HPGDS augments inflammation, which is followed by muscle injury. Furthermore, the inhibition of HPGDS ameliorates muscle necrosis even in cases of genetic muscular dystrophy. PMID:19359520

  1. Squalene Synthase As a Target for Chagas Disease Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A.; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A.; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, J; Forslund, T; Sundqvist, T; Skogh, T

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess' reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0.001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 +/- 78 versus 176 +/- 65 micro mol/l, P = 0.008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 +/- 11 versus 26 +/- 9 micro mol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19.2 +/- 20.7 versus 8.6 +/- 6.5 micro mol/l, P = 0.054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis.

  3. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A.; Li, Huiying; Lim, Nathan; Chen, Steven; Huang, He; Xue, Fengtian; Tang, Wei; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-12-18

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial. Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Lastly, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.

  4. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial. Here wemore » present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Lastly, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.« less

  5. Structure and function of eukaryotic fatty acid synthases.

    PubMed

    Maier, Timm; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2010-08-01

    In all organisms, fatty acid synthesis is achieved in variations of a common cyclic reaction pathway by stepwise, iterative elongation of precursors with two-carbon extender units. In bacteria, all individual reaction steps are carried out by monofunctional dissociated enzymes, whereas in eukaryotes the fatty acid synthases (FASs) have evolved into large multifunctional enzymes that integrate the whole process of fatty acid synthesis. During the last few years, important advances in understanding the structural and functional organization of eukaryotic FASs have been made through a combination of biochemical, electron microscopic and X-ray crystallographic approaches. They have revealed the strikingly different architectures of the two distinct types of eukaryotic FASs, the fungal and the animal enzyme system. Fungal FAS is a 2·6 MDa α₆β₆ heterododecamer with a barrel shape enclosing two large chambers, each containing three sets of active sites separated by a central wheel-like structure. It represents a highly specialized micro-compartment strictly optimized for the production of saturated fatty acids. In contrast, the animal FAS is a 540 kDa X-shaped homodimer with two lateral reaction clefts characterized by a modular domain architecture and large extent of conformational flexibility that appears to contribute to catalytic efficiency.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Caffeine Synthase from Tea Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Misako; Mizuno, Kouichi; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Iwama, Masanori; Irie, Masachika; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Caffeine synthase (CS), the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent N-methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was extracted from young tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves; the CS was purified 520-fold to apparent homogeneity and a final specific activity of 5.7 nkat mg−1 protein by ammonium sulfate fractionation and hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, adenosine-agarose, and gel-filtration chromatography. The native enzyme was monomeric with an apparent molecular mass of 61 kD as estimated by gel-filtration chromatography and 41 kD as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme displayed a sharp pH optimum of 8.5. The final preparation exhibited 3- and 1-N-methyltransferase activity with a broad substrate specificity, showing high activity toward paraxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and theobromine and low activity with 3-methylxanthine and 1-methylxanthine. However, the enzyme had no 7-N-methyltransferase activity toward xanthosine and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate. The Km values of CS for paraxanthine, theobromine, 7-methylxanthine, and S-adenosylmethionine were 24, 186, 344, and 21 μm, respectively. The possible role and regulation of CS in purine alkaloid biosynthesis in tea leaves are discussed. The 20-amino acid N-terminal sequence for CS showed little homology with other methyltransferases. PMID:10364410

  7. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibition alleviates aberrations in synucleinopathy models

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, S. Pablo; Viel, Catherine; Clarke, Jennifer; Treleaven, Christopher M.; Richards, Amy M.; Park, Hyejung; Olszewski, Maureen A.; Dodge, James C.; Marshall, John; Makino, Elina; Wang, Bing; Sidman, Richard L.; Cheng, Seng H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) confer a heightened risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, resulting in a lower age of onset and exacerbating disease progression. However, the precise mechanisms by which mutations in GBA increase PD risk and accelerate its progression remain unclear. Here, we investigated the merits of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibition as a potential treatment for synucleinopathies. Two murine models of synucleinopathy (a Gaucher-related synucleinopathy model, GbaD409V/D409V and a A53T–α-synuclein overexpressing model harboring wild-type alleles of GBA, A53T–SNCA mouse model) were exposed to a brain-penetrant GCS inhibitor, GZ667161. Treatment of GbaD409V/D409V mice with the GCS inhibitor reduced levels of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine in the central nervous system (CNS), demonstrating target engagement. Remarkably, treatment with GZ667161 slowed the accumulation of hippocampal aggregates of α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and tau, and improved the associated memory deficits. Similarly, prolonged treatment of A53T–SNCA mice with GZ667161 reduced membrane-associated α-synuclein in the CNS and ameliorated cognitive deficits. The data support the contention that prolonged antagonism of GCS in the CNS can affect α-synuclein processing and improve behavioral outcomes. Hence, inhibition of GCS represents a disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for GBA-related synucleinopathies and conceivably for certain forms of sporadic disease. PMID:28223512

  8. Loss of ceramide synthase 3 causes lethal skin barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Jennemann, Richard; Rabionet, Mariona; Gorgas, Karin; Epstein, Sharon; Dalpke, Alexander; Rothermel, Ulrike; Bayerle, Aline; van der Hoeven, Franciscus; Imgrund, Silke; Kirsch, Joachim; Nickel, Walter; Willecke, Klaus; Riezman, Howard; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Sandhoff, Roger

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum as the outermost epidermal layer protects against exsiccation and infection. Both the underlying cornified envelope (CE) and the intercellular lipid matrix contribute essentially to these two main protective barriers. Epidermis-unique ceramides with ultra-long-chain acyl moities (ULC-Cers) are key components of extracellular lipid lamellae (ELL) and are bound to CE proteins, thereby contributing to the cornified lipid envelope (CLE). Here, we identified human and mouse ceramide synthase 3 (CerS3), among CerS1-6, to be exclusively required for the ULC-Cer synthesis in vitro and of mouse CerS3 in vivo. Deficiency of CerS3 in mice results in complete loss of ULC-Cers (≥C26), lack of continuous ELL and a non-functional CLE. Consequently, newborn mutant mice die shortly after birth from transepidermal water loss. Mutant skin is prone to Candida albicans infection highlighting ULC-Cers to be pivotal for both barrier functions. Persistent periderm, hyperkeratosis and deficient cornification are hallmarks of mutant skin demonstrating loss of Cers to trigger a keratinocyte maturation arrest at an embryonic pre-barrier stage.

  9. Inhibition studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI).

    PubMed

    Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Bulloch, Esther M M; Rutledge, Peter J; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun; Payne, Richard J

    2010-07-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI), a member of the chorismate-utilizing enzyme family, catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the siderophore mycobactin T. This complex secondary metabolite is essential for both virulence and survival of M. tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). It is therefore anticipated that inhibitors of this enzyme may serve as TB therapies with a novel mode of action. Herein we describe the first inhibition study of M. tuberculosis MbtI using a library of functionalized benzoate-based inhibitors designed to mimic the substrate (chorismate) and intermediate (isochorismate) of the MbtI-catalyzed reaction. The most potent inhibitors prepared were those designed to mimic the enzyme intermediate, isochorismate. These compounds, based on a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate scaffold, proved to be low-micromolar inhibitors of MbtI. The most potent inhibitors in this series possessed hydrophobic enol ether side chains at C3 in place of the enol-pyruvyl side chain found in chorismate and isochorismate.

  10. Uncoupled Cardiac Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Gad A.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Liu, Hong; Jiao, Zhe; Xiao, Hong D.; Lovelock, Joshua D.; Boulden, Beth M.; Widder, Julian; Fredd, Scott; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Wolska, Beata M.; Dikalov, Sergey; Harrison, David G.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is one consequence of hypertension and caused by impaired cardiac diastolic relaxation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a known modulator of cardiac relaxation. Hypertension can lead to a reduction in vascular NO, in part because nitric oxide synthase (NOS) becomes uncoupled when oxidative depletion of its co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) occurs.Similar events may occur in the heart leading to uncoupled NOS and diastolic dysfunction. Methods and Results In a hypertensive mouse model, diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by cardiac oxidation, a reduction in cardiac BH4, and uncoupled NOS. Compared to sham-operated animals, male mice with unilateral nephrectomy, with subcutaneous implantation of a controlled release deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellet, and given 1% saline to drink were mildly hypertensive and had diastolic dysfunction in the absence of systolic dysfunction or cardiac hypertrophy. The hypertensive mouse hearts showed increased oxidized biopterins, NOS-dependent superoxide production, reduced NO production, and phosphorylated phospholamban. Feeding hypertensive mice BH4 (5 mg/day), but not treating with hydralazine or tetrahydroneopterin, improved cardiac BH4 stores, phosphorylated phospholamban levels, and diastolic dysfunction. Isolated cardiomyocyte experiments revealed impaired relaxation that was normalized with acute BH4 treatment. Targeted cardiac overexpression of angiotensin converting enzyme also resulted in cardiac oxidation, NOS uncoupling, and diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension. Conclusions Cardiac oxidation, independent of vascular changes, can lead to uncoupled cardiac NOS and diastolic dysfunction. BH4 may represent a possible treatment for diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20083682

  11. Structure-Based Discovery of Inhibitors of Thymidylate Synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoichet, Brian K.; Stroud, Robert M.; Santi, Daniel V.; Kuntz, Irwin D.; Perry, Kathy M.

    1993-03-01

    A molecular docking computer program (DOCK) was used to screen the Fine Chemical Directory, a database of commercially available compounds, for molecules that are complementary to thymidylate synthase (TS), a chemotherapeutic target. Besides retrieving the substrate and several known inhibitors, DOCK proposed putative inhibitors previously unknown to bind to the enzyme. Three of these compounds inhibited Lactobacillus caser TS at submillimolar concentrations. One of these inhibitors, sulisobenzone, crystallized with TS in two configurations that differed from the DOCK-favored geometry: a counterion was bound in the substrate site, which resulted in a 6 to 9 angstrom displacement of the inhibitor. The structure of the complexes suggested another binding region in the active site that could be exploited. This region was probed with molecules sterically similar to sulisobenzone, which led to the identification of a family of phenolphthalein analogs that inhibit TS in the 1 to 30 micromolar range. These inhibitors do not resemble the substrates of the enzyme. A crystal structure of phenolphthalein with TS shows that it binds in the target site in a configuration that resembles the one suggested by DOCK.

  12. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jorens, P. G.; Matthys, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    L-Arginine is converted to the highly reactive and unstable nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline by an enzyme named nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO decomposes into other nitrogen oxides such as nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO2-), and in the presence of superoxide anion to the potent oxidizing agent peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Activated rodent macrophages are capable of expressing an inducible form of this enzyme (iNOS) in response to appropriate stimuli, i.e., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Other cytokines can modulate the induction of NO biosynthesis in macrophages. NO is a major effector molecule of the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity of rodent macrophages against certain micro-organisms and tumour cells, respectively. The NO synthesizing pathway has been demonstrated in human monocytes and other cells, but its role in host defence seems to be accessory. A delicate functional balance between microbial stimuli, host-derived cytokines and hormones in the microenvironment regulates iNOS expression. This review will focus mainly on the known and proposed mechanisms of the regulation of iNOS induction, and on agents that can modulate NO release once the active enzyme has been expressed in the macrophage. PMID:18475620

  13. Sequential induction of prostaglandin E and D synthases in inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Schuligoi, Rufina . E-mail: rufina.schuligoi@meduni-graz.at; Grill, Magdalena; Heinemann, Akos; Peskar, Bernhard A.; Amann, Rainer

    2005-09-30

    Enhanced biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)D{sub 2} and subsequent formation of 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-PGJ{sub 2} has been suggested to contribute to resolution of inflammation. The primary aim of the present study in mouse heart was, therefore, to determine at the transcriptional level if there is sequential induction of PGE and PGD synthases (S) during inflammation. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1{beta} in heart was enhanced 4 h after systemic inflammation and declined thereafter within 3-5 days to basal levels. In contrast to cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-bound (m)-PGES-1, which both peaked 4 h after endotoxin administration, hematopoietic (H)-PGDS expression was enhanced only 48 h after endotoxin. The expression of lipocalin-type (L)-PGDS was not significantly influenced. mRNA encoding the putative target of 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-PGJ{sub 2}, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, was enhanced between 4 and 24 h after induction of inflammation. Treatment of mice with acetylsalicylic acid or indomethacin at doses effective to cause near-complete inhibition of PGE{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2} biosynthesis in heart ex vivo resulted in enhanced expression of IL-1{beta} 24 h after endotoxin administration. These results provide additional support for the hypothesis of a shift towards PGD{sub 2} biosynthesis during resolution of inflammation.

  14. The inner workings of the hydrazine synthase multiprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Dietl, Andreas; Ferousi, Christina; Maalcke, Wouter J; Menzel, Andreas; de Vries, Simon; Keltjens, Jan T; Jetten, Mike S M; Kartal, Boran; Barends, Thomas R M

    2015-11-19

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has a major role in the Earth's nitrogen cycle and is used in energy-efficient wastewater treatment. This bacterial process combines nitrite and ammonium to form dinitrogen (N2) gas, and has been estimated to synthesize up to 50% of the dinitrogen gas emitted into our atmosphere from the oceans. Strikingly, the anammox process relies on the highly unusual, extremely reactive intermediate hydrazine, a compound also used as a rocket fuel because of its high reducing power. So far, the enzymatic mechanism by which hydrazine is synthesized is unknown. Here we report the 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure, as well as biophysical and spectroscopic studies, of a hydrazine synthase multiprotein complex isolated from the anammox organism Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. The structure shows an elongated dimer of heterotrimers, each of which has two unique c-type haem-containing active sites, as well as an interaction point for a redox partner. Furthermore, a system of tunnels connects these active sites. The crystal structure implies a two-step mechanism for hydrazine synthesis: a three-electron reduction of nitric oxide to hydroxylamine at the active site of the γ-subunit and its subsequent condensation with ammonia, yielding hydrazine in the active centre of the α-subunit. Our results provide the first, to our knowledge, detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological hydrazine synthesis, which is of major significance for our understanding of the conversion of nitrogenous compounds in nature.

  15. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  16. Elucidating nitric oxide synthase domain interactions by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Scott A; Holden, Jeffrey K; Li, Huiying; Poulos, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a multidomain enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) by oxidizing L-Arg to NO and L-citrulline. NO production requires multiple interdomain electron transfer steps between the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and heme domain. Specifically, NADPH-derived electrons are transferred to the heme-containing oxygenase domain via the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and FMN containing reductase domains. While crystal structures are available for both the reductase and oxygenase domains of NOS, to date there is no atomic level structural information on domain interactions required for the final FMN-to-heme electron transfer step. Here, we evaluate a model of this final electron transfer step for the heme-FMN-calmodulin NOS complex based on the recent biophysical studies using a 105-ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The resulting equilibrated complex structure is very stable and provides a detailed prediction of interdomain contacts required for stabilizing the NOS output state. The resulting equilibrated complex model agrees well with previous experimental work and provides a detailed working model of the final NOS electron transfer step required for NO biosynthesis.

  17. Diverse Functions of Endothelial NO Synthases System: NO and EDH

    PubMed Central

    Godo, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Endothelium-dependent relaxations are predominantly regulated by nitric oxide (NO) in large conduit arteries and by endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) in small resistance vessels. Although the nature of EDH factors varies depending on species and vascular beds, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial NO synthases (eNOS)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an EDH factor in animals and humans. This vessel size-dependent contribution of NO and EDH is, at least in part, attributable to the diverse roles of endothelial NOSs system; in large conduit arteries, eNOS mainly serves as a NO-generating system to elicit soluble guanylate cyclase–cyclic guanosine monophosphate-mediated relaxations, whereas in small resistance vessels, it serves as a superoxide-generating system to cause EDH/H2O2-mediated relaxations. Endothelial caveolin-1 may play an important role for the diverse roles of NOSs. Although reactive oxygen species are generally regarded harmful, the physiological roles of H2O2 have attracted much attention as accumulating evidence has shown that endothelium-derived H2O2 contributes to cardiovascular homeostasis. The diverse functions of endothelial NOSs system with NO and EDH/H2O2 could account for a compensatory mechanism in the setting of endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we will briefly summarize the current knowledge on the diverse functions of endothelial NOSs system: NO and EDH/H2O2. PMID:26647119

  18. Mechanics of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Living Plant Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehfroosh, Nina; Liu, Derui; Ramos, Kieran P.; Yang, Xiaoli; Goldner, Lori S.; Baskin, Tobias I.

    The polymer cellulose is one of the major components of the world's biomass with unique and fascinating characteristics such as its high tensile strength, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Because of these distinctive aspects, cellulose has been the subject of enormous scientific and industrial interest, yet there are still fundamental open questions about cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose is synthesized by a complex of transmembrane proteins called ``Cellulose Synthase A'' (CESA) in the plasma membrane. Studying the dynamics and kinematics of the CESA complex will help reveal the mechanism of cellulose synthesis and permit the development and validation of models of CESA motility. To understand what drives these complexes through the cell membrane, we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and variable angle epi-fluorescence microscopy to track individual, fluorescently-labeled CESA complexes as they move in the hypocotyl and root of living plants. A mean square displacement analysis will be applied to distinguish ballistic, diffusional, and other forms of motion. We report on the results of these tracking experiments. This work was funded by NSF/PHY-1205989.

  19. Multisite phosphorylation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L.; Huber, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase is phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro on serine residues. Phosphorylation of SPS in vivo yields twelve major phosphopeptides after a tryptic digest and two dimensional mapping. The in vivo labeling of three of these SPS P-peptides is reduced in illuminated leaves where the extracted enzyme is activated relative to that of dark leaves. Two of these inhibitory sites are phosphorylated as well when SPS is inactivated in vitro using ({sup 32}P)ATP. In vivo phosphorylation of two other sites is enhanced during mannose feeding of the leaves (in light or dark) which produces the highest activation state of SPS. Overall, the results confirm that light-dark regulation of SPS activity occurs as a result of regulatory seryl-phosphorylation and involves a balance between phosphorylation of sites which inhibit or stimulate activity. Regulation of the SPS protein kinase that inhibits activity is relatively unaffected by phosphate but inhibited by G1c 6-P (IC{sub 50}{approx}5 mM), which may explain the control of SPS activation state by light-dark signals.

  20. Nitric oxide synthase is induced in sporulation of Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Golderer, Georg; Werner, Ernst R.; Leitner, Stefan; Gröbner, Peter; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum expresses a calcium-independent nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) resembling the inducible NOS isoenzyme in mammals. We have now cloned and sequenced this, the first nonanimal NOS to be identified, showing that it shares < 39% amino acid identity with known NOSs but contains conserved binding motifs for all NOS cofactors. It lacks the sequence insert responsible for calcium dependence in the calcium-dependent NOS isoenzymes. NOS expression was strongly up-regulated in Physarum macroplasmodia during the 5-day starvation period needed to induce sporulation competence. Induction of both NOS and sporulation competence were inhibited by glucose, a growth signal and known repressor of sporulation, and by l-N6–(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (NIL), an inhibitor of inducible NOS. Sporulation, which is triggered after the starvation period by light exposure, was also prevented by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylate cyclase. In addition, also expression of lig1, a sporulation-specific gene, was strongly attenuated by NIL or ODQ. 8-Bromo-cGMP, added 2 h before the light exposure, restored the capacity of NIL-treated macroplasmodia to express lig1 and to sporulate. This indicates that the second messenger used for NO signaling in sporulation of Physarum is cGMP and links this signaling pathway to expression of lig1. PMID:11358872

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen upregulates cochlear constitutive nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a known adjuvant for treating ischemia-related inner ear diseases. Controversies still exist in the role of HBOT in cochlear diseases. Few studies to date have investigated the cellular changes that occur in inner ears after HBOT. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is an important signaling molecule in cochlear physiology and pathology. Here we investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eardrum morphology, cochlear function and expression of NOS isoforms in cochlear substructures after repetitive HBOT in guinea pigs. Results Minor changes in the eardrum were observed after repetitive HBOT, which did not result in a significant hearing threshold shift by tone burst auditory brainstem responses. A differential effect of HBOT on the expression of NOS isoforms was identified. Upregulation of constitutive NOS (nNOS and eNOS) was found in the substructures of the cochlea after HBOT, but inducible NOS was not found in normal or HBOT animals, as shown by immunohistochemistry. There was no obvious DNA fragmentation present in this HBOT animal model. Conclusions The present evidence indicates that the customary HBOT protocol may increase constitutive NOS expression but such upregulation did not cause cell death in the treated cochlea. The cochlear morphology and auditory function are consequently not changed through the protocol. PMID:21342510

  2. Structure-based inhibitor discovery of Helicobacter pylori dehydroquinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jai-Shin; Cheng, Wen-Chi; Wang, Hung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2008-08-15

    Dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzyme that converts 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) into 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ). Since it catalyzes the second key step in the shikimate pathway, which is crucial for the aromatic amino acid metabolism in bacteria, fungi, and plants, but not in mammals, DHQS is a potential target for new antimicrobial agents, anti-parasitic agents and herbicides. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori DHQS (HpDHQS) complexed with NAD has been determined at 2.4-A resolution and was found to possess an N-terminal Rossmann-fold domain and a C-terminal alpha-helical domain. Structural comparison reveals that the binary complex adopts an open-state conformation and shares conserved residues in the binding pocket. Virtual docking of compounds into the active site of the HpDHQS structure using the GOLD docking program led to the identification of several inhibitors. The most active compound had an IC(50) value of 61 microM, which may serve as a lead for potent inhibitors.

  3. Allostery and the dynamic oligomerization of porphobilinogen synthase

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Eileen K.; Lawrence, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    The structural basis for allosteric regulation of porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is modulation of a quaternary structure equilibrium between octamer and hexamer (via dimers), which is represented schematically as 8mer ⇔ 2mer ⇔ 2mer* ⇔ 6mer*. The “*” represents a reorientation between two domains of each subunit that occurs in the dissociated state because it is sterically forbidden in the larger multimers. Allosteric effectors of PBGS are both intrinsic and extrinsic and are phylogenetically variable. In some species this equilibrium is modulated intrinsically by magnesium which binds at a site specific to the 8mer. In other species this equilibrium is modulated intrinsically by pH; the guanidinium group of an arginine being spatially equivalent to the allosteric magnesium ion. In humans, disease associated variants all shift the equilibrium toward the 6mer* relative to wild type. The 6mer* has a surface cavity that is not present in the 8mer and is proposed as a small molecule allosteric binding site. In silico and in vitro approaches have revealed species-specific allosteric PBGS inhibitors that stabilize the 6mer*. Some of these inhibitors are drugs in clinical use leading to the hypothesis that extrinsic allosteric inhibition of human PBGS could be a mechanism for drug side effects. PMID:22037356

  4. Differences in substrate specificities of five bacterial wax ester synthases.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Wahlen, Bradley D; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2012-08-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production.

  5. Expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase correlate with ethanol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guang-Jin; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Gong, Zuo-Jiong; Zhang, Pin; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Shi-Hua

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury and their relation with liver damage, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the liver. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given fish oil (0.5 mL) along with ethanol or isocaloric dextrose daily via gastrogavage for 4 or 6 wk. Liver injury was assessed using serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and pathological analysis. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide contents, iNOS and eNOS activity were determined. NF-κB p65,iNOS, eNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression in the liver were detected by immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Chronic ethanol gavage for 4 wk caused steatosis, inflammation and necrosis in the liver, and elevated serum ALT activity. Prolonged ethanol administration (6 wk) enhanced the liver damage. These responses were accompanied with increased lipid peroxidation, NO contents, iNOS activity and reduced eNOS activity. NF-κB p65, iNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression were markedly induced after chronic ethanol gavage, whereas eNOS mRNA expression remained unchanged. The enhanced iNOS activity and expression were positively correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-κB, and TNF-α mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: iNOS expression and activity are induced in the liver after chronic ethanol exposure in rats, which are correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-κB and TNF-α expression. eNOS activity is reduced, but its mRNA expression is not affected. PMID:16688828

  6. Functional analysis of (4S)-limonene synthase mutants reveals determinants of catalytic outcome in a model monoterpene synthase.

    PubMed

    Srividya, Narayanan; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney B; Lange, B Markus

    2015-03-17

    Crystal structural data for (4S)-limonene synthase [(4S)-LS] of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) were used to infer which amino acid residues are in close proximity to the substrate and carbocation intermediates of the enzymatic reaction. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of 48 amino acids combined with enzyme fidelity analysis [percentage of (-)-limonene produced] indicated which residues ar