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Sample records for 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide fipi

  1. Two sites of action for PLD2 inhibitors: The enzyme catalytic center and an allosteric, phosphoinositide biding pocket.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ramya; Mahankali, Madhu; Alter, Gerald; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) has been implicated in many physiological functions, such as chemotaxis and phagocytosis, as well as pathological functions, such as cancer cell invasion and metastasis. New inhibitors have been described that hamper the role of PLD in those pathologies but their site of action is not known. We have characterized the biochemical and biological behavior of the PLD1/2 dual inhibitor 5-Fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), and the specific PLD2 inhibitor, N-[2-[1-(3-Fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,-8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-2-naphthalenecarboxamide (NFOT), and found that both FIPI and NFOT are mixed-kinetics inhibitors. Mutagenesis studies indicate that FIPI binds at S757 of PLD2, which is within the HKD2 catalytic site of the enzyme, whereas NFOT binds to PLD2 at two different sites, one being at S757/S648 and another to an allosteric site that is a natural site occupied by PIP2 (R210/R212). This latter site, along with F244/L245/L246, forms a hydrophobic pocket in the PH domain. The mechanism of action of FIPI is a direct effect on the catalytic site (and as such inhibits both PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms), whereas PLD2 affects both the catalytic site (orthosteric) and blocks PIP2 binding to PLD2 (allosteric), which negates the natural enhancing role of PIP2. Moreover, NFOT prevents cell invasion of cancer cells, which does not occur in cells overexpressing PLD2-F244A/L245A/L246A, or PLD2-R210A/R212A, or PLD2-S757/S648 mutants. This study provides new specific knowledge of enzyme regulation and mechanisms of activation and inhibition of PLD2 that are necessary to understand its role in cell signaling and to develop new inhibitors for cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

  2. Cyclic responding by pigeons on the peak timing procedure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick-Steger, K; Miller, S S; Betti, C A; Wasserman, E A

    1996-10-01

    The present experiment examined whether discrimination learning shapes the single-peaked response distributions usually obtained with the peak procedure. Two sources of learning in pigeons were disclosed: learning to respond near the time of reinforcement on fixed interval (FI) trials and learning to withhold responding once the FI duration had elapsed on peak interval (PI) trials. Pigeons also produced a highly unexpected second peak in responding on nonreinforced PI trials at 3 times the FI duration. Follow-up experiments showed that a 1:4 FI:PI duration ratio supported double peaks, but only 1 peak was obtained with a 1:8 FI:PI duration ratio. Finally, 4 peaks could be observed on extra-long PI trials under a 1:4:8 FI:PI:PI ratio procedure. The multiple-peaked response distributions are an unprecedented finding that present a major challenge to any theory of time perception.

  3. Design, synthesis, and DNA binding characteristics of a group of orthogonally positioned diamino, N-formamido, pyrrole- and imidazole-containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Sameer; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Plaunt, Adam; Ferguson, Amanda; Lee, Megan; Tzou, Samuel; Sjoholm, Robert; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Ramos, Joseph; Wang, Shuo; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Orthogonally positioned diamino/dicationic polyamides (PAs) have good water solubility and enhanced binding affinity, whilst retaining DNA minor groove and sequence specificity compared to their monoamino/monocationic counterparts. The synthesis and DNA binding properties of the following diamino PAs: f-IPI (3a), f-IPP (4), f-PIP (5), and f-PPP (6) are described. P denotes the site where a 1-propylamino group is attached to the N1-position of the heterocycle. Binding of the diamino PAs to DNA was assessed by DNase I footprinting, thermal denaturation, circular dichroism titration, biosensor surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. According to SPR studies, f-IPI (3a) bound more strongly (K(eq)=2.4×10(8) M(-1)) and with comparable sequence selectivity to its cognate sequence 5'-ACGCGT-3' when compared to its monoamino analog f-IPI (1). The binding of f-IPI (3a) to 5'-ACGCGT-3' via the stacked dimer motif was balanced between enthalpy and entropy, and that was quite different from the enthalpy-driven binding of its monoamino parent f-IPI (1). f-IPP (4) also bound more strongly to its cognate sequence 5'-ATGCAT-3' (K(eq)=7.4×10(6) M(-1)) via the side-by-side stacked motif than its monoamino analog f-IPP (2a). Although f-PPP (6) bound via a 1:1 motif, it bound strongly to its cognate sequence 5'-AAATTT-3' (K(eq)=4.8×10(7) M(-1)), 15-times higher than the binding of its monoamino analog f-PPP (2c), albeit f-PPP bound via the stacked motif. Finally, f-PIP (5) bound to its target sequence 5'-ATCGAT-3' as a stacked dimer and it has the lowest affinity among the diamino PAs tested (Keq <1×10(5) M(-1)). This was about two times lower in affinity than the binding of its monoamino analog f-PIP (2b). The results further demonstrated that the 'core rules' of DNA recognition by monoamino PAs also apply to their diamino analogs. Specifically, PAs that contain a stacked IP core structure bind most strongly (highest binding constants

  4. Design, synthesis, and DNA binding characteristics of a group of orthogonally positioned diamino, N-formamido, pyrrole- and imidazole-containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Sameer; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Plaunt, Adam; Ferguson, Amanda; Lee, Megan; Tzou, Samuel; Sjoholm, Robert; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Ramos, Joseph; Wang, Shuo; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Orthogonally positioned diamino/dicationic polyamides (PAs) have good water solubility and enhanced binding affinity, whilst retaining DNA minor groove and sequence specificity compared to their monoamino/monocationic counterparts. The synthesis and DNA binding properties of the following diamino PAs: f-IPI (3a), f-IPP (4), f-PIP (5), and f-PPP (6) are described. P denotes the site where a 1-propylamino group is attached to the N1-position of the heterocycle. Binding of the diamino PAs to DNA was assessed by DNase I footprinting, thermal denaturation, circular dichroism titration, biosensor surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. According to SPR studies, f-IPI (3a) bound more strongly (K(eq)=2.4×10(8) M(-1)) and with comparable sequence selectivity to its cognate sequence 5'-ACGCGT-3' when compared to its monoamino analog f-IPI (1). The binding of f-IPI (3a) to 5'-ACGCGT-3' via the stacked dimer motif was balanced between enthalpy and entropy, and that was quite different from the enthalpy-driven binding of its monoamino parent f-IPI (1). f-IPP (4) also bound more strongly to its cognate sequence 5'-ATGCAT-3' (K(eq)=7.4×10(6) M(-1)) via the side-by-side stacked motif than its monoamino analog f-IPP (2a). Although f-PPP (6) bound via a 1:1 motif, it bound strongly to its cognate sequence 5'-AAATTT-3' (K(eq)=4.8×10(7) M(-1)), 15-times higher than the binding of its monoamino analog f-PPP (2c), albeit f-PPP bound via the stacked motif. Finally, f-PIP (5) bound to its target sequence 5'-ATCGAT-3' as a stacked dimer and it has the lowest affinity among the diamino PAs tested (Keq <1×10(5) M(-1)). This was about two times lower in affinity than the binding of its monoamino analog f-PIP (2b). The results further demonstrated that the 'core rules' of DNA recognition by monoamino PAs also apply to their diamino analogs. Specifically, PAs that contain a stacked IP core structure bind most strongly (highest binding constants

  5. Butanol isomers exert distinct effects on voltage-gated calcium channel currents and thus catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    McDavid, Sarah; Bauer, Mary Beth; Brindley, Rebecca L; Jewell, Mark L; Currie, Kevin P M

    2014-01-01

    Butanol (C4H10OH) has been used both to dissect the molecular targets of alcohols/general anesthetics and to implicate phospholipase D (PLD) signaling in a variety of cellular functions including neurotransmitter and hormone exocytosis. Like other primary alcohols, 1-butanol is a substrate for PLD and thereby disrupts formation of the intracellular signaling lipid phosphatidic acid. Because secondary and tertiary butanols do not undergo this transphosphatidylation, they have been used as controls for 1-butanol to implicate PLD signaling. Recently, selective pharmacological inhibitors of PLD have been developed and, in some cases, fail to block cellular functions previously ascribed to PLD using primary alcohols. For example, exocytosis of insulin and degranulation of mast cells are blocked by primary alcohols, but not by the PLD inhibitor FIPI. In this study we show that 1-butanol reduces catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells to a much greater extent than tert-butanol, and that the PLD inhibitor VU0155056 has no effect. Using fluorescent imaging we show the effect of these drugs on depolarization-evoked calcium entry parallel those on secretion. Patch-clamp electrophysiology confirmed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca)) is inhibited by 1-butanol, with little or no block by secondary or tert-butanol. Detailed comparison shows for the first time that the different butanol isomers exert distinct, and sometimes opposing, effects on the voltage-dependence and gating kinetics of I(Ca). We discuss these data with regard to PLD signaling in cellular physiology and the molecular targets of general anesthetics.