Science.gov

Sample records for 5-fold cross validation

  1. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  2. Cross-Validated Bagged Learning

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Sinisi, Sandra E.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications aim to learn a high dimensional parameter of a data generating distribution based on a sample of independent and identically distributed observations. For example, the goal might be to estimate the conditional mean of an outcome given a list of input variables. In this prediction context, bootstrap aggregating (bagging) has been introduced as a method to reduce the variance of a given estimator at little cost to bias. Bagging involves applying an estimator to multiple bootstrap samples, and averaging the result across bootstrap samples. In order to address the curse of dimensionality, a common practice has been to apply bagging to estimators which themselves use cross-validation, thereby using cross-validation within a bootstrap sample to select fine-tuning parameters trading off bias and variance of the bootstrap sample-specific candidate estimators. In this article we point out that in order to achieve the correct bias variance trade-off for the parameter of interest, one should apply the cross-validation selector externally to candidate bagged estimators indexed by these fine-tuning parameters. We use three simulations to compare the new cross-validated bagging method with bagging of cross-validated estimators and bagging of non-cross-validated estimators. PMID:19255599

  3. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  4. Na8Au9.8(4)Ga7.2 and Na17Au15.87(2)Ga46.63: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold 0 Cross Mark symmetries in the Na-Au-Ga system

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-08-29

    The Na-rich part (similar to 30% Na) of the Na-Au-Ga system between NaAu2, NaGa4, and Na(22)Ga39 has been found to contain the ternary phases NasAug(8)(4)Ga-7.2 (I) and NavAu(5.87(2))Ga46.63 (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a= 5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) A, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, a =16.325(2), c=35.242(7) A, and contains building blocks that are structurally. identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au-Ga and Au-Au bonds in I and by Ga-Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na-Au and Na-Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, 20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Nai(3)Aui(2)Gai(5) quasicrystal approximant. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross Calibration and Validation Using CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut; Gohlke, Jan; Ruzmaikin, Alex; Elliott, Denis

    2008-01-01

    The presentation focuses on study questions, effort, and result. Study questions include a focus on MW/LW, error sources and what can be expected, how validation will be performed and what resolution is required, and spatial resolution required for cross-calibration. Study effort includes empirical approach by examining AIRS ,IASI and MODIS cross-calibration methods already in place and estimate the number of clear and Dome C observations possible versus spatial resolution. Study results include 5000 sampler per cross-calibration recommended, insufficient cloud free and Dome C AWS observations for cross calibration and validation at 100km, and less than 20 km IFOV at 100 km swath needed to achieve sufficient samples for cross-calibration of CLARREO.

  6. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  7. Validity Evidence in Scale Development: The Application of Cross Validation and Classification-Sequencing Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tu¨lin

    2014-01-01

    In literature, it has been observed that many enhanced criteria are limited by factor analysis techniques. Besides examinations of statistical structure and/or psychological structure, such validity studies as cross validation and classification-sequencing studies should be performed frequently. The purpose of this study is to examine cross…

  8. Cross validation in LASSO and its acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate leave-one-out cross validation (CV) as a determinator of the weight of the penalty term in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). First, on the basis of the message passing algorithm and a perturbative discussion assuming that the number of observations is sufficiently large, we provide simple formulas for approximately assessing two types of CV errors, which enable us to significantly reduce the necessary cost of computation. These formulas also provide a simple connection of the CV errors to the residual sums of squares between the reconstructed and the given measurements. Second, on the basis of this finding, we analytically evaluate the CV errors when the design matrix is given as a simple random matrix in the large size limit by using the replica method. Finally, these results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. We also apply the simple formulas of the first type of CV error to an actual dataset of the supernovae.

  9. Formula Estimation of Cross-Validated Multiple Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal

    A review of cross-validation shrinkage formulas is presented which focuses on the theoretical and practical problems in the use of various formulas. Practical guidelines for use of both formulas and empirical cross-validation are provided. A comparison of results using these formulas in a range of situations is then presented. The result of these…

  10. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  11. A K-fold Averaging Cross-validation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Hu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Cross-validation type of methods have been widely used to facilitate model estimation and variable selection. In this work, we suggest a new K-fold cross validation procedure to select a candidate ‘optimal’ model from each hold-out fold and average the K candidate ‘optimal’ models to obtain the ultimate model. Due to the averaging effect, the variance of the proposed estimates can be significantly reduced. This new procedure results in more stable and efficient parameter estimation than the classical K-fold cross validation procedure. In addition, we show the asymptotic equivalence between the proposed and classical cross validation procedures in the linear regression setting. We also demonstrate the broad applicability of the proposed procedure via two examples of parameter sparsity regularization and quantile smoothing splines modeling. We illustrate the promise of the proposed method through simulations and a real data example.

  12. A cross-validation package driving Netica with python

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are powerful tools for probabilistically simulating natural systems and emulating process models. Cross validation is a technique to avoid overfitting resulting from overly complex BNs. Overfitting reduces predictive skill. Cross-validation for BNs is known but rarely implemented due partly to a lack of software tools designed to work with available BN packages. CVNetica is open-source, written in Python, and extends the Netica software package to perform cross-validation and read, rebuild, and learn BNs from data. Insights gained from cross-validation and implications on prediction versus description are illustrated with: a data-driven oceanographic application; and a model-emulation application. These examples show that overfitting occurs when BNs become more complex than allowed by supporting data and overfitting incurs computational costs as well as causing a reduction in prediction skill. CVNetica evaluates overfitting using several complexity metrics (we used level of discretization) and its impact on performance metrics (we used skill).

  13. The Cross Validation of the Attitudes toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Joan D.; Neal, W. R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Reliability and factorial validity of the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale was supported in a cross-validation study with teachers. Three factors emerged: learning capability, general mainstreaming, and traditional limiting disabilities. Factor intercorrelations varied from .42 to .55; correlations between total scores and individual factors…

  14. Comprehensive Assessment of Emotional Disturbance: A Cross-Validation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Emily S.; Doyon, Katie E.; Saldana, Enrique; Allen, Megan Redding

    2007-01-01

    Assessing a student for emotional disturbance is a serious and complex task given the stigma of the label and the ambiguities of the federal definition. One way that school psychologists can be more confident in their assessment results is to cross validate data from different sources using the RIOT approach (Review, Interview, Observe, Test).…

  15. Cross-Cultural Validation of TEMAS, a Minority Projective Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    The theoretical framework and cross-cultural validation of Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS), a projective test developed to measure personality development in ethnic minority children, is presented. The TEMAS test consists of 23 chromatic pictures which incorporate the following characteristics: (1) representation of antithetical concepts which the…

  16. Attrition from an Adolescent Addiction Treatment Program: A Cross Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Kathleen

    Treatment attrition is a major problem for programs treating adolescent substance abusers. To isolate and cross validate factors which are predictive of addiction treatment attrition among adolescent substance abusers, screening interview and diagnostic variables from 119 adolescent in-patients were submitted to a discriminant equation analysis.…

  17. Methodology Review: Estimation of Population Validity and Cross-Validity, and the Use of Equal Weights in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    This review finds that formula-based procedures can be used in place of empirical validation for estimating population validity or in place of empirical cross-validation for estimating population cross-validity. Discusses conditions under which the equal weights procedure is a viable alternative. (SLD)

  18. Experimental validation of lead cross sections for scale and MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    Moving spent nuclear fuel between facilities often requires the use of lead-shielded casks. Criticality safety that is based upon calculations requires experimental validation of the fuel matrix and lead cross section libraries. A series of critical experiments using a high-enriched uranium-aluminum fuel element with a variety of reflectors, including lead, has been identified. Twenty-one configurations were evaluated in this study. The fuel element was modelled for KENO V.a and MCNP 4a using various cross section sets. The experiments addressed in this report can be used to validate lead-reflected calculations. Factors influencing calculated k{sub eff} which require further study include diameters of styrofoam inserts and homogenization.

  19. Benchmarking protein classification algorithms via supervised cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Dhir, Somdutta; Sonego, Paolo; Pacurar, Mircea; Netoteia, Sergiu; Nijveen, Harm; Kuzniar, Arnold; Leunissen, Jack A M; Kocsor, András; Pongor, Sándor

    2008-04-24

    Development and testing of protein classification algorithms are hampered by the fact that the protein universe is characterized by groups vastly different in the number of members, in average protein size, similarity within group, etc. Datasets based on traditional cross-validation (k-fold, leave-one-out, etc.) may not give reliable estimates on how an algorithm will generalize to novel, distantly related subtypes of the known protein classes. Supervised cross-validation, i.e., selection of test and train sets according to the known subtypes within a database has been successfully used earlier in conjunction with the SCOP database. Our goal was to extend this principle to other databases and to design standardized benchmark datasets for protein classification. Hierarchical classification trees of protein categories provide a simple and general framework for designing supervised cross-validation strategies for protein classification. Benchmark datasets can be designed at various levels of the concept hierarchy using a simple graph-theoretic distance. A combination of supervised and random sampling was selected to construct reduced size model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. Over 3000 new classification tasks were added to our recently established protein classification benchmark collection that currently includes protein sequence (including protein domains and entire proteins), protein structure and reading frame DNA sequence data. We carried out an extensive evaluation based on various machine-learning algorithms such as nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, random forests and logistic regression, used in conjunction with comparison algorithms, BLAST, Smith-Waterman, Needleman-Wunsch, as well as 3D comparison methods DALI and PRIDE. The resulting datasets provide lower, and in our opinion more realistic estimates of the classifier performance than do random cross-validation schemes. A combination of supervised and

  20. The Proximal Trajectory Algorithm in SVM Cross Validation.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Annabella; Fuduli, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    We propose a bilevel cross-validation scheme for support vector machine (SVM) model selection based on the construction of the entire regularization path. Since such path is a particular case of the more general proximal trajectory concept from nonsmooth optimization, we propose for its construction an algorithm based on solving a finite number of structured linear programs. Our methodology, differently from other approaches, works directly on the primal form of SVM. Numerical results are presented on binary data sets drawn from literature. PMID:27101080

  1. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    There are two general methods of cross-validation: empirical estimation, and formula estimation. In choosing a specific cross-validation procedure, one should consider both costs (e.g., inefficient use of available data in estimating regression parameters) and benefits (e.g., accuracy in estimating population cross-validity). Empirical…

  2. Cross-Validation of Aerobic Capacity Prediction Models in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan Donald; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Greg J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74-0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg⁻¹,min⁻¹ to 8.27 ml·kg⁻¹.min⁻¹. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31-0.62; Agreement = 75.5-89.9%; F = 0.08-0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones. PMID:26186536

  3. ENVISAT RA-2/MWR Cross-Calibration and Validation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Ra-2/Mwr Cross-Calibration; Validation Team

    2003-04-01

    ESA launched its environmental research satellite, ENVISAT, on 1 March 2002. It carries a suite of 10 instruments offering opportunities for a broad range of scientific research and applications. In particular ENVISAT carries a radar altimeter (RA-2), a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a precise tracking system (DORIS). The evaluation of the quality of the ENVISAT Altimetry geophysical data products, the validation against in-situ data and models and the cross-calibration on ERS-2 and other flying altimeters has been performed during the commissioning phase within a team of scientists drawn up from the pre-launch announcement of opportunity. An overview of the objective and approach will be recalled and the results obtained from this teamwork will be presented.

  4. International cross-validation of a BOD5 surrogate.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Bouguelia, Sihem; Goy, Romy-Alice; Yoris, Alison; Berlin, Jeanne; Meche, Perrine; Rocher, Vincent; Mertens, Sharon; Dudal, Yves

    2014-12-01

    BOD5 dates back to 1912 when the Royal Commission decided to use the mean residence time of water in the rivers of England, 5 days, as a standard to measure the biochemical oxygen demand. Initially designed to protect the quality of river waters from extensive sewage discharge, the use of BOD5 has been quickly extended to waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) to monitor their efficiency on a daily basis. The measurement has been automatized but remains a tedious, time- and resource-consuming analysis. We have cross-validated a surrogate BOD5 method on two sites in France and in the USA with a total of 109 samples. This method uses a fluorescent redox indicator on a 96-well microplate to measure microbial catabolic activity for a large number of samples simultaneously. Three statistical tests were used to compare surrogate and reference methods and showed robust equivalence. PMID:24946712

  5. Cross-validating factors associated with discharges against medical advice.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, A J; Fata, M

    1993-05-01

    Between six percent and 35% of psychiatric patients discharge themselves from hospital against medical advice (AMA). The discharges may prevent patients from deriving the full benefit of hospitalization and may result in rapid rehospitalization. We examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 195 irregular discharges from a 237 bed psychiatric hospital over a five year period and found that AMA discharges increased over the study period to a peak of 25% in 1986. There was a strong negative correlation between AMA discharge rates and the willingness of physicians to commit patients involuntarily. Multiple discriminant analysis revealed a set of nine variables that accurately classified 78% of cases into regular or irregular discharge categories. Further analysis revealed that there are two distinct subgroups of patients who discharge themselves AMA: those who repeatedly left the hospital AMA in a regular "revolving back door" pattern and those who left AMA only once. The repeat group exceeded the one-time group in terms of prior admissions, appearances before review boards, and percentage of Natives. The repeat group also spent twice as long in hospital, and 27% were readmitted within one-week of the index AMA discharge. Less than three percent of the one-time AMA group was readmitted within a week. These results were cross-validated on a new sample of irregular discharges and matched controls. PMID:8518982

  6. The Importance of Evaluating Whether Results Will Generalize: Application of Cross-Validation in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Lynn B.

    Cross-validation, an economical method for assessing whether sample results will generalize, is discussed in this paper. Cross-validation is an invariance technique that uses two subsets of the data sample to derive discriminant function coefficients. The two sets of coefficients are then used with each data subset to derive discriminant function…

  7. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines costs and benefits associated with different cross-validation strategies; in particular the way in which the study design affects the cost and benefits of different types of cross-validation. Suggests that the choice between empirical estimation methods and formula estimates involves a trade-off between accuracy and simplicity. (JAC)

  8. Double Cross-Validation in Multiple Regression: A Method of Estimating the Stability of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, R. Kevin

    In multiple regression analysis, where resulting predictive equation effectiveness is subject to shrinkage, it is especially important to evaluate result replicability. Double cross-validation is an empirical method by which an estimate of invariance or stability can be obtained from research data. A procedure for double cross-validation is…

  9. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  10. Cross-Validation of the JSORRAT-II in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Christopher A; Epperson, Douglas L; Edwards, Sarah R

    2016-09-01

    The predictive validity of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II) was evaluated using an exhaustive sample of 11- to 17-year-old male juveniles who offended sexually (JSOs) between 2000 and 2006 in Iowa (n = 529). The validity of the tool in predicting juvenile sexual recidivism was significant (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = .70, 99% confidence interval [CI] = [.60, .81], d = 0.70). Non-significant predictive validity coefficients were observed for the prediction of non-sexual forms of recidivism. Additional analyses were undertaken to test hypotheses about the tool's performance with various subsamples. The age of the JSO at the time of the index sexual offense and time at risk outside secure facility placements interacted significantly with JSORRAT-II scores to predict juvenile sexual recidivism. The implications of these findings for practice and research on the validation of risk assessment tools are discussed. PMID:25179400

  11. Use of Neutron Benchmark Fields for the Validation of Dosimetry Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of validation metrics for dosimetry cross sections in neutron benchmark fields is explored. The strength of some of the metrics in providing validation evidence is examined by applying them to the 252Cf spontaneous fission standard neutron benchmark field, the 235U thermal neutron fission reference benchmark field, the ACRR pool-type reactor central cavity reference benchmark fields, and the SPR-III fast burst reactor central cavity. The IRDFF dosimetry cross section library is used in the validation study and observations are made on the amount of coverage provided to the library contents by validation data available in these benchmark fields.

  12. Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; And Others

    The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) was developed to provide an estimate at recruiting stations of prospects' Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores. The CAST was designed to replace the paper-and-pencil Enlistment Screening Test (EST). The initial validation study of CAST indicated that CAST predicts AFQT at least as accurately…

  13. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Application of Discriminant Analysis and Cross-Validation on Proteomics Data.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Pérez-Guaita, David; Quintás, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput proteomic experiments have raised the importance and complexity of bioinformatic analysis to extract useful information from raw data. Discriminant analysis is frequently used to identify differences among test groups of individuals or to describe combinations of discriminant variables. However, even in relatively large studies, the number of detected variables typically largely exceeds the number of samples and the classifiers should be thoroughly validated to assess their performance for new samples. Cross-validation is a widely approach when an external validation set is not available. In this chapter, different approaches for cross-validation are presented including relevant aspects that should be taken into account to avoid overly optimistic results and the assessment of the statistical significance of cross-validated figures of merit. PMID:26519177

  15. The Performance of Cross-Validation Indices Used to Select among Competing Covariance Structure Models under Multivariate Nonnormality Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    Cudeck and Browne (1983) proposed using cross-validation as a model selection technique in structural equation modeling. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of eight cross-validation indices under conditions not yet examined in the relevant literature, such as nonnormality and cross-validation design. The performance of each…

  16. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  17. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  18. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…

  19. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Rorschach Developmental Index.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Brusadelli, Emanuela; Lang, Margherita; Reese, Jennifer B; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Index (DI) has recently been introduced as a composite Rorschach measure of psychological development and maturation, which can be used both with the Comprehensive System (Exner, 2003), and with the recently developed Rorschach Performance Assessment System (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). As the DI is new, and its validity has not yet been investigated with independent non-U.S. samples, we tested the correlation between DI and age using 3 relatively large samples, 2 of which were from outside the United States (total N = 902). Other Rorschach variables presumably associated with maturation, such as complexity and productivity, were also investigated. As expected, the DI significantly correlated with age, with small variations across the 3 samples. Importantly, the correlation between DI and age remained statistically significant also after controlling for productivity (i.e., the number of responses) and complexity. PMID:25297675

  20. A cross-validation scheme for machine learning algorithms in shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peptides are routinely identified from mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiments by matching observed spectra to peptides derived from protein databases. The error rates of these identifications can be estimated by target-decoy analysis, which involves matching spectra to shuffled or reversed peptides. Besides estimating error rates, decoy searches can be used by semi-supervised machine learning algorithms to increase the number of confidently identified peptides. As for all machine learning algorithms, however, the results must be validated to avoid issues such as overfitting or biased learning, which would produce unreliable peptide identifications. Here, we discuss how the target-decoy method is employed in machine learning for shotgun proteomics, focusing on how the results can be validated by cross-validation, a frequently used validation scheme in machine learning. We also use simulated data to demonstrate the proposed cross-validation scheme's ability to detect overfitting. PMID:23176259

  1. Evaluation and cross-validation of Environmental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph

    Before scientific models (statistical or empirical models based on experimental measurements; physical or mathematical models) can be proposed and selected as ISO Environmental Standards, a Commission of professional experts appointed by an established International Union or Association (e.g. IAGA for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, . . . ) should have been able to study, document, evaluate and validate the best alternative models available at a given epoch. Examples will be given, indicating that different values for the Earth radius have been employed in different data processing laboratories, institutes or agencies, to process, analyse or retrieve series of experimental observations. Furthermore, invariant magnetic coordinates like B and L, commonly used in the study of Earth's radiation belts fluxes and for their mapping, differ from one space mission data center to the other, from team to team, and from country to country. Worse, users of empirical models generally fail to use the original magnetic model which had been employed to compile B and L , and thus to build these environmental models. These are just some flagrant examples of inconsistencies and misuses identified so far; there are probably more of them to be uncovered by careful, independent examination and benchmarking. A meter prototype, the standard unit length that has been determined on 20 May 1875, during the Diplomatic Conference of the Meter, and deposited at the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). In the same token, to coordinate and safeguard progress in the field of Space Weather, similar initiatives need to be undertaken, to prevent wild, uncontrolled dissemination of pseudo Environmental Models and Standards. Indeed, unless validation tests have been performed, there is guaranty, a priori, that all models on the market place have been built consistently with the same units system, and that they are based on identical definitions for the coordinates systems, etc... Therefore

  2. Cross-vendor validation of liver magnetic resonance elastography

    PubMed Central

    Serai, Suraj D.; Yin, Meng; Wang, Hui; Ehman, Richard L.; Podberesky, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and validate the reproducibility of MR Elastography (MRE) derived liver stiffness values on two different MR vendor platforms performed on the same subject on the same day. Methods This investigation was approved by the hospital IRB. MRE exams were performed twice in identical fashion in eight volunteers and in five clinical patients on two different 1.5T MR scanners – once on a Philips MR scanner and immediately afterward in back-to-back fashion on a General Electric MR scanner, or vice versa. All scan parameters were kept identical on the two platforms to the best extent possible. After the MRE magnitude and phase images were obtained, the data was converted into quantitative images displaying the stiffness of the liver parenchyma. Mean liver stiffness values between the two platforms were compared using interclass correlation with a p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value of 0.994 was obtained for 13 subjects with p-value <0.001 indicating a significantly positive correlation. Conclusion As MRE gains in acceptance and as its availability becomes more widespread, it is important to ascertain and confirm that liver stiffness values obtained on different MRE vendor platforms are consistent and reproducible. In this small pilot investigation, we demonstrate that liver stiffness measurement with MRE is reproducible and has very good consistency across two vendor platforms. PMID:25476489

  3. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions

    PubMed Central

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain–computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. PMID:24936420

  4. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain-computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. PMID:24936420

  5. A Cross-Benchmarking and Validation Initiative for Tokamak 3D Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiman, A.; Turnbull, A.; Evans, T.; Ferraro, N.; Lazarus, E.; Breslau, J.; Cerfon, A.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; King, J.; Lanctot, M.; Lazerson, S.; Liu, Y.; McFadden, G.; Monticello, D.; Nazikian, R.; Park, J. K.; Sovinec, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Zhu, P.

    2014-10-01

    We are pursuing a cross-benchmarking and validation initiative for tokamak 3D equilibrium calculations, with 11 codes participating: the linearized tokamak equilibrium codes IPEC and MARS-F, the time-dependent extended MHD codes M3D-C1, M3D, and NIMROD, the gyrokinetic code XGC, as well as the stellarator codes VMEC, NSTAB, PIES, HINT and SPEC. Dedicated experiments for the purpose of generating data for validation have been done on the DIII-D tokamak. The data will allow us to do validation simultaneously with cross-benchmarking. Initial cross-benchmarking calculations are finding a disagreement between stellarator and tokamak 3D equilibrium codes. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE under Contracts DE-ACO2-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04E854698, DE-FG02-95E854309 and DE-AC05-000R22725.

  6. Cross-validation of component models: a critical look at current methods.

    PubMed

    Bro, R; Kjeldahl, K; Smilde, A K; Kiers, H A L

    2008-03-01

    In regression, cross-validation is an effective and popular approach that is used to decide, for example, the number of underlying features, and to estimate the average prediction error. The basic principle of cross-validation is to leave out part of the data, build a model, and then predict the left-out samples. While such an approach can also be envisioned for component models such as principal component analysis (PCA), most current implementations do not comply with the essential requirement that the predictions should be independent of the entity being predicted. Further, these methods have not been properly reviewed in the literature. In this paper, we review the most commonly used generic PCA cross-validation schemes and assess how well they work in various scenarios. PMID:18214448

  7. Applicability of Monte Carlo cross validation technique for model development and validation using generalised least squares regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Khaled; Rahman, Ataur; A Zaman, Mohammad; Shrestha, Surendra

    2013-03-01

    SummaryIn regional hydrologic regression analysis, model selection and validation are regarded as important steps. Here, the model selection is usually based on some measurements of goodness-of-fit between the model prediction and observed data. In Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA), leave-one-out (LOO) validation or a fixed percentage leave out validation (e.g., 10%) is commonly adopted to assess the predictive ability of regression-based prediction equations. This paper develops a Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) technique (which has widely been adopted in Chemometrics and Econometrics) in RFFA using Generalised Least Squares Regression (GLSR) and compares it with the most commonly adopted LOO validation approach. The study uses simulated and regional flood data from the state of New South Wales in Australia. It is found that when developing hydrologic regression models, application of the MCCV is likely to result in a more parsimonious model than the LOO. It has also been found that the MCCV can provide a more realistic estimate of a model's predictive ability when compared with the LOO.

  8. A universal approximate cross-validation criterion for regular risk functions.

    PubMed

    Commenges, Daniel; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Samieri, Cécilia; Liquet, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    Selection of estimators is an essential task in modeling. A general framework is that the estimators of a distribution are obtained by minimizing a function (the estimating function) and assessed using another function (the assessment function). A classical case is that both functions estimate an information risk (specifically cross-entropy); this corresponds to using maximum likelihood estimators and assessing them by Akaike information criterion (AIC). In more general cases, the assessment risk can be estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Since leave-one-out cross-validation is computationally very demanding, we propose in this paper a universal approximate cross-validation criterion under regularity conditions (UACVR). This criterion can be adapted to different types of estimators, including penalized likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators, and also to different assessment risk functions, including information risk functions and continuous rank probability score (CRPS). UACVR reduces to Takeuchi information criterion (TIC) when cross-entropy is the risk for both estimation and assessment. We provide the asymptotic distributions of UACVR and of a difference of UACVR values for two estimators. We validate UACVR using simulations and provide an illustration on real data both in the psychometric context where estimators of the distributions of ordered categorical data derived from threshold models and models based on continuous approximations are compared. PMID:25849800

  9. Embedded Performance Validity Measures with Postdeployment Veterans: Cross-Validation and Efficiency with Multiple Measures.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Denning, John H

    2016-01-01

    Embedded validity measures support comprehensive assessment of performance validity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of individual embedded measures and to reduce them to the most efficient combination. The sample included 212 postdeployment veterans (average age = 35 years, average education = 14 years). Thirty embedded measures were initially identified as predictors of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) and were derived from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second Edition (CPT-II), Trail Making Test, Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Letter-Number Sequencing, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and the Finger Tapping Test. Eight nonoverlapping measures with the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were retained for entry into a logistic regression analysis. Embedded measure accuracy was also compared to cutoffs found in the existing literature. Twenty-one percent of the sample failed the WMT. Previously developed cutoffs for individual measures showed poor sensitivity (SN) in the current sample except for the CPT-II (Total Errors, SN = .41). The CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) showed the best overall accuracy (AUC = .80). After redundant measures were statistically eliminated, the model included the RCFT (Recognition True Positives), CPT-II (Total Errors), and CVLT-II (Trials 1-5 Total) and increased overall accuracy compared with the CVLT-II alone (AUC = .87). The combination of just 3 measures from the CPT-II, CVLT-II, and RCFT was the most accurate/efficient in predicting WMT performance. PMID:26375185

  10. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of a Spanish version of the lower limb functional index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) is a relatively recently published regional outcome measure. The development article showed the LLFI had robust and valid clinimetric properties with sound psychometric and practical characteristics when compared to the Lower Limb Extremity Scale (LEFS) criterion standard. Objective The purpose of this study was cross cultural adaptation and validation of the LLFI Spanish-version (LLFI-Sp) in a Spanish population. Methods A two stage observational study was conducted. The LLFI was initially cross-culturally adapted to Spanish through double forward and single backward translation; then subsequently validated for the psychometric characteristics of validity, internal consistency, reliability, error score and factor structure. Participants (n = 136) with various lower limb conditions of >12 weeks duration completed the LLFI-Sp, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Euroqol Health Questionnaire 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3 L). The full sample was employed to determine internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, construct validity and factor structure; a subgroup (n = 45) determined reliability at seven days concurrently completing a global rating of change scale. Results The LLFI-Sp demonstrated high but not excessive internal consistency (α = 0.91) and high reliability (ICC = 0.96). The factor structure was one-dimensional which supported the construct validity. Criterion validity with the WOMAC was strong (r = 0.77) and with the EQ-5D-3 L fair and inversely correlated (r = -0.62). The study limitations included the lack of longitudinal data and the determination of responsiveness. Conclusions The LLFI-Sp supports the findings of the original English version as being a valid lower limb regional outcome measure. It demonstrated similar psychometric properties for internal consistency, validity, reliability, error score and factor structure. PMID

  11. Cross-Validation and Extension of the MMPI-A IMM Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Sandra; McCumber, Stacey; Dahlstrom, W. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Cross-validated the IMM scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescents (MMPI-A), a measure of ego level, with 151 college students. Means and standard deviations were obtained on IMM scale from the MMPI-A and another MMPI version for males and females. (SLD)

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Exercise Identity Scale among Greek Adults and Cross-Cultural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Kaperoni, Maria; Moustaka, Frederiki C.; Anderson, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study reported on translating the Exercise Identity Scale (EIS: Anderson & Cychosz, 1994) into Greek and examining its psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity based on U.S. individuals' EIS responses. Using four samples comprising 33, 103, and 647 Greek individuals, including exercisers and nonexercisers, and a similar…

  13. Testing the Cross-Ethnic Construct Validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-ethnic construct validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Method: The sample consisted of 1,166 individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness who were receiving treatment in community-based mental health programs. Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  14. Cross-Cultural Validity of the TIMSS-1999 Mathematics Test: Verification of a Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Gorin, Joanna S.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2008-01-01

    As with any test administered across linguistically and culturally diverse groups, evidence suggesting the equivalence of score meaning across countries is needed for valid comparisons. The current study examines the cross-cultural equivalence of score interpretations from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)-1999 from…

  15. The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Ukraine: The Cross-Cultural Validation of the Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamkovenko, Bogdan V.; Holton, Elwood, III; Bates, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to expand cross-cultural research and validate the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Ukraine. The researchers seek to translate the LTSI into Ukrainian and investigate the internal structure of this translated version of the questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach: The LTSI is translated into…

  16. Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual and Violent Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Beech, Anthony; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed actuarial risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with two risk assessment measures (SVR-20 and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85) and nonsex violent (n = 46) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18%…

  17. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Counselor Burnout Inventory in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyojung; Yuen, Mantak; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural validation of the Chinese translation of the Counselor Burnout Inventory (CBI) with a sample of school counselors in Hong Kong. Specifically, this study examined the CBI's factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis and calculated the effect size, to compare burnout scores among the counselors of…

  18. Cross Validation and Discriminative Analysis Techniques in a College Student Attrition Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    1982-01-01

    Used a current attrition study to show the usefulness of discriminative analysis and a cross validation technique applied to student nonpersister questionnaire respondents and nonrespondents. Results of the techniques allowed delineation of several areas of sample under-representation and established the instability of the regression weights…

  19. Cross-validation and calibration of Jackson-Pollock equations with DXA: the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jackson-Pollock (J&P) body composition equations were developed primarily from data on white men and women using hydrostatically determined body density (BD) as the criterion measure. This study cross-validated the J&P equations with ethnically diverse subjects and percent fat (%fat) determined ...

  20. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  1. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  2. Validation of Cross Sections for Monte Carlo Simulation of the Photoelectric Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Han Sung; Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Batic, Matej; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Several total and partial photoionization cross section calculations, based on both theoretical and empirical approaches, are quantitatively evaluated with statistical analyses using a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature to identify the state of the art for modeling the photoelectric effect in Monte Carlo particle transport. Some of the examined cross section models are available in general purpose Monte Carlo systems, while others have been implemented and subjected to validation tests for the first time to estimate whether they could improve the accuracy of particle transport codes. The validation process identifies Scofield's 1973 non-relativistic calculations, tabulated in the Evaluated Photon Data Library(EPDL), as the one best reproducing experimental measurements of total cross sections. Specialized total cross section models, some of which derive from more recent calculations, do not provide significant improvements. Scofield's non-relativistic calculations are not surpassed regarding the compatibility with experiment of K and L shell photoionization cross sections either, although in a few test cases Ebel's parameterization produces more accurate results close to absorption edges. Modifications to Biggs and Lighthill's parameterization implemented in Geant4 significantly reduce the accuracy of total cross sections at low energies with respect to its original formulation. The scarcity of suitable experimental data hinders a similar extensive analysis for the simulation of the photoelectron angular distribution, which is limited to a qualitative appraisal.

  3. Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D. ); O'Dell, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the standard'' for use in k{sub eff} calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, {sigma}{sub p}, for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of {sigma}{sub p} to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating {sigma}{sub p} are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k{sub eff} on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems.

  4. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  5. Validation of Nuclear Criticality Safety Software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The validation documented in this report is based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992, and was completed in June 1993. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Martin Marietta Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM 3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated K{sub eff} > 0.9616. Based on this result the Portsmouth Nuclear Criticality Safety Department has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} {le} 0.95 is safety subcritical. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  6. [Cross-cultural validation and telephonic reliability of modified "VIDA" questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Soler-König, Gabriela F; Sáenz, Victoria P; Caruso, Diego; Reyes-Toso, María L; Elizondo, Cristina M; Lesende, Iñaki M

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental activities scales allow the assessment of the functional status of the elderly; however, those currently used have gender bias and insufficient cross-cultural validation. The main objectives of this study were to perform the cross-cultural validation of the modified "VIDA: Daily living of the elderly questionnaire", created in Spain, into the Spanish spoken language in the City of Buenos Aires, and to evaluate its telephonic reliability. The secondary objective was to assess the concurrent validity of the modified VIDA questionnaire with the Lawton and Brody scale. The experts discussion group assessed the questionnaire vocabulary and proposed modifications according to the local language. We performed a pilot study to evaluate its comprehension, vocabulary and length. Afterwards we interviewed patients in person and after 14 days by telephone. We analyzed the global, inter and intra-observer reliability in both, the in person and the telephonic questionnaire, obtaining intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.95 (CI 95% 0.91-0.99), 0.99 (CI 95% 0.97-1.00) and 0.94 (IC 95% 0.87-1.00) respectively. Additionally, we obtained a very good correlation in both modalities between the modified VIDA questionnaire and the Lawton and Brody scale, with no differences regarding the patient's gender. In conclusion, the modified VIDA questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted in Buenos Aires City. Its implementation is reliable and valid both in person and by telephone. PMID:27295704

  7. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of…

  8. Photodetachment cross sections of negative ions - The range of validity of the Wigner threshold law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold behavior of the photodetachment cross section of negative ions as a function of photon frequency is usually described by the Wigner law. This paper reports the results of a model calculation using the zero-core-contribution (ZCC) approximation. Theoretical expressions for the leading correction to the Wigner law are developed, giving the range of validity of the Wigner law and the expected accuracy. The results are relevant to extraction of electron affinities from experimental photodetachment data.

  9. Cross-validation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Tyler S; Adie, Steven G; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2010-05-15

    Computationally reconstructed interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy is coregistered with optical coherence tomography (OCT) focal plane data to provide quantitative cross validation with OCT. This is accomplished through a qualitative comparison of images and a quantitative analysis of the width of the point-spread function in simulation and experiment. The width of the ISAM point-spread function is seen to be independent of depth, in contrast to OCT. PMID:20479849

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the episodic autobiographic memory interview for Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Daniel S; Foss, Maria P; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M

    2015-08-01

    Episodic memory enables the storage of personal events with specific temporal and spatial details, and their retrieval through a sensory experience, usually visual, which is called autonoetic consciousness. While, in Brazil, several scales for the evaluation of anterograde episodic memory have been validated, there is not yet an instrument to assess the episodic autobiographical memory. The aim of this study is thus to make a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Episodic Autobiographic Memory Interview (EAMI) for Brazilian Portuguese. Altogether, 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 10 healthy controls (CTs) were evaluated. EAMI scores for AD patients were lower than those of CTs, and these scores also correlated positively with the Remember-Know coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a good inter-rater reliability. The Portuguese version of EAMI showed a good reliability and validity, which suggests that it is a useful tool for evaluation of autobiographical memory in Brazilian patients. PMID:26222359

  11. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  12. Validation of Cross Sections with Criticality Experiment and Reaction Rates: the Neptunium Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Le Naour, C.; Stéphan, C.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Duran, I.

    2014-04-01

    The 237Np neutron-induced fission cross section has been recently measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV) at the n_TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurements the n_TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7% beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of the n_TOF data, we considered a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of 237Np, surrounded by uranium highly enriched in 235U so as to approach criticality with fast neutrons. The multiplication factor keff of the calculation is in better agreement with the experiment when we replace the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluation of the 237Np fission cross section by the n_TOF data. We also explored the hypothesis of deficiencies of the inelastic cross section in 235U which has been invoked by some authors to explain the deviation of 750 pcm. The large modification needed to reduce the deviation seems to be incompatible with existing inelastic cross section measurements. Also we show that the νbar of 237Np can hardly be incriminated because of the high accuracy of the existing data. Fission rate ratios or averaged fission cross sections measured in several fast neutron fields seem to give contradictory results on the validation of the 237Np cross section but at least one of the benchmark experiments, where the active deposits have been well calibrated for the number of atoms, favors the n_TOF data set. These outcomes support the hypothesis of a higher fission cross section of 237Np.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mariana Charantola; Peduzzi, Marina; Sangaleti, Carine Teles; da Silva, Dirceu; Agreli, Heloise Fernandes; West, Michael A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest) and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork. PMID:27556966

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Ramos, Aline Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to adapt culturally and validate the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses. Method: methodological study carried out with 153 nurses from two hospitals in the South region of Brazil, one public and the other philanthropic. The cross-cultural adaptation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale was performed according to international standards, and its validation was carried out for use in the Brazilian context, by means of factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha as measure of internal consistency. Results: by means of evaluation by a committee of experts and application of pre-test, face validity and content validity of the instrument were considered satisfactory. From the factor analysis, five constructs were identified: negative implications of the advocacy practice, advocacy actions, facilitators of the advocacy practice, perceptions that favor practice advocacy and barriers to advocacy practice. The instrument showed satisfactory internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.70 to 0.87. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale - Brazilian version, is a valid and reliable instrument for use in the evaluation of beliefs and actions of health advocacy, performed by Brazilian nurses in their professional practice environment. PMID:26444169

  15. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  16. Cross-validation of a composite pain scale for preschool children within 24 hours of surgery.

    PubMed

    Suraseranivongse, S; Santawat, U; Kraiprasit, K; Petcharatana, S; Prakkamodom, S; Muntraporn, N

    2001-09-01

    This study was designed to cross-validate a composite measure of the pain scales CHEOPS (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale), OPS (Objective Pain Scale, simplified for parent use by replacing blood pressure measurement with observation of body language or posture), TPPPS (Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) and FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) in 167 Thai children aged 1-5.5 yr. The pain scales were translated and tested for content, construct and concurrent validity, including inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities. Discriminative validity in immediate and persistent pain for the age groups < or =3 and >3 yr were also studied. The children's behaviour was videotaped before and after surgery, before analgesia had been given in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU), and on the ward. Four observers then rated pain behaviour from rearranged videotapes. The decision to treat pain was based on routine practice and was made by a researcher unaware of the rating procedure. All tools had acceptable content validity and excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities (intraclass correlation >0.9 and >0.8 respectively). Construct validity was determined by the ability to differentiate the group with no pain before surgery and a high pain level after surgery, before analgesia (P<0.001). The positive correlations among all scales in the PACU and on the ward (r=0.621-0.827, P<0.0001) supported concurrent validity. Use of the kappa statistic indicated that CHEOPS yielded the best agreement with the routine decision to treat pain. The younger and older age groups both yielded very good agreement in the PACU but only moderate agreement on the ward. On the basis of data from this study, we recommend CHEOPS as a valid, reliable and practical tool. PMID:11517123

  17. Cross-cultural validity of four quality of life scales in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has been found to differ across countries. However, comparability of measurement results between countries depends on the cross-cultural validity of the applied instruments. The study examined the metric quality and cross-cultural validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LISAT-9), the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI) and the 5-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQoL-5) across six countries in a sample of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods A cross-sectional multi-centre study was conducted and the data of 243 out-patients with SCI from study centers in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel, South Africa, and the United States were analyzed using Rasch-based methods. Results The analyses showed high reliability for all 4 instruments (person reliability index .78-.92). Unidimensionality of measurement was supported for the WHOQoL-5 (Chi2 = 16.43, df = 10, p = .088), partially supported for the PWI (Chi2 = 15.62, df = 16, p = .480), but rejected for the LISAT-9 (Chi2 = 50.60, df = 18, p = .000) and the SWLS (Chi2 = 78.54, df = 10, p = .000) based on overall and item-wise Chi2 tests, principal components analyses and independent t-tests. The response scales showed the expected ordering for the WHOQoL-5 and the PWI, but not for the other two instruments. Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses potential cross-country bias was found in two items of the SWLS and the WHOQoL-5, three items of the LISAT-9 and four items of the PWI. However, applying Rasch-based statistical methods, especially subtest analyses, it was possible to identify optimal strategies to enhance the metric properties and the cross-country equivalence of the instruments post-hoc. Following the post-hoc procedures the WHOQOL-5 and the PWI worked in a consistent and expected way in all countries. Conclusions QoL assessment using the summary

  18. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pražnikar, Jure; Turk, Dušan

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  19. Recent validation experience with multigroup cross-section libraries and scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Wright, R.Q.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss the results obtained and lessons learned from an extensive validation of new ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross-section libraries using analyses of critical experiments. The KENO V. a Monte Carlo code in version 4.3 of the SCALE computer code system was used to perform the critical benchmark calculations via the automated SCALE sequence CSAS25. The cross-section data were processed by the SCALE automated problem-dependent resonance-processing procedure included in this sequence. Prior to calling KENO V.a, CSAS25 accesses BONAMI to perform resonance self-shielding for nuclides with Bondarenko factors and NITAWL-II to process nuclides with resonance parameter data via the Nordheim Integral Treatment.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Behçet's disease quality of life questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently, there is one Behçet's disease (BD) specific self reporting questionnaire developed and published in the literature, The Leeds BD-quality of life (QoL). We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Leeds BD-QoL Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 consecutive patients attending rheumatology clinics at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between June and December 2007. The BD-QoL questionnaire, the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) questionnaires were co-administered during the same visit, and severity scores were calculated. Cross-cultural adaptation of BD-QoL was performed using forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the final version were determined. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to assess the dimensionality of the scale items. External construct validity was examined by correlating Arabic BD-QoL with the severity score, ADL and IADL. Results The 30 items of the adapted Arabic BD-QoL showed a high internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient 0.89) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's test 0.91). The convergence of all 30 items suggests that the 30-item adapted Arabic BD-QoL scale is unidimensional. BD-QoL did not correlate with any of the patients' demographics. Still, it was positively correlated with patient severity score (r 0.4, p 0.02), and IADL (but not ADL). Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Arabic BD-QoL questionnaire that is now available for use in clinical settings and in research studies, among Arabic speaking patients. PMID:21507231

  1. Validation of the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire within a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Jung, Eva; Erbslöh-Möller, Brigitte; Gesmann, Mechthild; Kühn-Becker, Hedi; Petermann, Franz; Langhorst, Jost; Weiss, Thomas; Winkelmann, Andreas; Wolfe, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire (FSQ) assesses the key symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome. The FSQ can be administrated in survey research and settings where the use of interviews to evaluate the number of pain sites and extent of somatic symptom intensity and tender point examination would be difficult. We validated the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS patients. In a cross-sectional survey, participants with physician diagnosis of FMS were recruited by FMS-self help organisations and nine clinical institutions of different levels of care. Participants answered the FSQ (composed by the Widespread Pain Index [WPI] and the Somatic Severity Score [SSS]) assessing the Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria (FSDC) and the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ 4. American College of Rheumatology 1990 classification criteria were assessed in a subgroup of participants. 1,651 persons diagnosed with FMS were included into analysis. The acceptance of the FSQ-items ranged between 78.9 to 98.1% completed items. The internal consistency of the items of the SSS ranged between 0.75–0.82. 85.5% of the study participants met the FSDC. The concordance rate of the FSDC and ACR 1990 criteria was 72.7% in a subsample of 128 patients. The Pearson correlation of the SSS with the PHQ 4 depression score was 0.52 (p<0.0001) and with the PHQ anxiety score was 0.51 (p<0.0001) (convergent validity). 64/202 (31.7%) of the participants not meeting the FSDC criteria and 152/1283 (11.8%) of the participants meeting the FSDC criteria reported an improvement (slightly too very much better) in their health status since FMS-diagnosis (Chi2 = 55, p<0.0001) (discriminant validity). The study demonstrated the feasibility of the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS-patients. The reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the FSQ were good. Further validation studies of the FSQ in clinical and general population settings are necessary. PMID:22662163

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Italian Version of SWAL-QOL.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, Daniela; Alfonsi, Enrico; Mozzanica, Francesco; Accornero, Anna Rosa; Bergonzoni, Antonella; Chiarello, Giulia; De Luca, Nicoletta; Farneti, Daniele; Marilia, Simonelli; Calcagno, Paola; Turroni, Valentina; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Italian SWAL-QOL (I-SWAL-QOL). The study consisted of five phases: item generation, reliability analysis, normative data generation, validity analysis, and responsiveness analysis. The item generation phase followed the five-step, cross-cultural, adaptation process of translation and back-translation. A group of 92 dysphagic patients was enrolled for the internal consistency analysis. Seventy-eight patients completed the I-SWAL-QOL twice, 2 weeks apart, for test-retest reliability analysis. A group of 200 asymptomatic subjects completed the I-SWAL-QOL for normative data generation. I-SWAL-QOL scores obtained by both the group of dysphagic subjects and asymptomatic ones were compared for validity analysis. I-SWAL-QOL scores were correlated with SF-36 scores in 67 patients with dysphagia for concurrent validity analysis. Finally, I-SWAL-QOL scores obtained in a group of 30 dysphagic patients before and after successful rehabilitation treatment were compared for responsiveness analysis. All the enrolled patients managed to complete the I-SWAL-QOL without needing any assistance, within 20 min. Internal consistency was acceptable for all I-SWAL-QOL subscales (α > 0.70). Test-retest reliability was also satisfactory for all subscales (ICC > 0.7). A significant difference between the dysphagic group and the control group was found in all I-SWAL-QOL subscales (p < 0.05). Mild to moderate correlations between I-SWAL-QOL and SF-36 subscales were observed. I-SWAL-QOL scores obtained in the pre-treatment condition were significantly lower than those obtained after swallowing rehabilitation. I-SWAL-QOL is reliable, valid, responsive to changes in QOL, and recommended for clinical practice and outcome research. PMID:27444734

  3. Estimating the Coefficient of Cross-validity in Multiple Regression: A Comparison of Analytical and Empirical Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hines, Constance V.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of three analytical formulas for shrinkage estimation and four empirical techniques were investigated in a Monte Carlo study of the coefficient of cross-validity in multiple regression. Substantial statistical bias was evident for all techniques except the formula of M. W. Brown (1975) and multicross-validation. (SLD)

  4. Screening for Psychosocial Distress amongst War-Affected Children: Cross-Cultural Construct Validity of the CPDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordans, M. J. D.; Komproe, I. H.; Tol, W. A.; De Jong, J. T. V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Large-scale psychosocial interventions in complex emergencies call for a screening procedure to identify individuals at risk. To date there are no screening instruments that are developed within low- and middle-income countries and validated for that purpose. The present study assesses the cross-cultural validity of the brief,…

  5. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  6. Variational cross-validation of slow dynamical modes in molecular kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Markov state models are a widely used method for approximating the eigenspectrum of the molecular dynamics propagator, yielding insight into the long-timescale statistical kinetics and slow dynamical modes of biomolecular systems. However, the lack of a unified theoretical framework for choosing between alternative models has hampered progress, especially for non-experts applying these methods to novel biological systems. Here, we consider cross-validation with a new objective function for estimators of these slow dynamical modes, a generalized matrix Rayleigh quotient (GMRQ), which measures the ability of a rank-m projection operator to capture the slow subspace of the system. It is shown that a variational theorem bounds the GMRQ from above by the sum of the first m eigenvalues of the system’s propagator, but that this bound can be violated when the requisite matrix elements are estimated subject to statistical uncertainty. This overfitting can be detected and avoided through cross-validation. These result make it possible to construct Markov state models for protein dynamics in a way that appropriately captures the tradeoff between systematic and statistical errors. PMID:25833563

  7. Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Siyang; Freeman, Ruth; Lahti, Satu; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Humphris, Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA) and treatment dental anxiety (TDA). Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent) were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety) of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects. PMID:18364045

  8. Child-OIDP index in Brazil: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rodolfo AL; Cortes, Maria IS; Leão, Anna T; Portela, Margareth C; Souza, Ivete PR; Tsakos, Georgios; Marcenes, Wagner; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures are being increasingly used to introduce dimensions excluded by normative measures. Consequently, there is a need for an index which evaluates children's OHRQoL validated for Brazilian population, useful for oral health needs assessments and for the evaluation of oral health programs, services and technologies. The aim of this study was to do a cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) index, and assess its reliability and validity for application among Brazilian children between the ages of eleven and fourteen. Methods For cross-cultural adaptation, a translation/back-translation method integrated with expert panel reviews was applied. A total of 342 students from four public schools took part of the study. Results Overall, 80.7% of the sample reported at least one oral impact in the last three months. Cronbach's alpha was 0.63, the weighted kappa 0.76, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.79. The index had a significant association with self-reported health measurements (self-rated oral health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived dental treatment needs, self-rated general health; all p < 0.01). Conclusion It was concluded that the Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Brazilian children. PMID:18793433

  9. Predicting IQ change from brain structure: A cross-validation study

    PubMed Central

    Price, C.J.; Ramsden, S.; Hope, T.M.H.; Friston, K.J.; Seghier, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures that can predict cognitive abilities from brain imaging data are potentially relevant to educational assessments and studies of functional anatomy in the developing brain. Our aim in this work was to quantify the degree to which IQ change in the teenage years could be predicted from structural brain changes. Two well-known k-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to data acquired from 33 healthy teenagers – each tested at Time 1 and Time 2 with a 3.5 year interval. One approach, a Leave-One-Out procedure, predicted IQ change for each subject on the basis of structural change in a brain region that was identified from all other subjects (i.e., independent data). This approach predicted 53% of verbal IQ change and 14% of performance IQ change. The other approach used half the sample, to identify regions for predicting IQ change in the other half (i.e., a Split half approach); however – unlike the Leave-One-Out procedure – regions identified using half the sample were not significant. We discuss how these out-of-sample estimates compare to in-sample estimates; and draw some recommendations for k-fold cross-validation procedures when dealing with small datasets that are typical in the neuroimaging literature. PMID:23567505

  10. Cross-validation analysis of bias models in Bayesian multi-model projections of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, J. M. J.; Räisänen, J.; Nissinen, A.; Lipponen, A.; Kolehmainen, V.

    2016-05-01

    Climate change projections are commonly based on multi-model ensembles of climate simulations. In this paper we consider the choice of bias models in Bayesian multimodel predictions. Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) introduced a hybrid bias model which combines commonly used constant bias and constant relation bias assumptions. The hybrid model includes a weighting parameter which balances these bias models. In this study, we use a cross-validation approach to study which bias model or bias parameter leads to, in a specific sense, optimal climate change projections. The analysis is carried out for summer and winter season means of 2 m-temperatures spatially averaged over the IPCC SREX regions, using 19 model runs from the CMIP5 data set. The cross-validation approach is applied to calculate optimal bias parameters (in the specific sense) for projecting the temperature change from the control period (1961-2005) to the scenario period (2046-2090). The results are compared to the results of the Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) method which includes the bias parameter as one of the unknown parameters to be estimated from the data.

  11. NPOESS Preparatory Project Validation Program for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, C.; Gu, D.; Nalli, N. R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Program, in partnership with National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA), will launch the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), a risk reduction and data continuity mission, prior to the first operational NPOESS launch. The NPOESS Program, in partnership with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, will execute the NPP Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) program to ensure the data products comply with the requirements of the sponsoring agencies. The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are two of the instruments that make up the suite of sensors on NPP. Together, CrIS and ATMS will produce three Environmental Data Records (EDRs) including the Atmospheric Vertical Temperature Profile (AVTP), Atmospheric Vertical Moisture Profile (AVMP), and the Atmospheric Vertical Pressure Profile (AVPP). The AVTP and the AVMP are both NPOESS Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). The validation plans establish science and user community leadership and participation, and demonstrated, cost-effective Cal/Val approaches. This presentation will provide an overview of the collaborative data, techniques, and schedule for the validation of the NPP CrIS and ATMS environmental data products.

  12. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Peruvian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    López Ramos, Roxana P; García Rupaya, Carmen R; Villena-Sarmiento, Rita; Bordoni, Noemí E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform semantic adjustment and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Spanish on a sample of the Peruvian population. The study was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged 3-5 years, who attended a public school (Hualmay District, Huaura Province, Lima, Peru) in 2011. The ECOHIS questionnaire, developed to measure the impact of oral conditions and/or experiences of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life in children under 5 years old and their parents or other family members was adapted cross-culturally and subjected to psychometric tests: validity (in terms of construct and discriminant) and reliability (in terms of internal consistency and stability). The cultural adaptation addressed ECOHIS semantic equivalence (Bordoni et al., 2012) and showed that 80-100% of respondents understood the questions. Construct validity was r = .557 (p < .05) between the scores of the Spanish version of ECOHIS and dental caries experience (dmft). Statistically significant differences (p < .001) were found for ECOHIS values between groups with and without tooth decay. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (.948) and stability by intra-class correlation (.992). The Peruvian version of ECOHIS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, enabling assessment of the impact of oral health problems in children under 5 years old. PMID:24303728

  13. [Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale (HTAS) in Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Koritar, Priscila; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Santos, Bernardo dos

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study was to show the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale in Portuguese. The methodology included translation of the scale; evaluation of conceptual, operational and item-based equivalence by 14 experts and 51 female undergraduates; semantic equivalence and measurement assessment by 12 bilingual women by the paired t-test, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the coefficient intraclass correlation; internal consistency and test-retest reliability by Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively, after application on 216 female undergraduates; assessment of discriminant and concurrent validity via the t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively, in addition to Confirmatory Factor and Exploratory Factor Analysis. The scale was considered adequate and easily understood by the experts and university students and presented good internal consistency and reliability (µ 0.86, ICC 0.84). The results show that the scale is valid and can be used in studies with women to better understand attitudes related to taste. PMID:25119096

  14. The Irrational Beliefs Inventory: psychometric properties and cross-cultural validation of its Arabic version.

    PubMed

    Al-Heeti, Khalaf N M; Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Alghorani, Mohammad A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted Irrational Beliefs Inventory (IBI-34) and thus begin the process of assessing its adequacy for use in an Arab culture. The scale was translated and then administered to two samples of undergraduate students from the United Arab Emirates University. Data from 384 students were used in the main analysis, and data from 251 students were used for cross-validation. Principal components analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation followed by PCA with oblimin rotation yielded the same five components in both the main sample and the validation sample, thus consistent with the original Dutch study. Only 34 of the original 50 items were adequate to represent the five constructs. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall scale was .76 and for the subscales ranged between .71 and .76, except for the Rigidity subscale, which was .54. The adapted IBI-34 correlated significantly and negatively with the General Health Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory, providing support for concurrent validity. Due to the non-significant differences between male and female participants on the total score of the IBI-34, the scale can be used for both sexes by summing across all items to give a total score that can be used as a general indicator of the irrational thinking. PMID:23045847

  15. Cross-cultural validity of the demand-control questionnaire: Swedish and Brazilian workers

    PubMed Central

    Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Fritzell, Johan; Toivanen, Susanna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Demand-Control Questionnaire, comparing the original Swedish questionnaire with the Brazilian version. METHODS We compared data from 362 Swedish and 399 Brazilian health workers. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed to test structural validity, using the robust weighted least squares mean and variance-adjusted (WLSMV) estimator. Construct validity, using hypotheses testing, was evaluated through the inspection of the mean score distribution of the scale dimensions according to sociodemographic and social support at work variables. RESULTS The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported the instrument in three dimensions (for Swedish and Brazilians): psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority. The best-fit model was achieved by including an error correlation between work fast and work intensely (psychological demands) and removing the item repetitive work (skill discretion). Hypotheses testing showed that workers with university degree had higher scores on skill discretion and decision authority and those with high levels of Social Support at Work had lower scores on psychological demands and higher scores on decision authority. CONCLUSIONS The results supported the equivalent dimensional structures across the two culturally different work contexts. Skill discretion and decision authority formed two distinct dimensions and the item repetitive work should be removed. PMID:25119944

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Serbian Version of the ICS SF Male Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Uros; Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Argirovic, Aleksandar; Stjepanovic, Mihailo; Lazovic, Dejan; Nale, Djordje; Perovic, Milan; Dugalic, Stefan; Vukotic, Vinka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate ICS male SF questionnaire to Serbian language. Materials and Methods. This study included 91 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and 24 men with similar age and with confirmed absence of LUTS. ICS male SF questionnaire was translated from English to Serbian language and then back-translated to English. Results. Internal consistency was high in both dimensions, voiding (Cronbach's alpha = 0.916) and incontinence (Cronbach's alpha = 0.763). Comparison of the average scores between patients and controls revealed significant differences in both dimensions: voiding (med = 8 versus med = 0; P < 0.001) and incontinence (med = 3 versus med = 0; P < 0.001). Interclass correlation revealed high testretest validity in both dimensions, voiding ICC = 0.992 (P < 0.001) and incontinece ICC = 0.989 (P < 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed high agreement between ICS male SF voiding dimension and IPSS questionnaire (ρ = 0.943; P < 0.001). Conclusion. The Serbian version of male ICS SF questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and validity. The ICS male SF questionnaire could be used in routine practice as an easy and comprehensive tool for assessment of LUTS. PMID:25785284

  17. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  18. Cross-cultural validation of the Italian version of the Cumulated Ambulation Score.

    PubMed

    Grana, Elisa; Verzellotti, Simone; Grassi, Federico A; Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Cisari, Carlo; Invernizzi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Hip fractures are common in elderly patients, and walking impairment is a frequent complication. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a validated functional scale used to monitor easily three basic mobility activities in patients with hip fracture. The aim of this study was to translate, cross-cultural adapt, and validate the CAS in the Italian language (CAS-I). The translation was carried out according to recommended guidelines. The final version of the CAS-I was administered to 80 geriatric patients with hip fracture admitted to a Traumatology Unit, and allowed full weight-bearing after treatment with hemiarthroplasty. Two raters evaluated each patient 2 days after surgery and then after 3 months. Statistical methods included Cronbach's α coefficient for the scale's internal consistency; the total agreement; and the κ coefficient for the inter-rater reliability. The concurrent validity of the scale was determined by comparing the total CAS-I (0-6 points) with the Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living score (0-4 points). Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the CAS, evaluated with Cronbach's α and κ, respectively, were above 0.84 and 0.94. The SE of measurement for the total CAS-I (0-6 points) 2 days and 3 months after surgery were 0.03 and 0.13 points, respectively. The CAS-I showed a significant correlation with the first four items of the Activities of Daily Living score scale (r≥0.85, P<0.001). This study confirms the validity of the CAS-I for patients with a hemiarthroplasty after hip fracture and provides additional evidence of the psychometric properties of the scale. We suggest that the official CAS-I version be used in other settings to evaluate the basic mobility in patients with hip fracture. PMID:27028288

  19. Quantification of rainfall prediction uncertainties using a cross-validation based technique. Methodology description and experimental validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo; Salsón, Santiago; Petazzi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology to compute rainfall fields including the quantification of predictions uncertainties using raingauge network data. The proposed methodology comprises two steps. Firstly, the ordinary krigging technique is used to determine the estimated rainfall depth in every point of the study area. Then multiple equi-probable errors fields, which comprise both interpolation and measuring uncertainties, are added to the krigged field resulting in multiple rainfall predictions. To compute these error fields first the standard deviation of the krigging estimation is determined following the cross-validation based procedure described in Delrieu et al. (2014). Then, the standard deviation field is sampled using non-conditioned Gaussian random fields. The proposed methodology was applied to study 7 rain events in a 60x60 km area of the west coast of Galicia, in the Northwest of Spain. Due to its location at the junction between tropical and polar regions, the study area suffers from frequent intense rainfalls characterized by a great variability in terms of both space and time. Rainfall data from the tipping bucket raingauge network operated by MeteoGalicia were used to estimate the rainfall fields using the proposed methodology. The obtained predictions were then validated using rainfall data from 3 additional rain gauges installed within the CAPRI project (Probabilistic flood prediction with high resolution hydrologic models from radar rainfall estimates, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Reference CGL2013-46245-R.). Results show that both the mean hyetographs and the peak intensities are correctly predicted. The computed hyetographs present a good fit to the experimental data and most of the measured values fall within the 95% confidence intervals. Also, most of the experimental values outside the confidence bounds correspond to time periods of low rainfall depths, where the inaccuracy of the measuring devices

  20. A cross-validation of two differing measures of hypnotic depth.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J; Maurer, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Several sets of regression analyses were completed, attempting to predict 2 measures of hypnotic depth: the self-reported hypnotic depth score and hypnoidal state score from variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). When attempting to predict self-reported hypnotic depth, an R of .78 with Study 1 participants shrank to an r of .72 with Study 2 participants, suggesting mild shrinkage for this more attributional measure of hypnotic depth. Attempting to predict hypnoidal state (an estimate of trance) using the same procedure, yielded an R of .56, that upon cross-validation shrank to an r of .48. These and other results suggest that, although there is some variance in common, the self-reported hypnotic depth score appears to be tapping a different construct from the hypnoidal state score. PMID:23153387

  1. Statistical analysis of GeneMark performance by cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Kleffe, J; Hermann, K; Borodovsky, M

    1996-03-01

    We have explored the performance of the GeneMark gene identification method using cross-validation over learning samples of E. coli DNA sequences. The computations gave more accurate estimations of the error rates in comparison with previous results when a sample of non-coding regions was derived from GenBank sequences with many true coding regions unannotated. The error rate components have been classified and delineated. It was shown that the method performs differently on class I, II and III genes. The most frequent errors come from misinterpreting the coding potential of the complementary sequence in the same frame. The effects of stop-codons present in alternative frames were also studied to understand better the main factors contributing to GeneMark performance. PMID:16749185

  2. Error criteria for cross validation in the context of chaotic time series prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teck Por; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2006-03-01

    The prediction of a chaotic time series over a long horizon is commonly done by iterating one-step-ahead prediction. Prediction can be implemented using machine learning methods, such as radial basis function networks. Typically, cross validation is used to select prediction models based on mean squared error. The bias-variance dilemma dictates that there is an inevitable tradeoff between bias and variance. However, invariants of chaotic systems are unchanged by linear transformations; thus, the bias component may be irrelevant to model selection in the context of chaotic time series prediction. Hence, the use of error variance for model selection, instead of mean squared error, is examined. Clipping is introduced, as a simple way to stabilize iterated predictions. It is shown that using the error variance for model selection, in combination with clipping, may result in better models.

  3. Multisample cross-validation of a model of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jason L; Lonigan, Christopher J; Vernberg, Eric M; Greca, Annette M La; Silverman, Wendy K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2005-12-01

    This study is the latest advancement of our research aimed at best characterizing children's posttraumatic stress reactions. In a previous study, we compared existing nosologic and empirical models of PTSD dimensionality and determined the superior model was a hierarchical one with three symptom clusters (Intrusion/Active Avoidance, Numbing/Passive Avoidance, and Arousal; Anthony, Lonigan, & Hecht, 1999). In this study, we cross-validate this model in two populations. Participants were 396 fifth graders who were exposed to either Hurricane Andrew or Hurricane Hugo. Multisample confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the model's factorial invariance across populations who experienced traumatic events that differed in severity. These results show the model's robustness to characterize children's posttraumatic stress reactions. Implications for diagnosis, classification criteria, and an empirically supported theory of PTSD are discussed. PMID:16382435

  4. Efficient generalized cross-validation with applications to parametric image restoration and resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N; Milanfar, P; Golub, G

    2001-01-01

    In many image restoration/resolution enhancement applications, the blurring process, i.e., point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, is not known or is known only to within a set of parameters. We estimate these PSF parameters for this ill-posed class of inverse problem from raw data, along with the regularization parameters required to stabilize the solution, using the generalized cross-validation method (GCV). We propose efficient approximation techniques based on the Lanczos algorithm and Gauss quadrature theory, reducing the computational complexity of the GCV. Data-driven PSF and regularization parameter estimation experiments with synthetic and real image sequences are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:18255545

  5. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Evaluating Processes, Parameters and Observations Using Cross Validation and Computationally Frugal Sensitivity Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.; Hill, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify measurements most likely to provide important information for model development and predictions and therefore identify critical processes. Methods range from computationally demanding Monte Carlo and cross-validation methods, to very computationally efficient linear methods. The methods are able to account for interrelations between parameters, but some argue that because linear methods neglect the effects of model nonlinearity, they are not worth considering when examining complex, nonlinear models of environmental systems. However, when faced with computationally demanding models needed to simulate, for example, climate change, the chance of obtaining fundamental insights (such as important and relationships between predictions and parameters) with few model runs is tempting. In the first part of this work, comparisons of local sensitivity analysis and cross-validation are conducted using a nonlinear groundwater model of the Maggia Valley, Southern Switzerland; sensitivity analysis are then applied to an integrated hydrological model of the same system where the impact of more processes and of using different sets of observations on the model results are considered; applicability to models of a variety of situations (climate, water quality, water management) is inferred. Results show that the frugal linear methods produced about 70% of the insight from about 2% of the model runs required by the computationally demanding methods. Regarding important observations, linear methods were not always able to distinguish between moderately and unimportant observations. However, they consistently identified the most important observations which are critical to characterize relationships between parameters and to assess the worth of potential new data collection efforts. Importance both to estimate parameters and predictions of interest was readily identified. The results suggest that it can be advantageous to consider local

  7. Obtaining Human Ischemic Stroke Gene Expression Biomarkers from Animal Models: A Cross-species Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Cai, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages. An important inquiry is how well the findings of animal models can be replicated in human cases. Here, a method is proposed based on PageRank scores of miRNA-mRNA interaction network to select ischemic stroke biomarkers derived from rat brain samples, and biomarkers are validated with two human peripheral blood gene expression datasets. Hierarchical clustering results revealed that the achieved biomarkers clearly separate the blood gene expression of stroke patients and healthy people. Literature searches and functional analyses further validated the biological significance of these biomarkers. Compared to the traditional methods, such as differential expression, the proposed approach is more stable and accurate in detecting cross-species biomarkers with biological relevance, thereby suggesting an efficient approach of re-using gene biomarkers obtained from animal-model studies for human diseases. PMID:27407070

  8. Leading people positively: cross-cultural validation of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel; de Rivas, Sara; Herrero, Marta; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Servant Leadership emphasizes employee's development and growth within a context of moral and social concern. Nowadays, this management change towards workers´ wellbeing is highlighted as an important issue. The aims of this paper are to adapt to Spanish speakers the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) by van Dierendonck and Nuijten (2011), and to analyze its factorial validity through confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance in three countries. A sample of 638 working people from three Spanish-speaking countries (Spain, Argentina and Mexico) participated in the study. In all three countries, confirmatory factor analyses corroborate the eight factor structure (empowerment, accountability, standing back, humility, authenticity, courage, forgiveness and stewardship) with one second order factor (servant leadership) (in all three samples, CFI, IFI > .92, TLI > .91, RMSEA < .70). Also, factor loadings, reliability and convergent validity were acceptable across samples. Furthermore, through measurement invariance analysis, we detected model equivalence in all three countries including structural residual invariance (ΔCFI = .001). Finally, cultural differences in some dimensions were found and discussed, opening the way for future cross-cultural studies. PMID:26055345

  9. Obtaining Human Ischemic Stroke Gene Expression Biomarkers from Animal Models: A Cross-species Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Cai, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages. An important inquiry is how well the findings of animal models can be replicated in human cases. Here, a method is proposed based on PageRank scores of miRNA-mRNA interaction network to select ischemic stroke biomarkers derived from rat brain samples, and biomarkers are validated with two human peripheral blood gene expression datasets. Hierarchical clustering results revealed that the achieved biomarkers clearly separate the blood gene expression of stroke patients and healthy people. Literature searches and functional analyses further validated the biological significance of these biomarkers. Compared to the traditional methods, such as differential expression, the proposed approach is more stable and accurate in detecting cross-species biomarkers with biological relevance, thereby suggesting an efficient approach of re-using gene biomarkers obtained from animal-model studies for human diseases. PMID:27407070

  10. Approximate l-fold cross-validation with Least Squares SVM and Kernel Ridge Regression

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Richard E; Zhang, Hao; Parker, Lynne Edwards; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Kernel methods have difficulties scaling to large modern data sets. The scalability issues are based on computational and memory requirements for working with a large matrix. These requirements have been addressed over the years by using low-rank kernel approximations or by improving the solvers scalability. However, Least Squares Support VectorMachines (LS-SVM), a popular SVM variant, and Kernel Ridge Regression still have several scalability issues. In particular, the O(n^3) computational complexity for solving a single model, and the overall computational complexity associated with tuning hyperparameters are still major problems. We address these problems by introducing an O(n log n) approximate l-fold cross-validation method that uses a multi-level circulant matrix to approximate the kernel. In addition, we prove our algorithm s computational complexity and present empirical runtimes on data sets with approximately 1 million data points. We also validate our approximate method s effectiveness at selecting hyperparameters on real world and standard benchmark data sets. Lastly, we provide experimental results on using a multi-level circulant kernel approximation to solve LS-SVM problems with hyperparameters selected using our method.

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of the High Blood Pressure Health Literacy Scale in a Chinese Community

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Feifei; Liu, Zaoling; Zhang, Na; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Tang, Weiming; Lei, Yang; Dai, Yali; Tang, Songyuan; Zhang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of health literacy (HL) for the maximum yield from the hypertension control programs, development of a reliable and valid instrument of hypertension-related HL is critical. This study aimed to translate and validate the High Blood Pressure-Health Literacy Scale (HBP-HLS) into Chinese (C-HBP-HLS) and evaluate its psychometric properties in Chinese context. Method Between June 2013 and January 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among recruited hypertensive patients belonging to the Han and Kazakh-Chinese communities in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. Results A pilot sample (n = 242) was selected for the exploratory factor analysis of the translated and modified instrument. Another sample (n = 308) was recruited for the confirmatory factor analysis. C-HBP-HLS consisted of five dimensions (Print Health Literacy, Medication Label, Understanding Ability, Newest Vital Sign Test, and Avoiding Food Allergy) containing 15 items, accounting for 77.7% of the total variance. The 5-factor model demonstrated a good overall fit. The scale-level content validity index was 0.85. Cronbach’s alpha of the overall scale was 0.78 and test-retest reliability was 0.96. Education level had a strong positive correlation with the scores for items Q1, Q2, and Q3(r = 0.481, 0.492, 0.475, respectively). Health Literacy scores among Kazakh patients were significantly lower than Han (7.13±7.90 vs. 30.10±13.42, Z = -14.573, P<0.001). Conclusion C-HBP-HLS demonstrated suitable factor structure and robust psychometric properties for measuring health literacy level among hypertensive patients in China. PMID:27116336

  12. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619091

  13. The brief cognitive assessment tool (BCAT): cross-validation in a community dwelling older adult sample.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E; Clark, Kristen; Mace, Ryan A

    2014-08-13

    ABSTRACT Background: Cognitive impairment is underrecognized and misdiagnosed among community-dwelling older adults. At present, there is no consensus about which cognitive screening tool represents the "gold standard." However, one tool that shows promise is the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT), which was originally validated in an assisted living sample and contains a multi-level memory component (e.g. word lists and story recall items) and complex executive functions features (e.g. judgment, set-shifting, and problem-solving). Methods: The present study cross-validated the BCAT in a sample of 75 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a short battery of several individually administered cognitive tests, including the BCAT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Using a very conservative MoCA cut score of <26, the base rate of cognitive impairment in this sample was 35%. Results: Adequate internal consistency and strong evidence of construct validity were found. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated from sensitivity and 1-specificity values for the classification of cognitively impaired versus cognitively unimpaired. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the BCAT was .90, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.83, 0.97]. A BCAT cut-score of 45 (scores below 45 suggesting cognitive impairment) resulted in the best balance between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.80). Conclusions: A BCAT cut-score can be used for identifying persons to be referred to appropriate healthcare professionals for more comprehensive cognitive assessment. In addition, guidelines are provided for clinicians to interpret separate BCAT memory and executive dysfunction component scores. PMID:25115580

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire into Italian.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, F; Iacona, E; Sykopetrites, V; Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F

    2016-08-01

    The NCIQ is a quantifiable self-assessment health-related quality of life instrument specific for cochlear implant users. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the NCIQ into Italian (I-NCIQ). A prospective instrument validation study was conducted. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation were accomplished. Cronbach α was used to test internal consistency in 51 CI users and in a control group composed by 38 post-lingual deaf adult on a waiting list for a CI. ICC test was used for test-retest reliability analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test with Mann-Whitney post hoc were used to compare the I-NCIQ scores in CI users before and after the cochlear implantation and in control patients. I-NCIQ scores obtained in CI users were compared with the results of Italian version of disyllabic testing without lip-reading and without masking. Good internal consistency and good test-retest reliability were found. I-NCIQ scores obtained in the 51 CI users after implantation were consistently higher than those obtained before implantation and in the control group. Moreover, no differences were found in the results of I-NCIQ obtained in the group of 51 CI users before implantation and in the group of control patients on post hoc Mann-Whitney analysis. Positive correlations between I-NCIQ scores and the results of disyllabic testing without lip-reading and without masking were found. The I-NCIQ is a reliable, valid, self-administered questionnaire for the measurement of QOL in CI users; its application is recommended. PMID:26324881

  15. Credible Intervals for Precision and Recall Based on a K-Fold Cross-Validated Beta Distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong

    2016-08-01

    In typical machine learning applications such as information retrieval, precision and recall are two commonly used measures for assessing an algorithm's performance. Symmetrical confidence intervals based on K-fold cross-validated t distributions are widely used for the inference of precision and recall measures. As we confirmed through simulated experiments, however, these confidence intervals often exhibit lower degrees of confidence, which may easily lead to liberal inference results. Thus, it is crucial to construct faithful confidence (credible) intervals for precision and recall with a high degree of confidence and a short interval length. In this study, we propose two posterior credible intervals for precision and recall based on K-fold cross-validated beta distributions. The first credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the beta posterior distribution inferred by all K data sets corresponding to K confusion matrices from a K-fold cross-validation. Second, considering that each data set corresponding to a confusion matrix from a K-fold cross-validation can be used to infer a beta posterior distribution of precision (or recall), the second proposed credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the average of K beta posterior distributions. Experimental results on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that the first credible interval proposed in this study almost always resulted in degrees of confidence greater than 95%. With an acceptable degree of confidence, both of our two proposed credible intervals have shorter interval lengths than those based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution. Meanwhile, the average ranks of these two credible intervals are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the degree of confidence and are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  17. Cross-cultural validity of a dietary questionnaire for studies of dental caries risk in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet is a major modifiable contributing factor in the etiology of dental caries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Japanese version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary intake in relation to dental caries risk in Japanese. Methods The 38-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, in which Japanese food items were added to increase content validity, was translated into Japanese, and administered to two samples. The first sample comprised 355 pregnant women with mean age of 29.2 ± 4.2 years for the internal consistency and criterion validity analyses. Factor analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was used to determine dimensionality. The dietary cariogenicity score was calculated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire and used for the analyses. Salivary mutans streptococci level was used as a semi-quantitative assessment of dental caries risk and measured by Dentocult SM. Dentocult SM scores were compared with the dietary cariogenicity score computed from the Food Frequency Questionnaire to examine criterion validity, and assessed by Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rs) and Kruskal-Wallis test. Test-retest reliability of the Food Frequency Questionnaire was assessed with a second sample of 25 adults with mean age of 34.0 ± 3.0 years by using the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis. Results The Japanese language version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.70) and good criterion validity assessed by relationship with salivary mutans streptococci levels (rs = 0.22; p < 0.001). Factor analysis revealed four subscales that construct the questionnaire (solid sugars, solid and starchy sugars, liquid and semisolid sugars, sticky and slowly dissolving sugars). Internal consistency were low to acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.67 for the total scale, 0.46-0.61 for each subscale). Mean dietary

  18. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed < 6 months had almost twofold increased probability for developing sucking habits and nonspaced dentition, respectively, than the children who had breastfeeding > 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  19. Cross-Amplification and Validation of SNPs Conserved over 44 Million Years between Seals and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph I.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; McEwing, Rob; Forcada, Jaume; Ogden, Rob

    2013-01-01

    High-density SNP arrays developed for humans and their companion species provide a rapid and convenient tool for generating SNP data in closely-related non-model organisms, but have not yet been widely applied to phylogenetically divergent taxa. Consequently, we used the CanineHD BeadChip to genotype 24 Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) individuals. Despite seals and dogs having diverged around 44 million years ago, 33,324 out of 173,662 loci (19.2%) could be genotyped, of which 173 were polymorphic and clearly interpretable. Two SNPs were validated using KASP genotyping assays, with the resulting genotypes being 100% concordant with those obtained from the high-density array. Two loci were also confirmed through in silico visualisation after mapping them to the fur seal transcriptome. Polymorphic SNPs were distributed broadly throughout the dog genome and did not differ significantly in proximity to genes from either monomorphic SNPs or those that failed to cross-amplify in seals. However, the nearest genes to polymorphic SNPs were significantly enriched for functional annotations relating to energy metabolism, suggesting a possible bias towards conserved regions of the genome. PMID:23874599

  20. Inversion of velocity map ion images using iterative regularization and cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renth, F.; Riedel, J.; Temps, F.

    2006-03-01

    Two methods for improved inversion of velocity map images are presented. Both schemes use two-dimensional basis functions to perform the iteratively regularized inversion of the imaging equation in matrix form. The quality of the reconstructions is improved by taking into account the constraints that are derived from prior knowledge about the experimental data, such as non-negativity and noise statistics, using (i) the projected Landweber [Am. J. Math. 73, 615 (1951)] and (ii) the Richardson-Lucy [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 55 (1972); Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974)] algorithms. It is shown that the optimum iteration count, which plays the role of a regularization parameter, can be determined by partitioning the image into quarters or halves and a subsequent cross validation of the inversion results. The methods are tested with various synthetic velocity map images and with velocity map images of the H-atom fragments produced in the photodissociation of HBr at λ =243.1nm using a (2+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection scheme. The versatility of the method, which is only determined by the choice of basis functions, is exploited to take into account the photoelectron recoil that leads to a splitting and broadening of the velocity distribution in the two product channels, and to successfully reconstruct the deconvolved velocity distribution. The methods can also be applied to the cases where higher order terms in the Legendre expansion of the angular distribution are present.

  1. Cross-amplification and validation of SNPs conserved over 44 million years between seals and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph I; Thorne, Michael A S; McEwing, Rob; Forcada, Jaume; Ogden, Rob

    2013-01-01

    High-density SNP arrays developed for humans and their companion species provide a rapid and convenient tool for generating SNP data in closely-related non-model organisms, but have not yet been widely applied to phylogenetically divergent taxa. Consequently, we used the CanineHD BeadChip to genotype 24 Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) individuals. Despite seals and dogs having diverged around 44 million years ago, 33,324 out of 173,662 loci (19.2%) could be genotyped, of which 173 were polymorphic and clearly interpretable. Two SNPs were validated using KASP genotyping assays, with the resulting genotypes being 100% concordant with those obtained from the high-density array. Two loci were also confirmed through in silico visualisation after mapping them to the fur seal transcriptome. Polymorphic SNPs were distributed broadly throughout the dog genome and did not differ significantly in proximity to genes from either monomorphic SNPs or those that failed to cross-amplify in seals. However, the nearest genes to polymorphic SNPs were significantly enriched for functional annotations relating to energy metabolism, suggesting a possible bias towards conserved regions of the genome. PMID:23874599

  2. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire: A Cross-national Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Bova, Nicoletta; De Jonge, Jan; Guglielmi, Dina

    2015-08-01

    The demand-induced strain compensation model is a theoretical job stress model that has been tested in different kinds of empirical study in several countries. To measure key concepts in the model (job demands and job resources), the demand-induced strain compensation questionnaire (DISQ) was developed and has been used in many empirical studies. However, most studies neither focused on the psychometric properties of the DISQ nor tested it cross-nationally. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the DISQ tested on Italian (n = 422) and Dutch (n = 1629) employees. Results indicated that the six-factor model, consisting of cognitive, emotional and physical job demands as well as cognitive, emotional and physical job resources, provided a better fit to the data than an alternative two-factor model (demands and resources only). Findings were invariant across Italian and Dutch samples. Internal consistencies were satisfactory. Additionally, the six dimensions of DISQ were found to be meaningfully related to employee active learning behaviour, emotional exhaustion and musculoskeletal disorders. Results suggest the DISQ questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the proposed dimensions of job demands and job resources in both Italian and Dutch work contexts. PMID:26252420

  3. How Nonrecidivism Affects Predictive Accuracy: Evidence from a Cross-Validation of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Harris, Grant T.

    2009-01-01

    Prediction effect sizes such as ROC area are important for demonstrating a risk assessment's generalizability and utility. How a study defines recidivism might affect predictive accuracy. Nonrecidivism is problematic when predicting specialized violence (e.g., domestic violence). The present study cross-validates the ability of the Ontario…

  4. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM[R] Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the…

  5. Cross-Validating Measures of Technology Integration: A First Step toward Examining Potential Relationships between Technology Integration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Robert; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The use of proper measurements of diffusion of information technology as an innovation are essential to determining if progress is being made in state, regional, and national level programs. This project provides a national level cross validation study of several instruments commonly used to assess the effectiveness of technology integration in…

  6. A Cross-Validation of Paulson's Discriminant Function-Derived Scales for Identifying "At Risk" Child-Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Don; And Others

    1984-01-01

    When the six scales were cross-validated on an independent sample from the population of child-abusing parents, significant shrinkage in the accuracy of prediction was found. The use of the special subscales for identifying "at risk" parents in prenatal clinics, pediatric clinics, and mental health centers as originally suggested by Paulson and…

  7. Cross-National Indices with Gender-Differentiated Data: What Do They Measure? How Valid Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Angela; Munck, Gerardo L.

    2013-01-01

    The two cross-national indices with gender-differentiated data introduced by the UNDP in 1995, as well as several other such indices developed subsequently, are an important resource for researchers and policy makers interested in gender disparities. Yet questions remain regarding how these indices should be interpreted and how valid they are.…

  8. Caregivers' Agreement and Validity of Indirect Functional Analysis: A Cross Cultural Evaluation across Multiple Problem Behavior Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Segui-Duran, David; Descalzo-Quero, Alberto; Carnerero, Jose Julio; Martin, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The Motivation Assessment Scale is an aid for hypothesis-driven functional analysis. This study presents its Spanish cross-cultural validation while examining psychometric attributes not yet explored. The study sample comprised 80 primary caregivers of children with autism. Acceptability, scaling assumptions, internal consistency, factor…

  9. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  10. Validating the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in Dutch Children: Psychometric Properties and a Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factor Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; De Vries, Nanne N. K.; Thijs, Carel

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examined the factorial validity of the Dutch translation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Very Short Form scores. In addition, we conducted cross-cultural comparisons of temperament structure. In total, 353 parents of 6- to 8-year-olds completed the instrument. The original higher order factor structure of…

  11. An Evaluation of the Cross-Cultural Validity of Holland's Theory: Career Choices by Workers in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Austin, James T.; Sekaran, Uma; Komarraju, Meera

    1998-01-01

    Natives of India (n=172) completed Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory and job satisfaction measures. The inventory did not exhibit high external validity with this population. Congruence, consistency, and differentiation did not predict job or occupational satisfaction, suggesting cross-cultural limits on Holland's theory. (SK)

  12. Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vergil L.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

  13. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures. PMID:25997434

  14. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; D`Aquila, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the standard error of measurement between US and MRI ranged from 0.91 to 2.09 sq cm with high limits of agreement analyzed by Bland-Altman plots. However, there were significant differences between absolute values of MRI and US for all muscles

  16. A multicenter, cross-platform clinical validation study of cancer cytogenomic arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Marilyn M; Monzon, Federico A; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Laffin, Jennifer J; Levy, Brynn; Leon, Annette; Miron, Patricia; Rossi, Michael R; Toruner, Gokce; Alvarez, Karla; Doho, Gregory; Dougherty, Margaret J; Hu, Xiaofeng; Kash, Shera; Streck, Deanna; Znoyko, Iya; Hagenkord, Jill M; Wolff, Daynna J

    2015-11-01

    Cytogenomic microarray analysis (CMA) offers high resolution, genome-wide copy number information and is widely used in clinical laboratories for diagnosis of constitutional abnormalities. The Cancer Genomics Consortium (CGC) conducted a multiplatform, multicenter clinical validation project to compare the reliability and inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of this technology for clinical oncology applications. Four specimen types were processed on three different microarray platforms-from Affymetrix, Agilent, and Illumina. Each microarray platform was employed at two independent test sites. The results were compared in a blinded manner with current standard methods, including karyotype, FISH, or morphology. Twenty-nine chronic lymphocytic leukemia blood, 34 myelodysplastic syndrome bone marrow, and 30 fresh frozen renal epithelial tumor samples were assessed by all six laboratories. Thirty formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal tumor samples were analyzed at the Affymetrix and Agilent test sites only. All study samples were initial diagnostic samples. Array data were analyzed at each participating site and were submitted to caArray for central analysis. Laboratory interpretive results were submitted to the central analysis team for comparison with the standard-of-care assays and for calculation of intraplatform reproducibility and cross-platform concordance. The results demonstrated that the three microarray platforms 1) detect clinically actionable genomic changes in cancer compatible to standard-of-care methods; 2) further define cytogenetic aberrations; 3) identify submicroscopic alterations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH); and 4) yield consistent results within and between laboratories. Based on this study, the CGC concludes that CMA is a sensitive and reliable technique for copy number and LOH assessment that may be used for clinical oncology genomic analysis. PMID:26454669

  17. Airborne environmental endotoxin: a cross-validation of sampling and analysis techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Milton, D; Larsson, L; Ford, T

    1994-01-01

    A standard method for measurement of airborne environmental endotoxin was developed and field tested in a fiberglass insulation-manufacturing facility. This method involved sampling with a capillary-pore membrane filter, extraction in buffer using a sonication bath, and analysis by the kinetic-Limulus assay with resistant-parallel-line estimation (KLARE). Cross-validation of the extraction and assay method was performed by comparison with methanolysis of samples followed by 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Direct methanolysis of filter samples and methanolysis of buffer extracts of the filters yielded similar 3-OHFA content (P = 0.72); the average difference was 2.1%. Analysis of buffer extracts for endotoxin content by the KLARE method and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 3-OHFA content produced similar results (P = 0.23); the average difference was 0.88%. The source of endotoxin was gram-negative bacteria growing in recycled washwater used to clean the insulation-manufacturing equipment. The endotoxin and bacteria become airborne during spray cleaning operations. The types of 3-OHFAs in bacteria cultured from the washwater, present in the washwater and in the air, were similar. Virtually all of the bacteria cultured from air and water were gram negative composed mostly of two species, Deleya aesta and Acinetobacter johnsonii. Airborne countable bacteria correlated well with endotoxin (r2 = 0.64). Replicate sampling showed that results with the standard sampling, extraction, and Limulus assay by the KLARE method were highly reproducible (95% confidence interval for endotoxin measurement +/- 0.28 log10). These results demonstrate the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the standard procedure proposed for airborne environmental endotoxin. PMID:8161191

  18. Spanish translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD)

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Tandazo, Wilson; Flores-Fortty, Adolfo; Feraud, Lourdes; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD), originally created and validated in Australia, for its use in Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were based on international guidelines. The Spanish version of the survey was applied to a community-based (sample A) and a hospital clinic-based sample (samples B and C). Samples A and B were used to determine criterion and construct validity comparing the survey findings with clinical evaluation and medical records, respectively; while sample C was used to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability. Results After completing the rigorous translation process, only four items were considered problematic and required a new translation. In total, 127 patients were included in the validation study: 76 to determine criterion and construct validity and 41 to establish intra- and inter-rater reliability. For an overall diagnosis of diabetes-related foot disease, a substantial level of agreement was obtained when we compared the Q-DFD with the clinical assessment (kappa 0.77, sensitivity 80.4%, specificity 91.5%, positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 9.46, negative likelihood ratio [LR−] 0.21); while an almost perfect level of agreement was obtained when it was compared with medical records (kappa 0.88, sensitivity 87%, specificity 97%, LR+ 29.0, LR− 0.13). Survey reliability showed substantial levels of agreement, with kappa scores of 0.63 and 0.73 for intra- and inter-rater reliability, respectively. Conclusion The translated and cross-culturally adapted Q-DFD showed good psychometric properties (validity, reproducibility, and reliability) that allow its use in Spanish-speaking diabetic populations. PMID:24039434

  19. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Dutch Version of the Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS-NL)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Valid and reliable questionnaires to assess hip and groin pain are lacking. The Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) is a valid and reliable self-reported measure to assess symptoms, activity limitations, participation restrictions and quality of life of persons with hip and/or groin complaints. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the HAGOS into Dutch (HAGOS-NL), and to evaluate its internal consistency, validity and reliability. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaption of the Dutch version of the HAGOS (HAGOS-NL) was performed according to international guidelines. The study population consisted of 178 adult patients who had undergone groin hernia repair surgery in the previous year. All respondents filled in the HAGOS-NL, the SF-36, and the SMFA-NL for determining construct validity of the HAGOS-NL. To determine reliability, 81 respondents filled in the HAGOS-NL after a time interval of two weeks. Results Factor analysis confirmed the original six-factor solution of the HAGOS. Internal consistency was good for all the subscales of the HAGOS-NL. High correlations were observed between the HAGOS-NL and the SF-36 and SMFA-NL, indicating good construct validity. The HAGOS-NL showed high reliability, except for the subscale Participation in Physical Activities which was moderate. Conclusions The HAGOS was successfully translated and cross-culturally adapted from English into Dutch (HAGOS-NL). This study shows that the HAGOS-NL is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of functional status and health-related quality of life in patients with groin complaints. PMID:26821266

  20. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community. PMID:25847702

  1. Cross-cultural validity and reliability testing of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Bolton, P

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cross-culture validity and reliability of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without the usual "gold standards." Normally criterion validity testing requires comparison with such a standard--usually another instrument or a professional diagnosis. Instead local informants identified persons with and without "agahinda gakabije" (a locally described grief syndrome) who were then asked if they thought they had this syndrome and also interviewed using the depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL). To assess criterion validity, interviews where respondent and informant agreed on the presence or absence of agahinda gakabije were compared with depression diagnosis using the DHSCL. We also assessed construct validity (using factor analysis), internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and test-retest reliability using results from a subsequent community-based survey employing the DHSCL. We found a similar relationship between depression and agahinda gakabije as between depression and grief in western countries, which supports criterion validity. Construct validity and internal reliability were good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Test-retest reliability of a DHSCL-based scale was less adequate (0.67). Although not replacing the usual gold standards for testing criterion validity, this approach may prove useful where these standards are unavailable. As this includes much of the developing world, this could result in more accurate mental health assessments among populations for whom this has hitherto not been possible. PMID:11339319

  2. Assessing autistic traits in a Taiwan preschool population: cross-cultural validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of social impairment in the general population. SRS total and subscale scores distinguished significantly between autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders (p < 0.01). Total SRS scores and sensitivity and specificity of the scale for diagnosing developmental disorders in the Taiwan study were similar to those observed in Western studies. These findings support the cross-cultural validity of the SRS scale for detecting autistic traits and for distinguishing between autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:22407579

  3. Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C23-X7/9-C33-X23/24-C58-C8-C67X7-X75-X23-C99-X15-C115-X10-C126X24/25/33-C150C151-X7-C159-X8-X168-X23/24-C192-X9/10-C202 predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24 h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 h and 48 h tick saliva proteins (TSPs). Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ~160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ~16% and caused ~24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (~44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24 h Ixodes scapularis TSPs specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. PMID:23428900

  4. Cross-Validation of Levenson's Psychopathy Scale in a Sample of Federal Female Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Chad A.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Heigel, Caron P.

    2008-01-01

    Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) is evaluated to determine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the instrument among 430 federal female inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis fails to validate the expected 2-factor structure. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis reveals a 3-factor structure…

  5. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A TURKISH VERSION OF THE SENSORY PROFILE: TRANSLATION, CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION, AND PSYCHOMETRIC VALIDATION.

    PubMed

    Kayihan, Hülya; Akel, Burcu Semin; Salar, Sinem; Huri, Meral; Karahan, Sevilay; Turker, Duygu; Korkem, Duygu

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Sensory Profile (SP), which is used to measure sensory processing abilities of children ages of 3-10 years, and test its reliability and validity for use with Turkish children with autism. A cross-cultural adaptation process was carried out by bilingual experts, following typical guidelines. The test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity studies of the Turkish SP were done for 144 children with autism. A comparison was also made between results of children with autism and 101 healthy children to test the validity of the Turkish SP. There were significant differences between results of autistic and healthy children on all subsections of the test. The Cronbach's as ranged from .63 to .97 for all subsections except I, J, and N, which had poor internal consistency reliability. Test-retest reliability over a one-week period was excellent (ICC > .90). PMID:26057421

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale for use in French-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Magalie; Svotelis, Amy; Balg, Frederic; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) is a self-administered score specific for ankle osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent reliability and strong construct and criterion validity. Many recent randomized multicentre trials have used the AOS, and the involvement of the French-speaking population is limited by the absence of a French version. Our goal was to develop a French version and validate the psychometric properties to assure equivalence to the original English version. Methods Translation was performed according to American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) 2000 guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Similar to the validation process of the English AOS, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version (AOS-Fr): criterion validity (AOS-Fr v. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] and SF-36 scores), construct validity (AOS-Fr correlation to single heel-lift test), and reliability (AOS-Fr test–retest). Sixty healthy individuals tested a prefinal version of the AOS-Fr for comprehension, leading to modifications and a final version that was approved by C. Saltzman, author of the AOS. We then recruited patients with ankle OA for evaluation of the AOS-Fr psychometric properties. Results Twenty-eight patients with ankle OA participated in the evaluation. The AOS-Fr showed strong criterion validity (AOS:WOMAC r = 0.709 and AOS:SF-36 r = −0.654) and construct validity (r = 0.664) and proved to be reliable (test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.922). Conclusion The AOS-Fr is a reliable and valid score equivalent to the English version in terms of psychometric properties, thus is available for use in multicentre trials. PMID:27007093

  8. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Gehin, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are {approx} 13%, while the average differences are < 8%.

  9. Cross-Cultural Comparisons: The Validity of Assessment by Indices of Factor Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the cross-cultural consistency of personality inventories, concluding that it is justifiable to use the scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for comparisons within and between different countries. (Author/LHW)

  10. Cross-validation of the reduced form of the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait using confirmatory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iani, Luca; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Lombardo, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is commonly used to assess habitual food cravings among individuals. Previous studies have shown that a brief version of this instrument (FCQ-T-r) has good reliability and validity. This article is the first to use Confirmatory factor analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the FCQ-T-r in a cross-validation study. Method: Habitual food cravings, as well as emotion regulation strategies, affective states, and disordered eating behaviors, were investigated in two independent samples of non-clinical adult volunteers (Sample 1: N = 368; Sample 2: N = 246). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to simultaneously test model fit statistics and dimensionality of the instrument. FCQ-T-r reliability was assessed by computing the composite reliability coefficient. Results: Analysis supported the unidimensional structure of the scale and fit indices were acceptable for both samples. The FCQ-T-r showed excellent reliability and moderate to high correlations with negative affect and disordered eating. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FCQ-T-r scores can be reliably used to assess habitual cravings in an Italian non-clinical sample of adults. The robustness of these results is tested by a cross-validation of the model using two independent samples. Further research is required to expand on these findings, particularly in children and adolescents. PMID:25918510

  11. Measuring Dispositional Cancer Worry in China and Belgium: A Cross-Cultural Validation

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Jennifer Kim; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2014-01-01

    Dispositional cancer worry (DCW) is the uncontrollable tendency to dwell on cancer independent of relevant stimuli (e.g., diagnosis of the disease). Past research has suggested that DCW has two underlying dimensions (severity and frequency). Available measures of DCW severity and frequency were translated and validated in two countries: China and Belgium. Participants (N=623) completed translated scales, as well as measures of general dispositional worry, cancer fear, and perceived risk. In both locations, DCW measures were reliable (Cronbach’s alphas ranged from .78 – .93) and demonstrated strong convergent, divergent, and concurrent validity. Severity and frequency factors loaded as expected in exploratory factor analysis. Future research should pursue longitudinal tests of DCW’s predictive validity and explore DCW in theoretical models predicting the relationship between worry and cancer prevention and early detection behaviors. PMID:24365045

  12. The short international physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF) was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version) and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1) to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1), but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01) and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04) significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1), respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84) and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72), but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51), and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and sitting

  13. Development and cross-validation of prediction equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop and cross-validate new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese children and adolescents, and to determine the accuracy of new equations using the Bland-Altman method. The subjects of the study were 574 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean BMI z-score 3.3). REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 287 subjects and the equations were cross-validated in the remaining 287 subjects. Two new specific equations based on anthropometric parameters were generated as follows: (1) REE=(Sex x 892.68)-(Age x 115.93)+(Weight x 54.96)+(Stature x 1816.23)+1484.50 (R(2) 0.66; se 1028.97 kJ); (2) REE=(Sex x 909.12)-(Age x 107.48)+(fat-free mass x 68.39)+(fat mass x 55.19)+3631.23 (R(2) 0.66; se 1034.28 kJ). In the cross-validation group, mean predicted REE values were not significantly different from the mean measured REE for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and for girls (difference <2 %) and the limits of agreement (+/-2 sd) were +2.06 and -1.77 MJ/d (NS). The new prediction equations allow an accurate estimation of REE in groups of severely obese children and adolescents. These equations might be useful for health care professionals and researchers when estimating REE in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:17092390

  14. Cross-cultural validation of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM): Motivation Orientations of Navajo and Anglo students.

    PubMed

    McInerney, D M; Yeung, A S; McInerney, V

    2001-01-01

    The Motivation Orientation scales of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM) were validated across Navajo (n = 760) and Anglo (n = 1012) students in the U.S. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the 8-factor structure of motivation orientations for the total sample and the Navajo and Anglo subsamples, although Navajo students did not distinguish well between the Effort and Task constructs. However, of 39 survey items, only 30 items were invariant across groups in factor loadings on respective a priori constructs. The findings show that even though the ISM Motivation Orientation scales are applicable to students of different cultural backgrounds, meaningful cross-cultural comparisons should use the 30 items that mean the same to both cultural groups; whereas studies that do not involve cross-cultural comparisons may use the complete version of the scales. PMID:12021475

  15. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Preventive Health Model for Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flight, Ingrid H.; Wilson, Carlene J.; McGillivray, Jane; Myers, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between…

  16. Assessing Self-Regulated Strategies for School Writing: Cross-Cultural Validation of a Triadic Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the construction of a questionnaire to assess ninth-grade students' use of self-regulated strategies for school writing tasks. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses were conducted to validate the factor structure of the instrument. The initial factor analytic stage (n = 296) revealed a 13-factor scale,…

  17. Validity of Rogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyrazli, Senel

    2003-01-01

    Rogerian therapy is highly regarded and popular in Turkey. The model, however, represents individualistic Western culture. In this article, the author focuses on and discusses the validity of the model in Turkish culture and provides suggestions for counseling Turkish clients. (Contains 26 references.) (Author)

  18. Cross-Validation of a PACER Prediction Equation for Assessing Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Finn, Kevin J.; Kaj, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to evaluate the validity of the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run (PACER) test in a sample of Hungarian youth. Method: Approximately 500 participants (aged 10-18 years old) were randomly selected across Hungary to complete both laboratory (maximal treadmill protocol) and field assessments…

  19. Evaluating the Replicability of Sample Results: A Tutorial of Double Cross-Validation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; Xiang, Ping; Keating, Xiaofen Deng

    2004-01-01

    Although replication is important to the validity of a study and is endorsed by more and more scholars, few researchers in kinesiology attend to this issue. Some researchers may believe that statistical significance and effect size are the most important statistical issues in their research and thereby may have ignored the importance of result…

  20. The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-Validation and Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…

  1. Repeated holdout Cross-Validation of Model to Estimate Risk of Lyme Disease by Landscape Attributes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously modeled Lyme disease (LD) risk at the landscape scale; here we evaluate the model's overall goodness-of-fit using holdout validation. Landscapes were characterized within road-bounded analysis units (AU). Observed LD cases (obsLD) were ascertained per AU. Data were ...

  2. Cross-validation of Predicted Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Bradley N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Equations for prorating the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised General Memory (GM) and Delayed Recall (DR) index scores were confirmed in a clinical sample of 258 patients. These prediction equations for the GM and DR summary scores have validity for patient samples similar to those of the present study. (SLD)

  3. Developing a Brief Cross-Culturally Validated Screening Tool for Externalizing Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims at developing and validating a brief, easy-to-use screening instrument for teachers to predict externalizing disorders in children and recommending them for timely referral. The scores are compared between Dutch and non-Dutch immigrant children and a significant amount of cases for externalizing disorders were identified but sex and…

  4. Cross-Validation of the PAI Negative Distortion Scale for Feigned Mental Disorders: A Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard; Gillard, Nathan D.; Wooley, Chelsea N.; Kelsey, Katherine R.

    2013-01-01

    A major strength of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is its systematic assessment of response styles, including feigned mental disorders. Recently, Mogge, Lepage, Bell, and Ragatz developed and provided the initial validation for the Negative Distortion Scale (NDS). Using rare symptoms as its detection strategy for feigning, the…

  5. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Garcia-Primo, Patricia; Martin-Cilleros, Maria Victoria; Santos-Borbujo, Jose; Guisuraga-Fernandez, Zoila; Herraez-Garcia, Lorena; Herraez-Garcia, Maria del Mar; Boada-Munoz, Leticia; Fuentes-Biggi, Joaquin; Posada-de La Paz, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment have been shown to be effective in reducing disability severity caused by Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). As Spanish pediatricians have no detection tool, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was first translated into and culturally adapted to Spanish. Validity and reliability studies were…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Validation of Perceived Locus of Causality Scale in Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Hagger, Martin; Liu, Woon Chia

    2009-01-01

    We examined the validity of the factor structure and invariance of the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale instrument scores across two nations endorsing collectivist (Singapore) and individualist (Great Britain) cultural values. Results indicated that confirmatory factor analytic models of the PLOC exhibited adequate ft according to…

  7. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT)-22 for Lithuanian patients.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Saulius; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Balsevicius, Tomas; Siupsinskiene, Nora; Staikuniene, Jurate; Ryskiene, Silvija; Lisauskaite, Laura; Vaitkus, Justinas

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to perform translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the SNOT-22 in the Lithuanian language. This is a prospective case-control study. The study was conducted at the University clinic. The sino-nasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22) was translated into the Lithuanian language; the pilot study involved 34 patients, the test-retest group consisted of 34 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the control group of 115 patients with no CRS complaints; 36 patients were evaluated before surgery and 3 months after surgery. The results showed a good internal correlation with Cronbach's alpha-0.89 in the initial test, and 0.93 in the retest; both values suggesting good internal consistency within the SNOT-22. Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.72 (p < 0.001), revealing good correlation between the initial scores and the retests scores. Our sample of healthy individuals had a median score of 12 points, and the instrument was capable of differentiating between the healthy and the patient group, demonstrating its validity (p < 0.0001). The statistically significant reduction in the post-operative scores, vis-à-vis pre-operative values, demonstrates the responsiveness of the instrument. The minimally important difference was 13 points in the SNOT-22 score. The Lithuanian version of the SNOT-22 is a valid instrument for assessing patients with CRS. It demonstrated good internal consistency, reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness. PMID:23203242

  8. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  9. Cross-Validation of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for Children in Three Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Magali; Mikolajczak, Moira; Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidon; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Luminet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of a newly developed questionnaire, the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30) that assesses emotional awareness of children through self-report. Participants were recruited in three countries: the Netherlands (N = 665), Spain (N = 464), and Belgium (N = 707),…

  10. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-gwi; Park, Hyun-joo

    2011-01-01

    This study with 213 South Korean college students (113 men) examined the cross-cultural generalizability of (a) the factor structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS) and (b) the existence of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. A confirmatory factor analysis did not support the…

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validity of the Korean version of the pain sensitivity questionnaire in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Yeo, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Hyeon-Guk; Yi, Je-Min; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate pain sensitivity questionnaires (PSQ) into the Korean language, perform a cross-cultural adaption of the PSQ, and validate the Korean version of PSQ in patients with degenerative spinal disease. The PSQ was translated forward and backward, cross-culturally adapted by 2 independent translators, and approved by an expert committee. The final Korean version of the PSQ was tested on 72 patients with degenerative spinal disease. Test-retest reliability was evaluated for 60 patients (83%) who completed the second assessment in an interval of 4 weeks. The mean PSQ-minor, PSQ-moderate, and PSQ-total (standard deviation [SD]) were 5.40 (2.02), 6.46 (1.98), and 5.93 (1.93), respectively. The PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version showed very good internal consistencies determined by the Cronbach's α of 0.926, 0.869, and 0.877, respectively. For convergent validity, the PSQ scores of the Korean version showed significant correlations with pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) (r = 0.377, P = 0.002; r = 0.365, P = 0.003; r = 0.362, P = 0.003 for PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version, respectively). For test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.782 for PSQ-total, 0.752 for PSQ-minor, and 0.793 for PSQ-moderate. In conclusion, the validated Korean version of PSQ is a transculturally equivalent, reliable, and valid tool to assess individual pain sensitivity. PMID:24131768

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of the Revised Korean Version of Ruminative Response Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rumination is a negative coping strategy defined as repetitive and passive focusing on negative feelings such as depression. The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) is a widely-used instrument to measure rumination, but there is continuing argument about the construct validity of the RRS, because of probable overlap between the measurement of depression and that of rumination. The RRS-Revised (RRS-R), which removed 12 items of the RRS, is suggested as a more valid instrument for measuring rumination. Therefore, we translated RRS-R into Korean and explored the reliability, validity and factor structure in patients with major depressive disorders. Methods Seventy-nine patients with major depressive disorder took the Korean version of RRS, RRS-R, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. We performed exploratory factor analysis of RRS-R, and tested construct validity, internal reliability and test-retest reliability. Results The internal and test-retest reliability of RRS-R was high. Factor analysis revealed that RRS-R is composed of two factors. 'Brooding' factor explained 56.6% and 'Reflection' factor explained 12.5%. RRS-R, especially 'Brooding factor', was highly correlated with other clinical symptoms such as depression, anxiety and worry. Conclusion In this study, we find out the RRS-R is more reliable and valid than the original RRS in Korean patients with depression because the RRS-R is free from the debate about the overlap of item with BDI. We also revealed that 'Brooding' is highly correlated with depressive symptoms. RRS-R may be a useful instrument to explore the implication of 'Brooding' in depression. PMID:24605125

  13. Formulation and validation of the day-2 GPROF cross-track precipitation retrieval scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Chris; Randel, David; Ringerud, Sarah; Kummerow, Christian; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Observatory, launched in February 2014, heralded a new era in the estimation global precipitation. The Core Observatory, with the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), acts as a reference for other satellite-based passive microwave sensors that form the GPM constellation. This constellation comprises of 7 conically-scanning 'imagers' and 6 cross-track 'sounders'; in the very near future it is anticipated that the cross-track sensors will form the majority of the passive microwave instruments. The Goddard PROFiling (GPROF) scheme is a physically-based Bayesian precipitation retrieval scheme. The day-1 version of the GPROF incorporated a pre-GPM surface reference data (conical-scanning) or modelled data (cross-track) to derive the database used in the retrieval process; the availability data from the GMI and the DPR now permits the use of satellite-based reference data from which to construct the database. An initial database for the conically-scanning sensors is constructed using the GMI and DPR matchups; since the GMI encompasses the precipitation-sensitive frequencies of the other conical-scanning sensors migration of this database to the other sensors is relatively straightforward. Extension of the technique to the observations from cross-track sensors is more challenging, and has to accommodate their different (and range of) frequencies and Earth incidence angles (affecting resolution, atmospheric path and polarization). Results from the latest version of GPROF are presented here for both the conical and cross-track sensors. Comparisons are made between the new and old versions of GPROF for a range of temporal and spatial scales, and with reference to surface radar data sets over the United States and Western Europe.

  14. Cross-cultural and factorial validity of PTSD check list—military version (PCL-M) in Sinhalese language

    PubMed Central

    Semage, Saveen N.; Sivayogan, Sivagurunadan; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Monaragala, Roshan M. M.; Lockwood, Emma; Dunt, David

    2013-01-01

    Background There are currently no validated instruments to assess the burden of combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sinhalese—the main spoken language in Sri Lanka. Objective The purpose of this research was to establish the cross-cultural and structural validity of the PTSD Check List—Military Version (PCL-M) translated into Sinhalese. Methods Expert committee consensus generation as well as translation–back translation approaches were used to establish the semantic, conceptual, and content equivalence of the Sinhalese and English versions of the PCL-M. Four translations of each item were made. In the absence of any “gold standard” psychometric instrument in Sinhalese to establish the criterion validity for the PCL-M (SIN), the study utilized more informal checks for assessment of validity and Sri Lankan cutoffs for caseness for PTSD to establish the psychometric strength of the translated instrument along with standard reliability analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on PCL-M scoring of a random sample of 1,586 soldiers to examine construct validity. Results Thirteen of the 17 items were selected by popular vote, and the remaining 4 through discussion and consensus. Reliability measured by Cronbach's-α was 0.944 for the total scale and 0.812, 0.869, and 0.895 for the three DSM-IV sub-scales (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal), respectively. The desired cutoff point for the translated instrument was determined to be 44. The five-factor model by Elhai et al. and the four-factor model by King et al. fitted best, demonstrating good fit to all three fit indices, while the four-factor model and the DSM-IV three-factor model by Simms et al. only had acceptable levels of fit for root mean squared error of approximation. χ2 difference test comparing the two better-fitting models suggests that the five-factor model by Elhai et al. has the better fit. Conclusion The PCL-M (SIN) version is suitable for use in

  15. The Multidimensional Loss Scale: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring loss.

    PubMed

    Vromans, Lyn; Schweitzer, Robert D; Brough, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) represents the first instrument designed specifically to index Experience of Loss Events and Loss Distress across multiple domains (cultural, social, material, and intrapersonal) relevant to refugee settlement. Recently settled Burmese adult refugees (N = 70) completed a questionnaire battery, including MLS items. Analyses explored MLS internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure. Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for Experience of Loss Events (0.85) and Loss Distress (0.92), reflecting a unitary construct of multidimensional loss. Loss Distress did not correlate with depression or anxiety symptoms and correlated moderately with interpersonal grief and trauma symptoms, supporting divergent and convergent validity. Factor analysis provided preliminary support for a five-factor model: Loss of Symbolic Self, Loss of Interdependence, Loss of Home, Interpersonal Loss, and Loss of Intrapersonal Integrity. Received well by participants, the new scale shows promise for application in future research and practice. PMID:22456590

  16. The Bland-Altman Method Should Not Be Used in Regression Cross-Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Daniel P.; Mahar, Matthew T.; Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the bias in the Bland-Altman (BA) limits of agreement method when it is used to validate regression models. Data from 1,158 men were used to develop three regression equations to estimate maximum oxygen uptake (R[superscript 2] = 0.40, 0.61, and 0.82, respectively). The equations were evaluated in a…

  17. Cross-cultural validation of a taste test with paper strips.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Chaves, Mariana; Chaves, Carolina; Lemos, Lisete; Silva, Eduardo D; Paiva, António; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Taste dysfunctions influence food choices, interpersonal communication and danger/health. A gustometry protocol is the mainstream for clinical taste disorders diagnosis and suggests possible therapeutics. No clinical gustometry protocol has been adapted and validated to the Portuguese population so far. We aim to validate a gustometry protocol based on strips made from filter paper impregnated with different taste solutions. Four concentrations each for sweet, sour, salty and bitter were administered to 75 subjects. Hypogeusia threshold is of 4.8 in this population. Repeated measures indicated a good reliability and validity for the taste strips (ρ 75 = 0.68, p < 0.001). Although Mediterranean food implies a heathy eating pattern, taste threshold scores may be lower because of its habituation to natural food flavoring. The taste strip gustometry protocol can be applied to the clinical practice in Portugal. It is quick, effective and cheap. The diagnostic utility of this method is indisputable, as well as the advantages we can obtain with its application, for early diagnosis and distinction between disorders of taste and smell. PMID:27071772

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the voice-related quality of life into Persian.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Negin; Saki, Nader; Aghadoost, Ozra; Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Soltani, Majid; Derakhshandeh, Vita; Naderifar, Ehsan; Mahmoodi Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Javadipour, Shiva

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and determine reliability, validity, and responsiveness of voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) for Persian. A total of 300 patients with voice disorders participated in the study. Also, 116 people without any voice disorders volunteered to participate in the study as a control group. All participants filled in the Persian version of V-RQOL. The reliability, validity, and responsiveness were studied. Results demonstrated that the discrimination coefficient is significant for all items. The V-RQOL measure showed a strong internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.88-0.91) and a good test-retest reliability (r = 0.93-0.95). Pre- and post-treatment results showed a significant responsiveness (functioning, 0.000; social-emotional, 0.001; and total, 0.000). Effect size range of 1.26-1.59 and the standardized response mean range of 1.07-1.41 were obtained for V-RQOL. It seems that the Persian version of V-RQOL is valid, reliable, and responsive to change, and this questionnaire can be used for completing voice evaluation for patients with dysphonia. PMID:25008375

  19. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  20. Cross-Validation of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 Youth Version: An Exploration of Strength-Based Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Boman, Peter; Caldwell, Roslyn

    2007-01-01

    High-quality measurement is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of programs that use strength-based principles and strategies. Using independent cross-validation samples, we report two studies that explored the construct validity of the BERS-2 Youth Report, a popular measure designed to assess youth strengths, whose…

  1. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale between Portugal and Brazil Samples.

    PubMed

    Cid, Luis; Lettnin, Carla; Stobäus, Claus; Monteiro, Diogo; Davoglio, Tárcia; Moutão, João

    2016-01-01

    The main propose of this study is the cross-cultural validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale among Portugal and Brazil samples, through the study of measurement model invariance. Participated in this study, two independent samples, one with 616 Portuguese students, of the 2nd and 3rd basic grade of public school, aged between 9 and 18 years old and another with 450 Brazilian students, from 1st, 2nd and 3rd middle grade of public and private school, aged between 14 and 18 years old. The results support the suitability of the model (three factors, each one with four items), showing an adequate fit to the data in each sample (Portugal: χ2 = 203.8, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .062, NNFI = .926, CFI = .943, RMSEA = .070, RMSEA 90% IC = .060-.080; Brazil: χ2 = 173.7, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .052, NNFI = .940, CFI = .954, RMSEA = .073, RMSEA 90% IC = .061-.085), as well valid cross-cultural invariance among Portuguese e Brazilian samples (∆CFI ≤ .01). Those findings allow us to conclude that scale can be used to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education in Portugal and in Brazil. PMID:26892636

  2. Cross-Validation of Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Ultrasound-Based Transient Elastography: A Preliminary Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J; Miette, Véronique; Sandrin, Laurent; Ehman, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To cross-validate two recent noninvasive elastographic techniques, Ultrasound-based Transient Elastography (UTE) and Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). As potential alternatives to liver biopsy, UTE and MRE are undergoing clinical investigations for liver fibrosis diagnosis and liver disease management around the world. These two techniques use tissue stiffness as a marker for disease state and it is important to do a cross-validation study of both elastographic techniques to determine the consistency with which the two techniques can measure the mechanical properties of materials. Materials and Methods In this paper, 19 well-characterized phantoms with a range of stiffness values were measured by two clinical devices (a Fibroscan and a MRE system based respectively on the UTE and MRE techniques) successively with the operators double-blinded. Results Statistical analysis showed that the correlation coefficient was r2=0.93 between MRE and UTE, and there was no evidence of a systematic difference between them within the range of stiffnesses examined. Conclusion These two noninvasive methods, MRE and UTE, provide clinicians with important new options for improving patient care regarding liver diseases in terms of the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of fibrosis progression, as well for evaluating the efficacy of treatment. PMID:19856447

  3. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  4. Semi-empirical validation of the cross-band relative absorption technique for the measurement of molecular mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-05-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  5. The Turkish version of the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Okyay, Emre; Adiyeke, Mehmet; Gezer, Cenk; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to translate the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, adapt it for use with Turkish subjects and determine its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was translated into Turkish and administered twice at 7–14-day intervals to pregnant women to assess the test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s α was used for internal consistency, and the inter-rater correlation coefficient was used to calculate the test-retest reliability. The Turkish Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to estimate validity. [Results] The internal consistency during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy was excellent, with Cronbach’s α values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. The mean interval between the two assessments was 11.1 ± 2.1 days. The correlation coefficient between the total activity measured by the Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire estimates of the total metabolic equivalent were fair to poor during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy (r = 0.17, r = 0.17, r = 0.21, respectively). The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire showed fair correlations with the Short Form 36 Health Survey physical component score (r = −0.30) and mental component score (r = −0.37) for the first trimester of pregnancy. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was found to be reliable and valid for assessing a pregnant woman’s physical activity. PMID:26644678

  6. The Turkish version of the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Okyay, Emre; Adiyeke, Mehmet; Gezer, Cenk; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to translate the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, adapt it for use with Turkish subjects and determine its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was translated into Turkish and administered twice at 7-14-day intervals to pregnant women to assess the test-retest reliability. Cronbach's α was used for internal consistency, and the inter-rater correlation coefficient was used to calculate the test-retest reliability. The Turkish Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to estimate validity. [Results] The internal consistency during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy was excellent, with Cronbach's α values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. The mean interval between the two assessments was 11.1 ± 2.1 days. The correlation coefficient between the total activity measured by the Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire estimates of the total metabolic equivalent were fair to poor during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy (r = 0.17, r = 0.17, r = 0.21, respectively). The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire showed fair correlations with the Short Form 36 Health Survey physical component score (r = -0.30) and mental component score (r = -0.37) for the first trimester of pregnancy. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was found to be reliable and valid for assessing a pregnant woman's physical activity. PMID:26644678

  7. Cross-cultural validation and analysis of responsiveness of the QUALIOST®: QUAlity of Life questionnaire In OSTeoporosis

    PubMed Central

    de la Loge, Christine; Sullivan, Kate; Pinkney, Robert; Marquis, Patrick; Roux, Christian; Meunier, Pierre Jean

    2005-01-01

    Background The QUALIOST® was designed for use with the SF-36 to measure established osteoporosis-specific quality of life (QoL). The reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity of the questionnaire were established in a stand-alone psychometric validation study. The objective of this paper is to provide additional information on the instrument's responsiveness using clinical trial data, along with the reliability and validity of translated versions. Methods The Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) was an international clinical trial comparing strontium ranelate to placebo on the occurrence of new vertebral fracture in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. QoL was a secondary endpoint, assessed using the SF-36 and QUALIOST® at baseline and every six months, with the main analysis at 3-year follow-up. Questionnaire acceptability, analysis of the hypothesised structure, internal consistency reliability and responsiveness to clinical change over time were assessed at the 3-year follow up. Results 1592 patients from 11 countries completed at least one QoL questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were assessed on cross-sectional (N = 1486) and longitudinal (N = 1288) data. Item discriminant validity of the QUALIOST® was excellent, as was item convergent validity, with 100% of item-scale correlations being above the 0.40 level. Internal consistency reliability was also extremely good, with high Cronbach's alpha scores above the 0.70 benchmark. Responsiveness results were consistent for all QUALIOST® scores, indicating that greater decreases in QoL corresponded to greater numbers of fractures experienced. QUALIOST® scores also differed according to the type of fracture suffered. This was demonstrated by increased effect sizes for more severe vertebral fractures (clinical vertebral and painful vertebral). In comparing responsiveness, the QUALIOST® scores were generally more consistent than those of the SF

  8. Validation of the Patient-Doctor-Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a Representative Cross-Sectional German Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The patient-doctor relationship (PDR) as perceived by the patient is an important concept in primary care and psychotherapy. The PDR Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) provides a brief measure of the therapeutic aspects of the PDR in primary care. We assessed the internal and external validity of the German version of the PDRQ-9 in a representative cross-sectional German population survey that included 2,275 persons aged≥14 years who reported consulting with a primary care physician (PCP). The acceptance of the German version of this questionnaire was good. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the PRDQ-9 was unidimensional. The internal reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total score was .95. The corrected item-total correlations were≥.94. The mean satisfaction index of persons with a probable depressive disorder was lower than that of persons without a probable depressive disorder, indicating good discriminative concurrent criterion validity. The correlation coefficient between satisfaction with PDR and satisfaction with pain therapy was r = .51 in 489 persons who reported chronic pain, indicating good convergent validity. Despite the limitation of low variance in the PDRQ-9 total scores, the results indicate that the German version of the PDRQ-9 is a brief questionnaire with good psychometric properties to assess German patients' perceived therapeutic alliance with PCPs in public health research. PMID:24637904

  9. Validation of the Patient-Doctor-Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a representative cross-sectional German population survey.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Markus; Schaefert, Rainer; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The patient-doctor relationship (PDR) as perceived by the patient is an important concept in primary care and psychotherapy. The PDR Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) provides a brief measure of the therapeutic aspects of the PDR in primary care. We assessed the internal and external validity of the German version of the PDRQ-9 in a representative cross-sectional German population survey that included 2,275 persons aged ≥14 years who reported consulting with a primary care physician (PCP). The acceptance of the German version of this questionnaire was good. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the PRDQ-9 was unidimensional. The internal reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total score was .95. The corrected item-total correlations were ≥.94. The mean satisfaction index of persons with a probable depressive disorder was lower than that of persons without a probable depressive disorder, indicating good discriminative concurrent criterion validity. The correlation coefficient between satisfaction with PDR and satisfaction with pain therapy was r = .51 in 489 persons who reported chronic pain, indicating good convergent validity. Despite the limitation of low variance in the PDRQ-9 total scores, the results indicate that the German version of the PDRQ-9 is a brief questionnaire with good psychometric properties to assess German patients' perceived therapeutic alliance with PCPs in public health research. PMID:24637904

  10. Cross-Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Child Welfare Service Organizations.

    PubMed

    Finn, Natalie K; Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-08-01

    The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief, pragmatic, and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). The ILS was originally validated with mental health clinicians. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in community-based organizations (CBOs) providing child welfare services. Participants were 214 service providers working in 12 CBOs that provide child welfare services. All participants completed the ILS, reporting on their immediate supervisor. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the factor structure of the ILS. Internal consistency reliability and measurement invariance were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fit to the hypothesized first- and second-order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was strong and there was partial measurement invariance for the first-order factor structure when comparing child welfare and mental health samples. The results support the use of the ILS to assess leadership for implementation of EBPs in child welfare organizations. PMID:27002137

  11. Impact of Cross-Axis Structural Dynamics on Validation of Linear Models for Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Derry, Stephen D.; Zhou Zhiqiang; Newsom, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to examine the advisability of incorporating a set of Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) during the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle flight. The intent of these inputs is to provide validation to the preflight models for control system stability margins, aerodynamics, and structural dynamics. During October 2009, Ares I-X program was successful in carrying out a series of PTI maneuvers which provided a significant amount of valuable data for post-flight analysis. The resulting data comparisons showed excellent agreement with the preflight linear models across the frequency spectrum of interest. However unlike Ares I-X, the structural dynamics associated with the SLS boost phase configuration are far more complex and highly coupled in all three axes. This presents a challenge when implementing this similar system identification technique to SLS. Preliminary simulation results show noticeable mismatches between PTI validation and analytical linear models in the frequency range of the structural dynamics. An alternate approach was examined which demonstrates the potential for better overall characterization of the system frequency response as well as robustness of the control design.

  12. Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire Turkish version: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Kostanoglu, Alis; Hosbay, Zeynep; Tarakci, Ela

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to adapt the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire into the Turkish language, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] After the translation, inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed between patients and physiotherapists using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire two times, one week apart. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha, and the test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient. Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health and Short Form-36 questionnaires. [Results] The test-retest reliability and inter-tester reliability of the Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire total score, physical function score, mental function score, household activities score, mobility activities score, life and social activities score were excellent. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable for patients with breast cancer related lymphedema. PMID:27390404

  13. Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire Turkish version: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation.

    PubMed

    Kostanoglu, Alis; Hosbay, Zeynep; Tarakci, Ela

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to adapt the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire into the Turkish language, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] After the translation, inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed between patients and physiotherapists using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire two times, one week apart. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's alpha, and the test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient. Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health and Short Form-36 questionnaires. [Results] The test-retest reliability and inter-tester reliability of the Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire total score, physical function score, mental function score, household activities score, mobility activities score, life and social activities score were excellent. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable for patients with breast cancer related lymphedema. PMID:27390404

  14. Cross-validation of marker configurations to measure pelvic kinematics in gait.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Lutz; Portscher, Martin; Brettmann, Kirsten; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried

    2003-12-01

    External tracking of three-dimensional lumbar spine and pelvic oscillations is a method recently used in clinical gait analysis. This investigation validated the use of plate mounted marker configurations overlying the median sacral crest (S1) against single marker sets placed over the anterior and posterior superior iliac spine for the assessment of angular kinematic profiles of the pelvis during treadmill ambulation. Rotational pelvic movements of 12 asymptomatic male subjects were recorded by a 3D-ultrasonic measurement device using four single markers placed over the anterior and posterior superior iliac spine. Additionally, three external ultrasound markers were mounted on a rigid plate placed over S1. No significant differences (P > 0.05) for movement variability or range of motion between marker configurations could be obtained. It could be concluded that trucking of plate-mounted markers overlying S1 seems to be adequate for monitoring rotational pelvic motions in normal gait. PMID:14667951

  15. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. PMID:20977044

  16. The Severe Sexual Sadism Scale: cross-validation and scale properties.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Schilling, Frank; Eher, Reinhard; Nitschke, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The Severe Sexual Sadism Scale (SSSS) is a screening device for the file-based assessment of forensically relevant sexual sadism. The SSSS consists of 11 dichotomous (yes/no) items that code behavioral indicators of severe sexual sadism within sexual offenses. Based on an Austrian sample of 105 sexual offenders, the present study replicated the 1-dimensional scale structure of the SSSS, as evidenced by confirmatory factor analysis. More specifically, the scale was commensurate with the 1-parameter logistic test model (Rasch model). Reliability was estimated to be good. Criterion validity for the clinical diagnosis of sexual sadism was good. With a cutoff value of 7 points, sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 56% and 90%, respectively. PMID:22142424

  17. Latent Structure and Reliability Analysis of the Measure of Body Apperception: Cross-Validation for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fundakowski, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Jean-Pierre, Shadae E.; Jean-Pierre, Ashley R.; Melillo, Angelica B.; Libby, Rachel; Sargi, Zoukaa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and its treatments are associated with psychological distress that can negatively impact self-perception, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Patients with Head and neck cancers (HNC) are particularly susceptible to psychological distress. This study involved a cross-validation of the Measure of Body Apperception (MBA) for HNC patients. Methods One hundred twenty-two English-fluent HNC patients between 20 and 88 years of age completed the MBA on a Likert scale ranging from “1=Disagree” to “4=Agree”. We assessed the latent structure and internal consistency reliability of the MBA using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α), respectively. We determined convergent and divergent validities of the MBA using correlations with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), observer disfigurement rating, and patients’ clinical and demographic variables. Results The PCA revealed a coherent set of items that explained 38% of the variance. The Keiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .73 and the Bartlett's Test of Sphericity was statistically significant (χ2 (28) = 253.64; p < .001), confirming the suitability of the data for dimension reduction analysis. The MBA had good internal consistency reliability (α = .77) and demonstrated adequate convergent and divergent validities based on statistically significant moderate correlations with the HADS (p < .01) and observer rating of disfigurement (p < .026), and non-statistically significant correlations with patients’ clinical and demographic variables: tumor location, age at diagnosis, and birth place (all ps > .05). Conclusions The MBA is a valid and reliable screening measure of body apperception for HNC patients. PMID:22886430

  18. Validation of Health Extension Workers Job Motivation Scale in Gamo-Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Shikur; Tilahun, Marelign; Kote, Mesfin; Mama, Mohamedaman; Tamiru, Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Well-trained and highly motivated community health workers are critical for delivery of community-based health care services. Understanding what motivates especially community health care providers for better community health requires the use of psychometrically reliable and valid scale. This study was conducted to validate job motivation scale in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 150 health care posts in Gamo Gofa Zone, from February 01, 2013, to March 01, 2013. A total of 301 participants responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics and job motivation. Exploratory factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser Normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for job motivation. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as criterion of extraction. Items with item factor loadings less than 0.4 and double loaded items were dropped. Alpha and exploratory factor analyses were examined to test reliability and validity of the scale. Results. During exploratory factor analysis eight factors emerged from the three dimensions of job motivation scale, namely, educational career, workload, financial incentive, supervisor encouragement, community recognition, access to infrastructure, living condition, and better achievement in work. The factor loadings of the items in each dimension ranged from 0.58 to 0.83. Crobach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.79 to 0.90. To check validities of the scales developed in this study, the previous studies conducted to develop job motivation scale were used. Conclusion. Although the present scale has the potential to measure the job motivation of health extension workers and it is low in cost and easy to administer and analyze, it should be field-tested at different settings.

  19. Cross-population validation of statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation during aging.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Legault, Véronique; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Measuring physiological dysregulation during aging could be a key tool both to understand underlying aging mechanisms and to predict clinical outcomes in patients. However, most existing indices are either circular or hard to interpret biologically. Recently, we showed that statistical distance of 14 common blood biomarkers (a measure of how strange an individual's biomarker profile is) was associated with age and mortality in the WHAS II data set, validating its use as a measure of physiological dysregulation. Here, we extend the analyses to other data sets (WHAS I and InCHIANTI) to assess the stability of the measure across populations. We found that the statistical criteria used to determine the original 14 biomarkers produced diverging results across populations; in other words, had we started with a different data set, we would have chosen a different set of markers. Nonetheless, the same 14 markers (or the subset of 12 available for InCHIANTI) produced highly similar predictions of age and mortality. We include analyses of all combinatorial subsets of the markers and show that results do not depend much on biomarker choice or data set, but that more markers produce a stronger signal. We conclude that statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation is stable across populations in Europe and North America. PMID:24802990

  20. Psychophysiological Associations between Chronic Tinnitus and Sleep: A Cross Validation of Tinnitus and Insomnia Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Schecklmann, Martin; Pregler, Maximilian; Kreuzer, Peter M.; Poeppl, Timm B.; Lehner, Astrid; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C.; Frank, Elmar; Landgrebe, Michael; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of insomnia in chronic tinnitus and the association of tinnitus distress and sleep disturbance. Methods. We retrospectively analysed data of 182 patients with chronic tinnitus who completed the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and the Regensburg Insomnia Scale (RIS). Descriptive comparisons with the validation sample of the RIS including exclusively patients with primary/psychophysiological insomnia, correlation analyses of the RIS with TQ scales, and principal component analyses (PCA) in the tinnitus sample were performed. TQ total score was corrected for the TQ sleep items. Results. Prevalence of insomnia was high in tinnitus patients (76%) and tinnitus distress correlated with sleep disturbance (r = 0.558). TQ sleep subscore correlated with the RIS sum score (r = 0.690). PCA with all TQ and RIS items showed one sleep factor consisting of all RIS and the TQ sleep items. PCA with only TQ sleep and RIS items showed sleep- and tinnitus-specific factors. The sleep factors (only RIS items) were sleep depth and fearful focusing. The TQ sleep items represented tinnitus-related sleep problems. Discussion. Chronic tinnitus and primary insomnia are highly related and might share similar psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms leading to impaired sleep quality. PMID:26583109

  1. Modeling neurodevelopmental cognitive deficits in tasks with cross-species translational validity.

    PubMed

    Cope, Z A; Powell, S B; Young, J W

    2016-01-01

    Numerous psychiatric disorders whose cognitive dysfunction links to functional outcome have neurodevelopmental origins including schizophrenia, autism and bipolar disorder. Treatments are needed for these cognitive deficits, which require development using animal models. Models of neurodevelopmental disorders are as varied and diverse as the disorders themselves, recreating some but not all aspects of the disorder. This variety may in part underlie why purported procognitive treatments translated from these models have failed to restore functioning in the targeted patient populations. Further complications arise from environmental factors used in these models that can contribute to numerous disorders, perhaps only impacting specific domains, while diagnostic boundaries define individual disorders, limiting translational efficacy. The Research Domain Criteria project seeks to 'develop new ways to classify mental disorders based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures' in hopes of facilitating translational research by remaining agnostic toward diagnostic borders derived from clinical presentation in humans. Models could therefore recreate biosignatures of cognitive dysfunction irrespective of disease state. This review highlights work within the field of neurodevelopmental models of psychiatric disorders tested in cross-species translational cognitive paradigms that directly inform this newly developing research strategy. By expounding on this approach, the hopes are that a fuller understanding of each model may be attainable in terms of the cognitive profile elicited by each manipulation. Hence, conclusions may begin to be drawn on the nature of cognitive neuropathology on neurodevelopmental and other disorders, increasing the chances of procognitive treatment development for individuals affected in specific cognitive domains. PMID:26667374

  2. Standardization and cross validation of alloreactive IFNγ ELISPOT assays within the clinical trials in organ transplantation consortium.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, I; Najafian, N; Korin, Y; Reed, E F; Mohanakumar, T; Ikle, D; Heeger, P S; Lin, M

    2013-07-01

    Emerging evidence indicates memory donor-reactive T cells are detrimental to transplant outcome and that quantifying the frequency of IFNγ-producing, donor-reactive PBMCs by ELISPOT has potential utility as an immune monitoring tool. Nonetheless, differences in assay performance among laboratories limit the ability to compare results. In an effort to standardize assays, we prepared a panel of common cellular reagent standards, developed and cross validated a standard operating procedure (SOP) for alloreactive IFNγ ELISPOT assays in several research laboratories supported by the NIH-funded Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT) Consortium. We demonstrate that strict adherence to the SOP and centralized data analysis results in high reproducibility with a coefficient of variance (CV) of ≈ 30%. This standardization of IFNγ ELISPOT assay will facilitate interpretation of data from multicenter transplantation research studies and provide the foundation for developing clinical laboratory testing strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making in transplant patients. PMID:23710568

  3. Apparent behaviour of charged and neutral materials with ellipsoidal fibre distributions and cross-validation of finite element implementations.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Thomas; Kelly, Daniel J

    2012-05-01

    Continuous fibre distribution models can be applied to a variety of biological tissues with both charged and neutral extracellular matrices. In particular, ellipsoidal models have been used to describe the complex material behaviour of tissues such as articular cartilage and their engineered tissue equivalents. The choice of material parameters is more difficult than in classical anisotropic models and the impact that changes to these parameters can have on the predictions of such models are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the apparent behaviour of this class of materials over a range of material parameters. We further introduce a scaling approach to overcome certain counter-intuitive aspects related to the choice of anisotropy parameters and outline the integration method used in our implementations. User material codes for the commercial FE software packages Abaqus and MSC Marc are provided for use by other investigators. Cross-validation of our code against similar implementations in FEBio is also presented. PMID:22498290

  4. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  5. Evidence cross-validation and Bayesian inference of MAST plasma equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nessi, G. T.; Hole, M. J.; Svensson, J.; Appel, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, current profiles for plasma discharges on the mega-ampere spherical tokamak are directly calculated from pickup coil, flux loop, and motional-Stark effect observations via methods based in the statistical theory of Bayesian analysis. By representing toroidal plasma current as a series of axisymmetric current beams with rectangular cross-section and inferring the current for each one of these beams, flux-surface geometry and q-profiles are subsequently calculated by elementary application of Biot-Savart's law. The use of this plasma model in the context of Bayesian analysis was pioneered by Svensson and Werner on the joint-European tokamak [Svensson and Werner,Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50(8), 085002 (2008)]. In this framework, linear forward models are used to generate diagnostic predictions, and the probability distribution for the currents in the collection of plasma beams was subsequently calculated directly via application of Bayes' formula. In this work, we introduce a new diagnostic technique to identify and remove outlier observations associated with diagnostics falling out of calibration or suffering from an unidentified malfunction. These modifications enable a good agreement between Bayesian inference of the last-closed flux-surface with other corroborating data, such as that from force balance considerations using EFIT++ [Appel et al., "A unified approach to equilibrium reconstruction" Proceedings of the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (Rome, Italy, 2006)]. In addition, this analysis also yields errors on the plasma current profile and flux-surface geometry as well as directly predicting the Shafranov shift of the plasma core.

  6. Do different decision-analytic modeling approaches produce different results? A systematic review of cross-validation studies.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Bernice; Goeree, Ron; Jegathisawaran, Jathishinie; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Blackhouse, Gord; O'Reilly, Daria

    2015-06-01

    When choosing a modeling approach for health economic evaluation, certain criteria are often considered (e.g., population resolution, interactivity, time advancement mechanism, resource constraints). However, whether these criteria and their associated modeling approach impacts results remain poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to identify cross-validation studies (i.e., modeling a problem using different approaches with the same body of evidence) to offer insight on this topic. With respect to population resolution, reviewed studies suggested that both aggregate- and individual-level models will generate comparable results, although a practical trade-off exists between validity and feasibility. In terms of interactivity, infectious-disease models consistently showed that, depending on the assumptions regarding probability of disease exposure, dynamic and static models may produce dissimilar results with opposing policy recommendations. Empirical evidence on the remaining criteria is limited. Greater discussion will therefore be necessary to promote a deeper understanding of the benefits and limits to each modeling approach. PMID:25728942

  7. Validation and divergence of the activation energy barrier crossing transition at the AOT/lecithin reverse micellar interface.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S Shankara; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Sarkar, Rupa; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2008-03-13

    In this report, the validity and divergence of the activation energy barrier crossing model for the bound to free type water transition at the interface of the AOT/lecithin mixed reverse micelle (RM) has been investigated for the first time in a wide range of temperatures by time-resolved solvation of fluorophores. Here, picosecond-resolved solvation dynamics of two fluorescent probes, ANS (1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonic acid, ammonium salt) and Coumarin 500 (C-500), in the mixed RM have been carefully examined at 293, 313, 328, and 343 K. Using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, the size of the mixed RMs at different temperatures was found to have an insignificant change. The solvation process at the reverse micellar interface has been found to be the activation energy barrier crossing type, in which interface-bound type water molecules get converted into free type water molecules. The activation energies, Ea, calculated for ANS and C-500 are 7.4 and 3.9 kcal mol(-1), respectively, which are in good agreement with that obtained by molecular dynamics simulation studies. However, deviation from the regular Arrhenius type behavior was observed for ANS around 343 K, which has been attributed to the spatial heterogeneity of the probe environments. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay of the probes has indicated the existence of the dyes in a range of locations in RM. With the increase in temperature, the overall anisotropy decay becomes faster revealing the lability of the microenvironment at elevated temperatures. PMID:18281975

  8. Atomic scale structure of the 5-fold surface of an AlPdMn quasicrystal: A quantitative X-Ray photoelectron diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Huan, C.H.A.; Wee, A.T.S.; Van Hove, M.A.; Fadley, C.S.; Shi, F.J.; Rotenberg, E.; Barman, S.R.; Paggel, J.J.; Horn, K.; Ebert, Ph.; Urban, K.

    2004-02-11

    The atomic scale structure of the 5-fold symmetric surface of an AlPdMn quasicrystal is investigated quantitatively by comparing x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) simulations to experiment. The observed 5-fold symmetry of the diffraction patterns indicates that the surface is quasicrystalline with no hint of a reconstruction from the bulk structure. In analyzing the experimental data, many possible bulk terminations have been tested. Those few that fit best to the data have in common that they contain an Al-rich surface layer followed by a dense mixed Al/Pd/Mn layer. These best terminations, while not identical to each other, are suggested to form terraces coexisting on a real surface. Structural relaxations of the quasicrystal surface are also analyzed: mixing several best-fit terminations gives average best-fit interlayer spacing changes of Dd12 = -0.057 Angstrom, Dd24 = +0.159 Angstrom. These results are in good agreement with a prior structure determination by LEED on a sample that was prepared in a different manner.

  9. Cross-validation of spaceborne radar and ground polarimetric radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Steven Matthew

    of a three-parameter gamma raindrop size distribution (RSD) model is also presented along with analysis of the initial PR RSD model on rain rate estimates. Data is taken from the TExas and FLorida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) and the TRMM Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) field campaigns. Data from the Kwajalein KPOL radar is also used to validate the algorithms developed.

  10. Evaluated Iridium, Yttrium, and Thulium Cross Sections and Integral Validation Against Critical Assembly and Bethe Sphere Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B. Frankle, S.; Trellue, H.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Young, P.G.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Wilkerson, C.W.

    2007-12-15

    We describe new dosimetry (radiochemical) ENDF evaluations for yttrium, iridium, and thulium. These LANL2006 evaluations were based upon measured data and on nuclear model cross section calculations. In the case of iridium and yttrium, new measurements using the GEANIE gamma-ray detector at LANSCE were used to infer (n,xn) cross sections, the measurements being augmented by nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code. The thulium isotope evaluations were based on GNASH calculations and older measurements. The evaluated cross section data are tested through comparisons of simulations with measurements of reaction rates in critical assemblies and in Bethe sphere (sometimes called Wyman sphere) integral experiments. Two types of Bethe sphere experiments were studied - a LiD experiment that had a significant component of 14 MeV neutrons, and a LiD-U experiment that additionally had varying amounts of fission neutrons depending upon the location. These simulations were performed with the MCNP code using continuous energy Monte Carlo, and because the neutron fluences can be modeled fairly accurately by MCNP at different locations in these assemblies, the comparisons provide a valuable validation test of the accuracy of the evaluated cross sections and their energy dependencies. The MCNP integral reaction rate validation testing for the three detectors yttrium, iridium, and thulium, in the LANL2006 database is summarized as follows: (1) (n,2n)near 14 MeV: In 14 MeV-dominated locations (the LiD Bethe spheres and the outer regions of the LiD-U Bethe spheres), the (n,2n) products are modeled very well for all three detectors, suggesting that the evaluated {sup 89}Y(n,2n), {sup 191}Ir(n,2n), and {sup 169}Tm(n,2n) cross sections are accurate to better than about 5% near 14 MeV; (2) (n,2n)near threshold: In locations that have a significant number of fission spectrum neutrons or downscattered neutrons from 14 MeV inelastic scattering (the central regions of the Li

  11. Cross-Validation of the Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Exercise Test to Predict Peak Oxygen Uptake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Herda, Ashley A.; Lentz, Angela A.; Mattlage, Anna E.; Sisante, Jason-Flor

    2014-01-01

    Background Submaximal exercise testing can have a greater application in clinical settings because peak exercise testing is generally not available. In previous work, a prediction equation was developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2) using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) and the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) protocol in adults who were healthy. Objective The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the TBRS peak V̇o2 prediction equation in older adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Thirty participants (22 female, 8 male; mean age=66.8 years, SD=5.52; mean weight=68.51 kg, SD=13.39) who previously completed a peak exercise test and met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the cross-validation study. Within 5 days of the peak V̇o2 test, participants completed the TBRS submaximal exercise test. The TBRS submaximal exercise test equation was used to estimate peak V̇o2. The variables in the equation included age, weight, sex, watts (at the end of the submaximal exercise test), and heart rate (at the end of the submaximal exercise test). Results A strong correlation was found between the predicted peak V̇o2 and the measured peak V̇o2. The difference between the values was 0.9 mL·kg−1·min−1, which was not statistically different. The standard error of the estimate was 4.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Limitations The sample included individuals who volunteered to perform a peak exercise test, which may have biased the results toward those willing to exercise to fatigue. Conclusion The data suggest the TBRS submaximal exercise test and prediction equation can be used to predict peak V̇o2 in older adults. This finding is important for health care professionals wanting to provide information to their patients or clients regarding their fitness level. PMID:24435104

  12. Reliability and validity of the cross-culturally adapted Italian version of the Core Outcome Measures Index.

    PubMed

    Mannion, A F; Boneschi, M; Teli, M; Luca, A; Zaina, F; Negrini, S; Schulz, P J

    2012-08-01

    Patient-orientated outcome questionnaires are essential for the assessment of treatment success in spine care. Standardisation of the instruments used is necessary for comparison across studies and in registries. The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) is a short, multidimensional outcome instrument validated for patients with spinal disorders and is the recommended outcome instrument in the Spine Society of Europe Spine Tango Registry; currently, no validated Italian version exists. A cross-cultural adaptation of the COMI into Italian was carried out using established guidelines. 96 outpatients with chronic back problems (>3 months) were recruited from five practices in Switzerland and Italy. They completed the newly translated COMI, the Roland Morris disability (RM), adjectival pain rating, WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL), EuroQoL-5D, and EuroQoL-VAS scales. Reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of 63 patients who returned a second questionnaire within 1 month and indicated no change in back status on a 5-point Likert-scale transition question. The COMI scores displayed no floor or ceiling effects. On re-test, the responses for each individual domain of the COMI were within one category in 100% patients for "function", 92% for "symptom-specific well-being", 100% for "general quality of life", 90% for "social disability", and 98% for "work disability". The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) for the COMI back and leg pain items were 0.78 and 0.82, respectively, and for the COMI summary index, 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.95); this compared well with 0.84 for RM, 0.87 for WHOQoL, 0.79 for EQ-5D, and 0.77 for EQ-VAS. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for COMI was 0.54 points, giving a ''minimum detectable change'' for the COMI of 1.5 points. The scores for most of the individual COMI domains and the COMI summary index correlated to the expected extent (0.4-0.8) with the corresponding full-length reference questionnaires (r = 0.45-0.72). The reproducibility

  13. Validation of the Compassion Fatigue Short Scale among Chinese medical workers and firefighters: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Binghai; Hu, Mengna; Yu, Shitian; Jiang, Yiru; Lou, Baona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the C-Compassion Fatigue (CF)-Short Scale among 4 independent samples of Chinese emergency workers (medical workers and firefighters). Design Cross-sectional. Setting 6 hospitals in Zhejiang Province and 12 fire stations in Shanghai. Participants Emergency workers (medical and firefighters) were consecutively recruited and divided into 4 groups: the MW1 group (medical workers, n=167), the FF1 group (firefighters, n=157), the MW2 group (medical workers, n=265) and the FF2 group (firefighters, n=231). Interventions All patients completed the C-CF-Short Scale to identify factors associated with compassion fatigue. The MW1 and FF1 groups were used for the exploratory analyses. The MW2 and FF2 groups were used for the confirmatory factor analyses. Primary and secondary outcome measures Factor loading, correlations with previously validated questionnaires (the Ego-Resiliency Scale, the Social Support Questionnaire and the Job Pressure Scale) and Cronbach's α coefficient were tested for each factor. Results The C-CF-Short Scale demonstrated excellent construct validity and good internal consistency. Specifically, the results of exploratory factor analyses in the MW1 and FF1 groups showed that secondary trauma and job burnout were associated with compassion fatigue in these emergency workers. The confirmatory factor analyses in the MW2 and FF2 groups indicated that all the fit indices of the 2-factor model were satisfactory. Finally, the Cronbach's α coefficient of each factor was excellent. Conclusions The findings suggest that the C-CF-Short Scale has good psychometric properties and can be applied to study Chinese emergency workers. PMID:27363817

  14. An Efficient Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation-Based Extreme Learning Machine (ELOO-ELM) With Minimal User Intervention.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the architecture of the extreme learning machine (ELM) significantly affects its performance and how to determine a suitable set of hidden neurons is recognized as a key issue to some extent. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) is usually used to select a model with good generalization performance among potential candidates. The primary reason for using the LOO-CV is that it is unbiased and reliable as long as similar distribution exists in the training and testing data. However, the LOO-CV has rarely been implemented in practice because of its notorious slow execution speed. In this paper, an efficient LOO-CV formula and an efficient LOO-CV-based ELM (ELOO-ELM) algorithm are proposed. The proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve fast learning speed similar to the original ELM without compromising the reliability feature of the LOO-CV. Furthermore, minimal user intervention is required for the ELOO-ELM, thus it can be easily adopted by nonexperts and implemented in automation processes. Experimentation studies on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve good generalization with limited user intervention while retaining the efficiency feature. PMID:26259254

  15. Simulating California reservoir operation using the classification and regression-tree algorithm combined with a shuffled cross-validation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tiantian; Gao, Xiaogang; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The controlled outflows from a reservoir or dam are highly dependent on the decisions made by the reservoir operators, instead of a natural hydrological process. Difference exists between the natural upstream inflows to reservoirs and the controlled outflows from reservoirs that supply the downstream users. With the decision maker's awareness of changing climate, reservoir management requires adaptable means to incorporate more information into decision making, such as water delivery requirement, environmental constraints, dry/wet conditions, etc. In this paper, a robust reservoir outflow simulation model is presented, which incorporates one of the well-developed data-mining models (Classification and Regression Tree) to predict the complicated human-controlled reservoir outflows and extract the reservoir operation patterns. A shuffled cross-validation approach is further implemented to improve CART's predictive performance. An application study of nine major reservoirs in California is carried out. Results produced by the enhanced CART, original CART, and random forest are compared with observation. The statistical measurements show that the enhanced CART and random forest overperform the CART control run in general, and the enhanced CART algorithm gives a better predictive performance over random forest in simulating the peak flows. The results also show that the proposed model is able to consistently and reasonably predict the expert release decisions. Experiments indicate that the release operation in the Oroville Lake is significantly dominated by SWP allocation amount and reservoirs with low elevation are more sensitive to inflow amount than others.

  16. Cross-Track Infrared Sounder Science Data Record Pre-launch Calibration and On-Orbit Validation Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, D. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Predina, J.; Gu, D.; Sabet-Peyman, F.; Wang, C.; de Amici, G.; Plonski, M.; Farrow, S. V.; Hohn, J.; Esplin, M.; Zavyalov, V.; Fish, C. S.; Glumb, R.; Wells, S.; Suwinski, L.; Strong, J.; Behrens, C.; Kilcoyne, H.; Feeley, J.; Kratz, G.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) together with the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder will provide retrievals of atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NPOESS is the next generation of low Earth orbiting weather and climate satellites managed by the tri-agency Integrated Program Office, which includes the Department of Commerce, Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The CrIS is a Fourier-transform Michelson interferometer covering the spectral range of 3.9 to 15.4 microns (650 to 2550 wavenumbers) developed by ITT under contract to Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. The first deployment of the CrIS (Flight Model 1) is scheduled for 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. The analysis and data results from comprehensive TVAC testing of the CrIS FM1 sensor demonstrate a very accurate radiometric and spectral calibration system. We describe instrument performance parameters, and the end-to-end plans and analysis tools for on-orbit verification of sensor characteristics and validation of the SDR radiance products.

  17. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  18. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

  19. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant cha...

  20. Health Related Quality of Life of Adolescents in Vietnam: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Adolescent Duke Health Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Xuan Hanh, Vo; Guillemin, Francis; Dinh Cong, Duong; Parkerson, George R., Jr.; Bach Thu, Pham; Tu Quynh, Pham; Briancon, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) of adolescents has been scarcely documented in a general population sample. The study was aimed at translating and adapting the Adolescent Duke Health Profile to Vietnamese, validating the questionnaire, determining reference value, and identifying determinants of poor QOL. Following a cross-cultural methodology, the…

  1. Cross-validation of generalised body composition equations with diverse young men and women: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generalised skinfold equations developed in the 1970s are commonly used to estimate laboratory-measured percentage fat (BF%). The equations were developed on predominately white individuals using Siri's two-component percentage fat equation (BF%-GEN). We cross-validated the Jackson-Pollock (JP) gene...

  2. A Test and Cross-Validation of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire Factor Structure among Western University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is a measure of university students' approach to learning. Original evaluation of the scale's psychometric properties was based on a sample of Hong Kong university students' scores. The purpose of this study was to test and cross-validate the R-SPQ-2F factor structure, based on separate…

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the osteoporosis assessment questionnaire short version (OPAQ-SV) for Chinese osteoporotic fracture females.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Wei, Huan-Huan; Wang, Wen; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Porr, Caroline; Lammi, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire Short Version (OPAQ-SV) was cross-culturally adapted to measure health-related quality of life in Chinese osteoporotic fracture females and then validated in China for its psychometric properties. Cross-cultural adaptation, including translation of the original OPAQ-SV into Mandarin Chinese language, was performed according to published guidelines. Validation of the newly cross-culturally adapted OPAQ-SV was conducted by sampling 234 Chinese osteoporotic fracture females and also a control group of 235 Chinese osteoporotic females without fractures, producing robust content, construct, and discriminant validation results. Major categories of reliability were also met: the Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.975, indicating good internal consistency; the test-retest reliability was 0.80; and principal component analysis resulted in a 6-factor structure explaining 75.847 % of the total variance. Further, the Comparative Fit Index result was 0.922 following the modified model confirmatory factor analysis, and the chi-squared test was 1.98. The root mean squared error of approximation was 0.078. Moreover, significant differences were revealed between females with fractures and those without fractures across all domains (p < 0.001). Overall, the newly cross-culturally adapted OPAQ-SV appears to possess adequate validity and reliability and may be utilized in clinical trials to assess the health-related quality of life in Chinese osteoporotic fracture females. PMID:26175100

  4. Adaptation and validation of the Distress Scale for Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Vega, Ingrid Patricia; Doubova, Svetlana V; Aguirre-Hernandez, Rebeca; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Distress Scale for Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension (DSDH17M). Setting Two family medicine clinics affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Participants 722 patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension (235 patients with diabetes, 233 patients with hypertension and 254 patients with both diseases). Design A cross-sectional survey. Methods The validation procedures included: (1) content validity using a group of experts, (2) construct validity from exploratory factor analysis, (3) internal consistency using Cronbach's α, (4) convergent validity between DSDH17M and anxiety and depression using the Spearman correlation coefficient, (5) discriminative validity through the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and (6) test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results The DSDH17M has 17 items and three factors explaining 67% of the total variance. Cronbach α ranged from 0.83 to 0.91 among factors. The first factor of ‘Regime-related Distress and Emotional Burden’ moderately correlated with anxiety and depression scores. Discriminative validity revealed that patients with obesity, those with stressful events and those who did not adhere to pharmacological treatment had significantly higher distress scores in all DSDH17M domains. Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient for DSDH17M ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 among factors. Conclusions DSDH17M is a valid and reliable tool to identify distress of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26936903

  5. Processing and validation of JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 group-wise cross section libraries for shielding calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescarini, M.; Sinitsa, V.; Orsi, R.; Frisoni, M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group programme dedicated to generate and validate group-wise cross section libraries for shielding and radiation damage deterministic calculations in nuclear fission reactors, following the data processing methodology recommended in the ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009) American Standard. The VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB finegroup coupled n-γ (199 n + 42 γ - VITAMIN-B6 structure) multi-purpose cross section libraries, based on the Bondarenko method for neutron resonance self-shielding and respectively on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data, were produced in AMPX format using the NJOY-99.259 and the ENEA-Bologna 2007 Revision of the SCAMPI nuclear data processing systems. Two derived broad-group coupled n-γ (47 n + 20 γ - BUGLE-96 structure) working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format for LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, were generated by the revised version of SCAMPI, through problem-dependent cross section collapsing and self-shielding from the cited fine-group libraries. The validation results on the criticality safety benchmark experiments for the fine-group libraries and the preliminary validation results for the broad-group working libraries on the PCA-Replica and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments are reported in synthesis.

  6. Electron microscopic imaging revealed the flexible filamentous structure of the cell attachment protein P2 of Rice dwarf virus located around the icosahedral 5-fold axes.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Higashiura, Akifumi; Higashiura, Tomoko; Akita, Fusamichi; Hibino, Hiroyuki; Omura, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    The minor outer capsid protein P2 of Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, is essential for viral cell entry. Here, we clarified the structure of P2 and the interactions to host insect cells. Negative stain electron microscopy (EM) showed that P2 proteins are monomeric and flexible L-shaped filamentous structures of ∼20 nm in length. Cryo-EM structure revealed the spatial arrangement of P2 in the capsid, which was prescribed by the characteristic virion structure. The P2 proteins were visualized as partial rod-shaped structures of ∼10 nm in length in the cryo-EM map and accommodated in crevasses on the viral surface around icosahedral 5-fold axes with hydrophobic interactions. The remaining disordered region of P2 assumed to be extended to the radial direction towards exterior. Electron tomography clearly showed that RDV particles were away from the cellular membrane at a uniform distance and several spike-like densities, probably corresponding to P2, connecting a viral particle to the host cellular membrane during cell entry. By combining the in vitro and in vivo structural information, we could gain new insights into the detailed mechanism of the cell entry of RDV. PMID:26374901

  7. Validation Analyses of IEAF-2001 Activation Cross-Section Data for SS-316 and F82H Steels Irradiated in a White d-Li Neutron Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, S. P.; Fischer, U.; v. Möllendorff, U.; Schmuck, I.; Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Wilson, P. P. H.

    2005-05-01

    The evaluated intermediate-energy activation cross-section library IEAF-2001 has been tested against integral experiments with SS-316 and F82H steels exposed to a white neutron flux spectrum extending up to 55 MeV. By making use of the ALARA inventory code the expected γ-active product nuclide inventories were calculated and compared with the measured one. It was found that IEAF-2001 reasonably agrees with experimental data for most of the detected radioisotopes. The reasons for some larger disagreements were found to be the uncertainty of the sample elemental composition, non-validated neutron activation reaction cross sections, and sequential charge particle reactions.

  8. Predicting Chinese Children and Youth's Energy Expenditure Using ActiGraph Accelerometers: A Calibration and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation based on ActiGraph accelerometer GT3X output to predict children and youth's energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity (PA). Method: Participants were 367 Chinese children and youth (179 boys and 188 girls, aged 9 to 17 years old) who wore 1 ActiGraph GT3X…

  9. Development and cross-validation of prognostic models to assess the treatment effect of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mou, Wenjun; Liu, Zhaoqi; Luo, Yuan; Zou, Meng; Ren, Chao; Zhang, Chunyan; Wen, Xinyu; Wang, Yong; Tian, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    Better understanding of the treatment effect of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy on lung adenocarcinoma patients is needed to facilitate chemotherapy planning and patient care. In this retrospective study, we will develop prognostic models by the cross-validation method using clinical and serum factors to predict outcomes of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Lung adenocarcinoma patients admitted between 2008 and 2013 were enrolled. 29 serum parameters of laboratory tests and 14 clinical factors were analyzed to develop the prognostic models. First, the stepwise selection and five-fold cross-validation were performed to identify candidate prognostic factors. Then a classification of all patients based on the number of metastatic sites resulted in four distinct subsets. In each subset, a prognostic model was fitted with the most accurate prognostic factors from the candidate prognostic factors. Categorical survival prediction was estimated using a log-rank test and visualized with Kaplan-Meier method. 227 lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled. Twenty candidate prognostic factors evaluated using the five-fold cross-validation method were total protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatine kinase, age, smoking index, neuron-specific enolase, bone metastasis, total triglyceride, albumin, gender, uric acid, CYFRA21-1, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, lactate dehydrogenase, CA153, peritoneal metastasis, CA125, and CA199. From these 20 candidate prognostic factors, the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with the highest prognostic accuracy in each subset was identified by the stepwise forward selection method, which generated significant prognostic stratifications in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses (all log-rank p < 0.01). Generally, the prognostic models using five-fold cross-validation achieve a good prediction performance. The prognostic models can be administered safely to lung adenocarcinoma patients treated

  10. The Cross-Cultural Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Higher-Order Scales in a Sample of North Korean Female Refugees.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Goodman, Grace M; Toruno, Joseph A; Sherry, Alissa R; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the cross-cultural factorial validity of the three Higher-Order (H-O) scales in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) among a sample of North Korean female refugees (N = 2,732). Given the importance of the H-O scales in the overall structure of the MMPI-2-RF scales and in interpretation, we were interested in exploring their cross-cultural validity. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the nine Restructured Clinical (RC) scale raw scores and fitted and compared one- to three-factor models. The three-factor model, akin to the model in Tellegen and Ben-Porath, demonstrated the best fit to the data. Furthermore, the pattern matrices of loadings across the current sample and the U.S. samples were comparable despite some differences, such as the RC2 scale's salient, negative loading on a factor analogous to the Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction scale. We also investigated the unique psychological characteristics of the refugees, possibly resulting from the arduous, perilous journeys out of North Korea taken by this group of female refugees and discussed the results of EFA in light of those singular psychological traits and experiences. Overall, the three H-O scales of the Korean MMPI-2-RF evidenced reasonable cross-cultural factorial validity among the sample of North Korean female refugees. PMID:25172847

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale in Three Asian Countries: Test of Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Jiening; Nie, Youyan; Hong, Ji; Monobe, Gumiko; Zheng, Guomin; Kambara, Hitomi; You, Sula

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the widely adopted Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) for the East Asian context. The researchers seek to find out whether TSES holds validity and reliability and is appropriate for use to measure teacher efficacy in China, Korea, and Japan. 489 teachers from the three countries participated in the…

  12. Parallel processing of chemical information in a local area network--II. A parallel cross-validation procedure for artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Derks, E P; Beckers, M L; Melssen, W J; Buydens, L M

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a parallel cross-validation (PCV) procedure, for testing the predictive ability of multi-layer feed-forward (MLF) neural networks models, trained by the generalized delta learning rule. The PCV program has been parallelized to operate in a local area computer network. Development and execution of the parallel application was aided by the HYDRA programming environment, which is extensively described in Part I of this paper. A brief theoretical introduction on MLF networks is given and the problems, associated with the validation of predictive abilities, will be discussed. Furthermore, this paper comprises a general outline of the PCV program. Finally, the parallel PCV application is used to validate the predictive ability of an MLF network modeling a chemical non-linear function approximation problem which is described extensively in the literature. PMID:8799999

  13. Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerised questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children's physical activity: the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Page, Angie; Ku, Po-Wen; Cooper, Ashley R

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the construct validity of a computerised self-assessment tool to measure psychological, social and environmental influences of young peoples' physical activity. First, analyses of the measure's factorial validity, invariance across, age, gender culture were conducted. Second, the ability of the derived subscales to discriminate between children representing different levels of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour was examined. Methods Participants were 1875 boys and 2078 girls (total = 3958) aged 9–10 years (n = 1955, mean age = 9.65 ± 0.42) and 15–16 years (n = 2003, mean age = 15.49 ± 0.50) from four European countries in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Children completed the computerised self-assessment tool with support from the researcher if requested. Self-reported exercise and an objective measure of physical activity (Actigraph model 7164) were used for additional construct validation purposes. Results Overall evidence of good fit indicating satisfactory factorial validity and cross-cultural, age and gender invariance for 3 of the 4 measurement models were obtained. The majority of measures were also significantly different for those with high versus low levels of physical activity. Conclusion Overall, the computerised questionnaire holds promise for use cross-culturally with male and female children and adolescents to measure perceived personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity. Further development of the measures pertaining to perceived environmental influences seems warranted. PMID:18489736

  14. The German Bight: Preparing for Sentinel-3 wit a Cross Validation of SAR and PLRM CryoSat-2 Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Buchhaupt, C.; Dinardo, S.; Scharroo, R.; Benveniste, J.; Becker, M.

    2015-12-01

    As preparatory work for Sentinel-3, we retrieve the three geophysical parameters: sea surface height (SSH), significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed at 10 meters height (U10) from CryoSat-2 data in our validation region in North Sea. The CryoSat-2 SAR echoes are processed with a coherent and an incoherent processing to generate SAR and PLRM data respectively. We derive precision and accuracy at 1 Hz in open ocean, at distances larger than 10 kilometres from the coast. A cross-validation of the SAR and PLRM altimeter data is performed to investigate the differences between the products. Look Up Tables (LUT) are applied in both schemes to correct for approximations applied in both retracking procedures. Additionally a numerical retracker is used in PLRM. The results are validated against in-situ and model data. The analysis is performed for a period of four years, from July 2010 to May 2014. The regional cross-validation analysis confirms the good consistency between PLRM and SAR data. Using LUT the agreement for the sea wave heights increases by 10%.

  15. [Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction].

    PubMed

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3) technique revision and semantic evaluation; (4) conduct validation by professional experts (judges); (5) assessment of comprehensibility by the target population, using a verbal rating scale; and (6) evaluation of the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 43 questions were translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. The final version consisted of 39 items, with content validity for three constructs (media, family, and friends), clarity and easy understanding, and good internal agreement (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.80). The instrument was successfully translated and adapted to Portuguese and showed good content validity, verbal comprehensibility, and internal consistency. Further analysis of external validity, equivalence of measurement, and reproducibility are necessary. PMID:20464069

  16. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL), the “PDQL-BR”, into Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcos; de Rezende, Carlos Henrique A.; Farnese, Virgilio da C.; da Silva, Carlos Henrique M.; Morales, Nívea Macedo de O.; Pinto, Rogério de Melo C.

    2011-01-01

    Translate, culturally adapt, and validate the “Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life” (PDQL) BR, into Brazilian Portuguese. Fifty-two patients answered the PDQL-BR. Twenty-one patients answered the PDQL-BR again 14 days later. The UPDRS and HY scale was applied. Validation was evaluated using psychometric properties, checking the quality of the data, reliability, and validity. Quality of the data was evaluated based on occurrence of ceiling and floor effects. Reliability was evaluated based on: internal consistency of an item, homogeneity, and reproducibility. Validation was checked through the evaluation of convergent and discriminatory validation. There was no ceiling and floor effect. When evaluating reliability, items 20, 30, and 37 showed correlation of 0.34, 0.26, and 0.37, respectively, to your scale; the other items was higher than 0.4. The alpha Cronbach coefficient was higher than 0.7 for most domains. There was good reproducibility. There were no meaningful changes in the PDQL-BR translation and cross-cultural adaptation. PMID:22389837

  17. Development and Validation of a Cross-Cultural Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey Instrument for Chronic Kidney Disease in a Swahili-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Karia, Francis; Voils, Corrine I.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilawe, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases are a growing global burden, and structured surveys can identify critical gaps to address this epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, there are very few well-tested survey instruments measuring population attributes related to non-communicable diseases. To meet this need, we have developed and validated the first instrument evaluating knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population. Methods and Results Between December 2013 and June 2014, we conducted a four-stage, mixed-methods study among adults from the general population of northern Tanzania. In stage 1, the survey instrument was constructed in English by a group of cross-cultural experts from multiple disciplines and through content analysis of focus group discussions to ensure local significance. Following translation, in stage 2, we piloted the survey through cognitive and structured interviews, and in stage 3, in order to obtain initial evidence of reliability and construct validity, we recruited and then administered the instrument to a random sample of 606 adults. In stage 4, we conducted analyses to establish test-retest reliability and known-groups validity which was informed by thematic analysis of the qualitative data in stages 1 and 2. The final version consisted of 25 items divided into three conceptual domains: knowledge, attitudes and practices. Each item demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with established content and construct validity. Conclusions We have developed a reliable and valid cross-cultural survey instrument designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and practices of chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population of Northern Tanzania. This instrument may be valuable for addressing gaps in non-communicable diseases care by understanding preferences regarding healthcare, formulating educational initiatives, and directing development of chronic disease management programs that

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (Petróczi, 2002)

    PubMed Central

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Femia-Marzo, Pedro; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A cross-sectional multi-sample survey with 17 independent datasets was carried out. Cross-cultural adaptation of the PEAS into Spanish was conducted through forward/backward translations, consensus panels and comparative analyses of known-groups to establish evidence for its reliability and validity. Weighted Kappa coefficients with quadratic weighting were used to assess the reliability of each item, with Cronbach’s internal consistency coefficients for overall scale’s reliability and Spearman’s correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability over a one-week period. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the scale’s structure. Differences between self-admitted doping users and non-users were analysed to verify the PEAS’ construct validity in 8 datasets. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also used to assess the relationships between the PEAS and self-esteem, self-efficacy and perceived descriptive norm to establish convergent validity. The scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency (α = 0.71–0.85), reliability of each item (Kappa values range 0.34-0.64) and temporal stability (r = 0.818; p < 0.001). CFA showed acceptable fit (RMSEA <0.08, mean RMSEA = 0.055; χ2/df < 3, mean χ2/df = 1.89) for all but one samples. As expected, self-admitted doping users showed more positive attitude toward doping than non-users. Significant and strong negative relationship was found between PEAS and self-efficacy; weak negative correlation with self-esteem and and positive correlation with perceived descriptive norm. The Spanish version of PEAS showed satisfactory psychometric properties. Considerations for application and improvement are outlined. Key points First study that crosses culturally adapted the PEAS to the Spanish language. The Spanish version of PEAS has satisfactory

  19. Cross Cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Farsi Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tools in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Janke, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran is decreasing. The breastfeeding attrition prediction tools (BAPT) have been validated and used in predicting premature weaning. Objectives: We aimed to translate the BAPT into Farsi, assess its content validity, and examine its reliability and validity to identify exclusive breastfeeding discontinuation in Iran. Materials and Methods: The BAPT was translated into Farsi and the content validity of the Farsi version of the BAPT was assessed. It was administered to 356 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, who were residents of a city in northeast of Iran. The structural integrity of the four-factor model was assessed in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and item-subscale correlations. Validity was assessed using the known-group comparison (128 with vs. 228 without breastfeeding experience) and predictive validity (80 successes vs. 265 failures in exclusive breastfeeding). Results: The internal consistency of the whole instrument (49 items) was 0.775. CFA provided an acceptable fit to the a priori four-factor model (Chi-square/df = 1.8, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.064, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.911). The difference in means of breastfeeding control (BFC) between the participants with and without breastfeeding experience was significant (P < 0.001). In addition, the total score of BAPT and the score of Breast Feeding Control (BFC) subscale were higher in women who were on exclusive breastfeeding than women who were not, at four months postpartum (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study validated the Farsi version of BAPT. It is useful for researchers who want to use it in Iran to identify women at higher risks of Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) discontinuation. PMID:26019910

  20. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Peripheral Artery Questionnaire: Korean version for patients with peripheral vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Spertus, John; Kim, Seong Man

    2012-08-01

    The Peripheral Artery Questionnaire (PAQ), as developed in US English, is a validated scale to evaluate the health status of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to translate the PAQ into Korean and to evaluate its reliability and validity. A multi-step process of forward-translation, reconciliation, consultation with the developer, back-translation and proofreading was conducted. The test-retest reliability was evaluated at a 2-week interval using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was assessed by identifying associations between Korean PAQ (KPAQ) scores and Korean Health Assessment Questionnaire (KHAQ) scores. A total of 100 PAD patients were enrolled: 63 without and 37 with severe claudication. The reliability of the KPAQ was adequate, with an ICC of 0.71. There were strong correlations between KPAQ's subscales. Cronbach's alpha for the summary score was 0.94, indicating good internal consistency and congruence with the original US version. The validity was supported by a significant correlation between the total KHAQ score and KPAQ physical function, stability, symptom, social limitation and quality of life scores (r = -0.24 to -0.90; p < 0.001) as well as between the KHAQ walking subscale and the KPAQ physical function score (r = -0.55, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that the KPAQ is a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate the health status of Korean patients with PAD. PMID:22653880

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test in an Italian Population.

    PubMed

    Culicchia, Greta; Nobilia, Marta; Asturi, Marilyn; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco; De Santis, Rita; Galeoto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the Italian translation and adaptation to the Italian culture of the original version of the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and conveys the procedure for testing its validity and reliability. Design. The cultural adaptation process and validation were based on data from a group of people with no clinical evidence of disease or impairment of the upper limbs. The process required a forward and reverse translation in its original language. The scale obtained was reviewed by 8 experts in the field of psychometrics dealing with statistical methods that are useful for the behavioral and social sciences. The Italian adapted version of the JTHFT was then produced and validated. Participants. The test was submitted to 320 people with no clinical evidence of disease in order to test its acceptability and consistency. Results. The total time required to perform each subtest was 80.16 ± 43.13 seconds for the nondominant hand (NDH) and 49.97 ± 27.28 seconds for the dominant hand (DH). The internal consistency (assessed with Pearson's r) and the reliability or the construct validity (assessed with Cronbach's alpha) are significative. Conclusions. This is the first study reporting the result of the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation protocols of the JTHFT in Italian. It provides a new tool for Italian professionals to measure the functionality of the hand in participants with various upper limb pathologies. PMID:27504203

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test in an Italian Population

    PubMed Central

    Culicchia, Greta; Nobilia, Marta; Asturi, Marilyn; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco; De Santis, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the Italian translation and adaptation to the Italian culture of the original version of the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and conveys the procedure for testing its validity and reliability. Design. The cultural adaptation process and validation were based on data from a group of people with no clinical evidence of disease or impairment of the upper limbs. The process required a forward and reverse translation in its original language. The scale obtained was reviewed by 8 experts in the field of psychometrics dealing with statistical methods that are useful for the behavioral and social sciences. The Italian adapted version of the JTHFT was then produced and validated. Participants. The test was submitted to 320 people with no clinical evidence of disease in order to test its acceptability and consistency. Results. The total time required to perform each subtest was 80.16 ± 43.13 seconds for the nondominant hand (NDH) and 49.97 ± 27.28 seconds for the dominant hand (DH). The internal consistency (assessed with Pearson's r) and the reliability or the construct validity (assessed with Cronbach's alpha) are significative. Conclusions. This is the first study reporting the result of the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation protocols of the JTHFT in Italian. It provides a new tool for Italian professionals to measure the functionality of the hand in participants with various upper limb pathologies. PMID:27504203

  4. Using focus groups to improve the validity of cross-national survey research: a study of physician decision making.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Amy B; Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how qualitative methods can form a foundation for quantitative research by improving instrument validity, informing the data collection process, and improving cost-effectiveness in a study of physician decision making. To test terminology, applicability, and comprehension of a quantitative questionnaire for doctors in the United States and United Kingdom, each country's researchers conducted physician focus groups with questions organized around the experiment, including (a) validity of video vignettes of actor "patients," (b) population accessibility, (c) level of remuneration, (d) appropriate endorsement figure, and (e) question comprehension. Focus group data collected during instrument development and fieldwork planning streamlined processes and achieved cost efficiencies and effectiveness for the overall study. Beyond simply adding a post hoc qualitative component to an already free-standing quantitative methodology, focus groups were used in the study formulation, where the qualitative methodology was integrated into the process of developing a valid survey instrument. PMID:17724109

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  6. Post irradiation experiment analysis using the APOLLO2 deterministic tool. Validation of JEFF-3.1.1 thermal and epithermal actinides neutron induced cross sections through MELUSINE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Fabbris, O.

    2012-07-01

    Two different experiments performed in the 8 MWth MELUSINE experimental power pool reactor aimed at analyzing 1 GWd/t spent fuel pellets doped with several actinides. The goal was to measure the averaged neutron induced capture cross section in two very different neutron spectra (a PWR-like and an under-moderated one). This paper summarizes the combined deterministic APOLLO2-stochastic TRIPOLI4 analysis using the JEFF-3.1.1 European nuclear data library. A very good agreement is observed for most of neutron induced capture cross section of actinides and a clear underestimation for the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) as an accurate validation of its associated isomeric ratio are emphasized. Finally, a possible huge resonant fluctuation (factor of 2.7 regarding to the 1=0 resonance total orbital momenta) is suggested for isomeric ratio. (authors)

  7. Convergent validity of preschool children's television viewing measures among low-income Latino families: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and co...

  8. Situational bandwidth and the criterion-related validity of assessment center ratings: is cross-exercise convergence always desirable?

    PubMed

    Speer, Andrew B; Christiansen, Neil D; Goffin, Richard D; Goff, Maynard

    2014-03-01

    This research examines the relationship between the construct and criterion-related validity of assessment centers (ACs) based on how convergence of dimension ratings across AC exercises affects their ability to predict managerial performance. According to traditional multitrait-multimethod perspective, a high degree of convergence represents more reliable measurement and has the potential for better validity. In contrast, the concept of situational bandwidth suggests that behavior assessed under a dissimilar set of circumstances should result in a more comprehensive assessment of a candidate's tendencies even though ratings are less likely to show high convergence. To test these opposing viewpoints, data from 3 operational ACs were obtained along with experts' evaluations of exercise characteristics and supervisors' ratings of candidates' managerial performance. Across the 3 samples, AC ratings taken from exercises with dissimilar demands had higher estimates of criterion-related validity than ratings taken from similar exercises, even though the same dimension-different exercise correlations were substantially higher between similar exercises. Composites of ratings high in convergence did not emerge as better predictors of managerial performance, and validity particularly suffered when derived from ratings that converged as a result of exercises with similar demands. Implications for AC design are discussed. PMID:24364738

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the pain catastrophizing scale among patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    İlçin, Nursen; Gürpınar, Barış; Bayraktar, Deniz; Savcı, Sema; Çetin, Pınar; Sarı, İsmail; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. [Methods] The validity of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing data and floor and ceiling effects), principal components analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and construct validity (Spearman’s rho). Reproducibility analyses included standard measurement error, minimum detectable change, limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] Sixty-four adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis with a mean age of 42.2 years completed the study. Factor analysis revealed that all questionnaire items could be grouped into two factors. Excellent internal consistency was found, with a Chronbach’s alpha value of 0.95. Reliability analyses showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 for the total score. There was a low correlation coefficient between the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and body mass index, pain levels at rest and during activity, health-related quality of life, and fear and avoidance behaviors. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale is a valid and reliable clinical and research tool for patients with ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:26957778

  10. Unlocking the power of cross-species genomic analyses: identification of evolutionarily conserved breast cancer networks and validation of preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Christina N; Green, Jeffrey E

    2008-01-01

    The application of high-throughput genomic technologies has revealed that individual breast tumors display a variety of molecular features that require more personalized approaches to treatment. Several recent studies have demonstrated that a cross-species analytic approach provides a powerful means to filter through genetic complexity by identifying evolutionarily conserved genetic networks that are fundamental to the oncogenic process. Mouse-human tumor comparisons will provide insights into cellular origins of tumor subtypes, define interactive oncogenetic networks, identify potential novel therapeutic targets, and further validate as well as guide the selection of genetically engineered mouse models for preclinical testing. PMID:18828875

  11. Development and validation of cross-transferable and polymorphic DNA markers for detecting alien genome introgression in Oryza sativa from Oryza brachyantha.

    PubMed

    Ray, Soham; Bose, Lotan K; Ray, Joshitha; Ngangkham, Umakanta; Katara, Jawahar L; Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Behera, Lambodar; Anumalla, Mahender; Singh, Onkar N; Chen, Meingsheng; Wing, Rod A; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2016-08-01

    African wild rice Oryza brachyantha (FF), a distant relative of cultivated rice Oryza sativa (AA), carries genes for pests and disease resistance. Molecular marker assisted alien gene introgression from this wild species to its domesticated counterpart is largely impeded due to the scarce availability of cross-transferable and polymorphic molecular markers that can clearly distinguish these two species. Availability of the whole genome sequence (WGS) of both the species provides a unique opportunity to develop markers, which are cross-transferable. We observed poor cross-transferability (~0.75 %) of O. sativa specific sequence tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers to O. brachyantha. By utilizing the genome sequence information, we developed a set of 45 low cost PCR based co-dominant polymorphic markers (STS and CAPS). These markers were found cross-transferrable (84.78 %) between the two species and could distinguish them from each other and thus allowed tracing alien genome introgression. Finally, we validated a Monosomic Alien Addition Line (MAAL) carrying chromosome 1 of O. brachyantha in O. sativa background using these markers, as a proof of concept. Hence, in this study, we have identified a set molecular marker (comprising of STMS, STS and CAPS) that are capable of detecting alien genome introgression from O. brachyantha to O. sativa. PMID:27299359

  12. Validating the ENDF-B/VII{sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) prompt fission neutron spectrum using updated dosimetry cross sections (IRDFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Zolotarev, K. I.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Trkov, A.

    2012-07-01

    The International Reactor Dosimetry File IRDF-2002 released in 2004 by the IAEA contains cross-section data and corresponding uncertainties for 66 dosimetry reactions. New cross-section evaluations have become available recently that re-define some of these dosimetry reactions for reactor applications including: 1) high fidelity evaluation work undertaken by one of the authors (KIZ); 2) evaluations from the ENDF/B-VII libraries that cover reactions within the International Evaluation of Neutron Cross-Section Standards; and 3) evaluations from JENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4 libraries. Overall, 37 new evaluations of dosimetry reactions have been assessed to determine whether they should be adopted to update and improve IRDF-2002. A new dosimetry library (International Reactor Dosimetry File for Fission and Fusion - IRDFF) was assembled based on new evaluations combined with selected IRDF-2002 evaluations. A grand-total of 74 dosimetry reactions are included into the IRDFF dosimetry library available at www-nds.iaea.org/IRDFFI. The assembled library was used to validate the {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) ENDF-B/VII.0 prompt fission neutron spectrum. An excellent average C/E value of 1.002 +/- 0.02 is achieved for reactions with mean neutron energy of the integrated response (E50%) lower than 11 MeV. C/E data for reactions with E50%-response higher than 11 MeV decreases up to 0.8. We conclude that the ENDF-B/VII.0 {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) prompt fission neutron spectrum from 1-11 MeV is validated within quoted uncertainties by available integral measurements in {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) neutron field. Further investigations for high-threshold reactions are needed and new measurements of spectrum average cross sections for those reactions in the {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) neutron field are recommended. (authors)

  13. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  14. Fabrication of homogeneously cross-linked, functional alginate microcapsules validated by NMR-, CLSM- and AFM-imaging.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Hillgärtner, M; Manz, B; Feilen, P; Brunnenmeier, F; Leinfelder, U; Weber, M; Cramer, H; Schneider, S; Hendrich, C; Volke, F; Zimmermann, U

    2003-05-01

    Cross-linked alginate microcapsules of sufficient mechanical strength can immunoisolate cells for the long-term treatment of hormone and other deficiency diseases in human beings. However, gelation of alginate by external Ba(2+) (or other divalent cations) produces non-homogeneous cross-linking of the polymeric mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acid chains. The stability of such microcapsules is rather limited. Here, we show that homogeneous cross-linking can be achieved by injecting BaCl(2) crystals into alginate droplets before they come into contact with external BaCl(2). The high effectiveness of this crystal gun method is demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and by advanced nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Both techniques gave clear-cut evidence that homogeneous cross-linkage throughout the microcapsule is only obtained with simultaneous internal and external gelation. Atomic force microscopy showed a very smooth surface topography for microcapsules made by the crystal gun method, provided that excess Ba(2+) ions were removed immediately after gelation. In vitro experiments showed greatly suppressed swelling for crystal gun microcapsules. Even alginate extracted from Lessonia nigrescens (highly biocompatible) yielded microcapsules with long-term mechanical stability not hitherto possible. Encapsulation of rat islets, human monoclonal antibodies secreting hybridoma cells and murine mesenchymal stem cells transfected with cDNA encoding for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-4) revealed that injection of BaCl(2) crystals has no adverse side effects on cell viability and function. However, the release of low-molecular weight factors (such as insulin) may be delayed when using alginate concentrations in the usual range. PMID:12628829

  15. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel Ataíde Peres da; Olival, Guilherme Sciascia do; Stievano, Lívia Palma; Toller, Vania Balardin; Jordy, Sergio Semeraro; Eloi, Marina; Tilbery, Charles Peter

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD). The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19) is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS. PMID:26222360

  16. Mechanical validation of balanced cross-sections: The case of the Mont Terri anticline at the Jura front (NW Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caër, Typhaine; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline; Leturmy, Pascale; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Close to north-west front of the Jura thrust belt in Switzerland, the Mont Terri anticline is located at a disruption of the Muschelkalk decollement, due to a former normal fault. Numerous geological data are available thanks to a motorway tunnel cross-cutting the fold and an underground laboratory. Original field data, two geological maps, a borehole, and a highway tunnel constrain the inner structure. The anticline is characterized by an overturned frontal limb, a steep back limb, and a ramp cross-cutting older normal faults. Three geological cross-sections and three 2D kinematic models are proposed as various combinations of fault-bend folding, fault-propagation folding and detachment folding. The main motivation of this study is to illustrate how geometrical constructions can be constrained by the kinematic approach of limit analysis, which determines the optimal deformation, including faults, that verifies mechanical equilibrium and the Coulomb criterion. Matching some of the important kinematic steps assumed in each three interpretations to the optimal deformation leads us to define the compatible ranges of values of the frictional parameters. These ranges allow us to assess the likeliness of the important kinematic steps of each kinematic model. The present analysis provides a quantitative link between the assumed evolution of the internal structure, and the concomitant evolutions of the topography and of the frictional parameters.

  17. The quality of life for cancer children (QOLCC) for Taiwanese children with cancer (part II): feasibility, cross-informants variance and clinical validity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Hung, Li-Chen; Chao, Kuo-Yu

    2004-03-01

    The quality of life in childhood cancer (QOLCC) is a research instrument that has been developed to assess the quality of life for children and adolescents who suffer from cancer in Taiwan. The current paper is the second of a two-part series of research reports. Part I is reported in this journal (Yeh et al., 2003). Part II describes the range of measurement, concordance of cross-informants reports, and clinical validity of Taiwanese pediatric cancer children (7-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) and their parents/caregivers. Due to the cognitive ability of children and adolescents, data were analyzed for children and adolescent separately. The validity of cross-referenced information between parent and child forms was subsequently examined using Pearson product correlation. The feasibility (percentage of missing values per item) and range of measurement [percentage of minimum (floor effect) and maximum (ceiling effect) possible scores] was calculated for the five QOLCC and the total scale score. The findings of medium to high correlation of the patient/parent responses strongly imply that relevant information might be obtainable through parents when children are unable or unwilling to complete the assessment instrument. Feasibility for the QOLCC was very good. PMID:15022152

  18. Dynamic vehicle-track interaction in switches and crossings and the influence of rail pad stiffness - field measurements and validation of a simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsson, Björn A.; Nielsen, Jens C. O.

    2015-06-01

    A model for simulation of dynamic interaction between a railway vehicle and a turnout (switch and crossing, S&C) is validated versus field measurements. In particular, the implementation and accuracy of viscously damped track models with different complexities are assessed. The validation data come from full-scale field measurements of dynamic track stiffness and wheel-rail contact forces in a demonstrator turnout that was installed as part of the INNOTRACK project with funding from the European Union Sixth Framework Programme. Vertical track stiffness at nominal wheel loads, in the frequency range up to 20 Hz, was measured using a rolling stiffness measurement vehicle (RSMV). Vertical and lateral wheel-rail contact forces were measured by an instrumented wheel set mounted in a freight car featuring Y25 bogies. The measurements were performed for traffic in both the through and diverging routes, and in the facing and trailing moves. The full set of test runs was repeated with different types of rail pad to investigate the influence of rail pad stiffness on track stiffness and contact forces. It is concluded that impact loads on the crossing can be reduced by using more resilient rail pads. To allow for vehicle dynamics simulations at low computational cost, the track models are discretised space-variant mass-spring-damper models that are moving with each wheel set of the vehicle model. Acceptable agreement between simulated and measured vertical contact forces at the crossing can be obtained when the standard GENSYS track model is extended with one ballast/subgrade mass under each rail. This model can be tuned to capture the large phase delay in dynamic track stiffness at low frequencies, as measured by the RSMV, while remaining sufficiently resilient at higher frequencies.

  19. Validation of HELIOS Neutron Cross-Section Library for RBMK Reactors Against the Data From the Critical Facility Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jasiulevicius, Audrius; Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2002-07-01

    The RBMK reactors are channel type, water-cooled and graphite moderated reactors. The first RBMK type electricity production reactor was put on-line in 1973. Currently there are 13 operating reactors of this type. Two of the RBMK-1500 reactors are at the Ignalina NPP in Lithuania. Experimental Critical Facility for RBMK reactors, located at Kurchatov Institute, Moscow was designed to carry out critical reactivity experiments on assemblies, which imitate parts of the RBMK reactor core. The facility is composed of Control and Protection Rods (CPR's), fuel assemblies with different enrichment in U-235 and other elements, typical for RBMK reactor core loadings, e.g. additional absorber assemblies, CPR imitators, etc. A simulation of a set of the experiments, performed at the Experimental Critical Facility, was carried out at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT), Nuclear Power Safety Division, using CORETRAN 3-D neutron dynamics code. The neutron cross sections for assemblies were calculated using HELIOS code. The aim of this work was to evaluate capabilities of the HELIOS code to provide correct cross section data for the RBMK reactor. The calculation results were compared to the similar CORETRAN calculations, when employing WIMS-D4 code generated cross section data. For some of the experiments, where calculation results with CASMO-4 code generated cross sections are available, the comparison is also performed against CASMO-4 results. Eleven different experiments were simulated. Experiments differ in size of the facility core (number of assemblies loaded): from simple core loadings, composed only of a few fuel assemblies, to complicated configurations, which represent a part of the RBMK reactor core. Diverse types of measurements were carried out during these experiments: reactivity, neutron flux distributions (both axial and radial), rod reactivity worth and the voiding effects. Results of the reactivity measurements and relative neutron flux distributions were

  20. Criticality and Safety Parameter Studies of a 3-MW TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor and Validation of the Generated Cross-Section Library and Computational Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Mondal, M.A.W.; Sarker, M.M.; Rahman, M.; Shahdatullah, M.S.; Huda, M.Q.; Chakrobortty, T.K.; Khan, M.J.H

    2000-05-15

    This study deals with the analysis of some neutronics and safety parameters of the current core of a 3-MW TRIGA MARK-II research reactor and validation of the generated macroscopic cross-section library and calculational techniques by benchmarking with experimental, operational, and available Safety Analysis Report (SAR) values. The overall strategy is: (a) generation of the problem-dependent cross-section library from basic Evaluated Nuclear Data Files such as ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2 with NJOY94.10+, (b) use of the WIMSD-5 package to generate a few-group neutron macroscopic cross section for all of the materials in the core and its immediate neighborhood, (c) use the three-dimensional CITATION code to perform the global analysis of the core, and (d) checking of the validity of the CITATION diffusion code with the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo code. The ultimate objective is to establish methods for reshuffling the current core configuration to upgrade the thermal flux at irradiation locations for increased isotope production. The computational methods, tools and techniques, customization of cross-section libraries, various models for cells and supercells, and many associated utilities are standardized and established/validated for the overall neutronic analysis. The excess reactivity, neutron flux, power distribution, power peaking factors, determination of the hot spot, and fuel temperature reactivity coefficients {alpha}{sub f} in the temperature range of 45 to 1000 deg. C are studied. All the analyses are performed using the 4- and 7-group libraries of the macroscopic cross sections generated from the 69-group WIMSD-5 library. The 7-group calculations yield comparatively better agreement with the experimental value of k{sub eff} and the other core parameters. The CITATION test runs using different cross-section sets based on the different models applied in the WIMSD-5 calculations show a strong influence of those models on the final integral parameter. Some of the cells

  1. Nine scoring models for short-term mortality in alcoholic hepatitis: cross-validation in a biopsy-proven cohort

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, V; Tsochatzis, E A; Pieri, G; Thalassinos, E; Dhar, A; Bruno, S; Karatapanis, S; Luong, T V; O'Beirne, J; Patch, D; Thorburn, D; Burroughs, A K

    2014-01-01

    Background Several prognostic models have emerged in alcoholic hepatitis (AH), but lack of external validation precludes their universal use. Aim To validate the Maddrey Discriminant Function (DF); Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS); Mayo End-stage Liver Disease (MELD); Age, Bilirubin, INR, Creatinine (ABIC); MELD-Na, UK End-stage Liver Disease (UKELD), and three scores of corticosteroid response at 1 week: an Early Change in Bilirubin Levels (ECBL), a 25% fall in bilirubin, and the Lille score. Methods Seventy-one consecutive patients with biopsy-proven AH, admitted between November 2007-September 2011, were evaluated. The clinical and biochemical parameters were analysed to assess prognostic models with respect to 30- and 90-day mortality. Results There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROCs) relative to 30-day/90-day mortality: MELD 0.79/0.84, DF 0.71/0.74, GAHS 0.75/0.78, ABIC 0.71/0.78, MELD-Na 0.68/0.76, UKELD 0.56/0.68. One-week rescoring yielded a trend towards improved predictive accuracies (30-day/90-day AUROCs: 0.69–0.84/0.77–0.86). In patients with admission DF ≥32 (n = 31), response to corticosteroids according to ECBL, 25% fall in bilirubin and the Lille model yielded AUROCs of 0.73/0.73, 0.78/0.72 and 0.81/0.82 for a 30-day/90-day outcome respectively. All models showed excellent negative predictive values (NPVs; range: 86–100%), while the positive ones were low (range: 17–50%). Conclusions MELD, DF, GAHS, ABIC and scores of corticosteroid response proved to be valid in an independent cohort of biopsy-proven alcoholic hepatitis. MELD modifications incorporating sodium did not confer any prognostic advantage over classical MELD. Based on excellent NPVs, the models are best to identify patients at low risk of death. PMID:24612165

  2. Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions “belonging” and

  3. Standardized nursing language in the systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms: A cross-mapping validation method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Der-Fa F; Eichmann, David; Konicek, Debra; Park, Hyun Tae; Ucharattana, Prangtip; Delaney, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Many standardized healthcare languages have been mapped to the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms known as SNOMED CT, which was developed by the College of American Pathologists. This study describes a methodology for detecting misassigned concepts from source systems to SNOMED CT and presents the results of applying this methodology to a subset of concepts from two standardized nursing languages, the Nursing Interventions Classification and the Nursing Outcomes Classification. The methodology is based on comparing the knowledge representations of a set of nursing concepts between source systems (nursing languages) and SNOMED CT. If any nursing concept differs in knowledge representation in the target system compared with the source system, editorial misassignment of the concept was declared and recommendations for target system developers were made. In a total of 75 nursing concepts used to test this method, five misassigned concepts(6.6%) were found in SNOMED CT. This method can be used to validate other healthcare languages. PMID:16980782

  4. Annotation of protein residues based on a literature analysis: cross-validation against UniProtKb

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Kevin; Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    Background A protein annotation database, such as the Universal Protein Resource knowledge base (UniProtKb), is a valuable resource for the validation and interpretation of predicted 3D structure patterns in proteins. Existing studies have focussed on point mutation extraction methods from biomedical literature which can be used to support the time consuming work of manual database curation. However, these methods were limited to point mutation extraction and do not extract features for the annotation of proteins at the residue level. Results This work introduces a system that identifies protein residues in MEDLINE abstracts and annotates them with features extracted from the context written in the surrounding text. MEDLINE abstract texts have been processed to identify protein mentions in combination with taxonomic species and protein residues (F1-measure 0.52). The identified protein-species-residue triplets have been validated and benchmarked against reference data resources (UniProtKb, average F1-measure of 0.54). Then, contextual features were extracted through shallow and deep parsing and the features have been classified into predefined categories (F1-measure ranges from 0.15 to 0.67). Furthermore, the feature sets have been aligned with annotation types in UniProtKb to assess the relevance of the annotations for ongoing curation projects. Altogether, the annotations have been assessed automatically and manually against reference data resources. Conclusion This work proposes a solution for the automatic extraction of functional annotation for protein residues from biomedical articles. The presented approach is an extension to other existing systems in that a wider range of residue entities are considered and that features of residues are extracted as annotations. PMID:19758468

  5. Cross-Platform Analysis of HIV-1 RNA Data Generated by a Multicenter Assay Validation Study with Wide Geographic Representation

    PubMed Central

    Harty, Brian; Granger, Suzanne; Wager, Carrie; Crump, John A.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Bremer, James W.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 RNA quantitation continues to be extremely important for monitoring patients infected with HIV-1, and a number of assays have been utilized for this purpose. Differences in assay performance with respect to log10 recovery and HIV-1 subtype specificity have been well documented for commercially available assays, although comparisons are usually limited to one or two assay platforms. Two new FDA-approved assays, the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test (RT) and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay (AR), that utilize real-time PCR have replaced previous HIV-1 RNA platforms. Inadequate detection of some strains of HIV-1 resulted in the addition of a new primer/probe set and the introduction of a second version of the RT assay. In this study, comparisons of assay performance between the different FDA-approved HIV-1 RNA assay platforms (both new and existing) were performed by using validation data that included both well-characterized virus stock and locally collected clinical samples. Laboratories across diverse geographical regions performed the validation testing and submitted data to the Virology Quality Assurance program (VQA) for analysis. Correlation values for clinical sample testing varied across the assay platforms (r = 0.832 to 0.986), and average log10 recoveries for HIV-1 RNA controls (compared to the nominal value) ranged from −0.215 to 0.181. These data demonstrate the need for use of one assay platform for longitudinal patient monitoring, but the data also reinforce the notion that no one assay is superior and that testing across platforms may be required for discordance reconciliation. PMID:22692747

  6. Quality of Life amongst Older Brazilians: A Cross-Cultural Validation of the CASP-19 into Brazilian-Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fábia M.; Hyde, Martin; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Correia, Clarice; Siqueira Campos, Alexsandra; Campos, Marília; Novaes, Moacir; Laks, Jerson; Petribu, Kátia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As population ageing becomes a global phenomenon the need to understand the quality of life of older people around the world has become increasingly salient. The CASP-19 is a well established measure of quality of later life. The scale is composed of 19 items which map onto the four domains of control (C), Autonomy (A), Self-Realisation (S) and Pleasure (P). It has already been translated to 12 languages and has been used in a number of national and international studies. However use of the scale outside of Europe has been very limited. The objective of this study was to translate and evaluate the use of the CASP-19 amongst older Brazilians. Methods The CASP-19 was translated from English to Portuguese, back-translated and submitted to an analysis of equivalence by a committee of judges. The scale was then administered to a sample of community dwelling older people in Recife, Brazil (n = 87), and tested for psychometric properties. The Control and Pleasure domains exhibited good internal consistency. By removing one item from each of the Autonomy and Self Realisation domains their internal consistency was improved. Results The mean age of the sample was 75.6±0.7 years, subjects were mainly female (52.9%), white (52.9%), who lived without a partner (54%), and had a monthly income varying from USD 340.00 to USD 850.00. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation permitted good understanding and applicability of final version. Psychometric analyses revealed that the removal of two items improved the internal consistency of the Autonomy and Pleasure domains. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that a 16 item, four factor, model best fits the data. Conclusion In this small exploratory study the CASP-19 Brazil demonstrated good psychometric properties. It was easy to use for both participants and researchers. Hopefully future studies in Brazil will employ the scale so that more direct cross national comparisons can be made with older people in Europe and

  7. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  8. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging.

    PubMed

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  9. Validation predictions of a 13 m/s cross-wind fire for Fuego and the University of Waterloo dataset.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander L.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Gill, Walter; Jarboe, Daniel T.

    2008-03-01

    Detailed herein are the results of a validation comparison. The experiment involved a 2 meter diameter liquid pool of Jet-A fuel in a 13 m/s crosswind. The scenario included a large cylindrical blocking object just down-stream of the fire. It also included seven smaller calorimeters and extensive instrumentation. The experiments were simulated with Fuego. The model included several conduction regions to model the response of the calorimeters, the floor, and the large cylindrical blocking object. A blind comparison was used to compare the simulation predictions with the experimental data. The more upstream data compared very well with the simulation predictions. The more downstream data did not compare very well with the simulation predictions. Further investigation suggests that features omitted from the original model contributed to the discrepancies. Observations are made with respect to the scenario that are aimed at helping an analyst approach a comparable problem in a way that may help improve the potential for quantitative accuracy.

  10. Evaluation of validity of British anthropometric reference data for assessing nutritional state of elderly people in Edinburgh: cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, E.; Reilly, J. J.; MacLennan, W. J.; Kirk, T.; Pender, F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the appropriateness of two sets of commonly used anthropometric reference data for nutritional assessment of elderly people. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Two general practices in Edinburgh. SUBJECTS: 200 independently living men and women aged 75 or over randomly recruited from the age and sex register of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight (kg), knee height (cm), demispan (cm), mid-upper arm circumference (cm), triceps skinfold thickness (mm), arm muscle circumference (cm) body mass index (kg/m2), and demiquet (kg/m2) in men and mindex (kg/m) in women. RESULTS: Men and women in Edinburgh were significantly shorter than those in measured for the Nottingham reference data (demispan 0.79 v 0.80 (P < 0.05) for men and 0.72 v 0.73 (P < 0.01) for women). Comparison with data from South Wales showed that men and women from Edinburgh had significantly greater mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm muscle circumference. No one fell below the 10th centile of the South Wales data (the commonly used out off point for determining malnutrition) for these measures. CONCLUSIONS: Both sets of reference data commonly used in Britain may be inappropriate for nutritional screening of elderly people in Edinburgh. Contemporary reference data appropriate for the whole of Britain need to be developed, and in the longer term biologically or clinically defined criteria for undernutrition should be established. PMID:9270454

  11. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-09

    The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

  12. Robustness of two single-item self-esteem measures: cross-validation with a measure of stigma in a sample of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Robins' Single-item Self-esteem Inventory was compared with a single item from the Coopersmith Self-esteem. Although a new scoring format was used, there was good evidence of cross-validation in 83 current and former psychiatric patients who completed Harvey's adapted measure of stigma felt and experienced by users of mental health services. Scores on the two single-item self-esteem measures correlated .76 (p < .001), .76 and .71 with scores on the longer scales from which they were taken, and .58 and .53, respectively, with Harvey's adapted stigma scale. Complex and perhaps competing models may explain links between felt stigma and poorer self-esteem in users of mental health services. PMID:16350637

  13. Cross-cultural validation of the Work Values Scale EVAT using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and confirmatory multidimensional scaling.

    PubMed

    Arciniega, Luis M; González, Luis; Soares, Vítor; Ciulli, Stefania; Giannini, Marco

    2009-11-01

    The Work Values Scale EVAT (based on its initials in Spanish: Escala de Valores hacia el Trabajo) was created in 2000 to measure values in the work context. The instrument operationalizes the four higher-order-values of the Schwartz Theory (1992) through sixteen items focused on work scenarios. The questionnaire has been used among large samples of Mexican and Spanish individuals reporting adequate psychometric properties. The instrument has recently been translated into Portuguese and Italian, and subsequently used in a large-scale study with nurses in Portugal and in a sample of various occupations in Italy. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the cross-cultural validity of the Work Values Scale EVAT in Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. Our results suggest that the original Spanish version of the EVAT scale and the new Portuguese and Italian versions are equivalent. PMID:19899677

  14. SILAC-Pulse Proteolysis: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Discovery and Cross-Validation in Proteome-Wide Studies of Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Jagat; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-12-01

    Reported here is the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and pulse proteolysis (PP) for detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions on the proteomic scale. The incorporation of SILAC into PP enables the PP technique to be used for the unbiased detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions in complex biological mixtures (e.g., cell lysates) without the need for prefractionation. The SILAC-PP technique is demonstrated in two proof-of-principle experiments using proteins in a yeast cell lysate and two test ligands including a well-characterized drug, cyclosporine A (CsA), and a non-hydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). The well-known tight-binding interaction between CsA and cyclophilin A was successfully detected and quantified in replicate analyses, and a total of 33 proteins from a yeast cell lysate were found to have AMP-PNP-induced stability changes. In control experiments, the method's false positive rate of protein target discovery was found to be in the range of 2.1% to 3.6%. SILAC-PP and the previously reported stability of protein from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique both report on the same thermodynamic properties of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. However, they employ different probes and mass spectrometry-based readouts. This creates the opportunity to cross-validate SPROX results with SILAC-PP results, and vice-versa. As part of this work, the SILAC-PP results obtained here were cross-validated with previously reported SPROX results on the same model systems to help differentiate true positives from false positives in the two experiments.

  15. Cross-Culture Validation of the HIV/AIDS Stress Scale: The Development of a Revised Chinese Version

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Min; Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Zhang, Xixing; Huang, Zhulin; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Being HIV-infected is a stressful experience for many individuals. To assess HIV-related stress in the Chinese context, a measure with satisfied psychometric properties is yet underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of a simplified Chinese version of the HIV/AIDS Stress Scale (SS-HIV) among people living with HIV/AIDS in central China. Method A total of 667 people living with HIV (92% were male) were recruited from March 1st 2014 to August 31th 2015 by consecutive sampling. A standard questionnaire package containing the Chinese HIV/AIDS Stress Scale (CSS-HIV), the Chinese Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Chinese Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) were administered to all participants, and 38 of the participants were selected randomly to be re-tested in four weeks after the initial testing. Results Our data supported that a revised 17-item CSS-HIV had adequate psychometric properties. It consisted of 3 factors: emotional stress (6 items), social stress (6 items) and instrumental stress (5 items). The overall Cronbach’s α was 0.906, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.832. The revised CSS-HIV was significantly correlated with the number of HIV-related symptoms, as well as scores on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, indicating acceptable concurrent validity. Conclusion The 17-item Chinese version of the SS-HIV has potential research and clinical utility in identifying important stressors among the Chinese HIV-infected population and in understanding the effects of stress on adjustment to HIV. PMID:27043134

  16. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  17. Validation of the Korean Version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Psychometric Properties and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. Materials and Methods The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. Results The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. Conclusion As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences. PMID:23074108

  18. Cross-Validation of the Taiwan Version of the Moorehead–Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II with WHOQOL and SF-36

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Huang, Chih-Kun; Chang, Yu-Yin; Tai, Chi-Ming; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2009-01-01

    reliability and validity. It has the advantages of extensive evaluation for HRQOL, cross-cultural application, rapid completion, high response rates, and an advanced scoring system. PMID:19255812

  19. Health related quality of life in patients with bladder cancer: a cross-sectional survey and validation study of the Hungarian version of the Bladder Cancer Index.

    PubMed

    Hevér, Noémi V; Péntek, Márta; Balló, András; Gulácsi, László; Baji, Petra; Brodszky, Valentin; Damásdi, Miklós; Bognár, Zita; Tóth, György; Buzogány, István; Szántó, Árpád

    2015-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in oncology care although an underexplored area in bladder cancer (BC). Our aims were to assess HRQoL of patients with BC, analyse relationships between diverse HRQoL measures and validate the Hungarian version of the Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) questionnaire. A cross-sectional survey was performed among patients with BC (N = 151). Validated Hungarian versions of the FACT-Bl, SF-36 and EQ-5D were applied and SF-6D was derived. Psychometric analysis of the Hungarian BCI was performed. Pearson correlations between the five measures were analysed. Deterioration in SF-36 Physical Functioning was detected among patients aged 45-64 years. The EQ-5D score did not differ significantly from the age-matched population norm. Correlations between the FACT-Bl, EQ-5D and SF-6D utility measures were strong (r > 0.6). Cronbach alpha coefficients of the Hungarian BCI ranged from 0.75 to 0.97 and factor analysis confirmed that data fit to the six predefined subdomains. Test-retest correlations (reliability, N = 50) ranged from 0.67 to 0.87 and interscale correlations between urinary, bowel and sexual BCI domains were weak or moderate (r = 0.29 to 0.49). Convergent validity revealed a stronger correlation with FACT-Bl (r = 0.126 to 0.719) than with generic health state scores (r = 0.096 to 0.584). Results of divergent validity of the Hungarian BCI by treatment groups by Kruskal Wallis test were promising although limited by low sample sizes in cystectomy subgroups. Generic health state measures have limited capacity to capture HRQoL impact of BC. Validity tests yielded favourable results for the Hungarian BCI. Mapping studies to estimate utility scores from FACT-Bl are encouraged but less recommendable with the BCI. PMID:25434791

  20. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7-8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  1. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  2. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  3. Cross-linguistic validity of the French and Dutch versions of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Probst, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The study tested the cross-linguistic validity of the Very Short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) among 1115 Flemish (Dutch version) adolescents, and a comparison sample of 1103 French adolescents (French version; from Morin & Maïano, 2011a). Flemish adolescents also completed a positively worded reformulation of the reverse-keyed item of the physical attractiveness (PA) subscale. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported the factor validity and reliability (except for the Dutch PA subscale) of the PSI-VS, and its partial measurement invariance across samples. CFA conducted on the modified version of the Dutch PSI-VS (11 original items plus the positively worded replacement), presented satisfactory reliability (ω=.67-.89), and was fully invariant across sexes, age groups, and body mass index categories. Additionally, results revealed latent mean differences across sexes and body mass index categories. Therefore, the modified Dutch PSI-VS can be used whenever there is a need for a very short physical self-concept questionnaire. PMID:26057984

  4. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of the Korean Version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cholhee; Lee, Youn-Woo; Yoon, Duck Mi; Kim, Do Wan; Nam, Da Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Distinction between neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain helps facilitate appropriate management of pain; however, diagnosis of neuropathic pain remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale and assess its reliability and validity. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original LANSS pain scale into Korean was established according to the published guidelines. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale was applied to a total of 213 patients who were expertly diagnosed with neuropathic (n = 113) or nociceptive pain (n = 100). The Korean version of the scale had good reliability (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.815, Guttman split-half coefficient = 0.800). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.928 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.885-0.959 (P < 0.001), suggesting good discriminate value. With a cut-off score ≥ 12, sensitivity was 72.6%, specificity was 98.0%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 98% and 76%, respectively. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale is a useful, reliable, and valid instrument for screening neuropathic pain from nociceptive pain. PMID:26339176

  5. Validation of Cross-Sectional Time Series and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Models for the Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents Using Doubly Labeled Water12

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Wong, William W.; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Vohra, Firoz A.; Zakeri, Issa F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant characteristics, heart rate (HR), and accelerometer counts (AC) for prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h total EE (TEE), against a 7-d doubly labeled water (DLW) method in children and adolescents. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate the utility of CSTS and MARS to predict awake EE, sleep EE, and activity EE (AEE) from 7-d HR and AC records, because these shorter periods are not verifiable by DLW, which provides an estimate of the individual's mean TEE over a 7-d interval. CSTS and MARS models were validated in 60 normal-weight and overweight participants (ages 5–18 y). The Actiheart monitor was used to simultaneously measure HR and AC. For prediction of TEE, mean absolute errors were 10.7 ± 307 kcal/d and 18.7 ± 252 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively, relative to DLW. Corresponding root mean square error values were 305 and 251 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the predicted values were in good agreement with the DLW-derived TEE values. Validation of CSTS and MARS models based on participant characteristics, HR monitoring, and accelerometry for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h TEE, against the DLW method indicated no systematic bias and acceptable limits of agreement for pediatric groups and individuals under free-living conditions. PMID:20573939

  6. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Wong, William W; Adolph, Anne L; Puyau, Maurice R; Vohra, Firoz A; Zakeri, Issa F

    2010-08-01

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant characteristics, heart rate (HR), and accelerometer counts (AC) for prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h total EE (TEE), against a 7-d doubly labeled water (DLW) method in children and adolescents. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate the utility of CSTS and MARS to predict awake EE, sleep EE, and activity EE (AEE) from 7-d HR and AC records, because these shorter periods are not verifiable by DLW, which provides an estimate of the individual's mean TEE over a 7-d interval. CSTS and MARS models were validated in 60 normal-weight and overweight participants (ages 5-18 y). The Actiheart monitor was used to simultaneously measure HR and AC. For prediction of TEE, mean absolute errors were 10.7 +/- 307 kcal/d and 18.7 +/- 252 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively, relative to DLW. Corresponding root mean square error values were 305 and 251 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the predicted values were in good agreement with the DLW-derived TEE values. Validation of CSTS and MARS models based on participant characteristics, HR monitoring, and accelerometry for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h TEE, against the DLW method indicated no systematic bias and acceptable limits of agreement for pediatric groups and individuals under free-living conditions. PMID:20573939

  7. Translation, Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Simplified-Chinese Version of the Tegner Activity Score in Chinese Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxia; Jiang, Yanfang; Yang, Jie; Feng, Tao; Gong, Xi; Wang, Jianquan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-01

    Aims To translate the English version of Tegner Activity Score into a Simplified-Chinese version (Tegner-C) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods Tegner-C was cross-culturally adapted according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of Tegner-C were assessed in 78 participants, with 19–20 participants in each of the four groups: before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (pre-ACLR) group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, 3–12 months after ACLR group, and healthy control group. Each participant was asked to complete the Tegner-C and Chinese version of International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF-C) twice, with an interval of 5±2 days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1) was used to assess the reliability and Spearman’s rank correlation was used for construct validity. Results The ICC2,1 was higher than 0.90 for all groups except in the pre-ACLR group, for which the ICC2,1 was 0.71 (0.41, 0.87) (All with p<0.001). The absolute reliability as evaluated by the smallest detectable change was 0.43, 2.12, 0.89, and 0.44 for the healthy control group, pre-ACLR group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, and 3–12 months after ACLR group, respectively. Neither a ceiling effect nor a floor effect was observed for any group. Significant difference was observed for both Tegner-C and IKDC-SKF-C scores between the control and the other three groups (all with p<0.001), and between pre-ACLR and the 2–3 months after ACLR group (p<0.001). Conclusions Tegner-C demonstrated comparable psychometric properties to the original English version and thus is reliable and valid for Chinese-speaking patients with ACL injury. PMID:27186880

  8. Translation and Validation of Bahasa Malaysia Version of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life Questionnaires (IIQ-7), a Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nusee, Zalina; Rusly, Azizah; Jamalludin, AR; Abdulwahab, Dalia F; Ismail, Rozihan

    2016-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) demonstrates major prevalence in women of different population groups. Reduced quality of life (QOL) is observed due to incontinence problems. Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life (IIQ-7) are useful disease-specific questionnaires evaluating the impact of urinary incontinence on the QOL of women which is accepted internationally. Objective This study aims to translate and validate UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in Malay language. Methods A cross sectional study, which recruited 100 participants from two urogynecology clinics. Both questionnaires were initially translated from English to Bahasa Malaysia followed by back translation and final correction done by the professional translators. The participants were requested to maintain a urinary record of the upcoming week for three days that assisted in quantifying the severity of symptoms. None of the subjects were assigned any treatment during the study period. Validity and reliability of the translated questionnaires were determined by checking the internal consistency and also by doing test-retest. Results The internal consistency levels of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires were 0.73 and 0.90 respectively with good test-retest (0.86 and 0.95). Incontinence episodes were strongly associated with obstructive, irritative, and stress symptoms. The factor of day time voiding had strong correlation with obstructive and irritative symptoms. Conclusion UDI-6 and IIQ-7 did not measure similar outcomes; however, both questionnaires have their strengths in clinical settings. Analysis has also revealed that the Malaysian versions of both questionnaires had appropriate test-retest validity and reliability. Thus, it can be said that both of the questionnaires had great importance for screening patients with urinary incontinence in Malaysia. PMID:27418870

  9. A cross-cultural validation of the Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) in Turkey and the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Anita G.; Cakir, Mustafa; Peterson, Claudette M.; Ray, Chris M.

    2012-04-01

    Background . Studies exploring the relationship between students' achievement and the quality of the classroom learning environments have shown that there is a strong relationship between these two concepts. Learning environment instruments are constantly being revised and updated, including for use in different cultures, which requires continued validation efforts. Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish cross-cultural reliability and validity of the Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) in both Turkey and the USA. Sample Approximately 980 students attending grades 9-12 in Turkey and 130 students attending grades 9-12 in the USA participated in the study. Design and method Scale reliability analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed separately for Turkish and US participants for both actual and preferred responses to each scale to confirm the structure of the TROFLEI across these two distinct samples. Results Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients, ranging from α = 0.820 to 0.931 for Turkish participants and from α = 0.778 to 0.939 for US participants, indicated that all scales have satisfactory internal consistency for both samples. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in evidence of adequate model fit across both samples for both actual and preferred responses, with the root mean square error of approximation ranging from 0.052 to 0.057 and the comparative fit index ranging from 0.920 to 0.982. Conclusions This study provides initial evidence that the TROFLEI is valid for use in both the Turkish and US high-school populations (grades 9-12). However, the psychometric properties should be examined further with different populations, such as middle-school students (grades 6-8).

  10. Adaptation and cross-cultural validation of the United States Primary Care Assessment Tool (expanded version) for use in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring primary care is important for health sector reform. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) measures performance of elements essential for cost-effective care. Following minor adaptations prior to use in Cape Town in 2011, a few findings indicated a need to improve the content and cross-cultural validity for wider use in South Africa (SA). Aim This study aimed to validate the United States of America-developed PCAT before being used in a baseline measure of primary care performance prior to major reform. Setting Public sector primary care clinics, users, practitioners and managers in urban and rural districts in the Western Cape Province. Methods Face value evaluation of item phrasing and a combination of Delphi and Nominal Group Technique (NGT) methods with an expert panel and user focus group were used to obtain consensus on content relevant to SA. Original and new domains and items with > = 70% agreement were included in the South African version – ZA PCAT. Results All original PCAT domains achieved consensus on inclusion. One new domain, the primary healthcare (PHC) team, was added. Three of 95 original items achieved < 70% agreement, that is consensus to exclude as not relevant to SA; 19 new items were added. A few items needed minor rephrasing with local healthcare jargon. The demographic section was adapted to local socio-economic conditions. The adult PCAT was translated into isiXhosa and Afrikaans. Conclusion The PCAT is a valid measure of primary care performance in SA. The PHC team domain is an important addition, given its emphasis in PHC re-engineering. A combination of Delphi and NGT methods succeeded in obtaining consensus on a multi-domain, multi-item instrument in a resource- constrained environment. PMID:26245610

  11. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Stanford presenteeism scale-6 and work instability scale for ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Renata; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Loss of productivity at work, as a result of health problems, is becoming an issue of interest due to the high burden it represents in society. The measurement of such phenomenon can be made using generic and specific scales for certain diseases such as the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Work Instability Scale for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS-WIS), specific for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of SPS-6 and AS-WIS into Portuguese and check their psychometric properties. The study also aimed to evaluate the relationship between the general scores of the scales and the main sociodemographic and clinical data, lifestyles, and absenteeism in patients with AS and correlate these variables with SPS-6 and AS-WIS scales. A sample of 120 patients with AS and 80 workers at a university hospital was evaluated. The processes for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments followed preestablished steps and rules presented in the literature. For the evaluation of measurement properties and correlations between scales, intra-class correlation coefficient (reproducibility analysis), Cronbach alpha (internal consistency), and Pearson correlation coefficient (validity) were employed. The inter-observer (0.986) and intra-observer (0.992) reproducibilities of the AS-WIS were shown to be high as well as the internal consistency (0.995). Similarly, the inter-observer reliability of SPS-6 was considered good (0.890), although it showed a poorer performance when considering the same observer (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.675 and intra-class correlation = 0.656). Internal consistency, for the total number of items, as measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.889. The validity of the scales was evaluated thru the comparison of the achieved scores with the results of the WLQ, SF-36, ASQoL, BASFI, BASDAI, HAQ-S, and SRQ-20 instruments. Correlations between loss of

  12. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the

  13. Suomi NPP/JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS): Calibration Validation With The Aircraft Based Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Tobin, D.; Knuteson, R. O.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. A.; Pettersen, C.; Garcia, R. K.; Gero, P.

    2013-12-01

    To better accommodate climate change monitoring and improved weather forecasting, there is an established need for higher accuracy and more refined error characterization of radiance measurements from space and the corresponding geophysical products. This need has led to emphasizing direct tests of on-orbit performance, referred to as validation. Currently, validation typically involves (1) collecting high quality reference data from airborne and/or ground-based instruments during the satellite overpass, and (2) a detailed comparison between the satellite-based radiance measurements and the corresponding high quality reference data. Additionally, for future missions technology advancements at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) have led to the development of an on-orbit absolute radiance reference utilizing miniature phase change cells to provide direct on-orbit traceability to International Standards (SI). The detailed comparison between the satellite-based radiance measurements and the corresponding measurements made from a high-altitude aircraft must account for instrument noise and scene variations, as well as differences in instrument observation altitudes, view angles, spatial footprints, and spectral response. Most importantly, for the calibration validation process to be both accurate and repeatable the reference data instrument must be extremely well characterized and understood, carefully maintained, and accurately calibrated, with traceability to absolute standards. The Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) meets and exceeds these requirements and has proven to do so on multiple airborne platforms, each with significantly different instrument operating environments. The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi NPP, launched 28 October 2011, is designed to give scientists more refined information about Earth's atmosphere and improve weather forecasts and our understanding of climate. CrIS is an

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms. Although several studies, mostly in English speaking western world, have demonstrated the utility of condom attitude scales, very limited culturally relevant condom attitude measures have been developed till to date. We have developed a scale and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh. Methods This paper reports mostly on cross-sectional survey components of a mixed methods sexual health research in Bangladesh. The survey sample (n = 878) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers (n = 437) and restaurant workers (n = 441) in Dhaka (aged 18–35 years). The study also involved focus group sessions with same populations to establish the content validity and cultural equivalency of the scale. The current scale was administered with a large sexual health survey questionnaire and consisted of 10 items. Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then presented. Results The participants found the scale simple and easy to understand and use. The internal consistency (α) of the scale was 0.89 with high construct validity (the first component accounted for about 52% of variance and second component about 20% of the total variance with an Eigen-value for both factors greater than one). The test-retest reliability (repeatability) was also found satisfactory with high inter-item correlations (the majority of the intra-class correlation coefficient values was above 2 and was significant for all items on the scale, p < 0.001). The 2-week repeatability assessed by the Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient was 0.75. Conclusion The results indicated that Bengali version of the scale have good metric

  15. Design and Validation of a Novel Method to Measure Cross-Sectional Area of Neck Muscles Included during Routine MR Brain Volume Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, Alixe H. M.; Subedi, Deepak; Gray, Calum D.; Deary, Ian J.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Starr, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low muscle mass secondary to disease and ageing is an important cause of excess mortality and morbidity. Many studies include a MR brain scan but no peripheral measure of muscle mass. We developed a technique to measure posterior neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) on volumetric MR brain scans enabling brain and muscle size to be measured simultaneously. Methods We performed four studies to develop and test: feasibility, inter-rater reliability, repeatability and external validity. We used T1-weighted MR brain imaging from young and older subjects, obtained on different scanners, and collected mid-thigh MR data. Results After developing the technique and demonstrating feasibility, we tested it for inter-rater reliability in 40 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between raters were 0.99 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.98–1.00) for the combined group (trapezius, splenius and semispinalis), 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for obliquus and 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for sternocleidomastoid. The first unrotated principal component explained 72.2% of total neck muscle CSA variance and correlated positively with both right (r = 0.52, p = .001) and left (r = 0.50, p = .002) grip strength. The 14 subjects in the repeatability study had had two MR brain scans on three different scanners. The ICC for between scanner variation for total neck muscle CSA was high at 0.94 (CI 0.86–0.98). The ICCs for within scanner variations were also high, with values of 0.95 (CI 0.86–0.98), 0.97 (CI 0.92–0.99) and 0.96 (CI 0.86–0.99) for the three scanners. The external validity study found a correlation coefficient for total thigh CSA and total neck CSA of 0.88. Discussion We present a feasible, valid and reliable method for measuring neck muscle CSA on T1-weighted MR brain scans. Larger studies are needed to validate and apply our technique with subjects differing in age, ethnicity and geographical location. PMID:22509305

  16. Cross validation of gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for measuring dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Prapamontol, Tippawan; Sutan, Kunrunya; Laoyang, Sompong; Hongsibsong, Surat; Lee, Grace; Yano, Yukiko; Hunter, Ronald Elton; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2014-01-01

    We report two analytical methods for the measurement of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine. These methods were independently developed/modified and implemented in two separate laboratories and cross validated. The aim was to develop simple, cost effective, and reliable methods that could use available resources and sample matrices in Thailand and the United States. While several methods already exist, we found that direct application of these methods required modification of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions to render accurate, reliable data. The problems encountered with existing methods were attributable to urinary matrix interferences, and differences in the pH of urine samples and reagents used during the extraction and derivatization processes. Thus, we provide information on key parameters that require attention during method modification and execution that affect the ruggedness of the methods. The methods presented here employ gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either flame photometric detection (FPD) or electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with isotopic dilution quantification. The limits of detection were reported from 0.10ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-FPD), while the limits of quantification were reported from 0.25ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-MS), for all six common DAP metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). Each method showed a relative recovery range of 94-119% (for GC-FPD) and 92-103% (for GC-MS), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 20%. Cross-validation was performed on the same set of urine samples (n=46) collected from pregnant women residing in the agricultural areas of northern Thailand. The results from split sample analysis from both laboratories agreed well for each metabolite, suggesting that each method can produce

  17. Reach and Validity of An Objective Medication Adherence Measure among Safety Net Health Plan Members with Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ratanawongsa, Neda; Karter, Andrew J.; Quan, Judy; Parker, Melissa M.; Handley, Margaret; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Schillinger, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background With the expansion of Medicaid and low-cost health insurance plans among diverse patient populations, objective measures of medication adherence using pharmacy claims could advance clinical care and translational research for safety net care. However, safety net patients may experience fluctuating prescription drug coverage, affecting the performance of adherence measures. Objective To evaluate the performance of continuous medication gap (CMG) for diverse, low-income managed care members with diabetes. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using administrative and clinical data for 680 members eligible for a self-management support trial at a non-profit, government-sponsored managed care plan. We applied CMG methodology to cardiometabolic medication claims for English-, Cantonese-, or Spanish-speaking members with diabetes. We examined inclusiveness (the proportion with calculable CMG) and selectivity (sociodemographic and medical differences from members without CMG). To examine validity, we examined unadjusted associations of suboptimal adherence (CMG>20%) with suboptimal cardiometabolic control. Results 429 members (63%) had calculable CMG. Compared to members without CMG, members with CMG were younger; more likely employed; and had poorer glycemic control, but better blood pressure and lipid control. Suboptimal adherence occurred more frequently among members with poor cardiometabolic control than among members with optimal control (28% vs. 12%, p=0.02). Conclusions CMG demonstrated acceptable inclusiveness and validity in a diverse, low-income safety net population, comparable to its performance in studies among other insured populations. CMG may provide a useful tool to measure adherence among increasingly diverse Medicaid populations, complemented by other strategies to reach those not captured by CMG. Trial Registration NCT00683020 PMID:26233541

  18. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  19. Cross-validation of IFN-γ Elispot assay for measuring alloreactive memory/effector T cell responses in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bestard, O; Crespo, E; Stein, M; Lúcia, M; Roelen, D L; de Vaal, Y J; Hernandez-Fuentes, M P; Chatenoud, L; Wood, K J; Claas, F H; Cruzado, J M; Grinyó, J M; Volk, H D; Reinke, P

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of donor-specific alloreactive memory/effector T cell responses using an IFN-γ Elispot assay has been suggested to be a novel immune-monitoring tool for evaluating the cellular immune risk in renal transplantation. Here, we report the cross-validation data of the IFN-γ Elispot assay performed within different European laboratories taking part of the EU RISET consortium. For this purpose, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), comparisons of lectures of IFN-γ plates assessing intra- and interlaboratory assay variability of allogeneic or peptide stimuli in both healthy and kidney transplant individuals have been the main objectives. We show that the use of a same SOP and count-settings of the Elispot bioreader allow low coefficient variation between laboratories. Frozen and shipped samples display slightly lower detectable IFN-γ frequencies than fresh samples. Importantly, a close correlation between different laboratories is obtained when measuring high frequencies of antigen-specific primed/memory T cell alloresponses. Interestingly, significant high donor-specific alloreactive T cell responses can be similarly detected among different laboratories in kidney transplant patients displaying histological patterns of acute T cell mediated rejection. In conclusion, assessment of circulating alloreactive memory/effector T cells using an INF-γ Elispot assay can be accurately achieved using the same SOP, Elispot bioreader and experienced technicians in kidney transplantation. PMID:23763435

  20. Improving the accuracy of NMR structures of RNA by means of conformational database potentials of mean force as assessed by complete dipolar coupling cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Clore, G Marius; Kuszewski, John

    2003-02-12

    The description of the nonbonded contact terms used in simulated annealing refinement can have a major impact on nucleic acid structures generated from NMR data. Using complete dipolar coupling cross-validation, we demonstrate that substantial improvements in coordinate accuracy of NMR structures of RNA can be obtained by making use of two conformational database potentials of mean force: a nucleic acid torsion angle database potential consisting of various multidimensional torsion angle correlations; and an RNA specific base-base positioning potential that provides a simple geometric, statistically based, description of sequential and nonsequential base-base interactions. The former is based on 416 nucleic acid crystal structures solved at a resolution of

  1. Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore mudflat profile and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal mudflat under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal mudflats. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the mudflat over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further

  2. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  3. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  4. Does safety climate predict safety performance in Italy and the USA? Cross-cultural validation of a theoretical model of safety climate.

    PubMed

    Barbaranelli, Claudio; Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have acknowledged the relevance of assessing the measurement equivalence of safety related measures across different groups, and demonstrating whether the existence of disparities in safety perceptions might impair direct group comparisons. The Griffin and Neal (2000) model of safety climate, and the accompanying measure (Neal et al. [NGH], 2000), are both widely cited and utilized. Yet neither the model in its entirety nor the measure have been previously validated across different national contexts. The current study is the first to examine the NGH measurement equivalence by testing whether their model of safety climate predicting safety performance is tenable in both English speaking and non-English speaking countries. The study involved 616 employees from 21 organizations in the US, and 738 employees from 20 organizations in Italy. A multi-group confirmatory factor analytic approach was used to assess the equivalence of the measures across the two countries. Similarly, the structural model of relations among the NGH variables was examined in order to demonstrate its cross-country invariance. Results substantially support strict invariance across groups for the NGH safety scales. Moreover, the invariance across countries is also demonstrated for the effects of safety climate on safety knowledge and motivation, which in turn positively relate to both compliance and participation. Our findings have relevant theoretical implications by establishing measurement and relational equivalence of the NGH model. Practical implications are discussed for managers and practitioners dealing with multi-national organizational contexts. Future research should continue to investigate potential differences in safety related perceptions across additional non-English speaking countries. PMID:25697669

  5. Self-Report Data in Cross-Cultural Research: Issues of Construct Validity in Questionnaires for Quantitative Research in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines issues arising from the use of self-report questionnaires in cross-cultural contexts. The research draws from the extensive literature on cross-cultural leadership in business organizational culture as well as from educational cross-cultural contexts. It examines claims, drawn from business and educational contexts, that many…

  6. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised on the College Students in the United States and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kamile Bahar

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the cultural validity of the almost perfect scale-revised (APS-R) with 300 Turkish and 300 American and international college students. First, the validity of the original APS-R was conducted on American students and international students. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) offered two-factor scale to be consistent…

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Commitment-to-School Scale Using a Sample of Junior High School Youth in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansong, David; Chowa, Gina A.; Masa, Rainier D.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence from developed countries suggests that students' commitment to school is fundamental to their academic success. However, in developing countries, validated measures of student commitment to school do not exist. The current study helps fill this research gap by examining the validity and reliability of a commitment-to-school…

  8. Determination of snow avalanche return periods using a tree-ring based reconstruction in the French Alps: cross validation with the predictions of a statistical-dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläppy, Romain; Eckert, Nicolas; Jomelli, Vincent; Grancher, Delphine; Brunstein, Daniel; Stoffel, Markus; Naaim, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    rare events, i.e. to the tail of the local runout distance distribution. Furthermore, a good agreement exists with the statistical-numerical model's prediction, i.e. a 10-40 m difference for return periods ranging between 10 and 300 years, which is rather small with regards to the uncertainty levels to be considered in avalanche probabilistic modeling and dendrochronological reconstructions. It is important to note that such a cross validation on independent extreme predictions has never been undertaken before. It suggest that i) dendrochronological reconstruction can provide valuable information for anticipating future extreme avalanche events in the context of risk management, and, in turn, that ii) the statistical-numerical model, while properly calibrated, can be used with reasonable confidence to refine these predictions, with for instance evaluation of pressure and flow depth distributions at each position of the runout zone. A strong sensitivity to the determination of local avalanche and dendrological record frequencies is however highlighted, indicating that this step is an essential step for an accurate probabilistic characterization of large-extent events.

  9. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale in a Brazilian Population.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos de Souza, Clarissa; Vigorito, Afonso Celso; Miranda, Eliana C M; Garcia, Celso; Rensi Colturato, Vergílio Antonio; Mauad, Marcos Augusto; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Cláudia; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Lermontov, Simone; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Rodrigues, Morgani; Carlos de Almeida Barros, Jose; Chiattone, Ricardo; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2016-07-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Symptom Scale is a patient-reported instrument developed and validated in English to measure the symptoms and functional impact of cGVHD. This tool has not yet been validated in a Latin American population, however. The Brazil-Seattle Chronic GVHD Consortium conducted a multicenter study at 5 Brazilian institutions to validate the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale in adults with cGVHD. Study objectives included the translation and validation of the instrument in Brazilian Portuguese and evaluation of the correlation with other quality of life (QoL) tools, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy with Bone Marrow Transplant subscale (FACT-BMT). Translation and validation were done according to the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons Outcome Committee guidelines. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to measure construct validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficients. Between April 2011 and August 2012, 47 patients with cGVHD based on the 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria (29 males [62%], 18 females [38%]; median age, 48 years; range, 23 to 69 years) were enrolled in this study. The reliability of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale was adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.62 to 0.83). The correlations between similar domains of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, SF-36, and FACT-BMT were moderate to high. Our data indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale is valid and reliable and can be used in clinical trials of cGVHD in Brazil. PMID:27058616

  10. Validation of SCALE 4.0 -- CSAS25 module and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library for low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    A version of KENO V.a and the 27-group library in SCALE-4.0 were validated for use in evaluating the nuclear criticality safety of low-enriched uranium systems. A total of 59 critical systems were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the results was performed, and subcritical acceptanced criteria are established.

  11. Validation of SCALE 4. 0 -- CSAS25 module and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library for low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    A version of KENO V.a and the 27-group library in SCALE-4.0 were validated for use in evaluating the nuclear criticality safety of low-enriched uranium systems. A total of 59 critical systems were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the results was performed, and subcritical acceptanced criteria are established.

  12. Validation of the Portuguese version of the Lithium Attitudes Questionnaire (LAQ) in bipolar patients treated with lithium: cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to lithium is very common in bipolar patients and it is a frequent cause of recurrence during prophylactic treatment. Several reports suggest that attitudes of bipolar patients interfere with adherence to lithium. The Lithium Attitudes Questionnaire (LAQ) is a brief questionnaire developed as a means of identifying and grouping the problems patients commonly have with taking lithium regularly. The original version is validated in patients, but a validated version in Portuguese is not yet available. Methods One-hundred six patients with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria) criteria under lithium treatment for at least one month were assessed using LAQ. LAQ is a brief questionnaire administered under interview conditions, which includes 19 items rating attitudes towards prophylactic lithium treatment. We analysed the internal consistency, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Portuguese version of LAQ. Results The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.78. The mean total LAQ score was 4.1. Concurrent validity was confirmed by a negative correlation between plasma lithium concentration and total LAQ score (r = -0,198; p = 0.048). We analysed the scale's discriminative capacity revealing a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 71% in the identification of negative attitudes of bipolar patients. Conclusion The psychometric assessment of the Portuguese version of LAQ showed good internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity. The results were similar to the original version in relation to attitudes of bipolar patients towards lithium therapy. PMID:17121674

  13. Coping Styles and Achievement: A Cross-National Study of School Children. Volume I of V Volumes: The Theory, Design, and Validation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.

    This study undertook to develop an improved conceptual system for explaining effective behavior; to build reliable measures of the components of that behavior; to develop and apply the measures internationally; and to validate the measures and concepts against objective criteria of achievement. An eight-nation team defined three sets of components…

  14. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Proxy for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Testing the Incremental Validity and Cross-Sample Robustness of the Antisocial Features Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Boer, Douglas P.; Hamilton, Jennine

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression…

  15. Reexamining the Factorial Structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Elementary, Intermediate, and Secondary Teachers: A Cross-Validated Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was studied for 2,931 Canadian teachers (48.2% males and 51.8% females) as a single professional group and for subsamples of this group (1,159 elementary school teachers, 388 intermediate school teachers, and 1,384 secondary school teachers). Study participants were full-time teachers…

  16. Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality program KENO IV and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group-cross sections for high-assay uranium systems. [KENO IV criticality code

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, G. R.; Masters, L. C.; Stachowiak, R. V.

    1981-04-10

    Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality code, KENO IV, and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group cross sections was accomplished by calculating the effective neutron multiplication constant, k/sub eff/, of 29 experimentally critical assemblies which had uranium enrichments of 92.6% or higher in the uranium-235 isotope. The experiments were chosen so that a large variety of geometries and of neutron energy spectra were covered. Problems, calculating the k/sub eff/ of systems with high-uranium-concentration uranyl nitrate solution that were minimally reflected or unreflected, resulted in the separate examination of five cases.

  17. Measuring Sense of Community in the Military: Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Validity of the Brief Sense of Community Scale and Its Underlying Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wombacher, Jorg; Tagg, Stephen K.; Burgi, Thomas; MacBryde, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a German Sense of Community (SOC) Scale for use in military settings. The scale is based on the translation and field-testing of an existing U.S.-based measure of neighborhood SOC (Peterson, Speer, & McMillan, 2008). The methodological intricacies underlying cross-cultural scale development are highlighted, as…

  18. Assessing the Validity of the Cross-Cultural Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors with American and South Korean Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael; Wang, Chuang; Ki, Seryeong

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on the literacy practices of students worldwide; yet, there are few instruments available to facilitate cross-cultural comparisons and conclusions specific to cognitive and affective variables related to Internet proficiency. This research was conducted to examine the measurement invariance of the…

  19. Cross-mode bioelectrical impedance analysis in a standing position for estimating fat-free mass validated against dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Chun; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Hsiao, An-Chi; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to assess body composition. Cross-mode (left hand to right foot, Z(CR)) BIA presumably uses the longest current path in the human body, which may generate better results when estimating fat-free mass (FFM). We compared the cross-mode with the hand-to-foot mode (right hand to right foot, Z(HF)) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. We hypothesized that when comparing anthropometric parameters using stepwise regression analysis, the impedance value from the cross-mode analysis would have better prediction accuracy than that from the hand-to-foot mode analysis. We studied 264 men and 232 women (mean ages, 32.19 ± 14.95 and 34.51 ± 14.96 years, respectively; mean body mass indexes, 24.54 ± 3.74 and 23.44 ± 4.61 kg/m2, respectively). The DXA-measured FFMs in men and women were 58.85 ± 8.15 and 40.48 ± 5.64 kg, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to construct sex-specific FFM equations. The correlations of FFM measured by DXA vs. FFM from hand-to-foot mode and estimated FFM by cross-mode were 0.85 and 0.86 in women, with standard errors of estimate of 2.96 and 2.92 kg, respectively. In men, they were 0.91 and 0.91, with standard errors of the estimates of 3.34 and 3.48 kg, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement of -6.78 to 6.78 kg for FFM from hand-to-foot mode and -7.06 to 7.06 kg for estimated FFM by cross-mode for men, and -5.91 to 5.91 and -5.84 to 5.84 kg, respectively, for women. Paired t tests showed no significant differences between the 2 modes (P > .05). Hence, cross-mode BIA appears to represent a reasonable and practical application for assessing FFM in Chinese populations. PMID:26409342

  20. Cross-validation study using item response theory: the health-related quality of life for eating disorders questionnaire-short version.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Amaia; Las Hayas, Carlota; Forero, Carlos G; Padierna, Angel; Martin, Josune; Quintana, José M

    2014-08-01

    The Health-Related Quality of Life for Eating Disorder-Short questionnaire is one of the most suitable existing instruments for measuring quality of life in patients with eating disorders. The objective of the study was to evaluate its reliability, validity, and responsiveness in a cohort of 377 patients. A comprehensive validation process was performed, including confirmatory factor analysis and a graded response model, and assessments of reliability and responsiveness at 1 year of follow-up. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two second-order latent traits, social maladjustment, and mental health and functionality. The graded response model results showed that all items were good for discriminating their respective latent traits. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were high, and responsiveness parameters showed moderate changes. In conclusion, this short questionnaire has good psychometric properties. Its simplicity and ease of application further enhance its acceptability and usefulness in clinical research and trials, as well as in routine practice. PMID:24235177

  1. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) Using Four Large Samples from the US, Hong Kong, and China

    PubMed Central

    Dhamija, Devika; Berntsen, Leslie; Raine, Adrian; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the validity the Chinese version of the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). The RPQ was administered to 11 year-old participants in the China Jintan Child Cohort Study, a population-based longitudinal study of 1352 children. Similar to other studies, a two-factor solution with one reactive and one proactive subscale best described the data. Overall, the Chinese version of the RPQ had good construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. These findings suggest that the RPQ is psychometrically similar when administered to children and adolescents in the United States and in China and need not be modified to measure aggressive behavior in Chinese samples. PMID:27330246

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain Measure for the knee

    PubMed Central

    Panah, Sara Hojat; Baharlouie, Hamze; Rezaeian, Zahra Sadat; Hawker, Gilian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to translate and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the 11-item Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) measure in Iranian subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA). Materials and Methods: The ICOAP questionnaire was translated according to the Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI) protocol. The procedure consisted of forward and backward translation, as well as the assessment of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the questionnaire. A sample of 230 subjects with KOA was asked to complete the Persian versions of ICOAP and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). The ICOAP was readministered to forty subjects five days after the first visit. Test–retest reliability was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation. The correlation between ICOAP and KOOS was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Result: Subjects found the Persian-version of the ICOAP to be clear, simple, and unambiguous, confirming its face validity. Spearman correlations between ICOAP total and subscale scores with KOOS scores were between 0.5 and 0.7, confirming construct validity. Cronbach's alpha, used to assess internal consistency, was 0.89, 0.93, and 0.92 for constant pain, intermittent pain, and total pain scores, respectively. The ICC was 0.90 for constant pain and 0.91 for the intermittent pain and total pain score. Conclusion: The Persian version of the ICOAP is a reliable and valid outcome measure that can be used in Iranian subjects with KOA. PMID:27563327

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation, and Reliability Testing of the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire in Persian Population with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Aslan; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We aimed to validate the Persian version of the modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ) in patients with low back pain. Overview of Literature Modified Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire is a well-known condition-specific outcome measure that helps quantify disability in patients with lumbar syndromes. Methods To test the validity in a pilot study, the Persian MODQ was administered to 25 individuals with low back pain. We then enrolled 200 consecutive patients with low back pain to fill the Persian MODQ as well as the short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Convergent validity of the MODQ was tested using the Spearman's correlation coefficient between the MODQ and SF-36 subscales. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's α coefficient were measured to test the reliability between test and retest and internal consistency of all items, respectively. Results ICC for individual items ranged from 0.43 to 0.80 showing good reliability and reproducibility of each individual item. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.69 showing good internal consistency across all 10 items of the Persian MODQ. Total MODQ score showed moderate to strong correlation with the eight subscales and the two domains of the SF-36. The highest correlation was between the MODQ and the physical functioning subscale of the SF-36 (r=–0.54, p<0.001) and the physical component domain of the SF-36 (r=–0.55, p<0.001) showing that MODQ is measuring what it is supposed to measure in terms of disability and physical function. Conclusions Persian version of the MODQ is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of the disability following low back pain. PMID:27114759

  4. Adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Lithium Knowledge Test (LKT) of bipolar patients treated with lithium: cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Objective Adherence problems are a common feature among bipolar patients. A recent study showed that lithium knowledge was the main difference between adherent and non adherents bipolar patients. The Lithium Knowledge Test (LKT), a brief questionnaire, was developed as a means of identifying aspects of patients' practical and pharmacological knowledge which are important if therapy is to be safe and effective. The original English version is validated in psychiatric population, but a validated Portuguese one is not yet available. Methods One hundred six patients selected were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (I or II) according to DSM-IV criteria and had to be on lithium treatment for at least one month. The LKT was administered on only one occasion. We analysed the internal consis tency, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the LKT for the detection of the knowledge about lithium treatment of bipolar patients. Results The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.596. The mean of total score LKT by bipolar patients was 9.0 (SD: 0.75) for men and 8.74 (SD: 0.44) for women. Concurrent validity based on plasma lithium concentration showed a significant correlation between the total LKT score and plasma lithium (r = 0,232; p = 0.020). The sensitivity was 84% and specificity was 81%. Conclusion LKT is a rapid, reliable instrument which appears to be as effective as a lengthier standard interview with a lithium clinic doctor, and which has a high level of acceptability to lithium patients. We found that the psychometric assessment of the Portuguese version of LKT showed good internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:17147815

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire".

    PubMed

    da Rocha Lopes, Sofia Manuela; Duarte, José Alberto; Mesquita, Cristina Teresa Torrão Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge is an important factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis regarding the adoption of appropriate behaviours and education. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" for the Portuguese population with ankylosing spondylitis. The Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" was administered to a sample of 180 subjects, from which 63 individuals responded. The adaptation process involved translation, back-translation and submission to a committee of experts in the area, culminating with a Portuguese version of the instrument. Next, the scale reliability and validity were assessed. There was a statistically significant decrease from test to retest, although the intra-class correlation coefficient between test and retest was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.61-0.86), which was considered good. From 180 individuals, 63 (35.0 %) subjects were available for the present study. The proportion of individuals that correctly answered each item ranged from 19 to 92 %, corresponding to items 8 and 13, respectively. The mean number of correct answers was 8.5 [mean (SD) = 2.4] in 12 questions. The proposed Portuguese version of the ankylosing spondylitis knowledge scale showed good reliability, reproducibility and construct validity. PMID:26856726

  6. A brief dementia screener suitable for use by non-specialists in resource poor settings—the cross-cultural derivation and validation of the brief Community Screening Instrument for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Prince, M; Acosta, D; Ferri, C P; Guerra, M; Huang, Y; Jacob, K S; Llibre Rodriguez, J J; Salas, A; Sosa, A L; Williams, J D; Hall, K S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Brief screening tools for dementia for use by non-specialists in primary care have yet to be validated in non-western settings where cultural factors and limited education may complicate the task. We aimed to derive a brief version of cognitive and informant scales from the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D) and to carry out initial assessments of their likely validity. Methods We applied Mokken analysis to CSI-D cognitive and informant scale data from 15 022 participants in representative population-based surveys in Latin America, India and China, to identify a subset of items from each that conformed optimally to item response theory scaling principles. The validity coefficients of the resulting brief scales (area under ROC curve, optimal cutpoint, sensitivity, specificity and Youden's index) were estimated from data collected in a previous cross-cultural validation of the full CSI-D. Results Seven cognitive items (Loevinger H coefficient 0.64) and six informant items (Loevinger H coefficient 0.69) were selected with excellent hierarchical scaling properties. For the brief cognitive scale, AUROC varied between 0.88 and 0.97, for the brief informant scale between 0.92 and 1.00, and for the combined algorithm between 0.94 and 1.00. Optimal cutpoints did not vary between regions. Youden's index for the combined algorithm varied between 0.78 and 1.00 by region. Conclusion A brief version of the full CSI-D appears to share the favourable culture- and education-fair screening properties of the full assessment, despite considerable abbreviation. The feasibility and validity of the brief version still needs to be established in routine primary care. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21845592

  7. Cross-validation of a mass spectrometric-based method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of irinotecan: implementation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in pharmacokinetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Calandra, Eleonora; Posocco, Bianca; Crotti, Sara; Marangon, Elena; Giodini, Luciana; Nitti, Donato; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Traldi, Pietro; Agostini, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Irinotecan is a widely used antineoplastic drug, mostly employed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This drug is a feasible candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring due to the presence of a wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. In order to determine the drug concentration during the administration protocol, we developed a quantitative MALDI-MS method using CHCA as MALDI matrix. Here, we demonstrate that MALDI-TOF can be applied in a routine setting for therapeutic drug monitoring in humans offering quick and accurate results. To reach this aim, we cross validated, according to FDA and EMA guidelines, the MALDI-TOF method in comparison with a standard LC-MS/MS method, applying it for the quantification of 108 patients' plasma samples from a clinical trial. Standard curves for irinotecan were linear (R (2) ≥ 0.9842) over the concentration ranges between 300 and 10,000 ng/mL and showed good back-calculated accuracy and precision. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, determined on three quality control levels were always <12.8 % and between 90.1 and 106.9 %, respectively. The cross-validation procedure showed a good reproducibility between the two methods, the percentage differences within 20 % in more than 70 % of the total amount of clinical samples analysed. PMID:27235158

  8. Systematic evaluation of matrix effect and cross-talk-free method for simultaneous determination of zolmitriptan and N-desmethyl zolmitriptan in human plasma: a sensitive LC-MS/MS method validation and its application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhargav; Suhagia, B N; Jangid, Arvind G; Mistri, Hiren N; Desai, Nirmal

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to carry out systematic evaluation to eliminate matrix effect owing to plasma phospholipids as observed during sample preparation and to develop a cross-talk-free sensitive, selective and rapid bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of zolmitriptan (ZT) and N-desmethyl zolmitriptan (DZT) in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using naratriptan as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were quantitatively extracted from 200 μL human plasma by solid phase extraction. No cross-talk was found between ZT and DZT having identical product ions. Quantitation was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer employing electrospray ionization technique, operating in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion mode. The total chromatographic run time was 2.5 min. The method was fully validated for sensitivity, selectivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, dilution integrity and stability studies. The method was validated over a dynamic concentration range of 0.1-15 ng/mL for ZT and DZT. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 2.5 mg ZT tablet formulation in 18 healthy Indian male subjects under fasting conditions. Assay reproducibility was assessed by reanalysis of 62 incurred samples. PMID:26189757

  9. Multiple dimensions of health locus of control in a representative population sample: ordinal factor analysis and cross-validation of an existing three and a new four factor model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Based on the general approach of locus of control, health locus of control (HLOC) concerns control-beliefs due to illness, sickness and health. HLOC research results provide an improved understanding of health related behaviour and patients' compliance in medical care. HLOC research distinguishes between beliefs due to Internality, Externality powerful Others (POs) and Externality Chance. However, evidences for differentiating the POs dimension were found. Previous factor analyses used selected and predominantly clinical samples, while non-clinical studies are rare. The present study is the first analysis of the HLOC structure based on a large representative general population sample providing important information for non-clinical research and public health care. Methods The standardised German questionnaire which assesses HLOC was used in a representative adult general population sample for a region in Northern Germany (N = 4,075). Data analyses used ordinal factor analyses in LISREL and Mplus. Alternative theory-driven models with one to four latent variables were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. Fit indices, chi-square difference tests, residuals and factor loadings were considered for model comparison. Exploratory factor analysis was used for further model development. Results were cross-validated splitting the total sample randomly and using the cross-validation index. Results A model with four latent variables (Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance) best represented the HLOC construct (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 9.55; RMSEA = 0.066; CFI = 0.931; SRMR = 0.075; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 8.65; RMSEA = 0.062; CFI = 0.940; SRMR = 0.071; chi-square difference test: p < 0.001). After excluding one item, the superiority of the four- over the three-dimensional HLOC construct became very obvious (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 7.74; RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.950; SRMR = 0.079; four

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical function Short-form (HOOS-PS).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Gul, Ebru Demir; Bodur, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical function Short-form (HOOS-PS) to Turkish language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. After the translation from the source language (English) to the target language (Turkish), synthesis, back translation, revision, and pretest stages were done. Next, 50 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the HOOS-PS two times with one week interval. Internal consistency was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the HOOS-PS and WOMAC, Lequesne questionnaries using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.778 (>0.7) and ICC was 0.911 (>0.7). Both scores verify that the Turkish HOOS-PS is a reliable tool. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the HOOS-PS and overall WOMAC (r = 0.653), WOMAC physical functions (r = 0.626), WOMAC pain (r = 0.629) subscales, overall Lequesne (r = 0.650), and Lequesne daily living activities (r = 0.620) subscales were high (r > 0.6), and moderate correlations were found between the HOOS-PS and WOMAC stiffness (r = 0.511), Lequesne pain (r = 0.569), and Lequesne-walking distance (r = 0.578) subscales (0.6 > r > 0.2), thus providing proof for the validity of the Turkish form. The Turkish HOOS-PS was found to be reliable and valid for patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. PMID:24026527

  11. Development of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion: part 2 – cross-sectional validation

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Philip E.; Cunningham, Susan J.; Shah, Nahush; Gilchrist, Fiona; Baker, Sarah R.; Hodges, Samantha J.; Marshman, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the items, identified through qualitative inquiry that might form the basis of a new Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of young people with malocclusion. Methods: Piloting with 13 young people reduced the number of items from 37 to 28. Cross-sectional testing involved a convenience sample aged 10–16 years, attending the Orthodontic Department of the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield. The fit and function of the initial MIQ questions were examined using item response theory. Results: 184 participants (113 females; 71 males) completed a questionnaire (response 85%), seven participants were excluded due to missing responses. The mean age of participants was 12·9 years (SD 1·4) and they had a wide range of malocclusions. The majority were White British (67·4%). Data from 47 participants were used to analyse test–retest reliability. Rasch analysis was undertaken, which further reduced the number of items in the questionnaire from 28 to 17. Unidimensionality of the scale was confirmed. The analysis also identified that the original 5-point response scale could be reduced to three points. The new measure demonstrated good criterion validity (r = 0·751; P < 0·001) and construct validity with the two global questions (‘Overall bother’ ρ = 0·733 and ‘Life overall’ ρ = 0·701). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0·906) and test–retest reliability Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0·78; 95% CI 0·61–0·88) were also good. Conclusion: Cross-sectional testing has shown the new MIQ to be both valid and reliable. Further evaluation is required to confirm the generalisability as well as the ability of the new measure to detect change over time (responsiveness). PMID:26745783

  12. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  13. Validity of approximate methods in molecular scattering. III - Effective potential and coupled states approximations for differential and gas kinetic cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monchick, L.; Green, S.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensionality-reducing approximations, the j sub z-conserving coupled states (sometimes called the centrifugal decoupling) method and the effective potential method, were applied to collision calculations of He with CO and with HCl. The coupled states method was found to be sensitive to the interpretation of the centrifugal angular momentum quantum number in the body-fixed frame, but the choice leading to the original McGuire-Kouri expression for the scattering amplitude - and to the simplest formulas - proved to be quite successful in reproducing differential and gas kinetic cross sections. The computationally cheaper effective potential method was much less accurate.

  14. A promising method for identifying cross-cultural differences in patient perspective: the use of Internet-based focus groups for content validation of new Patient Reported Outcome assessments

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). Methods The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures – all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. Findings The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. Conclusion The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology

  15. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the vitiligo-specific health-related quality of life instrument (VitiQoL) into Brazilian Portuguese*

    PubMed Central

    Boza, Juliana Catucci; Kundu, Roopal V; Fabbrin, Amanda; Horn, Roberta; Giongo, Natalia; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitiligo, although asymptomatic, highly compromises patients' quality of life (QoL). Therefore, an adequate evaluation of QoL is essential. OBJECTIVES: Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of VitiQol (Vitiligo-specific health-related quality of life instrument) into Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: The study was conducted in two stages; the first stage was the translation and cultural/linguistic adaptation of the instrument; the second stage was the instrument's validation. RESULTS: The translated VitiQol showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.944) and high test-retest reliability and intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95 (CI 95% 0.86 - 0.98), p<0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between the means of the first completion of the VitiQoL questionnaire and the retest, p = 0.661. There was a significant correlation between VitiQoL and DLQI (r = 0.776, p <0.001) and also between VitiQoL-PB and subjects' assessment of the severity of their disease (r = 0.702, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of vitiligo on the QoL of Brazilian patients can be assessed by a specific questionnaire. PMID:26131866

  16. The Parent-Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) in Chinese and Italian Community Samples: Validation and Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Nie, Yan-Gang; Lis, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to validate the parent-version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) among Chinese and Italian community adolescents and to compare adolescents' anxiety symptoms in these two countries. Chinese (N = 456) and Italian (N = 452) adolescents and their parents participated in the study. Results showed that: (1) the six correlated-factor structure was demonstrated and invariant across countries. (2) The reliability of the total scale was good in both samples, whereas reliabilities of subscales were acceptable and moderate in Chinese and Italian samples, respectively. (3) The SCAS-P showed good convergent and divergent validity. (4) Adolescent-parent agreement was from low to medium while mother-father agreement ranged from medium to high. (5) There were cultural and gender differences in levels of parent-report anxiety symptoms. In conclusion, SCAS-P seems to be a promising parent-report instrument to assess Chinese and Italian adolescents' anxiety symptoms. PMID:26289082

  17. Cross-validation of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ): an offender risk and need assessment measure on Australian, British, Canadian, Singaporean, and American offenders.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy; Cumbleton, Anita; Shahinfar, Ariana; Neo, Lee Hong; Evans, Maggie; Conley, Michael; Summers, Roger

    2004-10-01

    The Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) is a 72-item self-report measure designed to predict violent and nonviolent recidivism among adult criminal offenders. The results from using samples from Australia, Canada, England, Singapore, and two samples from the United States (North Carolina and Pennsylvania) indicated that (a) the SAQ has sound psychometric properties, with acceptable reliability and concurrent validity for assessing recidivism and institutional adjustment; (b) there were no significant differences among the scores of the White, African American, Hispanic, and Aboriginal Australian offenders on the SAQ; (c) there were no significant differences among offenders who completed the SAQ for research purposes versus offenders who completed it as part of a decision-making process. Results provided support for the validity of the SAQ to be used with the culturally diverse offenders involved in this research and provided further evidence that contradicts concerns that the SAQ as a self-report measure may be susceptible to lying, and self-presentation biases. PMID:15358941

  18. Validation of a Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Cassette Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis in the Sahel, and Potential Cross-Reaction in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Greter, Helena; Krauth, Stefanie J; Ngandolo, Bongo N R; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Zinsstag, Jakob; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    On the shores of Lake Chad, schistosomiasis among mobile pastoralists was investigated in a field laboratory. Point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test, reagent strip, and filtration were conducted on urine samples. Fresh stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique, and fixed samples were examined with an ether-concentration method at a reference laboratory. POC-CCA urine cassette tests revealed a Schistosoma mansoni prevalence of 6.9%, compared with only 0.5% by stool microscopy. Three pregnant women with otherwise negative urine and stool testing had positive POC-CCA. This observation raises concern of cross-reactivity in pregnancy. Hence, two pregnant women in Switzerland with no history of schistosomiasis were subjected to POC-CCA and one tested positive. Our data suggest that POC-CCA can be performed under extreme Sahelian conditions (e.g., temperatures > 40°C), and it is more sensitive than stool microscopy for S. mansoni diagnosis. However, potential cross-reactivity in pregnancy needs further investigation. PMID:26556831

  19. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) using self-report and interview-based questionnaires among Persian-speaking elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Salavati, Mahyar; Akhbari, Behnam; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Mazaheri, Masood; Negahban, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    FES-I has been designed to assess fear of falling (FoF). The purpose of this study was to establish the Persian-language version of the FES-I and to assess its psychometric properties under different modes of administration: self-report and interview-based. Participants included 191 elderly people aged over 60 who were mostly community dwelling. With an interval of 14 days, 97 volunteers completed the questionnaire in the retest session. To evaluate the construct validity, we assessed the ability of the FES-I to discriminate people based on gender, level of education, number of falls and FoF. The correlation with the Short Form of Health Survey (SF-36), Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Functional Reach Test (FRT) was also determined to test validity. Internal consistency was excellent in both self-report (0.93) and interview (0.92) versions. All intra-class correlations (ICCs) were above 0.70 with the highest reliability obtained for the condition where the interview based FES-I was used in both test and retest sessions. The strength of correlation between the FES-I and TUG varied based on mode of administration: moderate for interview and high for self-report mode. The FES-I had a higher correlation with the SF-36 subscales of physical health than subscales of mental health. The FES-I had the ability to discriminate the participants based on gender, educational level, and number of falls and FoF. In conclusion, both interview and self-report versions of the FES-I demonstrated acceptable measurement properties to assess FoF in Iranian elderly persons. PMID:23830993

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the self-reporting questionnaire among HIV+ individuals in a rural ART program in southern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Mojtabai, Ramin; Alexandre, Pierre K; Katabira, Elly; Musisi, Seggane; Nachega, Jean B; Bass, Judith K

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV treatment programs are in need of brief, valid instruments to identify common mental disorders such as depression. Aim To translate and culturally adapt the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) for use in Uganda and to investigate its psychometric properties in this setting. Methods Following an initial translation of the SRQ-20 from English to Luganda, key informant interviews and focus-group discussions were used to produce a culturally adapted version of the instrument. The adapted SRQ-20 was administered to 200 HIV-positive individuals in a rural antiretroviral therapy program in southern Uganda. All study participants were also evaluated by a psychiatric clinical officer with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the SRQ-20 compared to the clinical diagnosis generated by the MINI. Results The prevalence estimates of any depressive disorder and current depression were 24% (n = 48) and 12% (n = 24), respectively. The SRQ-20 scores discriminated well between subjects with and without current depression based on the MINI, with an area under the curve of 0.92, as well as between subjects with and without any current or past depressive disorder, with an area under the curve of 0.75. A score of 6 or more had 84% sensitivity and 93% specificity for current depression, and 75% sensitivity and 90% specificity for any depressive disorder. Conclusion The SRQ-20 appears to be a reliable and valid screening measure for depression among rural HIV-positive individuals in southern Uganda. The use of this screening instrument can potentially improve detection and management of depression in this setting. PMID:22570575

  1. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  2. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella Questionnaire for French-Speaking Patients With Patellar Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Oppong-Kyei, Julian; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Bruyère, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. To date, no French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P into French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in 6 steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, use of an expert committee to reach a prefinal version, test of the prefinal version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterward, the psychometric properties of the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into 3 groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22), and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing an asymptomatic subject, the average ± SD scores on the VISA-PF were 53 ± 17 for the pathological group, 99 ± 2 for the healthy group, and 86 ± 14 for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent, with good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and divergent validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were low, and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid, and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):384-390. Epub 21 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5937. PMID:26999409

  3. Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL): Theory of Operation and Results from Cross-Platform Validation at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonsky, I. N.; Davis, A. B.; Love, S. P.

    2004-05-01

    WAIL was designed to determine physical and geometrical characteristics of optically thick clouds using the off-beam component of the lidar return that can be accurately modeled within the 3D photon diffusion approximation. The theory shows that the WAIL signal depends not only on the cloud optical characteristics (phase function, extinction and scattering coefficients) but also on the outer thickness of the cloud layer. This makes it possible to estimate the mean optical and geometrical thicknesses of the cloud. The comparison with Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates the high accuracy of the diffusion approximation for moderately to very dense clouds. During operation WAIL is able to collect a complete data set from a cloud every few minutes, with averaging over horizontal scale of a kilometer or so. In order to validate WAIL's ability to deliver cloud properties, the LANL instrument was deployed as a part of the THickness from Off-beam Returns (THOR) validation IOP. The goal was to probe clouds above the SGP CART site at night in March 2002 from below (WAIL and ARM instruments) and from NASA's P3 aircraft (carrying THOR, the GSFC counterpart of WAIL) flying above the clouds. The permanent cloud instruments we used to compare with the results obtained from WAIL were ARM's laser ceilometer, micro-pulse lidar (MPL), millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), and micro-wave radiometer (MWR). The comparison shows that, in spite of an unusually low cloud ceiling, an unfavorable observation condition for WAIL's present configuration, cloud properties obtained from the new instrument are in good agreement with their counterparts obtained by other instruments. So WAIL can duplicate, at least for single-layer clouds, the cloud products of the MWR and MMCR together. But WAIL does this with green laser light, which is far more representative than microwaves of photon transport processes at work in the climate system.

  4. Cross-cultural validation of a behavioral screener for executive functions: Guidelines for clinical use among Colombian children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Karr, Justin E; Duran, Victor; Direnfeld, Esther; Pineda, David A

    2015-12-01

    Garcia-Barrera, Kamphaus, and Bandalos (2011) derived a 25-item executive functioning screener from the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), measuring 4 latent executive constructs: problem solving, attentional control, behavioral control, and emotional control. The current study included a cross-cultural examination of this screener in Colombian children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). BASC teacher ratings were collected for Colombian children ages 6-11 years (848 healthy children [53% boys] and 155 children with ADHD [76% boys]). To examine the psychometric properties of the screener, a multistep procedure was implemented, including (a) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and factorial invariance testing across gender, age group (6-8 years, 9-11 years), and ADHD status to replicate and extend the original derivation; (b) item response theory (IRT) analysis to evaluate the information provided by individual items; and (c) given IRT results, a repeated CFA and invariance testing after the exclusion of 1 item from the problem-solving factor. The 24-item 4-factor model fit was adequate for controls and for ADHD participants. Results support the use of the 24-item executive functioning screener in a cross-cultural context. In turn, in supplemental material, normative data for the Colombian sample are reported along with bilingual guidelines (i.e., Spanish/English) for implementing the screener in clinical practice. Even though the screener is useful when examining executive functions, it was not designed as a diagnostic measure for developmental disorders such as ADHD; as such, it should only inform about status of executive functioning. PMID:25822832

  5. Cross-Modality Validation of Acetabular Surface Models Using 3-D Ultrasound Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Normal and Dysplastic Infant Hips.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Chad; Heath, Alana; Hareendranathan, Abhilash R; Zonoobi, Dornoosh; Kuntze, Gregor; Dulai, Sukhdeep; Mabee, Myles G; Ronsky, Janet L; Jaremko, Jacob L

    2016-09-01

    Current imaging diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infancy relies on 2-D ultrasound (US), which is highly operator-dependent. 3-D US offers more complete, and potentially more reliable, imaging of infant hip geometry. We sought to validate the fidelity of acetabular surface models obtained by 3-D US against those obtained concurrently by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 3-D US and MRI scans were performed on the same d in 20 infants with normal to severely dysplastic hips (mean age, 57 d; range 13-181 d). 3-D US was performed by two observers using a Philips VL13-5 probe. Coronal 3-D multi-echo data image combination (MEDIC) magnetic resonance (MR) images (1-mm slice thickness) were obtained, usually without sedation, in a 1.5 T Siemens unit. Acetabular surface models were generated for 40 hips from 3-D US and MRI using semi-automated tracing software, separately by three observers. For each hip, the 3-D US and MRI models were co-registered to overlap as closely as possible using Amira software, and the root mean square (RMS) distances between points on the models were computed. 3-D US scans took 3.2 s each. Inter-modality variability was visually minimal. Mean RMS distance between corresponding points on the acetabular surface at 3-D US and MRI was 0.4 ± 0.3 mm, with 95% confidence interval <1 mm. Mean RMS errors for inter-observer and intra-observer comparisons were significantly less for 3-D US than for MRI, while inter-scan and inter-modality comparisons showed no significant difference. Acetabular geometry was reproduced by 3-D US surface models within 1 mm of the corresponding 3-D MRI surface model, and the 3-D US models were more reliable. This validates the fidelity of 3-D US modeling and encourages future use of 3-D US in assessing infant acetabulum anatomy, which may be useful to detect and monitor treatment of hip dysplasia. PMID:27209429

  6. Evidence for validity of a national physician and patient-reported, cross-sectional survey in China and UK: the Disease Specific Programme

    PubMed Central

    Babineaux, S M; Curtis, B; Holbrook, T; Milligan, G; Piercy, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes represents a significant challenge for Chinese healthcare providers. Healthcare decision-making is generally based on many data sources, including randomised controlled and real-world studies; however, good-quality data from Chinese diabetes patients are scarce. We performed an initial validation to assess the representativeness of one source of real-world data—the Diabetes Adelphi Disease Specific Programme (DSP) in China. Setting China, UK. Participants The Chinese DSP included 2060 patients with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) sampled by 200 physicians. The reference Chinese population comprised 238 639 patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. The UK DSP contained 1481 patients with T2DM sampled by 125 physicians; the reference UK population comprised 289 patients with diabetes. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data for sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), patients achieving glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)<7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. The secondary outcome was comparison of weighted UK DSP and reference data for BMI, BP, mean HbA1c, total cholesterol, smoking and insulin status. Results Comparison of unweighted China DSP and reference data revealed statistical equivalence for BMI, systolic BP, proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7%, total cholesterol, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. Sex, age, diabetes duration, diastolic BP and mean HbA1c level were not equivalent, although differences were generally small. Weighting of data did not substantially affect the results. A similar pattern was observed for UK data. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the methodology used for the China and UK parts of the Diabetes DSP produces representative samples that are comparable with other independent sources of patient treatment outcomes data, which may ultimately inform public health decision

  7. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  8. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems with k-fold cross-validation for energy expenditure predictions based on heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kolus, Ahmet; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Dubeau, Denise

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new model based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) to predict oxygen consumption (V˙O2) from easily measured variables. The ANFIS prediction model consists of three ANFIS modules for estimating the Flex-HR parameters. Each module was developed based on clustering a training set of data samples relevant to that module and then the ANFIS prediction model was tested against a validation data set. Fifty-eight participants performed the Meyer and Flenghi step-test, during which heart rate (HR) and V˙O2 were measured. Results indicated no significant difference between observed and estimated Flex-HR parameters and between measured and estimated V˙O2 in the overall HR range, and separately in different HR ranges. The ANFIS prediction model (MAE = 3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) demonstrated better performance than Rennie et al.'s (MAE = 7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and Keytel et al.'s (MAE = 6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) models, and comparable performance with the standard Flex-HR method (MAE = 2.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) throughout the HR range. The ANFIS model thus provides practitioners with a practical, cost- and time-efficient method for V˙O2 estimation without the need for individual calibration. PMID:25959320

  9. Improved Cross Validation of a Static Ubiquitin Structure Derived from High Precision Residual Dipolar Couplings Measured in a Drug-Based Liquid Crystalline Phase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The antibiotic squalamine forms a lyotropic liquid crystal at very low concentrations in water (0.3-3.5% w/v), which remains stable over a wide range of temperature (1-40 °C) and pH (4-8). Squalamine is positively charged, and comparison of the alignment of ubiquitin relative to 36 previously reported alignment conditions shows that it differs substantially from most of these, but is closest to liquid crystalline cetyl pyridinium bromide. High precision residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured for the backbone 1H-15N, 15N-13C′, 1Hα-13Cα, and 13C′-13Cα one-bond interactions in the squalamine medium fit well to the static structural model previously derived from NMR data. Inclusion into the structure refinement procedure of these RDCs, together with 1H-15N and 1Hα-13Cα RDCs newly measured in Pf1, results in improved agreement between alignment-induced changes in 13C′ chemical shift, 3JHNHα values, and 13Cα-13Cβ RDCs and corresponding values predicted by the structure, thereby validating the high quality of the single-conformer structural model. This result indicates that fitting of a single model to experimental data provides a better description of the average conformation than does averaging over previously reported NMR-derived ensemble representations. The latter can capture dynamic aspects of a protein, thus making the two representations valuable complements to one another. PMID:24568736

  10. Cocaine profiling for strategic intelligence, a cross-border project between France and Switzerland: part II. Validation of the statistical methodology for the profiling of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Lociciro, S; Esseiva, P; Hayoz, P; Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F; Margot, P

    2008-05-20

    Harmonisation and optimization of analytical and statistical methodologies were carried out between two forensic laboratories (Lausanne, Switzerland and Lyon, France) in order to provide drug intelligence for cross-border cocaine seizures. Part I dealt with the optimization of the analytical method and its robustness. This second part investigates statistical methodologies that will provide reliable comparison of cocaine seizures analysed on two different gas chromatographs interfaced with a flame ionisation detectors (GC-FIDs) in two distinct laboratories. Sixty-six statistical combinations (ten data pre-treatments followed by six different distance measurements and correlation coefficients) were applied. One pre-treatment (N+S: area of each peak is divided by its standard deviation calculated from the whole data set) followed by the Cosine or Pearson correlation coefficients were found to be the best statistical compromise for optimal discrimination of linked and non-linked samples. The centralisation of the analyses in one single laboratory is not a required condition anymore to compare samples seized in different countries. This allows collaboration, but also, jurisdictional control over data. PMID:18272309

  11. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2014-11-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying on-board MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izana, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because of similar sensitivities. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES one, which are bias corrected, but an important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observations comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high spatial and temporal sampling.

  12. Differences in health and taste attitudes and reported behaviour among Finnish, Dutch and British consumers: a cross-national validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS).

    PubMed

    Roininen, K; Tuorila, H; Zandstra, E H; de Graaf, C; Vehkalahti, K; Stubenitsky, K; Mela, D J

    2001-08-01

    The Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) developed by Roininen, Lähteenmäki and Tuorila in 1999 measure the importance of health and taste aspects of foods in the food choice process. These multi-item scales consist of sets of statements, ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree", which further divide into three Health (General health interest, Light product interest and Natural product interest) and three Taste (Craving for sweet foods, Using food as a reward and Pleasure) sub-scales. Finnish (N=467), Dutch (N=477), and British (N=361) respondents completed a questionnaire which contained four components: the HTAS, a separate "paper and pencil task" of choosing a food for a snack; pleasantness, healthiness and frequency of consumption of eight foods; and the Restraint Eating Scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The latter three components were included in order to validate various aspects of the HTAS. The factor structure of HTAS was found to be equal in all three countries. However, there were some minor differences in factor loadings among countries, e.g. the Natural product interest and Pleasure sub-scale items had lower factor loadings in the UK than in Finland and The Netherlands. Finnish respondents had the most positive attitude towards light products. Dutch and British respondents scored higher on all Taste sub-scales than their Finnish counterparts. Respondents' health-related attitudes were good predictors of their "healthy food choices" in the snack task and self-reported consumption. Two of the Taste sub-scales (Craving for sweet foods and Using food as a reward) predicted well respondents' self-reported consumption of, for example, full-fat chocolate bars. All the Health and two of the Taste sub-scales proved to be useful tools for characterizing consumer attitudes within and between countries. PMID:11562156

  13. Electronic decision protocols for ART patient triaging to expand access to HIV treatment in South Africa: A cross sectional study for development and validation

    PubMed Central

    MITCHELL, Marc; HEDT, Bethany L.; ESHUN-WILSON, Ingrid; FRASER, Hamish; JOHN, Melanie-Anne; MENEZES, Colin; GROBUSCH, Martin P.; JACKSON, Jonathan; TALJAARD, Jantjie; LESH, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Background The shortage of doctors and nurses, along with future expansion into rural clinics, will require that the majority of clinic visits by HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are managed by non-doctors. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a screening protocol to determine which patients needed a full clinical assessment and which patients were stable enough to receive their medications without a doctor’s consultation. For this study, we developed an electronic, handheld tool to guide non-physician counselors through screening questions. Methods Patients visiting two ART clinics in South Africa for routine follow-up visits between March 2007 – April 2008 were included in our study. Each patient was screened by non-physician counselors using the handheld device and then received a full clinical assessment. Clinicians’ report on whether full clinical assessment had been necessary was used as the gold standard for determining “required referral”. Observations were randomly divided into two datasets – 989 for developing a referral protocol and 200 for validating protocol performance. Results A third of patients had at least one physical complaint, and 16% had five or more physical complaints. 38% of patients required referral for full clinical assessment. We identify a subset of questions which are 87% sensitive and 47% specific for recommended patient referral. Conclusions The final screening protocol is highly sensitive and could reduce burden on ART clinicians by 30%. The uptake and acceptance of the handheld tool to support implementation of the protocol was high. Further examination of the data reveals several important questions to include in future referral algorithms to improve sensitivity and specificity. Based on these results, we identify a refined algorithm to explore in future evaluations. PMID:22178295

  14. Development of an ecologically valid approach to assess moderate physical activity using accelerometry in community dwelling women of color: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Women of color report the lowest levels of physical activity and highest rates of overweight and obesity in the US. The purpose of this study was to develop an individualized, ecologically valid, field based method to assess physical activity over seven days for community dwelling women of color using accelerometers. Methods Accelerometer-measured physical activity, Borg perceived exertion, demographics, blood pressure, heart rate, and anthropometric measures were collected from African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 209). A threshold for increased physical activity was determined for each participant by calculating the average count per minute (plus one standard deviation) for each participant collected during a self-selected pace that corresponded to a 'recreational' walk about their neighborhood. The threshold was then used to calculate the amount of time spent doing increased intensity physical activity during a typical week. Results Women were middle-aged and obese (M BMI = 34.3 ± 9.3). The average individual activity counts per day ranged from 482-1368 in African American women and 470-1302 in Hispanic or Latina women. On average, African American women spent significantly more time doing what was labeled 'increased' physical activity than Hispanic and Latino women. However neither group approached recommended physical activity levels, as African American women, averaged 1.73% and Hispanic and Latino women averaged 0.83% of their day engaged in increased physical activity (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study presents a simple field-based method for developing accelerometer thresholds that identify personalized thresholds of moderate intensity physical activity that can be used by in community-based settings. Findings highlight a need for physical activity programs whose starting points are based upon the individual's typical baseline physical activity level, which is likely to be well below the minimum recommended published guidelines

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Nayak, Kailash C; Pattanaik, Pratiti; Swain, Sarada P; Kar, Harish C

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been asserted that psychological responses to disasters in children and adolescents vary widely across cultures, but this has rarely been investigated. The objectives of the study were to clinically evaluate the construct of traumatic stress symptoms and disorder in children and adolescents after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India; to find out the prevalence at one year; compare the effect in high and low exposure areas and study the factors associated with it. Methods Clinical examination of children and adolescents (n = 447) was done, supplemented by a symptoms checklist based on International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research and a semi-structured questionnaire for disaster related experiences. Results A majority of children had post-traumatic symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was present in 30.6% (95% confidence interval: 26.4 to 34.9), and an additional 13.6% had sub-syndromal PTSD. Parents or teachers reported mental health concerns in 7.2% subjects, who were a minor proportion (12.8%) of subjects with any syndromal diagnosis (n = 196). Significantly more (43.7%) children in high exposure areas had PTSD than that (11.2%) in low exposure areas (p < 0.001). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that high exposure, lower educational level and middle socioeconomic status significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. Extreme fear and perceived threat to life during the disaster, death in family, damage to home, or staying in shelters were not significantly associated with PTSD. Conclusion Following natural disaster PTSD is a valid clinical construct in children and adolescents in Indian set up; and though highly prevalent it may be missed without clinical screening. Its manifestation and associated factors resembled those in other cultures. PMID:17300713

  16. The alpha-globin genotype does not influence sickle cell disease severity in a retrospective cross-validation study of the pediatric severity score.

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Pondarré, Corinne; Bardel, Claire; Francina, Alain; Martin, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    To validate the recently proposed pediatric severity score (PSS) for sickle cell disease (SCD), we retrospectively assembled clinical data from a cohort of 122 patients with SCD (105 S/S or S/β(0) -thal. and 17 S/C) followed up for at least 2 years. Besides age and α- and β-globin genotypes, four new parameters were also tested against the PSS: duration of data assembly, neonatal screening, use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound to prevent vasculopathies and β-globin gene cluster haplotype. Once again, the PSS clearly differentiated patients by their β-globin genotype (P=0.004) but not by their age during data assembly (P=0.159). But, surprisingly, alpha-gene deletions were not associated with a lower PSS (P=0.604), possibly reflecting the opposite effects of α-thalassemia on global SCD severity. As for the newly tested parameters, the PSS appeared not to be influenced by the duration of data assembly (P=0.071) and neonatal screening (P=0.678) but rather by the introduction of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (P=0.006). Moreover, the Senegal haplotype at the homozygous state may be associated with a lower PSS. Methodologically, our data globally confirm the usefulness of the PSS to identify major etiological factors of SCD gravity. Nevertheless, the score is surely underestimated for patients who have been switched to a chronic therapy before the main SCD complications. Biologically, our study questions about the exact influence of α-thalassemia on global SCD severity. PMID:21910753

  17. Improved cross validation of a static ubiquitin structure derived from high precision residual dipolar couplings measured in a drug-based liquid crystalline phase.

    PubMed

    Maltsev, Alexander S; Grishaev, Alexander; Roche, Julien; Zasloff, Michael; Bax, Ad

    2014-03-12

    The antibiotic squalamine forms a lyotropic liquid crystal at very low concentrations in water (0.3-3.5% w/v), which remains stable over a wide range of temperature (1-40 °C) and pH (4-8). Squalamine is positively charged, and comparison of the alignment of ubiquitin relative to 36 previously reported alignment conditions shows that it differs substantially from most of these, but is closest to liquid crystalline cetyl pyridinium bromide. High precision residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured for the backbone (1)H-(15)N, (15)N-(13)C', (1)H(α)-(13)C(α), and (13)C'-(13)C(α) one-bond interactions in the squalamine medium fit well to the static structural model previously derived from NMR data. Inclusion into the structure refinement procedure of these RDCs, together with (1)H-(15)N and (1)H(α)-(13)C(α) RDCs newly measured in Pf1, results in improved agreement between alignment-induced changes in (13)C' chemical shift, (3)JHNHα values, and (13)C(α)-(13)C(β) RDCs and corresponding values predicted by the structure, thereby validating the high quality of the single-conformer structural model. This result indicates that fitting of a single model to experimental data provides a better description of the average conformation than does averaging over previously reported NMR-derived ensemble representations. The latter can capture dynamic aspects of a protein, thus making the two representations valuable complements to one another. PMID:24568736

  18. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-03-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izaña, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high

  19. Method for Assigning Priority Levels in Acute Care (MAPLe-AC) predicts outcomes of acute hospital care of older persons - a cross-national validation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    , and one-year outcomes in the Nordic data set. The predictive accuracy (AUC's) of MAPLe-AC's was higher for discharge outcome than one year outcome, and for discharge home in Canadian hospitals but for adverse outcome in Nordic hospitals. High and very high priority levels in MAPLe-AC were also predictive of days to death adjusted for diagnoses in survival models. Conclusion MAPLe-AC is a valid algorithm based on risk factors that predict outcomes of acute hospital care. It could be a helpful tool for early discharge planning although further testing for active use in clinical practice is still needed. PMID:21645418

  20. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  1. Reconstructing Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007), the author reconstructs the historical arguments for the more comprehensive unitary concept of validity and the principles of scientific inquiry underlying it. Her response is organized in terms of four questions: (a) How did validity in educational measurement come to be conceptualized as unitary, and…

  2. Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by μ-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 μg g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the μ-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 μg g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods. PMID:23673570

  3. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  4. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  5. Mechanistic validation.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Stephens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st Century, either by high-throughput testing in the ToxCast/Tox21 project or omics-based testing in the Human Toxome Project. This article explores the mostly neglected assessment of a test's scientific basis, which moves mechanism and causality to the foreground when validating/qualifying tests. Such mechanistic validation faces the problem of establishing causality in complex systems. However, pragmatic adaptations of the Bradford Hill criteria, as well as bioinformatic tools, are emerging. As critical infrastructures of the organism are perturbed by a toxic mechanism we argue that by focusing on the target of toxicity and its vulnerability, in addition to the way it is perturbed, we can anchor the identification of the mechanism and its verification. PMID:23665802

  6. SANSMIC Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  7. False Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The asterism formed by the four stars δ and κ Velorum, and ɛ and ι Carinae, all of the second magnitude, which make up a cross of about 10°×6°. It is so named because it is sometimes mistaken for the Southern Cross (Crux) by observers unfamiliar with the southern sky. There is a superficial resemblance, but Crux is more compact (about 7°×5°) and comprises rather brighter stars. The two crosses ca...

  8. Na{sub 8}Au{sub 9.8(4)}Ga{sub 7.2} and Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.87(2)}Ga{sub 46.63}: The diversity of pseudo 5-fold symmetries in the Na–Au–Ga system

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Corbett, John D. Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-11-15

    The Na-rich part (∼30% Na) of the Na–Au–Ga system between NaAu{sub 2}, NaGa{sub 4}, and Na{sub 22}Ga{sub 39} has been found to contain the ternary phases Na{sub 8}Au{sub 9.8(4)}Ga{sub 7.2} (I) and Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.87(2)}Ga{sub 46.63} (II), according to the results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. I is orthorhombic, Cmcm, a=5.3040(1), b=24.519(5), c=14.573(3) Å, and contains a network of clusters with local 5-fold symmetry along the a-axis. Such clusters are frequent building units in decagonal quasicrystals and their approximants. II is rhombohedral, R3{sup ¯}m, a=16.325(2), c=35.242(7) Å, and contains building blocks that are structurally identical to the Bergman-type clusters as well as fused icosahedral units known with active metals, triels and late transition elements. II also contains a polycationic network with elements of the clathrate V type structure. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear muffin–tin-orbital (LMTO) methods on idealized models of I and II indicate that both compounds are metallic with evident pseudogaps at the corresponding Fermi levels. The overall Hamilton bond populations are generally dominated by Au–Ga and Au–Au bonds in I and by Ga–Ga bonds in II; moreover, the Na–Au and Na–Ga contributions in I are unexpectedly large, ∼20% of the total. A similar involvement of sodium in covalent bonding has also been found in the electron-richer i-Na{sub 13}Au{sub 12}Ga{sub 15} quasicrystal approximant. - Graphical abstract: Multiply-endohedral Bergman-related clusters in the structure of Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.9(1)}Ga{sub 46.6.} Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two new compounds with the local 5-fold symmetry have been investigated. • Na{sub 8}Au{sub 9.8(4)}Ga{sub 7.2} is an orthorhombic approximant of the Na{sub 13}Au{sub 12}Ga{sub 15} quasicrystal. • Na{sub 17}Au{sub 5.87(2)}Ga{sub 46.63} represents a rhombohedral distortion of the Bergman-type phases.

  9. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  10. Self-Construal Scales Lack Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Bresnahan, Mary Jiang; Park, Hee Sun; Lapinski, Maria Knight; Wittenbaum, Gwen M.; Shearman, Sachiyo Morinaga; Lee, Sun Young; Chung, Donghun; Ohashi, Rie

    2003-01-01

    Reports a meta-analysis of published cross-cultural self-construal research. Notes that the results across studies suggests that the evidence for the predicted cultural differences is weak, inconsistent, or nonexistent. Concludes that catastrophic validity problems exist in research involving the use of self-construal scales in cross-cultural…

  11. [Creation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Ukrainian versions of SKINDEX-29, SKINDEX-16 questionnaires, Psoriasis Disability Index and further validation of the Ukrainian version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index].

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, P V

    2009-01-01

    Original versions of SKINDEX-29, SKINDEX-16 and Psoriasis Disability Index questionnaires were translated into Ukrainian by two independent forward translators and then back-translated into English by two other independent translators. The probe technique for pre-testing was used. Retest of reliability, discriminant validity, over time sensitivity and sensitivity to successful therapeutic intervention were checked. PMID:19953996

  12. The Intellectual Disability Version of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS-ID): Cross-Validation and Measurement Invariance across Gender, Weight, Age and Intellectual Disability Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome; Ninot, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Recently Maiano, Begarie, Morin, and Ninot (2009) developed and validated an intellectual disability (ID) version of the very short form of the physical self-inventory (PSI-VS-ID). In a recent review of the various physical self-concept instruments Marsh and Cheng (in press) noted that the short and very short versions of the French PSI represent…

  13. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that are produced. This paper addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. This paper argues that the issue of accuracy of the experimental measurements be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it argues that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound, such as two-point space-time velocity correlations. A brief review of data sources available is presented along with examples illustrating cross-facility and internal quality checks required of the data before it should be accepted for validation of LES.

  14. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that result in having dreams come true. This paper primarily addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. It also addresses the latter problem in discussing what are relevant measures critical for aeroacoustics that should be used in validating LES codes. These new diagnostic techniques deliver measurements and flow statistics of increasing sophistication and capability, but what of their accuracy? And what are the measures to be used in validation? This paper argues that the issue of accuracy be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it is argued that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound.

  15. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  16. From Construct Validity to Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…

  17. Excavator Design Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  18. Assessing the statistical validity of proteomics based biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Smit, Suzanne; van Breemen, Mariëlle J; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Smilde, Age K; Aerts, Johannes M F G; de Koster, Chris G

    2007-06-01

    A strategy is presented for the statistical validation of discrimination models in proteomics studies. Several existing tools are combined to form a solid statistical basis for biomarker discovery that should precede a biochemical validation of any biomarker. These tools consist of permutation tests, single and double cross-validation. The cross-validation steps can simply be combined with a new variable selection method, called rank products. The strategy is especially suited for the low-samples-to-variables-ratio (undersampling) case, as is often encountered in proteomics and metabolomics studies. As a classification method, principal component discriminant analysis is used; however, the methodology can be used with any classifier. A dataset containing serum samples from Gaucher patients and healthy controls serves as a test case. Double cross-validation shows that the sensitivity of the model is 89% and the specificity 90%. Potential putative biomarkers are identified using the novel variable selection method. Results from permutation tests support the choice of double cross-validation as the tool for determining error rates when the modelling procedure involves a tuneable parameter. This shows that even cross-validation does not guarantee unbiased results. The validation of discrimination models with a combination of permutation tests and double cross-validation helps to avoid erroneous results which may result from the undersampling. PMID:17512828

  19. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  20. Revealing latent value of clinically acquired CTs of traumatic brain injury through multi-atlas segmentation in a retrospective study of 1,003 with external cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold crossvalidation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  1. Identification of key genes in hepatocellular carcinoma and validation of the candidate gene, cdc25a, using gene set enrichment analysis, meta-analysis and cross-species comparison.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Sun, Wen; Tang, Yanping; Zhu, Lingqun; Li, Yuan; Ou, Chao; Yang, Chun; Su, Jianjia; Luo, Chengpiao; Hu, Yanling; Cao, Ji

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine key pathways and genes involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through bioinformatic analyses of HCC microarray data based on cross-species comparison. Microarray data of gene expression in HCC in different species were analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and meta-analysis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of cdc25a, one of the identified candidate genes, in human, rat and tree shrew samples. The cell cycle pathway had the largest overlap between the GSEA and meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed that 25 genes, including cdc25a, in the cell cycle pathway were differentially expressed. Cdc25a mRNA levels in HCC tissues were higher than those in normal liver tissues in humans, rats and tree shrews, and the expression level of cdc25a in HCC tissues was higher than in corresponding paraneoplastic tissues in humans and rats. In human HCC tissues, the cdc25a mRNA level was significantly correlated with clinical stage, portal vein tumor thrombosis and extrahepatic metastasis. Western blotting showed that, cdc25a protein levels were significantly upregulated in HCC tissues in humans, rats and tree shrews. In conclusion, GSEA and meta-analysis can be combined to identify key molecules and pathways involved in HCC. This study demonstrated that the cell cycle pathway and the cdc25a gene may be crucial in the pathogenesis and progression of HCC. PMID:26647881

  2. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  3. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  4. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  5. Geometric validation plan for ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1998-12-01

    The ASTER system is a multispectral imager which covers a spectral range from visible to thermal infrared light by combining three subsystems composed of four telescopes. To ensure the high-quality data products concerning to the geolocation and band-to-band matching performance, the geometric registration is needed. This paper describes the geometric validation procedure for a multi-telescope imager with a cross-track pointing function. The strategy for the maintenance of database files and the preparation a GCP library is also shown.

  6. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  7. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  8. The Concept of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  9. Validity, Responsibility, and Aporia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author problematizes external, objectified, oversimplified, and mechanical approaches to validity in qualitative research, which endorse simplistic and reductionist views of knowledge and data. Instead of promoting one generalizable definition or operational criteria for validity, the author's "deconstructive validity work"…

  10. The Iowa Validation Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing can be used to observe the land surface hydrologic cycle, but the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. We present a small (1 km^2) experimental validation site, the Iowa Validation Site. Initially we have focused on validating remotely-sensed observations of ...

  11. Polyethylene Glycol Modified, Cross-Linked Starch Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Magnetic Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam J.; David, Allan E.; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J.; Hill, Hannah L.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140–190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines – A5/D5, 0.4% – A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37°C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 hr) and D20 (11.75 hr) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 hr). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC0-∞ Sustained tumor exposure over 24 hours was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that both D5 and D20 are promising MNP platforms for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. PMID:21176955

  12. Validity Shrinkage in Ridge Regression: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian; Bobko, Philip

    1982-01-01

    Ridge regression offers advantages over ordinary least squares estimation when a validity shrinkage criterion is considered. Comparisons of cross-validated multiple correlations indicate that ridge estimation is superior when the predictors are multicollinear, the number of predictors is large relative to sample size, and the population multiple…

  13. Backward Variable Elimination Canonical Correlation and Canonical Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Sandra

    This paper suggests that multivariate analysis techniques are very important in educational research, and that one multivariate technique--canonical correlation analysis--may be particularly useful. The logic of canonical analysis is explained. It is suggested that a backward variable elimination strategy can make the method even more powerful, by…

  14. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu

    1993-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  15. [Cross validity of the UCLA Loneliness Scale factorization].

    PubMed

    Borges, Africa; Prieto, Pedro; Ricchetti, Giacinto; Hernández-Jorge, Carmen; Rodríguez-Naveiras, Elena

    2008-11-01

    Loneliness is an unpleasant experience that takes place when a person's network of social relationships is significantly deficient in quality and quantity, and it is associated with negative feelings. Loneliness is a fundamental construct that provides information about several psychological processes, especially in the clinical setting. It is well known that this construct is related to isolation and emotional loneliness. One of the most well-known psychometric instruments to measure loneliness is the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, which has been factorized in several populations. A controversial issue related to the UCLA Loneliness Scale is its factor structure, because the test was first created based on a unidimensional structure; however, subsequent research has proved that its structure may be bipolar or even multidimensional. In the present work, the UCLA Loneliness Scale was completed by two populations: Spanish and Italian undergraduate university students. Results show a multifactorial structure in both samples. This research presents a theoretically and analytically coherent bifactorial structure. PMID:18940104

  16. Initial Retrieval Validation from the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, WIlliam L.; Larar, Allen M.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Mango, Stephen A.; Schluessel, Peter; Calbet, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite, but also included a strong component focusing on validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the AQUA satellite. The cross validation of IASI and AIRS is important for the joint use of their data in the global Numerical Weather Prediction process. Initial inter-comparisons of geophysical products have been conducted from different aspects, such as using different measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers (specifically, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) and the Scanning-High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft), UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146-301 aircraft insitu instruments, dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. An overview of the JAIVEx retrieval validation plan and some initial results of this field campaign are presented.

  17. Difference of cross-spectral densities.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, M; Piquero, G; de Sande, J C G; Gori, F

    2014-04-01

    Generally speaking, the difference between two cross-spectral densities (CSDs) does not represent a correlation function. We will furnish a sufficient condition so that such difference be a valid CSD. Using such a condition, we will show through some examples how new classes of CSDs can be generated. PMID:24686586

  18. Cross-Cultural Issues in Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocoy, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Examines the conditions under which art therapy might be a culturally appropriate intervention. Presents the aspects of art therapy and assessment that may be assimilationist or ethnocentric. Problems inherent in the cross-cultural interpretation of art are also discussed and methods that maximize interpretive validity and reliability are…

  19. COG validation: SINBAD Benchmark Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lent, E M; Sale, K E; Buck, R M; Descalle, M

    2004-02-23

    We validated COG, a 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport code, against experimental data and MNCP4C simulations from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) compiled by RSICC. We modeled three experiments: the Osaka Nickel and Aluminum sphere experiments conducted at the OKTAVIAN facility, and the liquid oxygen experiment conducted at the FNS facility. COG results are in good agreement with experimental data and generally within a few % of MCNP results. There are several possible sources of discrepancy between MCNP and COG results: (1) the cross-section database versions are different, MCNP uses ENDFB VI 1.1 while COG uses ENDFB VIR7, (2) the code implementations are different, and (3) the models may differ slightly. We also limited the use of variance reduction methods when running the COG version of the problems.

  20. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population. PMID:23494491

  1. The Adolescent Religious Coping Scale: Development, Validation, and Cross-Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Braese, Robert W.; Tadie, Joseph T.; Gililland, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Research literature on adolescent coping is growing, but typically such studies have ignored religious coping strategies and their potential impact on functioning. To address this lack, we developed the Adolescent Religious Coping Scale and used its seven subscales to examine the relationship between religious coping and emotional functioning. A…

  2. Validating clinical terminology structures: integration and cross-validation of Read Thesaurus and GALEN.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, J. E.; Price, C.; Rector, A. L.; Solomon, W. D.; Smejko, N.

    1998-01-01

    A European pre-standard and an intermediate representation facilitated exchange of two independently authored compositional knowledge bases: one formal and automatically classified, the other manually classified. The exchange highlights different strengths and weaknesses in each approach, and offers a mechanism for partial, mutual quality assurance. PMID:9929338

  3. TES Validation Reports

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-06-30

    ... Reports: TES Data Versions: TES Validation Report Version 6.0 (PDF) R13 processing version; F07_10 file versions TES Validation Report Version 5.0 (PDF) R12 processing version; F06_08, F06_09 file ...

  4. A Validity Network Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, David; McGrath, Joseph E.

    Numerous forms and meanings of validity have been developed to provide researchers with the opportunity to assess the many potential sources of ambiguity that exist in any research finding. A Validity Network Schema (VNS) developed by Brinberg & McGrath (1982) is extended and elaborated in order to describe the components of the research process…

  5. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  6. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  7. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  8. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  9. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  10. OMPS SDR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, B.; Done, J.; Buss, R.; Jaross, G. R.; Kelly, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS) is scheduled to be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011. The OMPS will continue monitoring ozone from space, using three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE). The Total Column Mapper (TC) sensor images the Earth through a slit, nadir-cell horizontally spaced at 49.5 km cross-track with an along-track reporting interval of 50 km. The total field of view (FOV) cross-track is 110 degree to provide daily global coverage. The TC sensor, a grating spectrometer, provides 0.45 nm spectral sampling across the wavelength range of 300-380 nm. The calibration stability, which is essential to enable long-term ozone monitoring, is maintained by periodic observations of the Sun, using a diffuser to redirect the solar irradiance into the sensor. We describe the plans to calibrate the TC sensor and validate the radiance data (TC Sensor Data Record or TC SDR) after launch. We discuss the measurements planned during the Intensive Cal/Val (ICV) phase of NPP mission, the data analysis methodology and results from the analysis of OMPS calibration measurements.

  11. Model Errors in the Cross Cultural Use of the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Ronald D.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that efforts are being made to validate the Rorschach with minority cultures and that preliminary psychometric review of Rorschach data tends to confirm its usefulness in cross-cultural work, and the legitimacy of the concept of modal personality. Reviews several significant issues in cross-cultural use of Rorschach, including norms,…

  12. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics in Oral Proficiency Interview Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwick, Richard; Ross, Steven

    The influence of discourse and pragmatic transfer in cross-cultural encounters has received little consideration in studies on the construct validity of performance tests. With the current emphasis on direct assessment of speaking proficiency following the protocol of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), the potential importance of cross-cultural…

  13. Development and Validation of a Unidimensional Maltreatment Scale in the Add Health Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marszalek, Jacob M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Four maltreatment items were examined from Wave III (N = 13,516) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, cross-validation, reliability estimates, and convergent validity coefficients strongly supported the validity of using the four items as a unidimensional composite. Implications for…

  14. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  15. Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, S S

    2009-08-01

    Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an FDA filing, as well as the validation requirements described in FDA good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopeia (USP). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET. PMID:19834450

  16. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  17. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  18. Validation suite for MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  19. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is planned to launch on Jan 8, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there will be a 3 month instrument checkout period, followed by 6 months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the plans and preparations for the calibration and validation of L1 radar data from SMAP. At the start of the L1 cal/val period, we will validate the operation of the instrument and of the ground processing using tools that look at readily identifiable surface features such as coast lines and corner reflectors. Geometric biases will be fit and removed. Radiometric cross-calibration with PALSAR and Aquarius will also be performed using target regions in the Amazon rain forest selected for their stability and uniformity. As the L1 cal/val period progresses, the performance of the automated short and long term calibration modules in ground processing will be tracked and verified using data from stable reference targets such as the wind corrected ocean and selected areas of rain forest that have shown good temporal stability. The performance of the radio frequency interference (RFI) removal algorithm will be validated by processing data with the algorithm turned on and off, and using different parameter settings. Additional information on the extent of RFI will be obtained from a special RFI survey conducted early in the L1 cal/val period. Radar transmissions are turned off during the RFI survey, and receive only data are collected over a variety of operating frequencies. The model based Faraday rotation corrections will also be checked during the L1 cal/val by comparing the model Faraday rotation with the measured Faraday rotation obtained by the SMAP Radiometer. This work is supported by the SMAP project at the Jet

  20. Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in long-term care (LTC) patients: validation of the 2014 STOPP-START and 2012 Beers criteria in a LTC population—a protocol for a cross-sectional comparison of clinical and health administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Bjerre, Lise M; Halil, Roland; Catley, Christina; Farrell, Barbara; Hogel, Matthew; Black, Cody D; Williams, Margo; Ryan, Cristín; Manuel, Douglas G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is frequent and problematic in older patients. Identifying PIP is necessary to improve prescribing quality; ideally, this should be performed at the population level. Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) and Beers criteria were developed to identify PIP in clinical settings and are useful at the individual patient level; however, they are time-consuming and costly to apply. Only a subset of these criteria is applicable to routinely collected population-level health administrative data (HAD) because the clinical information necessary to implement these tools is often missing from databases. The performance of subsets of STOPP/START and Beers criteria in HAD compared with clinical data from the same patients is unknown; furthermore, the performance of the updated 2014 STOPP-START and 2012 Beers criteria compared with one another is also unknown. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study of linked HAD and clinical data will be conducted to validate the subsets of STOPP/START and Beers criteria applicable to HAD by comparing their performance when applied to clinical and HAD for the same patients. Eligible patients will be 66 years and over and recently admitted to 1 of 6 long-term care facilities in Ottawa, Ontario. The target sample size is 275, but may be less if statistical significance can be achieved sooner. Medication, diagnostic and clinical data will be collected by a consultant pharmacist. The main outcome measure is the proportion of PIP missed by the subset of STOPP/START and Beers criteria applied to HAD when compared with clinical data. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ottawa Health Services Network Research Ethics Board, the Bruyère Continuing Care Research Ethics Board and the ethics board of the City of Ottawa Long Term Care Homes. Dissemination will occur via

  1. AIRS Retrieval Validation During the EAQUATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Barnet, Christopher D.; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Newman, Stuart M.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric and surface thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced hyperspectral remote sensors of Earth observing satellites are critical for weather prediction and scientific research. The retrieval algorithms and retrieved parameters from satellite sounders must be validated to demonstrate the capability and accuracy of both observation and data processing systems. The European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment (EAQUATE) was conducted mainly for validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the AQUA satellite, but also for assessment of validation systems of both ground-based and aircraft-based instruments which will be used for other satellite systems such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the European MetOp satellite, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the NPOESS Preparatory Project and the following NPOESS series of satellites. Detailed inter-comparisons were conducted and presented using different retrieval methodologies: measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers, aircraft in-situ instruments, dedicated dropsondes and radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar, as well as from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) modeled thermal structures. The results of this study not only illustrate the quality of the measurements and retrieval products but also demonstrate the capability of these validation systems which are put in place to validate current and future hyperspectral sounding instruments and their scientific products.

  2. Groundwater Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  3. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2015-07-22

    Here our paper addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of Weapons of Mass Destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of “Validation,” based on “backing up” to the reason why modelers and decision makers seek validation, and from that basis re-define validation as testing how well the model can advise decision makers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: Validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect thatmore » observable world, i.e. risk management. That in turn leads to two foci: 1.) the risk generating process, 2.) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests -- Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three key validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the simuland? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful?« less

  4. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2015-07-22

    Here our paper addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of Weapons of Mass Destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of “Validation,” based on “backing up” to the reason why modelers and decision makers seek validation, and from that basis re-define validation as testing how well the model can advise decision makers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: Validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect that observable world, i.e. risk management. That in turn leads to two foci: 1.) the risk generating process, 2.) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests -- Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three key validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the simuland? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful?

  5. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of weapons of mass destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of "validation," based on stepping "up" a level to considering the reason why decisionmakers seek validation, and from that basis redefine validation as testing how well the model can advise decisionmakers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect that observable world, i.e., risk management. That leads to two foci: (1) the real-world risk generating process, and (2) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests-Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the process to be simulated? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful? PMID:26198395

  6. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  7. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  8. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  9. Real-time sensor data validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of an on-going effort to develop software capable of detecting sensor failures on rocket engines in real time. This software could be used in a rocket engine controller to prevent the erroneous shutdown of an engine due to sensor failures which would otherwise be interpreted as engine failures by the control software. The approach taken combines analytical redundancy with Bayesian belief networks to provide a solution which has well defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates. Analytical redundancy is a technique in which a sensor's value is predicted by using values from other sensors and known or empirically derived mathematical relations. A set of sensors and a set of relations among them form a network of cross-checks which can be used to periodically validate all of the sensors in the network. Bayesian belief networks provide a method of determining if each of the sensors in the network is valid, given the results of the cross-checks. This approach has been successfully demonstrated on the Technology Test Bed Engine at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Current efforts are focused on extending the system to provide a validation capability for 100 sensors on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  10. Development and validation of a Coping with Discrimination Scale: factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Alvarez, Alvin N; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Russell, Daniel W; Bonett, Douglas G

    2010-07-01

    Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS). In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (N = 328) identified 5 factors: Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, Resistance, and Detachment, with internal consistency reliability estimates ranging from .72 to .90. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (N = 328) provided cross-validation of the 5-factor model as well as evidence for validity of the scale. The validity evidence was similar across racial groups and for males and females. In Study 3, the estimated 2-week test-retest reliabilities (N = 53) were between .48 and .85 for the 5 factors. Education/Advocacy, Internalization, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Detachment were positively associated with active coping, self-blame, substance use, and behavioral disengagement, respectively, providing further support for validity of the CDS. Finally, incremental validity evidence was obtained in Study 4 (N = 220), where it was shown that the CDS explained variance in outcome variables (i.e., depression, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and ethnic identity) that could not be explained by general coping strategies. PMID:21133583

  11. Ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guoxiang; Shi, Hongyu; Xia, Song; Zhang, Anxue; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2016-04-01

    We propose a metasurface with multiple plasmon resonances that achieves an ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion. The metasurface is composed of an array of unit resonators, three plasmon resonances are excited in the unit resonator, which leads to an ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion. The cross polarization conversion efficiency is higher than 99%, and the bandwidth of the converter is 53.7% of the central wavelength. Both numerical and experimental results were used to validate the ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization converter presented here.

  12. Validating an Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Arnold, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the validity of one state's alternate assessment portfolio system using the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education's Standards for Psychological and Educational Testing. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the evidence for content,…

  13. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  14. Validity, not Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Samindranath

    2015-03-01

    Science journals have been transformed by the internet. In particular, increasingly their role appears to be to validate research, not to disseminate it. How are journals, and the communities they interact with, adapting? In this context, are alternatives to peer review on the horizon? Are these challenges unique to physics journals, or also seen in other publication scenarios?

  15. The Chimera of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  16. Validity and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraun, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As illuminated forcefully by Professor Newton's provocative analytical and historical excursion, as long as tests are employed to practical ends (prediction, selection, etc.) there is little cause for the metatheoretic angst that occasions rounds of papers on the topic of validity. But then, also, there seems little need, within this context of…

  17. Needs Assessment Validation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainone, Rocco; Kaiser, Robert

    This resource guide is intended for local school district personnel involved in planning activities for establishing educational priorities, phase two of the Local Planning and Assessment Process (LPAP). Information is presented on the development of performance indicators and the validation of perceived needs. The guide is organized in two…

  18. Developing better and more valid animal models of brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-01-01

    Valid sensitive animal models are crucial for understanding the pathobiology of complex human disorders, such as anxiety, autism, depression and schizophrenia, which all have the 'spectrum' nature. Discussing new important strategic directions of research in this field, here we focus i) on cross-species validation of animal models, ii) ensuring their population (external) validity, and iii) the need to target the interplay between multiple disordered domains. We note that optimal animal models of brain disorders should target evolutionary conserved 'core' traits/domains and specifically mimic the clinically relevant inter-relationships between these domains. PMID:24384129

  19. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  20. Validation of Metrics as Error Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    In this chapter, we test the validity of metrics that were defined in the previous chapter for predicting errors in EPC business process models. In Section 5.1, we provide an overview of how the analysis data is generated. Section 5.2 describes the sample of EPCs from practice that we use for the analysis. Here we discuss a disaggregation by the EPC model group and by error as well as a correlation analysis between metrics and error. Based on this sample, we calculate a logistic regression model for predicting error probability with the metrics as input variables in Section 5.3. In Section 5.4, we then test the regression function for an independent sample of EPC models from textbooks as a cross-validation. Section 5.5 summarizes the findings.

  1. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  2. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  3. ADULT OUTCOME EXPECTANCIES FOR PURCHASING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES: A VALIDATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To validate four scales for fruit and vegetable (FV) purchasing outcome expectancies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 161 individuals with a follow-up survey (to assess test retest reliability) six weeks later. An attempt was made to recruit an ethnically and socioeconomical...

  4. Validating the Chinese Version of the Inventory of School Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the cross-cultural applicability of the Chinese version of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM; McInerney & Sinclair, 1991) in the Hong Kong context using both within-network and between-network approaches to construct validation. The ISM measures four types of achievement goals: mastery, performance, social,…

  5. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  6. Bioculture System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Bioculture System first flight will be to validate the performance of the hardware and its automated and manual operational capabilities in the space flight environment of the International Space Station. Biology, Engineering, and Operations tests will be conducted in the Bioculture System fully characterize its automated and manual functions to support cell culturing for short and long durations. No hypothesis-driven research will be conducted with biological sample, and the science leads have all provided their concurrence that none of the data they collect will be considered as proprietary and can be free distributed to the science community. The outcome of the validation flight will be to commission the hardware for use by the science community. This presentation will provide non-proprietary details about the Bioculture System and information about the activities for the first flight.

  7. Self-Validating Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Santiago, Josephine B. (Inventor); Vokrot, Peter (Inventor); Zavala, Carlos E. (Inventor); Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-Validating Thermocouple (SVT) Systems capable of detecting sensor probe open circuits, short circuits, and unnoticeable faults such as a probe debonding and probe degradation are useful in the measurement of temperatures. SVT Systems provide such capabilities by incorporating a heating or excitation element into the measuring junction of the thermocouple. By heating the measuring junction and observing the decay time for the detected DC voltage signal, it is possible to indicate whether the thermocouple is bonded or debonded. A change in the thermal transfer function of the thermocouple system causes a change in the rise and decay times of the thermocouple output. Incorporation of the excitation element does not interfere with normal thermocouple operation, thus further allowing traditional validation procedures as well.

  8. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  9. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  10. Wavelet spectrum analysis approach to model validation of dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaomo; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-02-01

    Feature-based validation techniques for dynamic system models could be unreliable for nonlinear, stochastic, and transient dynamic behavior, where the time series is usually non-stationary. This paper presents a wavelet spectral analysis approach to validate a computational model for a dynamic system. Continuous wavelet transform is performed on the time series data for both model prediction and experimental observation using a Morlet wavelet function. The wavelet cross-spectrum is calculated for the two sets of data to construct a time-frequency phase difference map. The Box-plot, an exploratory data analysis technique, is applied to interpret the phase difference for validation purposes. In addition, wavelet time-frequency coherence is calculated using the locally and globally smoothed wavelet power spectra of the two data sets. Significance tests are performed to quantitatively verify whether the wavelet time-varying coherence is significant at a specific time and frequency point, considering uncertainties in both predicted and observed time series data. The proposed wavelet spectrum analysis approach is illustrated with a dynamics validation challenge problem developed at the Sandia National Laboratories. A comparison study is conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodologies over classical frequency-independent cross-correlation analysis and time-independent cross-coherence analysis for the validation of dynamic systems.

  11. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  12. Cross-Generational Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Thurston, Judy Kay

    2007-01-01

    What happens when you combine senior citizens, pre-service art teachers, and elementary students? Cross-generational connections based on sharing memories, ideas, skills, laughter, tears, and creativity. The authors describe the cross-generational book exchange project. This project was initiated when a group of Central Michigan University (CMU)…

  13. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…

  14. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  15. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress. PMID:26747520

  16. Assessing Motivation to Learn Chemistry: Adaptation and Validation of Science Motivation Questionnaire II with Greek Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salta, Katerina; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2015-01-01

    In educational research, the availability of a validated version of an original instrument in a different language offers the possibility for valid measurements obtained within the specific educational context and in addition it provides the opportunity for valid cross-cultural comparisons. The present study aimed to adapt the Science Motivation…

  17. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  18. Microencapsulation of islets within alginate/poly(ethylene glycol) gels cross-linked via Staudinger ligation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kristina K.; Gattás-Asfura, Kerim M.; Stabler, Cherie L.

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized alginate and PEG polymers were used to generate covalently linked alginate-PEG (XAlgPEG) microbeads of high stability. The cell-compatible Staudinger ligation scheme was used to chemoselectively cross-link phosphine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to azide-functionalized alginate, resulting in XAlgPEG hydrogels. XAlgPEG microbeads were formed by co-incubation of the two polymers, followed by ionic cross-linking of the alginate using barium ions. The enhanced stability and gel properties of the resulting XAlgPEG microbeads, as well as the compatibility of these polymers for the encapsulation of islets and beta cells lines, were investigated. Our data show that XAlgPEG microbeads exhibit superior resistance to osmotic swelling compared to traditional barium cross-linked alginate (Ba-Alg) beads, with a 5-fold reduction in observed swelling, as well as resistance to dissolution via chelation solution. Diffusion and porosity studies found XAlgPEG beads to exhibit properties comparable to standard Ba-Alg. Our data found XAlgPEG microbeads to be highly cell compatible with insulinoma cell lines, as well as rat and human pancreatic islets, where the viability and functional assessment of cells within XAlgPEG were comparable to Ba-Alg controls. The remarkable improved stability, as well as demonstrated cellular compatibility, of XAlgPEG hydrogels makes them an appealing option for a wide variety of tissue engineering applications. PMID:20654745

  19. CEMS data validation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.; Coates, T.F.

    1997-12-31

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) validates all the CEMS data in the EPA Part 75 report before submittal. Data validation refers to acceptance and documentation of the data. Acceptable data are accurate and representative. Trend analysis is used primarily to review the data for accuracy, i.e., to exclude potential instrument problems. Outlier analysis is also used to check accuracy but primarily documents the data for future analyses. NMPC`s data validation emphasizes analysis of the reportable hourly data. Once data collected by the Environmental Systems Corporation polling computer have been initially accepted, the data are downloaded into STATGRAPHICS Plus for Windows{copyright} (Manugistics, Inc., Rockville, MD) for review and analysis. The trend analysis uses plots to determine if there was a change in the measured values over time. Plots of the hourly sulfur dioxide mass emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, carbon dioxide concentration or flow rate against load are generated. STATGRAPHICS Plus for Windows{copyright} includes a feature which allows the analyst to change the color of the plotted points as a function of time. If the relationship between the measured value and load changes over time, there is potential for an instrument problem. Those periods are reviewed in detail. The outlier analysis uses both plots and reports to determine hours where there might be problems. Although instrument problems can be recognized, more likely are periods when the data are not representative of the whole distribution. STATGRAPHICS Plus for Windows{copyright} generates a table that lists all the hours in which there are unusual residuals in the distribution of a regression between the measured parameter and load. Outliers on the plots are also checked. The results of both analyses are filed to document data quality. If necessary, results are also included with the data submittals to EPA.

  20. ALHAT System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Bailey, Erik; Crain, Timothy; Paschall, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a multiyear technology development effort to develop a safe and precise lunar landing capability. The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is investigating a range of landing hazard detection methods while developing a hazard avoidance capability to best field test the proper set of relevant autonomous GNC technologies. Ultimately, the advancement of these technologies through the ALHAT Project will provide an ALHAT System capable of enabling next generation lunar lander vehicles to globally land precisely and safely regardless of lighting condition. This paper provides an overview of the ALHAT System and describes recent validation experiments that have advanced the highly capable GNC architecture.

  1. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  2. Validating Measures of Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettegrew, Loyd S.; Wolf, Glenda E.

    1982-01-01

    A validation study in the development of empirical measures of teacher stress is presented. Role-related, task-based, and environmental stress measures demonstrated internal consistency and provided reliable and valid multivariate assessment of teacher stress. (PN)

  3. Aura Science and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The EOS-Aura Mission is designed to answer three basic questions concerning the Earth's atmosphere: 1) Is ozone recovering as predicted, 2) is air quality getting worse, and 3) how is climate changing? Aura's four instruments work synergistically and are dedicated to answering these questions. These questions relate to NASA Earth Science Enterprise's overall strategic questions, which seek to understand the consequences of climate change for human civilization and determine if these changes can be predicted. NASA supports an ongoing research and analysis program, which is conducted independently and in support of satellite missions. The research program conducts several on-going field campaigns employing aircraft, balloons, and ground based systems. These campaigns have focused on exploring processes in the tropics, high latitudes, and continental outflow to explain the chemistry and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere and how these regions interact. NASA is now studying how the Aura mission and requirements of the research and analysis program might be merged to achieve its strategic goals related to global atmospheric chemistry changes. In addition, NASA field campaign resources will be folded into Aura's validation requirements. Aura validation requires correlative measurements throughout the troposphere and stratosphere under a range of observing and geophysical conditions. Because of the recent launches of Envisat and other smaller international chemistry satellites, the NASA program plans to collaborate with European space agencies in developing a series of campaigns that will provide continuity between those satellites missions and Aura.

  4. Validating a Scale for the Measurement of Credibility: A Covariance Structure Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mark Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Presents an attempt to cross-validate a widely used set of standard credibility scales. Finds that the Meyer modification of the Gaziano-McGrath scales appears to validly and reliably measure credibility per se but that a second set of scales posited to measure community affiliation is not sufficiently reliable in its current form for use without…

  5. Taking the Next Step: Combining Incrementally Valid Indicators to Improve Recidivism Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of combining indicators to improve recidivism prediction was evaluated in a sample of released federal prisoners randomly divided into a derivation subsample (n = 550) and a cross-validation subsample (n = 551). Five incrementally valid indicators were selected from five domains: demographic (age), historical (prior convictions),…

  6. Interparental Conflict, Adolescent Behavioral Problems, and Adolescent Competence: Convergent and Discriminant Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Monica K.; Renk, Kimberly; Duhig, Amy M.; Bosco, Georgetta L.; Phares, Vicky

    2004-01-01

    To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…

  7. The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer R.; Hebert, Angel; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Carey, Gale; Colby, Sarah; Brown-Esters, Onikia N.; Greene, Geoffrey; Hoerr, Sharon; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Kidd, Tandalayo; Koenings, Mallory; Phillips, Beatrice; Shelnutt, Karla P.; White, Adrienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test the validity of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS) for identifying the importance and changeability of nutrition, exercise, and stress management behavior and related aspects of the environment. Design: A cross-sectional, online survey of the BECS and selected validated instruments. Setting:…

  8. An Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of a Food Behavior Checklist Modified for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Kaye, Gail; Succop, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to report the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Food Behavior Checklist modified for children (FBC-MC), with low-income, Youth Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)-eligible children. Methods: Using a cross-sectional research design, construct validity was…

  9. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (Lisat-9): Reliability and Validity for Patients with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Stewart, Roy E.; Balk, Gerlof A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminant validity of the Dutch version of the life satisfaction questionnaire (Lisat-9 DV) to assess patients with an acquired brain injury. The reliability study used a test-retest design, and the validity study used a cross-sectional design. The setting was the general rehabilitation…

  10. Corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Randleman, J Bradley; Khandelwal, Sumitra S; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the late 1990s, corneal cross-linking has grown from an interesting concept to a primary treatment for corneal ectatic disease worldwide. Using a combination of ultraviolet-A light and a chromophore (vitamin B2, riboflavin), the cornea can be stiffened, usually with a single application, and progressive thinning diseases such as keratoconus arrested. Despite being in clinical use for many years, some of the underlying processes, such as the role of oxygen and the optimal treatment times, are still being worked out. More than a treatment technique, corneal cross-links represent a physiological principle of connective tissue, which may explain the enormous versatility of the method. We highlight the history of corneal cross-linking, the scientific underpinnings of current techniques, evolving clinical treatment parameters, and the use of cross-linking in combination with refractive surgery and for the treatment of infectious keratitis. PMID:25980780

  11. Developing a validation for environmental sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Aziz, Zulkifli

    2016-08-01

    One of the agendas for addressing environmental protection in construction is to reduce impacts and make the construction activities more sustainable. This important consideration has generated several research interests within the construction industry, especially considering the construction damaging effects on the ecosystem, such as various forms of environmental pollution, resource depletion and biodiversity loss on a global scale. Using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling technique, this study validates environmental sustainability (ES) construct in the context of large construction firms in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out where data was collected from Malaysian large construction firms using a structured questionnaire. Results of this study revealed that business innovativeness and new technology are important in determining environmental sustainability (ES) of the Malaysian construction firms. It also established an adequate level of internal consistency reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity for each of this study's constructs. And based on this result, it could be suggested that the indicators for organisational innovativeness dimensions (business innovativeness and new technology) are useful to measure these constructs in order to study construction firms' tendency to adopt environmental sustainability (ES) in their project execution.

  12. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  13. Toward rapid, high-sensitivity, volume-constrained biomarker quantification and validation using backscattering interferometry.

    PubMed

    Olmsted, Ian R; Hassanein, Mohamed; Kussrow, Amanda; Hoeksema, Megan; Li, Ming; Massion, Pierre P; Bornhop, Darryl J

    2014-08-01

    Realizing personalized medicine, which promises to enable early disease detection, efficient diagnostic staging, and therapeutic efficacy monitoring, hinges on biomarker quantification in patient samples. Yet, the lack of a sensitive technology and assay methodology to rapidly validate biomarker candidates continues to be a bottleneck for clinical translation. In our first direct and quantitative comparison of backscattering interferometry (BSI) to fluorescence sensing by ELISA, we show that BSI could aid in overcoming this limitation. The analytical validation study was performed against ELISA for two biomarkers for lung cancer detection: Cyfra 21-1 and Galectin-7. Spiked serum was used for calibration and comparison of analytical figures of merit, followed by analysis of blinded patient samples. Using the ELISA antibody as the probe chemistry in a mix-and-read assay, BSI provided significantly lower detection limits for spiked serum samples with each of the biomarkers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for Cyrfa-21-1 was measured to be 230 pg/mL for BSI versus 4000 pg/mL for ELISA, and for Galectin-7, it was 13 pg/mL versus 500 pg/mL. The coefficient of variation for 5 day, triplicate determinations was <15% for BSI and <10% for ELISA. The two techniques correlated well, ranging from 3-29% difference for Cyfra 21-1 in a blinded patient sample analysis. The label-free and free-solution operation of BSI allowed for a significant improvement in analysis speed, with greater ease, improved LOQ values, and excellent day-to-day reproducibility. In this unoptimized format, BSI required 5.5-fold less sample quantity needed for ELISA (a 10 point calibration curve measured in triplicate required 36 μL of serum for BSI vs 200 μL for ELISA). The results indicate that the BSI platform can enable rapid, sensitive analytical validation of serum biomarkers and should significantly impact the validation bottleneck of biomarkers. PMID:24954171

  14. Anticrossproducts and cross divisions.

    PubMed

    de Leva, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines, in the context of conventional vector algebra, the concept of anticrossproduct and a family of simple operations called cross or vector divisions. It is impossible to solve for a or b the equation axb=c, where a and b are three-dimensional space vectors, and axb is their cross product. However, the problem becomes solvable if some "knowledge about the unknown" (a or b) is available, consisting of one of its components, or the angle it forms with the other operand of the cross product. Independently of the selected reference frame orientation, the known component of a may be parallel to b, or vice versa. The cross divisions provide a compact and insightful symbolic representation of a family of algorithms specifically designed to solve problems of such kind. A generalized algorithm was also defined, incorporating the rules for selecting the appropriate kind of cross division, based on the type of input data. Four examples of practical application were provided, including the computation of the point of application of a force and the angular velocity of a rigid body. The definition and geometrical interpretation of the cross divisions stemmed from the concept of anticrossproduct. The "anticrossproducts of axb" were defined as the infinitely many vectors x(i) such that x(i)xb=axb. PMID:18423647

  15. [Resistance of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) to acaricides that inhibit cellular respiration in citrus: cross-resistance and fitness cost].

    PubMed

    Franco, Cláudio R; Casarin, Nádia F B; Domingues, Felipe A; Omoto, Celso

    2007-01-01

    Acaricides that inhibit cellular respiration play an important role in the control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) in citrus groves in Brazil. Studies were conducted to evaluate: (a) the variability in the susceptibility among B. phoenicis populations collected from citrus groves to cyhexatin, azocyclotin, propargite and sulphur; (b) cross-resistance relationships between propargite and azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dinocap, pyridaben and sulphur; and (c) the fitness cost associated with propargite resistance in B. phoenicis under laboratory conditions. A residual-type contact bioassay was used to characterize the susceptibility. The susceptibility was estimated with diagnostic concentrations based LC(95) of each acaricide. The cross-resistance was evaluated by characterizing the concentration-mortality responses of susceptible (S) and propargite-resistant (Propargite-R) strains. The fitness cost was evaluated by measuring the biological parameters of S and Propargite-R strains on citrus fruits at 25 +/- 1 degrees C and fotophase of 14h. Significant differences in the susceptibility of B. phoenicis were detected at diagnostic concentration of cyhexatin (survivorship from 16.3% to 80.5%), azocyclotin (from 3.0% to 15.0%), propargite (from 1.0% a 71.6%) and sulphur (from 9.0% to 82.6%). A low intensity of cross-resistance was detected between propargite and the acaricides azocyclotin (1.8-fold), cyhexatin (4.6-fold), dinocap (3.5-fold) and pyridaben (3.5-fold). On the other hand, the intensity of cross-resistance to sulphur (> 111-fold) was very high. There was no fitness cost associated with B. phoenicis resistance to propargite, based on biological parameters evaluated. Therefore, the use of these acaricides should also be done very carefully in resistance management of B. phoenicis to acaricides. PMID:17934623

  16. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  17. VAN method lacks validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.; Kagan, Yan Y.

    Varotsos and colleagues (the VAN group) claim to have successfully predicted many earthquakes in Greece. Several authors have refuted these claims, as reported in the May 27,1996, special issue of Geophysical Research Letters and a recent book, A Critical Review of VAN [Lighthill 1996]. Nevertheless, the myth persists. Here we summarize why the VAN group's claims lack validity.The VAN group observes electrical potential differences that they call “seismic electric signals” (SES) weeks before and hundreds of kilometers away from some earthquakes, claiming that SES are somehow premonitory. This would require that increases in stress or decreases in strength cause the electrical variations, or that some regional process first causes the electrical signals and then helps trigger the earthquakes. Here we adopt their notation SES to refer to the electrical variations, without accepting any link to the quakes.

  18. Sensor Validation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Lewis Research Center, Expert Microsystems, Inc. developed SureSense, real-time sensor data validation software. This ultra-reliable control and sensing system product was produced through a partnership in 1994 between Expert Microsystems and Intelligent Software Associates, Inc. SureSense was created in response to a NASA need for verifying the reliability of sensor input that operated advanced automation and control systems. The immediate applications included improving the safety and reliability of Space Shuttle Main Engine operations. The company has structured the software to enable application to virtually any process control environment, such as computer integrated manufacturing, power plants, and hazardous gas sensing and control systems.

  19. Prism validation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, R.E.; Whartenby, W.; Brown, L.D.

    1994-06-13

    This report describes the validation of PRISM, a parameterized, real-time ionospheric specification model, which was described in PL-TR-91-2299. Data were obtained from both analog and digital ionosondes, polarimeters measuring TEC, incoherent scatter radar (ISR), and in situ measurements of electron density, ion velocity, and auroral particle precipitation. Some of the data was used to drive the model while the remainder of the data was held in reserve for comparison with model output. The authors found that near ionospheric measurements (i.e., within the decorrelation length of the ionosphere), PRISM provides better than 50% improvement in f sub 0(F sub 2), N sub m(F sub 2), and TEC over the ICED, the currently operational ionospheric model at AFSFC. At distances beyond the decorrelation length, PRISM performs as well as ICED and other climatological models. They conclude that PRISM will significantly enhance the ionospheric specification capability of AFSFC.

  20. Consistent set of electron cross sections for methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. L.; Guerra, V.; Pintassilgo, C. D.

    2013-09-01

    This contribution presents a complete consistent set of electron-impact cross sections for methane (CH4) , recently made available on the IST-LISBON database with the LXCat website. The set is based on the cross sections originally compiled and adjusted in and first used in. The elementary processes taken into account are elastic momentum-transfer, vibrational excitation of the (1,3) and (2,4) modes, total dissociation into neutrals, and ionization producing CH4+and CH3++ H. For the latter two processes we have adjusted the partial ionization cross section of Chatham et al. as to reproduce their measured total ionization. The new cross-section set is validated by comparing calculated and measured electron swarm parameters for E / N = 0.1-400 Td. A discussion of similarities and differences with sets of CH4 cross sections from other databases is also presented. Work partially supported by FCT (Pest-OE/SADG/LA0010/2011).

  1. Role of Imaging Specrometer Data for Model-based Cross-calibration of Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis John

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization benefits from imaging spectrometry to determine spectral bi-directional reflectance of a well-understood surface. Cross calibration approaches, uncertainties, role of imaging spectrometry, model-based site characterization, and application to product validation.

  2. Large Scale Chemical Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zybailov, Boris L.; Glazko, Galina V.; Jaiswal, Mihir; Raney, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The spectacular heterogeneity of a complex protein mixture from biological samples becomes even more difficult to tackle when one’s attention is shifted towards different protein complex topologies, transient interactions, or localization of PPIs. Meticulous protein-by-protein affinity pull-downs and yeast-two-hybrid screens are the two approaches currently used to decipher proteome-wide interaction networks. Another method is to employ chemical cross-linking, which gives not only identities of interactors, but could also provide information on the sites of interactions and interaction interfaces. Despite significant advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the last decade, mapping Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) using chemical cross-linking remains time consuming and requires substantial expertise, even in the simplest of systems. While robust methodologies and software exist for the analysis of binary PPIs and also for the single protein structure refinement using cross-linking-derived constraints, undertaking a proteome-wide cross-linking study is highly complex. Difficulties include i) identifying cross-linkers of the right length and selectivity that could capture interactions of interest; ii) enrichment of the cross-linked species; iii) identification and validation of the cross-linked peptides and cross-linked sites. In this review we examine existing literature aimed at the large-scale protein cross-linking and discuss possible paths for improvement. We also discuss short-length cross-linkers of broad specificity such as formaldehyde and diazirine-based photo-cross-linkers. These cross-linkers could potentially capture many types of interactions, without strict requirement for a particular amino-acid to be present at a given protein-protein interface. How these shortlength, broad specificity cross-linkers be applied to proteome-wide studies? We will suggest specific advances in methodology, instrumentation and software that are needed to

  3. Design for validation: An approach to systems validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, William C.; Dunham, Janet R.; Laprie, Jean-Claude; Williams, Thomas; Howden, William; Smith, Brian; Lewis, Carl M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Every complex system built is validated in some manner. Computer validation begins with review of the system design. As systems became too complicated for one person to review, validation began to rely on the application of adhoc methods by many individuals. As the cost of the changes mounted and the expense of failure increased, more organized procedures became essential. Attempts at devising and carrying out those procedures showed that validation is indeed a difficult technical problem. The successful transformation of the validation process into a systematic series of formally sound, integrated steps is necessary if the liability inherent in the future digita-system-based avionic and space systems is to be minimized. A suggested framework and timetable for the transformtion are presented. Basic working definitions of two pivotal ideas (validation and system life-cyle) are provided and show how the two concepts interact. Many examples are given of past and present validation activities by NASA and others. A conceptual framework is presented for the validation process. Finally, important areas are listed for ongoing development of the validation process at NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. Cross-linked informofers.

    PubMed Central

    Prosvirnin, V V; Ruzidic, S; Samarina, O P

    1979-01-01

    The proteins of 30S RNP particles containing pre-mRNA (hnRNA) were cross-linked with bifunctional reagents (dimethyl-suberimidate and dimethyl-3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate). Further treatment with 1 or 2 M NaCl dissociates all RNA from protein. However, a significant part of protein particles--informofers being cross-linked survived high salt treatment. Their sedimentation coefficients were close to those of original particles. No RNA could be detected in the informofers even after labeling the cells with a precursor for a long period of time. Sodium dodecylsulfate or urea dissociated cross-linked informofers into oligomeric polypeptides. They could be dissociated by beta-mercaptoethanol treatment if a reversible cross-linked reagent had been used. The resulting polypeptides were represented by informatin. RNP particles (30S RNP or poly-particles) were reconstituted upon mixing of cross-linked informofers with pre-mRNA and removal of 2 M NaCl. PMID:503864

  5. Evaluation (not validation) of quantitative models.

    PubMed Central

    Oreskes, N

    1998-01-01

    The present regulatory climate has led to increasing demands for scientists to attest to the predictive reliability of numerical simulation models used to help set public policy, a process frequently referred to as model validation. But while model validation may reveal useful information, this paper argues that it is not possible to demonstrate the predictive reliability of any model of a complex natural system in advance of its actual use. All models embed uncertainties, and these uncertainties can and frequently do undermine predictive reliability. In the case of lead in the environment, we may categorize model uncertainties as theoretical, empirical, parametrical, and temporal. Theoretical uncertainties are aspects of the system that are not fully understood, such as the biokinetic pathways of lead metabolism. Empirical uncertainties are aspects of the system that are difficult (or impossible) to measure, such as actual lead ingestion by an individual child. Parametrical uncertainties arise when complexities in the system are simplified to provide manageable model input, such as representing longitudinal lead exposure by cross-sectional measurements. Temporal uncertainties arise from the assumption that systems are stable in time. A model may also be conceptually flawed. The Ptolemaic system of astronomy is a historical example of a model that was empirically adequate but based on a wrong conceptualization. Yet had it been computerized--and had the word then existed--its users would have had every right to call it validated. Thus, rather than talking about strategies for validation, we should be talking about means of evaluation. That is not to say that language alone will solve our problems or that the problems of model evaluation are primarily linguistic. The uncertainties inherent in large, complex models will not go away simply because we change the way we talk about them. But this is precisely the point: calling a model validated does not make it valid

  6. Evaluation (not validation) of quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Oreskes, N

    1998-12-01

    The present regulatory climate has led to increasing demands for scientists to attest to the predictive reliability of numerical simulation models used to help set public policy, a process frequently referred to as model validation. But while model validation may reveal useful information, this paper argues that it is not possible to demonstrate the predictive reliability of any model of a complex natural system in advance of its actual use. All models embed uncertainties, and these uncertainties can and frequently do undermine predictive reliability. In the case of lead in the environment, we may categorize model uncertainties as theoretical, empirical, parametrical, and temporal. Theoretical uncertainties are aspects of the system that are not fully understood, such as the biokinetic pathways of lead metabolism. Empirical uncertainties are aspects of the system that are difficult (or impossible) to measure, such as actual lead ingestion by an individual child. Parametrical uncertainties arise when complexities in the system are simplified to provide manageable model input, such as representing longitudinal lead exposure by cross-sectional measurements. Temporal uncertainties arise from the assumption that systems are stable in time. A model may also be conceptually flawed. The Ptolemaic system of astronomy is a historical example of a model that was empirically adequate but based on a wrong conceptualization. Yet had it been computerized--and had the word then existed--its users would have had every right to call it validated. Thus, rather than talking about strategies for validation, we should be talking about means of evaluation. That is not to say that language alone will solve our problems or that the problems of model evaluation are primarily linguistic. The uncertainties inherent in large, complex models will not go away simply because we change the way we talk about them. But this is precisely the point: calling a model validated does not make it valid

  7. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  8. Horizon crossing and inflation with large {eta}

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.

    2005-07-15

    I examine the standard formalism of calculating curvature perturbations in inflation at horizon crossing, and derive a general relation which must be satisfied for the horizon-crossing formalism to be valid. This relation is satisfied for the usual cases of power-law and slow-roll inflation. I then consider a model for which the relation is strongly violated, and the curvature perturbation evolves rapidly on superhorizon scales. This model has Hubble slow-roll parameter {eta}=3, but predicts a scale-invariant spectrum of density perturbations. I consider the case of hybrid inflation with large {eta}, and show that such solutions do not solve the '{eta} problem' in supergravity. These solutions correspond to field evolution which has not yet relaxed to the inflationary attractor solution, and may make possible new, more natural models on the string landscape.

  9. The Kings Cross fire: psychological reactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S W; Thompson, J; Rosser, R M

    1995-07-01

    The psychological reactions of 50 survivors of the King's Cross fire, which hit London's underground railway system on the 18th day of November 1987, are described. Results are presented for the Impact of Event scale, the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a King's Cross Event Schedule. These are investigated in relation to (a) validity measures, (b) relationships between exposure and personality, and (c) spontaneous de-briefing. Two thirds of the sample had significant levels of psychological distress (meeting the "caseness" criterion on the GHQ). Both personality (neuroticism and L-scale) and degree of trauma exposure were related to subsequent reaction. Spontaneous debriefing was associated with subjective benefit. Transportation disasters present particular problems in relation to research and service delivery. PMID:7582607

  10. Concurrent Validity of the International Family Quality of Life Survey.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Preethy S; Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Carrellas, Ann; LeRoy, Barbara W

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of the social construct of Family Quality of Life (FQOL) is a parsimonious alternative to the current approach of measuring familial outcomes using a battery of tools related to individual-level outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the International FQOL Survey (FQOLS-2006), using cross-sectional data collected from 65 family caregivers of children with developmental disabilities. It shows a moderate correlation between the total FQOL scores of the FQOLS-2006 and the Beach Center's FQOL scale. The validity of five FQOLS-2006 domains was supported by the correlations between conceptually related domains. PMID:26695004

  11. Verification and Validation for Flight-Critical Systems (VVFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Jacobsen, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    On March 31, 2009 a Request for Information (RFI) was issued by NASA s Aviation Safety Program to gather input on the subject of Verification and Validation (V & V) of Flight-Critical Systems. The responses were provided to NASA on or before April 24, 2009. The RFI asked for comments in three topic areas: Modeling and Validation of New Concepts for Vehicles and Operations; Verification of Complex Integrated and Distributed Systems; and Software Safety Assurance. There were a total of 34 responses to the RFI, representing a cross-section of academic (26%), small & large industry (47%) and government agency (27%).

  12. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  13. Stellar opacity validations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pennec, M.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Ducret, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the radiative transfer in stars where opacities seem to raise problems : β-Cephei and solar-type stars. We first concentrate on the iron bump (log T = 5.25), responsible for β-Cephei pulsations through the κ-mechanism. To discriminate between the different opacity calculations used to predict their oscillations, new well-qualified calculations are used and compared to OP calculations. In parallel with this theoretical work, an experiment has been conducted at LULI 2000 in 2011 on iron and nickel. We show that this extended study pushes for the revision of the tables in the conditions corresponding to the iron bump region, at least for nickel. We will then deal with the Sun case for which we are preparing an opacity experiment on a high-energy laser, in some conditions of the radiative zone (T = [2 - 15 ×10^{6} K] and ρ = [0.2 - 150 g/cm^{3}]). To reach these high temperatures and densities at LTE and validate or not plasma effects and line widths, we are exploring an approach called the Double Ablation Front, driven by plasma radiative effects. The 1D simulations performed with the code CHIC show that with this technique, we could reach conditions equivalent to the conditions of half of the solar radiative zone.

  14. Applied model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. D.

    1985-07-01

    The NBS Center for Fire Research (CFR) conducts scientific research bearing on the fire safety of buildings, vehicles, tunnels and other inhabited structures. Data from controlled fire experiments are collected, analyzed and reduced to the analytical formulas that appear to underly the observed phenomena. These results and more general physical principles are then combined into models to predict the development of environments that may be hostile to humans. This is a progress report of an applied model validation case study. The subject model is Transport of Fire, Smoke and Gases (FAST). Products from a fire in a burn room exit through a connected corridor to outdoors. Cooler counterflow air in a lower layer feeds the fire. The model predicts corridor layer temperatures and thicknesses vs. time, given enclosure, fire and ambient specifications. Data have been collected from 38 tests using several fire sizes, but have not been reduced. Corresponding model results, and model and test documentation are yet to come. Considerable modeling and calculation is needed to convert instrument readings to test results comparable with model outputs so that residual differences may be determined.

  15. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  16. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  17. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  18. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  19. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  20. Validity on Trial: Psychometric and Legal Conceptualizations of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Parker, Polly

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric literature is replete with comprehensive discussions of test validity, test validation, and the characteristics of quality assessment programs. The most authoritative source for guidance regarding sound test development and evaluation practices is the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. However, the Standards are…